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Elements of fiction

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					             Elements of fiction
                         Climax


                Rising            Falling
                Action            Action


Exposition                                  Resolution




                    Plot
              Elements of fiction
                            Climax


                   Rising            Falling
                   Action            Action


                                               Resolution
     Exposition
•The exposition is the start of the story
•Setting and most of the characters generally revealed
•Tone is set
•Diction is set
•Point of view is usually set (but could change)
               Elements of fiction
                       Climax


                  Rising        Falling
                                Action
                  Action
  Exposition                              Resolution



•Series of conflicts arise leading up to the climax
•Conflicts could be big or small
•All major characters are now introduced
               Elements of fiction
                         Climax
                    Rising        Falling
                    Action        Action


  Exposition                                Resolution

•The turning point of the story
•Usually the most intense moment
•Main character receives new information
•Accepts the information but does not have to agree with it
•Acts on the information received (choosing NOT to act on the
information also)
               Elements of fiction
                           Climax


                  Rising            Falling
                  Action            Action
  Exposition                                  Resolution


•Includes all of the action following the climax
•Don’t be fooled by the word “falling” – action
could still be intense
             Elements of fiction
                         Climax


                Rising            Falling
                Action            Action


Exposition
                                            Resolution

•The conclusion of the story
•Tying together of all the loose ends
               Elements of fiction
                                Characters

• People, animals, or things presented as people
• Round Characters
   – Convincing, true to life
• Dynamic Characters
   – Undergo some sort of a change
• Flat Characters
   – Stereo-typed, shallow, and often symbolic
   – Limited character traits
• Static
   – Do not change at all throughout the course of the story
           Elements of fiction
                      Characters

• Protagonist
  – Main character
• Antagonist
  – The one who opposes the main character
• Methods of characterization
  – Direct  Through the character’s statements
  – Indirect  Thoughts, words, actions/comments of
    other characters, physical appearance
            Elements of fiction
                   Point of view

• Perspective  Who is telling the story?
• Omniscient
  – All knowing
• Limited omniscient
  – 3rd person
  – Told from the viewpoint of a single character
  – Reader can only see what the author wants us to
    see
            Elements of fiction
                   Point of view

• First Person
  – Told from the viewpoint of one character using
    the word “I”
             Elements of fiction
                       Setting

•   Geographical
•   Time Period
•   Socio-economic characteristics of a location
•   The specific place
•   Can be used to set an atmosphere
•   Can be used to tell about the characters
            Elements of fiction
                     Theme

• Central idea or central message of the story
• Usually contains insight into the human
  condition
• Can be stated directly or implied
• Not to be confused with plot!
            Elements of fiction
                       Conflict

• Dramatic struggle between two forces in a
  story
• Types of conflict
  – Human vs. human
  – Human vs. society
  – Human vs. self
  – Human vs. nature
  – Human vs. circumstances (classical  Fate)
• Could be either internal or external
           Elements of fiction
                    Symbolism

• Symbols represent and idea, quality, or
  concept larger than itself
• Symbols can be an object, person, situation or
  action
  – Objects and people tend to be more concrete
  – Situations and actions are more abstract
• Universal symbols  Snake = evil/temptation
• Contextual symbols Conch in Lord of the
  Flies = power
            Elements of fiction
                    Symbolism

• Metaphor an implicit comparison or
  identification of one thing with another unlike
  itself
  – "The pen is mightier than the sword
  – "Was this the face that launched a thousand
    ships?”
• Personification giving the attributes of a
  human being to an animal, object, or concept
             Elements of fiction
                      Symbolism

• Simile  a figure that explicitly expresses a
  comparison, often signaled by like or as
  – "my love is like a red, red rose"
  – "as strong as an ox“
• Allegory  similar to a metaphor in that one
  thing (usually abstract) is spoken of in terms of
  something concrete – involves the whole work
  – Lord of the Flies is an allegory for the “real world”
             Elements of fiction
                       Symbolism

• Archetype  a plot or character element that
  recurs in cultural or cross-cultural myths
  – Images of the devil as a cloven-hoofed, horned
    humanoid
• Myth  like allegory, myth usually is symbolic
  and extensive, including an entire work or story
  – Myth is created by the author it is not cross-cultural
  – Usually includes a hero such as Icarus, Achilles, or
    Hercules

				
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