appropriate content.doc by handongqp


									                           Simmons in the Palm of Your Hand

                                  Final Mini-Grant Report
                        Submitted by Megan Fox and Candy Schwartz
                                        May 20, 2002


The purpose of this mini-grant was to:

   1. Explore methods of delivering content in a PDA format and make recommendations for
      what the best method(s) would be for Simmons.
   2. Determine the types of College-related content which would be appropriate and useful to
      have available in a PDA format—that is, what content lends itself to the PDA format and
      would be valuable in the daily lives of Simmons student and employees.


The following report contains the results of our research and testing, including:

   1. Overview of PDAs

   2. Content Delivery
      2.1. Issues
      2.2. Design Recommendations for Mobile Device Content
              Recommendations on Content Organization
              Recommendations on Coding
      2.3. Creating the Content
              Working with Service Providers and PDA-specific Products
              Creating Content Locally

   3. Appropriate Content
      3.1. Personal Productivity
      3.2. Information Content
      3.3. Instructional Content

   4. Testing/Mock-ups

   5. Recommendations

   6. Resources

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1. Introduction: Overview of PDAs

Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) are becoming increasingly prevalent in the academic and
business world. According to International Data Corporation (IDC), PDA sales in the US are
projected to reach 9.8 million units in 2002, and jump to 20 million by 2004, while the Yankee
Group forecasts 19.5 million units in 2002 and 26.5 million in 2003. PDAs include several
different classes of handheld computing devices. Currently the leading types are Palm pilots
(handheld personal organizers using the Palm operating system), and devices that use the
Windows CE operating system and it derivative, PocketPC (such as the iPAQ). In the past year,
a number of leading cell phone companies (notably Nokia and Ericsson) have added PDA
functionality to their mobile phones, introducing a third class of device.

PDAs offer productivity tools (address books, to-do lists, spreadsheets, word processing,
presentations) which interact with a user‘s desktop (i.e., they ―synchronize‖, or ―sync‖ to the
desktop for updating purposes). PDAs offer the ability to beam information between two PDAs
using infrared ports—no wires or hookups necessary. They also offer access to e-mail and the
World Wide Web, either by direct access to the Internet through infrared ports of wireless
connections, or by downloading information from the user‘s desktop (web clipping). Small-
screen technology has improved to the point where newer PDAs include high quality full color
displays, although the PDA ―window‖ to the Web is limited in size, and does not respond well to
sites that use graphics, JavaScript, frames, and other technologies that enhance the desktop Web

PDAs have become a very ―hot topic‖ in academia in recent months. Many of this year‘s
academic conferences have papers or sessions on the impact of PDAs on aspects of curriculum
and education management. Many universities require computers, laptops, or handheld devices
of all students, both because of convenience and academic value. Because students can do e-
mail, take class notes, transport papers and books, and reference documents on PDAs, they have
been called a potential replacement for the ubiquitous student backpack. PDAs are considerably
lighter, cheaper and easier then laptops, offer many of the same functionalities, and also include
added capabilities such as syncing and beaming.

Much of the adoption of PDAs in academia is driven by their use in the workplace. Thus, PDAs
are most common in health studies, business, law and technology programs, because these
professions use them most. Bob Trelease of the UCLA School of Medicine says ―"PDAs will be
as common as the stethoscope in medicine in the future.‖

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2. Content Delivery

2.1.    Issues

It is worth noting that the most prominent Web policy and standards setting board, the W3C
(Word Wide Web Consortium) is working on strategies for providing access to the ―ubiquitous
Web‖ (anyone, anywhere, anytime, anyhow):

          W3C Web Accessibility Initiative is on making the Web accessible to anyone,
          including those with disabilities.
         W3C Internationalization Activity is on making the Web accessible anywhere,
          including support for many writing systems and languages.
         W3C Device Independence Activity is on making the Web accessible anytime
          and anyhow, in particular by supporting many access mechanisms (including
          mobile and personal devices, that can provide access anytime) and many modes of
          use (including visual and auditory ones, that can provide access anyhow).

    Device Independence Principles -

This project focuses on just one piece of ―anytime and anyhow‖—the mobile devices. Even in
that small domain, the principal problem facing content managers in this setting is variation.

