Kahrs complete flooring manual

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Kahrs complete flooring manual Powered By Docstoc
					            Genuine Wood Floors



Technical Handbook
Welcome to Kährs
Here you will find everything you need to know about
parquet and veneer flooring.

This is how to find the correct information:

• On the following pages you will find a List of Contents.

• In Chapter 1 you will find an Index with all technical terms and
  direct references to the relevant chapter and page.

• Chapter 4 contains Selection criteria for the different types of floor
  depending on application, appearance and technical issues.

We have taken considerable care in compiling this manual. We
would state that printing errors might be present. You are welcome
to contact us if anything is unclear or if you find any errors. We look
forward to hearing what you think and receiving your comments on
the different themes that are discussed. Please feel free to send your
comments to info@kahrs.se

This handbook is available on the Internet (www.kahrs.se), as a
CD-ROM, and in printed format.

Facts concerning wood can be obtained from www.nordictimber.org
and parquet flooring from www.parquet.net
List of contents

               1
                       1.     Index                                               page 9


              Index




               2
                       2.1    Flooring with sturdy roots                          page 16
                       2.2    Kährs worldwide                                     page 17
Information on Kährs
      and addresses
   around the world




               3
                       3.1    Real wood is wonderful                              page 22
                       3.2    Wood flooring and ecology                           page 24
       Environment     3.3    Indoor climate and building biology                 page 25
                              3.3.1   Thermal conditions                          page 25
         and quality
                              3.3.2   Emissions in housing                        page 25
                              3.3.3   Allergies                                   page 25

                       3.4    Ecological product testing                          page 26
                       3.5    Environmental management                            page 27
                       3.6    The four systems conditions                         page 28
                       3.7    Contents declaration                                page 31
                              3.7.1   Kährs wood flooring, 15 mm                  page 31
                              3.7.2   Kährs wood flooring, 15 mm, patterned       page 32
                              3.7.3   Kährs wood flooring, UV oiled               page 33
                              3.7.4   Kährs wood flooring, 15 mm, natural oiled   page 34
                              3.7.5   Kährs wood flooring, 15 mm, untreated       page 35
                              3.7.6   Kährs wood flooring, 22 mm                  page 36
                              3.7.7   Kährs wood flooring, 20 mm                  page 37
                              3.7.8   Kährs wood flooring, 7 mm (Linnea)          page 38

                       3.8    Flooring material in the cycle
                              according to GBR                                    page 39

                       3.9    Service life of flooring material
                              according to GBR                                    page 40

                       3.10   Kährs’ quality                                      page 41
                4
                        4.1   Overview table when using
                              Kährs’ wood flooring                              page 44

       Criteria when    4.2   Criteria when selecting the type of wood          page 45
 selecting wood and     4.3   Selection in terms of grading,
     veneer flooring          style and character                               page 47
                              4.3.1    Interior design and aesthetics           page 48

                        4.4   Quality as a selection criterion                  page 50
                        4.5   Technical selection criteria                      page 51
                              4.5.1    Thicknesses and constructions            page 51
                              4.5.2    Kährs woodloc     ®
                                                                                page 52
                              4.5.3    Impact sound insulation                  page 53
                              4.5.4    Thermal conditions                       page 53
                              4.5.5    Fire properties                          page 53
                              4.5.6    Maximum floor width                      page 53
                              4.5.7    Wear resistance                          page 54
                              4.5.8    Electrical conductivity                  page 54
                              4.5.9    Light sensitivity                        page 54
                              4.5.10   Moisture sensitivity                     page 55

                        4.6   Selection for public environments                 page 55
                              4.6.1    Suitable products                        page 59
                              4.6.2    Maintenance cost                         page 59
                              4.6.3    Wiping off surfaces                      page 59

                        4.7   Reference installations                           page 60




                5
                        5.1   Kährs wood flooring, standard
                              planks (15 mm)                                    page 63

Kährs wood flooring     5.2   Kährs wood flooring for laying
                              on joists in housing (22 mm)                      page 66

