learning by qingyunliuliu


									There‟s No Learning in E-Learning:
Building Communities Supporting Entrepreneurship, Student
           Motivation, and Instructor Innovation
                 Curtis J. Bonk

     Indiana University and CourseShare.com
Exponential Growth of the Web
      A Vision of E-learning for
     America‟s Workforce, Report of the
 Commission on Technology and Adult Learning, (2001, June)

• A remarkable 84        percent of two-and four-
 year colleges in the United States expect to
 offer distance learning courses in 2002” (only
 58% did in 1998) (US Dept of Education report, 2000)

• Web-based training is expected to increase
  900 percent between 1999 and 2003.”
 (ASTD, State of the Industry Report 2001).
Question: Why is there no
learning in e-learning???
A. Poor pedagogy?
B. Inferior online tools?
C. Unmotivated students and instructors?
D. Poor research?
E. Not measuring it effectively?
F. Vendor and administrator visions do not
  match reality?
        And the next video please!!!
 What‟s the Basic DL Finding?
Research since 1928 shows that DL
 students perform as well as their
 counterparts in a traditional classroom

Per: Russell, 1999, The No Significant
  Difference Phenomenon (5th Edition),
  NCSU, based on 355 research reports.
   Distance Learning Research
•Flaws in research designs
   - Only 36% have objective learning measures
   - Only 45% have comparison groups

• When effective, it is difficult to know why
  - Course design?
  - Instructional methods?
  - Technology?
What do we need???
 1. Reflect on Extent of Integration:
  The Web Integration Continuum
Level 1: Course Marketing/Syllabi via the Web
Level 2: Web Resource for Student Exploration
Level 3: Publish Student-Gen Web Resources
Level 4: Course Resources on the Web
Level 5: Repurpose Web Resources for Others
Level 6: Web Component is Substantive & Graded
Level 7: Graded Activities Extend Beyond Class
Level 8: Entire Web Course for Resident Students
Level 9: Entire Web Course for Offsite Students
Level 10: Course within Programmatic Initiative
2. Four Key Hats of Instructors:
– Technical—do students have basics? Does their
  equipment work? Passwords work?
– Managerial—Do students understand the
  assignments and course structure?
– Pedagogical—How are students interacting,
  summarizing, debating, thinking?
– Social—What is the general tone? Is there a
  human side to this course? Joking allowed?
– Other: firefighter, convener, weaver, tutor, conductor, host,
  mediator, filter, editor, facilitator, negotiator, e-police,
  concierge, marketer, assistant, etc.
Push to Explore: "You might want
to write to Dr. ‗XYZ‘ for...," "You
might want to do an ERIC search on
this topic...," "Perhaps there is a URL
on the Web that addresses this
And We Need Other Instructor
   E-Learning Support!!!
               Problems Faced
Administrative:                   Pedagogical:
• ―Lack of admin vision.‖         • ―Difficulty in performing
                                    lab experiments online.‖
• ―Lack of incentive from
                                  • ―Lack of appropriate
  admin and the fact that
                                    models for pedagogy.‖
  they do not understand the
  time needed.‖                   Time-related:
• ―Lack of system support.‖       • ―More ideas than time to
• ―Little recognition that this
  is valuable.‖                   • ―Not enough time to
                                    correct online assign.‖
• ―Rapacious U intellectual
                                  • ―People need sleep; Web
  property policy.‖                 spins forever.‖
• ―Unclear univ. policies
  concerning int property.‖
         Outside Support
•   Training (FacultyTraining.net)
•   Courses & Certificates (JIU, e-education)
•   Reports, Newsletters, & Pubs
•   Aggregators of Info (CourseShare, Merlot)
•   Global Forums (FacultyOnline.com; GEN)
•   Resources, Guides/Tips, Link Collections,
    Online Journals, Library Resources
 Certified Online Instructor Program
• Walden Institute—12
  Week Online Certification
  (Cost = $995)
• 2 tracks: one for higher ed
  and one for online
  corporate trainer
   – Online tools and purpose
   – Instructional design theory
     & techniques
   – Distance ed evaluation
   – Quality assurance
   – Collab learning communities
Administrators and faculty members
 at the Massachusetts Institute of
 Technology are debating what could
 become a $100-million effort to
 create extensive World Wide Web
 pages for nearly every course the
 university offers.