       Different operating systems
        o Palm OS (operating systems) of various generations
        o Windows CE of several generations
        o Pocket PC of several generations
        o proprietary OS, such as with mobile phone devices

       Different physical devices
        o ―large‖ small screen devices (e.g., Windows CE machines)
        o ―small‖ small screen devices (e.g., Palm, PocketPC)
        o ―even smaller‖ small screen devices (e.g., mobile phones, RIM products)
        o differing amounts of RAM and permanent storage memory size

       Different display capabilities
        o color vs monochrome
        o graphics capable vs text-only
        o generally inability to handle Flash, PDF files, streaming media, Java, JavaScript,

       Different modes of delivery
        o downloaded content through synchronizing to desktop
        o interaction through dialup modem (which will be slow)
        o interaction through wireless technologies (of varying standards, but also slow)

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       Different browsers
        o Pocket PC and WinCE versions of Internet Explorer
        o MyPalm
        o AvantGo (and many more)

2.2.    Design Recommendations for Mobile Device Content


The statement has been made that if Web pages are coded to be ADA-compliant, or ―accessible‖,
then they should also be PDA-friendly. To some degree this is true, assuming that the coding
conforms fully to the guidelines identified as part of the W3C‘s Web Content Accessibility
Guidelines ( However, such conformity only has the effect
of rendering content to be readable across devices, and has little to do with usability—an HTML
page might be perfectly readable, but if one has to scroll down 20 screens to read it all, it is
barely usable. Presentation on small screen devices has to do with content organization as well
as with coding.

The display on mobile devices usually falls between the range of 160 x 160 pixels for older Palm
devices, to 800 x 640 for high-end CE devices. Pocket PC devices usually show 240 x 320 pixels
on a screen measuring 2¼ inches by 2¾ inches. Some of this space is dedicated to title bars and
scroll bars. The most common screen space on a PDA Web browser is equivalent to roughly 40
characters across and 16 lines down.

Colour capabilities can vary from none (monochrome) through 4-level and 16-level grayscale to
8-bit and 16-bit colour. Older Palm devices display text only, while newer Palm products as well
as CE and Pocket PC products also show images. Mobile phone displays, of course, are very
small, and almost always show monochrome and text only. Most browsers used on handheld
devices will resize Web pages to fit on a small screen, which means that images which look
wonderful on a normal monitor are barely distinguishable on a small screen.

Recommendations on Content Organization

To a user dialing in through a modem, the entire Web is available to whatever device is able to
access it. However, most design guides stress the importance of paying special attention to the
content that you deem to be essential for your PDA-enabled community. That content should be
made PDA-friendly, or even become part of a special PDA channel, such as might be available
through an AvantGo server.

The following guidelines pertain to all content that is deemed useful on a PDA:

       Keep pages small (AvantGo recommends/enforces a maximum of 32KB per page)
       Navigation should be clear, concise, and always on top
       Images should not be used for navigation
       Keep to one topic per page
       Drilling down through links is better than scrolling

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Recommendations on Coding

      Use well-established long-standing HTML elements (HTML 3.2)
      Use HTML elements as they were intended (i.e., conforming to the spirit of XHTML)
      Always include meaningful ALT tags
      Use a minimum of graphics
      Use high contrast for text as well as images
      Avoid visual clutter
      Forms can be used, but with minimal text entry

    The following will not work reliably
       o font elements (the default is Tahoma)
       o complex nested tables (especially when used to achieve a ―look‖ or layout)
       o frames
       o layers
       o image maps
       o plug-ins such as Acrobat
       o JavaScript, Java
       o CSS
       o animated GIFs
       o background images
    Do not attach meaning to images without text alternatives
    Do not rely on colour to convey content
    Do not use small fonts or italics

Coding is one of the less troublesome aspects of presenting information to PDAs. More
complexity is introduced with advanced functions such as harmonizing PDA-based and server-
based calendars and course schedules, preparing non-Web-based course materials for PDAs, and
synchronizing server-based and PDA e-mail utilities.

2.3.   Creating the Content

It is certainly possible to hand-code content to be PDA-friendly, if you know HTML coding and
are familiar with the guidelines and recommendations for which codes and design elements will
and will not be compatible with the PDA platforms. However, most content providers at
Simmons (faculty and staff) do not code in this manner. They primarily use tools which remove
the creator from the coding level, and let them focus on content. For many, creating HTML
content is a matter of taking a Word document and executing a File->Save As Web Page.
Content created this way contains both legitimate and proprietary HTML and XML elements, as
well as extensive use of stylesheet coding, rendering such documents unviewable on many
handheld devices.

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Even the use of a sophisticated authoring tool such as Dreamweaver tends to lead to complex
HTML documents which frequently exhibit nonstandard coding practice. This is not to say that
Dreamweaver cannot be used to create PDA-friendly pages, but that doing so requires a greater
knowledge of Dreamweaver than most normal users have, or would be willing to acquire. For
creation of PDA-friendly information by content providers such as faculty, tools such as Lectora
Pocket Publisher or Mobipocket would be worth considering (both are described below). For a
generation of PDA-friendly official College content, other solutions such as ColdFusion or
contracting out for content provision make more sense.

Working With Service Providers and PDA-specific Products

Many companies provide services to convert Web content to mobile device formats. Some
examples include:

      AvantGo (, a major player, delivers third-party information in
       channels accessible through an AvantGo browser installed on your PDA (many come
       with AvantGo preinstalled), allows you to create your own content, and offers an
       enterprise AvantGo server application. A number of academic institutions have gone this
       route (for example, the University of St. Thomas, Golden Gate University, and others).
       AvantGo services range from creating custom channels to purchasing the AvantGo M-
       Business Server. Custom channels are free for eight or fewer users per channel (though
       this may change as the business model changes), and can escalate to as much as $25,000
       for a custom channel with 100 users and reporting capabilities (and at that price point, the
       server is a cost-effective option). AvantGo claims that it will continue to support a free
       service for non-profit institutions, however as with any enterprise, this must be
       taken with a grain of salt.

      Lectora Pocket Publisher ( lets you develop training content
       on your desktop and then drag and drop content into small packages which are then
       formatted into a single installation file for Palm or Pocket PC access. Lectora is already
       talking with Simmons about products for the desktop environment. A sales representative
       indicated that a license for 100 copies of the PDA publisher would run around $3500.

      Mobipocket ( has several products. Office Companion 1.0
       ($19.95) converts MS Office (PowerPoint, Word, and Excel files) 97 or higher to Palm or
       PocketPC formats. Publisher 3.0 converts Word/RTF, TXT, and PowerPoint files into
       HTML and then into an e-Book for Palm or PocketPC, for $149 (standard) or $999 (extra
       security features, for publishers). Files converted with the office Companion or Publisher
       can only be read with the Mobipocket Reader.

      NearSpace ( and Town Compass
       ( manage event lists, directories, and other handheld
       applications. Stanford University works with both of these partners. A statement
       regarding services and costs of partnering with these two can be found in Appendix A.

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      mobilePlanIt ( is a product developed for enhancing events
       (conferences and the like) with mobile deliverables. It supports Palm only. Features,
       options, and costs are shown in Appendix B.

      ArcStream (, based in Watertown, is a wireless
       systems integration firm which targets healthcare, retail, and higher education
       organizations. ArcStream has partnered with a number of agencies of interest to
       Simmons, most notably Enterasys and Blackboard (they developed Blackboard toGo!, an
       AvantGo application).

Creating Content Locally

The W3C details a variety of methods to deliver the same content to different devices
( - section-Implementation). Most assume
capabilities for browser detection, that is, for detecting characteristics of the requesting user
agent with respect to operating system and browser. A product like BrowserHawk
( can determine operating system, browser and device type,
security settings, plug-in capabilities, connection type, screen as well as monitor size, color
depth, support for features such as frames and tables, and more. The different models for how
Simmons could deliver PDA content internally are:

      Multiple Versions of Content

       Multiple versions of the same content are created, each customized for a different
       platform. The server delivers the appropriate pages to a detected client. There are some
       specific markup languages that have been developed for PDA-friendly pages (WML for
       WAP-enabled devices, and HDML) but these are not official standards. Normal HTML
       (keeping in mind the points listed above) is preferable until true standards develop.
       AvantGo has developed some useful guidelines for content coding, including a matrix of
       HTML codes that are compatible with Palm and PocketPC
       (, and an HTML Style
       Guide ( Maintaining
       multiple versions is obviously both labor-intensive and space-consuming, even with a
       high degree of re-use.

      Style Sheets and Transformations

       One set of content is created, in a non-presentation format such as ASCII or using a
       mark-up language derived from XML, which is intended for this type of modularization
       (XHTML being one example). Different style sheets or templates are developed for
       presentation, and are applied as needed. This requires thorough knowledge of the CSS or
       XSL style sheet protocols, or XLST transformations.

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      Database-driven: Programming Objects

       The content is deconstructed into reusable units, and the units are combined and executed
       using programming (for example, Java Server Pages, CGI, Cold Fusion, Active Server
       Pages, PHP, and so on). Units are manipulated and combined differently for different
       agents. While this is the most elegant solution, it requires thorough understanding of the
       programming code, as well as being server-intensive. Also, this approach would still
       require knowledge of browser detection and possibly also of style transformations.