Jeffrey R. Young, March 1, 2001, The Chronicle of Higher Ed
In an effort to analyze and
  improve their teaching, some
  professors are creating
  multimedia portfolios that try to
  capture the complex interactions
  that occur in the classroom.

Jeffrey R. Young, The Chronicle of Higher Ed (reporting on
   the new Knowledge Media Lab, created by the Andrew
   Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching)
                Inside Support…
•   Instructional Consulting
•   Mentoring (strategic planning $)
•   Small Pots of Funding
•   Help desks, institutes, 1:1, tutorials
•   Summer and Year Round Workshops
•   Office of Distributed Learning
•   Colloquiums, Tech Showcases, Guest Speakers
    – Newsletters, guides, active learning grants, annual
      reports, faculty development, brown bags, other
      professional development
But there is another
But How Avoid
“This form of structure… encourages
teachers designing new products to
simply “shovel” existing resources into
on-line Web pages and discourages any
deliberate or intentional design of
learning strategy.” (Oliver & McLoughlin,
      Survey Finds Concern on
      Administrative Computing
    Chronicle of Higher Ed, June 22, 2001, A33, Jeffrey R. Young

  leaders say they worry
  more about administrative-
  computing systems than
  about anything else related
  to their jobs.”
(survey by Educause—an academic-
  technology consortium)
             How Bad Is It?
“Some frustrated Blackboard users who say
  the company is too slow in responding to
  technical problems with its course-
  management software have formed an
  independent users‟ group to help one
  another and to press the company to
(Jeffrey Young, Nov. 2, 2001, Chronicle of Higher Ed)
                              What Pedagogical Tools and
                                Activities are Needed?
                                      Online Instructional Activities

Percent of Respondents

                               Scientific   Data Analysis       Lab       Performance      Critical and
                              Simulations                                               Creative Thinking

                                                   Actual Use     High Usability
Pedagogical Tools
• Creative Thinking
• Critical Thinking
• Cooperative Learning
• Motivational
  Intrinsic Motivational Terms?
1. Tone/Climate: Psych Safety, Comfort, Belonging
2. Feedback: Responsive, Supports, Encouragement
3. Engagement: Effort, Involvement, Excitement
4. Meaningfulness: Interesting, Relevant, Authentic
5. Choice: Flexibility, Opportunities, Autonomy
6. Variety: Novelty, Intrigue, Unknowns
7. Curiosity: Fun, Fantasy, Control
8. Tension: Challenge, Dissonance, Controversy
9. Interactive: Collaborative, Team-Based, Community
10. Goal Driven: Product-Based, Success, Ownership
         Intrinsic Motivation
“…innate propensity to engage one‟s interests
 and exercise one‟s capabilities, and, in doing so,
 to seek out and master optimal challenges
(i.e., it emerges from needs, inner strivings, and personal
    curiosity for growth)

      See: Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985).
      Intrinsic motivation and self-
      determination in human behavior. NY:
      Plenum Press.
―…is motivation that arises from external contingencies.‖
  (i.e., students who act to get high grades, win a trophy,
  comply with a deadline—means-to-an-end motivation)
See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others: Nurturing inner
   motivational resources. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
      E-Learning Pedagogical Strategies
Motivational and Ice Breakers:           Creative Thinking:
1.   8 Noun Introductions                1.   Brainstorming
2.   Coffee House Expectations           2.   Role Play
3.   Scavenger Hunt                      3.   Topical Discussions
4.   Two Truths, One Lie                 4.   Brainstormed Topical Discussions
5.   Public Commitments                  5.   Recursive Tasks
6.   Share-A-Link                        6.   Electronic Séance