If the College Web office will be using Cold Fusion for other purposes, then it would make sense
to also use it for the purpose of generating PDA-friendly content. On its own, generation of PDA
content is not a sufficient reason for the considerable investment (human and financial) that
would have to be made in Cold Fusion or other database-driven solutions.

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3. Appropriate Content

In terms of possible areas for content delivery, only certain kinds of information make sense for
PDA access. A PDA information ―channel‖ is not intended to replace public Web site access, but
rather is best suited for specific types of information.

3.1.    Personal Productivity

PDAs include a number of daily productivity tools which anyone (faculty, students, or staff)
would find useful:

       address books
       calendars (which can be synchronized with institutional and/or WebCT calendars)
                 [only in WebCT 3.6 and later]
       e-mail inboxes
                 e-mail can be read and composed offline
       e-mail can be downloaded and uploaded when connected to a network or when synched
        to a desktop
       calculators
       simple word processors (to do lists, memos)
       spreadsheets (expense tracking)

Calendar synchronization is one of the most common tools seen at other academic institutions,
and would require technical support on the backend and guidelines posted on the Web. Since
these uses of PDAs are primarily for personal productivity, the College would not be involved in
much content provision or training, unless we were to mandate the use of PDAs.

3.2.    Informational Content

Information content appropriate for PDAs includes frequently used college information. This
content would be supplied by various units of Simmons, following the College model of
providing certain content for the official Web site. Informational content could include:

       news and events, for example the student newspaper, The Voice, or the staff newsletter,
        In the Loop
       hours of service
       directory information
       how-to and instruction guides (including PDA help, location of syncing stations)
       general and unit-specific non-interactive calendars
       portable e-books, dictionaries, and similar reference tools
       library content (e-journal and tables of contents services, cataloguing and circulation
        records, some databases, checkout and lending capabilities)

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3.3.    Instructional Content

These are some of the ways in which academic institutions have used PDAs in courses:

       provisions of syllabi and assignments
       students take notes while in class
       students record notes, laboratory data, observations, etc. ―in the field‖
       faculty and students share documents from a networked folder (locally, or through
       students send completed assignments to networked folders or to teacher‘s PDAs
       students share files and data with other students

This sounds relatively simple, but would require training on both sides –provider and user.
Templates and guidelines for content creation could be developed – content does not have to be
coded in HTML, but would have to be kept short, and could not use advanced word processing
features (see discussion above in Section 1.2 and 1.3). In addition to content creation, faculty and
students would have to learn how to place materials in networked folders, or in a College-
endorsed venue such as AvantGo. These activities could be supported through workshops, or,
more effectively, through online modules or handouts. Similarly, Web pages could be made
available with instructions on downloading and uploading with PDAs.

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4. Testing/Mock-Ups

In preparation for launching PDA content in the Simmons environment, and as a way of
becoming familiar with the setting, we prepared and tested PDA content on both Palm and
PocketPC platforms. The content was mounted on the Web
(, and,
and also pointed to through a customized AvantGo channel.

Content preparation primarily involved hand-coding, conforming to the guidelines mentioned
above. Use of Lectora Publisher revealed that this product is modeled on the book metaphor
(next page, previous page), and while this might be very useful for creating e-books (e.g., guides,
course content which is primarily sequential), it doesn‘t work well for many types of Web
content. One possible use of Lectora would be to create a ―book‖ directory of College
departments, offices, phone numbers and so on. This would work for stable directory
information, but not for directory listings that are generated dynamically and frequently.

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5. Recommendations

At the current time (based on both observation and our attempts to find active Simmons users)
PDAs are not widespread in the general Simmons College community (faculty, staff, and
students). Therefore we do not recommend significant effort or resources be allocated to provide
PDA-ready College content. However, given forecasts that PDA usage will become much more
prevalent in the near future, the College should be positioned to be ready both to support and to
take advantage of what handheld technology can contribute to the academic environment.

The College should not at this point commit to supporting a specific PDA platform. While the
Palm operating system currently holds about 80% of the market and there are far more
applications for that environment, the Windows Pocket PC platform is gaining strength, and has
the backing of Microsoft.

There are certain departments and offices that PDAs are most likely to impact first at Simmons.
Material support (hardware and software) and training programs or workshops should be
provided for key staff in these areas. These staff are in the best position to increase awareness of
PDAs, to identify potential partnerships and ways to leverage existing and developing
technologies in their departments with PDA technologies, and to introduce programs, projects,
and activities which will be most appropriate for their constituencies.

       o The Office of Information Technology and Academic Technology should continue to
         monitor general PDAs developments in academia and use at Simmons. Descriptions
         of projects currently ongoing in other academic institutions, including URLs, are
         provided in Appendix C.

       o The Web Office should consider how new technologies and activities (such as the
         adoption of Cold Fusion) could be leveraged to support a PDA environment. If
         content were stored in a database capable of delivering PDA ready information, then
         the College could seriously consider providing specific high-use content in a PDA

       o The TRC should monitor WebCT‘s efforts to develop PDA compatibility. For
         example, calendars are one of the most used applications on a PDA—when Simmons
         upgrades to WebCT 3.X, users will be able to sync their WebCT calendars with their

       o The HelpDesk should monitor how often they get requests for PDA assistance, and
         what support is requested – syncing, downloading, etc. This would serve as a measure
         of the adoption of PDAs at Simmons and would indicate the potential need for future

       o To remain competitive with other academic institutions, certain disciplines at
         Simmons should be exposing their students to PDA and hand-held technologies.
         Application of handheld technology in the workplace is driving the adoption of PDAs
         in academia, most prominently in the health care field. Many medical and health
         programs teach the importance of using technology in point-of-care contact. The

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            School of Health Studies might consider introducing training programs, curriculum
            content, and even student competencies that address PDA use. The School of
            Management might also find that increased use in business will necessitate
            integration of PDAs into the curriculum.

       o Increased use of PDAs in library environments suggests that both the Library and the
         Graduate School of Library & Information Science (GSLIS) should be keeping an eye
         on trends and developments, and should engage in projects that explore PDA
         applications in libraries and related settings. This could include the creation of Web
         page and handouts describing what PDAs are, how they are used, and providing links
         to resources.

Finally, Simmons should be mindful of the effects of technological synergies. The availability of
wireless capabilities on campus (e.g., the pilot project planned for Summer 2002) is likely to
encourage the adoption of PDAs, and as PDAs become more widespread, support technologies
become more important. For example, there are a number of devices available that allow PDAs
to connect directly to the Internet, or to sync to a wireless network. Examples include EthIR
LAN from Clarinet Systems (
page/product-overview.htm) and Tribeam‘s WebTarget (
(prices detailed in Appendix B).

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Note: If Simmons were to decide to go forward with training for key staff in departments most
likely to be affected by PDA technology, we would be happy to develop a training program for
Fall 2002, along the lines of:

PDA Training Program

This program could use a combination of PowerPoint-supported workshops and hands-on
demonstrations. The PowerPoint could also available on the Web, along with additional material
in the form of PDF documents and Web pages with links.

Basic Introduction (for individuals who are considering a PDA)
    what is a PDA
    why would I want one (what are the capabilities)
    what different types are there (hands on with both types)
           o why Palm, why PocketPC
    what is synching and how do I do it
    how do I connect online (modems, wireless)
    where might I buy a PDA (and for how much)
    what might I want to buy besides the device

Making the Most of Your PDA (for individuals who have recently obtained one)
   what are the basic features (Palm, PocketPC)
   how do I get files from my desktop to my PDA (sync)
   what is AvantGo and how would I use it
   what other kinds of software are there
         o where do I get it (e.g., Tucows)
         o how do I download it to my PDA
   what kinds of books and other resources are there
         o where do I get them
         o how do I download them to my PDA
   what do I do to make my device secure

The PDA and the Curriculum (for faculty, so they can start thinking about integration;
tailored to specific departments)
     how are PDAS being used in education
            o lots of examples
     how are other schools like ours using PDAs
            o examples
     what can we do now
            o simple content creation
            o beaming content
            o AvantGo channels
     what might we be able to do in the future
            o wireless
     how does this work with WebCT

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6. Resources

In addition to the URLs embedded in this document and appendix, a directory of Web resources
on the topic of PDAs, especially as applied in academic settings, is maintained at

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Appendix A – Content Conversion/Service Providers


…costs depend on the number of records of content you have, whether they include text and/or
b/w and/or colour graphics, the number of databases you‘d like to build, how frequently they
would require updating, etc. For example, we could do a straight single campus directory,
including faculty, students, staff etc. This might include graphics and/or logos. Similarly, it
might have events that we can make ―hot‖ - i.e. so you can tap and add them to your calendar
program of the Palm device. Or you could have event calendars for music, drama, athletics,
graduation, etc.; text book requirements (books required for each class); course library reserve
list holdings; course syllabi, etc. We could do an entire directory of your Simmons College
course catalog arranged by department showing the days and times of the classes that could then
be tapped and added to a user‘s handheld. I don‘t know about sports at Simmons, but we do team
rosters with players and coaches images, stats, game times, etc. We could also do an Alumni
Directory arranged by Class Year, Alpha, etc.