Critical Thinking:                       Collaborative Learning:
1.    Electronic Voting and Polling      1.   Starter-Wrapper (with roles)
2.    Delphi Technique                   2.   Structured Controversy
3.    Reading Reactions                  3.   Email Pals/Web Buddies
4.    Instructor Gen Virtual Debates     4.   Critical/Constructive Friends
5.    Student Gen Virtual Debates        5.   Symposium or Expert Panel
6.    Field Reflection                   6.   Electronic Guest/Mentors (Chats)
7.    Student Generated Online Cases     7.   Jigsaw & Group Problem Solving
8.    Interactive Peer & Guest Comment   8.   Gallery Tours
   1. Tone/Climate: Ice Breakers
1. Eight Nouns Activity:
1. Introduce self using 8 nouns
2. Explain why choose each noun
3. Comment on 1-2 peer postings
2. Two Truths, One Lie (Kulp, IBM)
1. Tell 2 truths and 1 lie about yourself
2. Class votes on which is the lie
2. Feedback:
Peer Reactions
        3. Engagement:
 Electronic Voting and Polling
1. Ask students to vote on issue before class
  (anonymously or send directly to the instructor)
2. Instructor pulls our minority pt of view
3. Discuss with majority pt of view
4. Repoll students after class
(Or Delphi or Timed
Disclosure Technique)
anonymous input till a due date
 and then post results and
  reconsider until consensus
 Rick Kulp, IBM, 1999)
       4. Meaningfulness:
     Job or Field Reflections
1. Instructor provides reflection or
   prompt for job related or field
2. Reflect on job setting or observe in field
3. Record notes on Web and reflect on
   concepts from chapter
4. Respond to peers
5. Instructor summarizes posts
                     7. Curiosity:
                 A. Electronic Seance
• Students read books from famous dead people
• Convene when dark (sync or asynchronous).
• Present present day problem for them to solve
• Participate from within those characters (e.g.,
  read direct quotes from books or articles)
• Invite expert guests from other campuses
• Keep chat open for set time period
• Debrief
      7. Curiosity:
   Synchronous Chats
1. Webinar, Webcast
2. Guest speaker moderated Q&A forum
3. Guest expert open chats
4. Peer Q&A and Dialogue
5. Team activities or meetings
6. Instructor meetings, private talk, admin help
7. Quick Polls/Quizzes, Voting Ranking, Surveys
8. Brainstorming ideas, What-Ifs, Quick reflections
9. Graphic Organizers in Whiteboard (e.g., Venn)
10. Twenty Questions, Pruning the tree
 News Flash: “Instant Messenger (IM)
   is a huge corporate tool, yet rarely
mentioned in corporate productivity or
learning plans.” TechLearn TRENDS, Feb. 6, 2002
• Jupiter Media Metrix:
   –  8.8 million AOL IM users at work
   –  4.8 million MSN users at work
   –  3.4 million Yahoo! Messenger users at work
   –  Doubled from 2.3 billion minutes in Sept. 2000 to 4.9
      billion minutes in Sept. 2002.
• It can connect learners to each other and provide easier
  access to the instructor (the MASIE Center).
                 8. Tension:
                  Role Play
• List possible roles or personalities (e.g.,
  coach, questioner, optimist, devil‟s
  advocate, etc.)
• Sign up for different role every week
  (or for 5-6 key roles during semester)
• Reassign roles if someone drops class
• Perform within roles—try to refer to
  different personalities in peer
9. Interactive E-mail Pals, Critical Friends
10. Goal Driven:
Group Problem
“Colleges and universities
 ought to be concerned not
 with how fast they can „put
 their courses up on the
 Web,‟ but with finding out
 how this technology can be
 used to build and sustain
 learning communities”
 Hiltz (1998, p. 7)
    How Facilitate Online Community?
•   Safety: Establish safe environment
•   Tone: Flexible, inviting, positive, respect
•   Personal: Self-disclosures, open, stories telling
•   Sharing: Share frustrations, celebrations, etc
•   Collaboration: Camaraderie/empathy
•   Common language: conversational chat space
•   Task completion: set milestones & grp goals
•   Other: Meaningful, choice, simple, purpose...
How to foster e-learning
 entrepreneurship in
  New Zealand???
       Technology Sails the
           South Seas
“The first step in the war against foreign
  invaders is to build a robust startup
  climate” …Some would argue that in
  agriculture- related biotechnology
  research, no country surpasses New
  Zealand. And with..Lord of the Rings,
  the country‟s special effects,
  multimedia, and digital animation
  industries are at the technological
David Lipshultz, Red Herring, January 2002, p. 34. (Interview with
   Steven Tindall, New Zealand‘s largest venture capital investor).
University Entrepreneurship
• Colleges target corp training/exec education.
• 22 virtual universities to cooperate.
• 9 universities on 4 continents collaborate to
  offer online graduate and professional
  development courses in Asia.
• Univ of the Arctic is a partnership of 31 “high
  latitude” colleges, universities, and
  governments across 8 nations. First course is
  “Introduction to Circumpolar Studies.” (Feb
  15, 2002, Chronicle of Higher Education)
“At one university, (the
Univ of North Texas)
royalties entice professors
to design Web courses”
(to spend on professional dev, research, grading, teaching
help, or pocket as a bonus)…however, the department had
to add an extra fee—about $8.50 per students—to cover the
professor‟s royalty.” Jeffrey Young, March 30, 2001, Chronicle of
Higher Education
“Before creating or teaching a
 course, professors sign a contract
 outlining who owns what, and
 how much of any future revenue
 from the course the professor will
 get if the university offers the
 course without his or her
 involvement.” (contract copies are at:

Jeffrey Young, March 30, 2001, Chronicle of Higher Education
    Faculty Entrepreneurship
•   Radio Stations
•   Online Journals
•   Start Discussion Forums
•   Freelance Instructor & Guest Expert
•   Develop new courses or programs
•   Teaching music performance over Web
•   Promoting exec ed programs
                     The Good
Douglas Rowlett has turned his English-
 department office into a virtual radio
 station that broadcasts continuously on
 the Internet, offering a mix of poetry
 readings, lectures, and popular music. He
 plans to deliver entire courses over the
 Internet radio station.

Jeffrey R. Young (Jan 8., 2001). Chronicle of Higher Ed.
                         The Bad
Michael J. Saylor‟s plans to create an online
 university that would offer free education
 all over the world appear to have been put
 on hold, at least temporarily. Mr. Saylor,
 the software magnate, has been occupied
 for the past few months with financial
 difficulties at his company, MicroStrategy,

(Sarah Carr, June 22, 2000, Chronicle of Higher Ed)
          And The Ugly
Santa Clara University has fired an
 adjunct instructor who sold his
 students thousands of dollars worth of
 stock in an online-education venture
 that appears to never have gotten off
 the ground.

Sarah Carr, The Chronicle of Higher Ed.
Developing a Successful Partnership Portfolio
                 (Duin & Baer, in press)

 • Need to List: Vision, Description, Beliefs,
   Assumptions, Operations, Commitment,
   Collaboration, Risk, Control, Adaptation, and ROI
   (for learners, faculty, campus, state/country)
 • Five Types of Partnerships: Commerce alliance,
   minority equity investment, joint venture, spin off,
   and merger or acquisition
 • Four Types of Risks: legal, financial,
   experimentation, and academic
            Other ARTI Help
• Help with Tech Transfer.
   – Intellectual Property, Invention Disclosure, etc.
• Licensing, Patents, and Trademarks.
• Access to best strategists, scientists, cutting-
  edge labs, communication tools, info
• Training, consortia, mentoring, sharing
• Multidisciplinary project teams, resources, and
“We are evolving out of the era of the
 Lone Rangers…faculty members
 can choose to be involved in the
 design, development, content
 expertise, delivery, or distribution of
 course…” (Richard T. Hezel)

Sarah Carr, (Dec 15, 2000, A47), A Day in the Life of a New Type of
   Professor, The Chronicle of Higher Education
      Faculty Member in 2020
•   Track 1: Technical Specialist
•   Track 2: Personal Guide
•   Track 3: Online Facilitator
•   Track 4: Course Developer
•   Track 5: Course or Program Manager
•   Track 6: Work for Hire Online Lecturer
•   Track 7: High School Teacher
•   Track 8: Unemployed
     Student Differences in 2020
• Live Longer
• More Educated
     – Multiple Degrees
     – Accustomed to Multiple Learning Formats
     – Design own programs and courses
•   Specialists AND Generalists
•   Courses/Degrees for unknown occupations
•   Expect to Take Courses Where Live
•   Cyber-students (various digital aids attached to appendages)
Possible Scenarios in Year 2020
•   Virtual U‟s and Traditional U‟s Coexist
•   Traditional Univ‟s buy stake in Virtual U‟s
•   Traditional Univ‟s form Consortia
•   Some Trad U‟s Move Ahead, Some Don‟t
•   Other Technology arise well beyond Web
•   Large Virtual U‟s Buy Competing
    Traditional U‟s and shut them down
What Uses for Old Institutions
  of Higher Learning???
•   Museums
•   Historical Monuments
•   Bomb Shelters
•   Resorts and Apartment Complexes
•   Nostalgic Retirement Homes
•   Green Space
•   Prisons
Final advice…whatever
you do…don‟t Bonk!!!

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