Think of anything that is generated in print on campus and ask would this be useful to have on
the Palm handheld? That‘s the kind of range we have to work with. My recommendation is that
we start slow and grow. I think it would be fair to estimate a budget of $3,000 to $5,000 to get
started. That‘s a very rough ballpark estimate without having the benefit of talking about what it
is that you actually have/want, what kind of format the data is in, etc. But with that initial budget
you‘d have some meaningful databases that would be highly useful across a broad spectrum on

Eric Makus, 800-501-1010


A basic student handbook application can cost anywhere from $3,250 to $5,500, depending on
the size of your school. The following features are add-ons:

   The NearSpace Locator™ (which includes up to 5 maps and/or floor plans representing your
    university: $2,750
   Additional maps and floor plans: $950 per screen
   A custom home screen with your school‘s logo: $1,250
   Updating services: $500 for a single instance, $1,600/year for quarterly updates, $3,600/year
    for monthly updates, $7,800/year for unlimited updates

If you then chose to have a second application, we would re-use much of the work above, so, for
instance, a campus tour, might be a mere $2,000 extra. Same for a Visitor‘s Guide. Of course, we
are also very happy to customize any application—our tools are very flexible.
Tiffany Devitt, 707-285-2064, Mobile: 707-328-5596

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mobilePlanIt $6,500.00

The basic mobilePlanIt product will be targeted toward event organizers that are looking for a
packaged solution. It will provide an easy-to-implement solution and will require very minimal
work on the part of the event organizer to provide OpenGrid with the necessary data to populate
the various fields. It will allow organizers of smaller events or limited funds to deliver content to
mobile devices, sell sponsorships, and show off cutting-edge technology. This product will be
made available on Palm OS devices only and will include the following features, with certain
limitations: conference agenda, exhibitor list, speaker list, sponsor support for splash page,
personalization, announcements, content entry, reporting and Palm to Palm beaming.

   mobilePlanIt Options
   OpenGrid will offer event organizers the ability to enhance their digital offering by adding
   onto mobilePlanIt various options that may increase their scope or reach to their audience.
   These options include the following:

        Extended Sponsorships (5 max, total)                     $750/each
        Extended Announcements                                   $500/10
        Enhanced Personalization (job titles, etc.)              $1,000
        Local Information (restaurant, hotel, entertainment)     $500
        Attendee List (requires on-site deployment for security) $500
       On-Site Deployment
        Technician                                               $1,500/person
        Beaming Stations                                         $250/each
        Pocket PC Support                                        $3,000
        Extended Data Support                                    $1,500
        Maps                                                     To be quoted

mobilePlanIt Suite $15,000

The mobilePlanIt Suite is the complete solution for the ultimate show experience. It provides
incremental revenue and is fully supported by the OpenGrid technical staff, project management,
and customer support. It includes all the features of mobilePlanIt and the options listed above.
In addition, it also includes the following: unlimited announcements, custom data interfaces,
enhanced maps and on-site staffing. Travel and Expenses not included.

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Appendix B – Infrared/Wireless Network Connections

… In response to your question a single WebTarget Access Point is
priced at $1998. This includes hardware and software for basic intranet/internet access and POP
3 email. The Palm OS software can be loaded on as many PDAs as you
like. Although the price of our access point is higher than Radio Frequency access points there
are no hardware additions required on the PDA. This makes our system
the most cost effective local wireless solution on the market today.

WebTargets will be available in July, in time for the fall term. Please feel free to contact me
directly if you have any questions.

Mike Iovino
TriBeam Technologies


Clarinet Systems IrDa Infrared

Allen Dawson
Director, Eastern Region
Clarinet Systems, Inc.
P.O. Box 16216
Chapel Hill, NC 27516
TEL: 919-968-0210 (with voicemail)
FAX: 919-932-4735

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Appendix C – Current PDA Projects in Academia – Selected Resources
URLs Current as of 4/22/02

School                URL                         Content/Services

Arizona Health Extensive lists and links to resources, including Alerts
Sciences Library  pda/                           and General Sites, Initiatives in libraries, Student and
                                                 Teacher Applications, Prescribing and Patient
                                                 Tracking, Calculators, Reference Works, PDAs for
                                                 Health Care Providers, Hardware and Accessories,
                                                 General Productivity Applications, Health Care
                                                 Applications, Health Care Journal Articles
Baylor College of Information page for medical residents.
Medicine          edpeds/palm.html
Brigham Young In the tradition of education ―any time, anywhere,
University        rs/pda.htm                     anyone‖ BYU Independent Study has created a course
                                                 version for your personal digital assistant.
Calvin College Recommendations for purchase
Carnegie The Pebbles project is exploring how Personal Digital
Mellon/Pebbles    bbles/                         Assistants (PDAs), such as a device running PalmOS,
                                                 or a device running the Microsoft Windows CE or
                                                 Pocket PC operating systems, can be used when they
                                                 are communicating with a ―regular‖ personal
                                                 computer (PC), with other PDAs, and with
                                                 computerized devices such as telephones, radios,
                                                 microwave ovens and factory equipment.
Dartmouth College Has a Handspring Visor program in place—in the
                  ~biomed/services.htmld/pd department of psychology and brain sciences—and the
                  a.why.shtml                    university anticipates that PDA use will become a
                                                 major aspect of college life
Des Moines Area          iPAQ handheld pilot, including e-text (written by the
Community College                                program faculty who also have been using the iPAQ
(DMACC) West                                     throughout course development and planning), course
Campus                                           materials such as the syllabus, handouts, etc., web and
                                                 e-mail access through wireless connectivity, and
                                                 assessment and evaluation were conducted exclusively
                                                 through the handheld.
Duke University Palm applications/databases that are intended to serve
                      ucldata/Palm_Pilot/ the interests of atomic, nuclear and particle physics.
                      tml                        Forums, listserv, training and support.
East Carolina Snatch and go solutions using handheld computers
University            ld                         (PDA‘s) for weekly lessons, examinations, and access
                                                 to electronic journals.

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George Fox   11 faculty integrate PDAs into their classes. Each
University, Oregon    palmprof/                   professor was given a Handspring Visor (Palm OS)
                                                  and Presenter-To-Go
Georgia State Individual faculty putting courses up
University            skp/teaching/node1.html
Harvard Business Working Knowledge (business information portal)
School                tml                         downloadable for PDA
Harvard Medical PDA program for course content, schedules,
School       evaluations, and announcements. Lots of health
                      bile+Access                 specific applications
Indiana University Info page
Purdue University     han/palm/home.html
Indiana/Purdue Tools, links, ebooks, resources for developers.
Kansas University For the past several years, it has been the practice of
School of Medicine stupalm.html                    KUSM-Wichita to provide incoming third-year
Wichita                                            medical students with Personal Digital Assistant
                                                   (PDA) handheld computers for the duration of their
                                                   stay in Wichita. This year, students will be given a
                                                   choice of three PDA‘s: the Palm Vx (with included
                                                   HandHeldMed book license), the Palm m500, and the
                                                   Kyocera 6035 Smartphone.
Murray State         http://campus.murraystate.e Handheld Forum
University           du/caminfo/forums/pda/thre
North Carolina State Veterinary Medical Library‘s Home Page has
University           med/                          extensive lists of resources
NYU School of Tutorials, applications, FAQs, info for developers put
Medical              u/research/pda/pilot/         up by Academic Computing
Oberlin College Student Newspaper is now available online in PDA
                     ee/2001/04/ Friendly format
Oregon Health and Resource page
Science University Medicine/residency/handhe
Oregon State Hardware and software recommendations
University           on/ectu/tech/Handouts/PDA

Penn State Abington Take notes in class; organize their classes (as a
Campus               ation/studies/study10.html scheduler), take electronic quizzes, beam notes and
                                                applications among each other and download course-
                                                related materials from Web
Pepperdine  Download course materials and manage their
University School of ation/studies/study2.html schedules.

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Stanford Law School http://lawschool.stanford.ed university contracted with mobile applications
                       u/isg/comp/laptop.shtml       platform provider AvantGo to create a freshman site,
                  students can download course information like
              schedules and assignments; the Palms to compose,
                       pe/about/pr/010523.html       send, and receive email. Faculty office hours, phone
                                                     numbers, and even office locations on campus maps
                                                     West Group and other software companies—PDA
                                                     Verticals, Ury
                                                     Fischer Esq., NearSpace, Town Compass and
                                           —are providing legal,
                                                     Stanford-specific and time-and-billing software.
State University of Quick primer on PDA‘s and their potential uses in
New York (SUNY) port/palm/                           medicine—specifically your rotations.
University of Information page.
California Davis       /
University of Health center sponsored resource page.
Colorado               /Palmlinks.htm
University of Florida Student established, office medical infomatics
College of Medicine dinfo/pda/                       sponsored, interest group
University of Extensive lists of resources provided by library; lists
Connecticut Health                                   of PDA workshops
University of Illinois http://pdagrant.osfsaintfranc Library of medical applications.
at Chicago Library of
the Health Sciences-
University of Iowa PDA-friendly pages, lists of resources, current news

University of Iowa PDA-friendly pages, lists of resources
Tippie College of      vantgo/
University of WWW Virtual Library with entries grouped categories
Karlsruhe                                        such as ‗Conferences‘, ‗Calls for Papers‘, ‗Research
University of Daily news, commencement info downloads for
Massachusetts       /pda.html                    PDAs; Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Basics (The
                    http://www-                  Lamar Soutter Library, University of Massachusetts
           Medical School). Individual faculty providing syllabi
                    pda.html                     and other course materials for PDAs
University of Research project on PDA software, devices, best
Michigan                                         practices and implementation
University of Resource page of palm resources for medical students.
University of Requiring all freshmen in the engineering, computer
Minnesota at Duluth science, and information technology departments to
           purchase a Compaq ipac

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University of Ohio Resources for handheld computing at the ohio state
                      /                           medical center.
University of        Store sells devices and accessories

University of         http://www.urmc.rochester. Every resident was required to have and use a
Rochester             edu/FamMed/PDAatFMC.h PalmOS-based handheld computer. Some of the uses
                      tm                         in the program include the following. Track surgical
                                                 procedures; Track inpatients; Track OB patients;
                                                 Distribute office-wide schedules; Medical and office-
                                                 related lists/databases
University of San Forums and bulletin boards
Francisco             e/forums/YaBB.cgi?board=
University of South Provides Palm™ handheld computers to all first-year
Dakota       undergraduate students as well as first-year law and
                      urpose.html                 medical school students. The initiative, the first in the
                                                  United States to mandate the use of handheld
                                                  computers by undergraduate students, takes place
                                                  beginning with the 2001-2002 academic year and
                                                  affects approximately 1,300 students. Set up
                                                  informational, help, and FAQ web pages.; Created
                                                  several Avantgo channels including the ―USD
                                                  Freshman Channel‖ and ―USD Campus Calendar‖. ;
                                                  Provided protected downloads of selected applications
                                                  for their students only, such as ―Documents To Go.‖ ;
                                                  Provided campus information such as faculty
                                                  addresses and phone numbers and campus maps in a
                                                  PDA friendly format through NearSpace, Inc (a
                                                  similiar application can be downloaded from:
University of South Library posts lists of links
Carolina              RARY/pdamanu.htm
University of Support pages; lists of resources for Palms.
Southern California   torials/palmintro.html
University of Texas   http://www.library.uthscsa. Product and instructional information for all PDA
Health Science        edu/internet/PDA.cfm        users
University of Texas   http://www2.utsouthwester Handheld computing resources
Medical Center        olboxes/toolbox.cfm?subjec

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University of Virginia Etextbooks in the classroom. They provided handheld
                       ebooks/                        computers (HP Journadas)
University of Virginia http://www.nursing.virginia Used in classes, required for Pharmacology
School of Nursing      .edu/its/handhelds/Default.h
University of Western PDA friendly pages; support
Michigan               mobile/pda-
University of          http://facstaff.wcer.wisc.ed PDA Users Group
Wisconsin-Madison u/pbaker/PUG.htm
Virginia      Lists of resources. Medical students and faculty are
Commonwealth           tml/bibs/pda.html              testing usefulness of palms in a clinical setting.
University    PalmTop News.
Wake Forest   Provides each second- through fourth-year student
University School of prise/studies/study9.html with a Palm OS handheld device to carry with them on
Medicine                                              their rounds. They use the handhelds to review
                                                      reference materials, look up phone numbers in the
                                                      address book and to log information.
Washington    Web page with links to useful palm resources
University Medical wumpi/
Palm Initiative
Western Michigan Office of Information Technology, Mobile
University             mobile/pda-aboutit.html        Computing. Very neat, complete set of pages of
                                                      college content created in PDA format designed by the
                                                      OIT department
Westmont College Over 50 Staff/Faculty using Palm Powered PDA‘s,
                       ommunication/palm/             many with Stowaway keyboards. We use Steltor‘s
                                                      Corporate Time with Corporate Sync to sync our
                                                      calendar info. Palm OS training is provided to
                                                      Staff/Faculty. Trainer uses the Presenter-To-Go
                                                      module with a Visor Prism. IT staff & Physical Plant
                                                      staff use AvantGo to initiate, update & complete work
                                                      orders from our web based system.
Wooster       Download sports schedules

Blackboard   Synchronize announcements, calendar items, and
                      /                         course content (homework, books, assignments,
                                                syllabus, and more)
WebCT            Version 3.6 integrates global calendar, and allows
                                                syncing to Palm OS and other calendars

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