                        5.3   Kährs wood flooring for hard wear
                              (20 mm with 6 mm surface layer)                   page 70




                6
                        6.1   Kährs 7 mm wood flooring (Linnea)                 page 73


        Kährs 7 mm
       wood flooring
(veneer floor planks)




                7
                        7.1   General sub-floor requirements                    page 76
                              7.1.1    A floor cannot be better than what the
                                       sub-floor permits                        page 76
        Sub – floors          7.1.2    Moisture                                 page 76
                              7.1.3    Curvature                                page 77
                              7.1.4    Expansion joints                         page 78

                        7.2   Specific requirements for
                              floating installations                            page 78
                       7.3    Specific requirements for flooring
                              glued to the sub-surface                             page 78
                              7.3.1     General                                    page 79
                              7.3.2     Glue used when gluing                      page 79

                       7.4    Parquet and underfloor heating                       page 79
                              7.4.1     Specific requirements when laying
                                        wood flooring on underfloor heating        page 79
                              7.4.2     Choice of wood flooring                    page 80
                              7.4.3     Installation                               page 80
                              7.4.4     Thermal transmission resistance in m /KW
                                                                              2
                                                                                   page 80

                       7.5    Vapour barrier                                       page 81
                       7.6    Impact sound insulation                              page 81
                       7.7    Concrete floor                                       page 82
                       7.8    Floors where levelling compounds are used            page 82
                       7.9    Wooden joists and battens                            page 82
                       7.10   Chipboard                                            page 82
                       7.11   Plywood                                              page 82
                       7.12   Existing wood floors                                 page 83
                       7.13   PVC flooring                                         page 83
                       7.14   Linoleum flooring                                    page 83
                       7.15   Ceramic tiles                                        page 83
                       7.16   Needle-felt carpets                                  page 84
                       7.17   Fitted carpets                                       page 84
                       7.18   Lightweight concrete                                 page 84
                       7.19   EPS (Expanded PolyStyrene) foam plastic              page 84
                       7.20   Air-gap forming vapour barrier
                              of HD polyethylene                                   page 85

                       7.21   Air-gap-forming stud system                          page 85
                       7.22   Secondary spaced boarding                            page 85
                       7.23   Sand                                                 page 85




               8
                       8.1    General installation instructions for
                              parquet flooring                                     page 89

Laying wood flooring   8.2    Before installing                                    page 91
                              8.2.1     The time for installing                    page 91
                              8.2.2     Storage                                    page 91
                              8.2.3     Inspection                                 page 91
                              8.2.4     Choice of installation direction           page 91
                              8.2.5     Installing patterned planks                page 92
                              8.2.6     Installing planks in patterns              page 92
                              8.2.7     Fitting interior design components         page 92
                              8.2.8     Planning floor installation                page 92

                       8.3    When installing                                      page 92
                              8.3.1     Cleaning the sub-floor                     page 92
                              8.3.2     Opening bundles                            page 92
                           8.3.3    Expansion joints                                     page 93
                           8.3.4    Unevenness in the sub-floor                          page 93
                           8.3.5    End joints in small areas                            page 93
                           8.3.6    Gluing end joints                                    page 93
                           8.3.7    Tight end joints                                     page 93
                           8.3.8    Door transitions                                     page 94
                           8.3.9    Fitting skirting boards                              page 94
                           8.3.10   Gluing                                               page 94

                     8.4   After installing                                              page 95
                           8.4.1    Lacquering                                           page 95
                           8.4.2    Protective coating                                   page 95
                           8.4.3    Tape                                                 page 95
                           8.4.5    Ventilation                                          page 95

                     8.5   Installation instructions                                     page 96
                           8.5.1    Installation instructions for Kährs 15 mm wood
                                    flooring with woodloc®; floating installation        page 96
                           8.5.2    Installation instructions for Kährs 7 mm wood
                                    flooring with woodloc®; floating installation (Linnea) page 98
                           8.5.3    Installation instructions for Kährs 15 and 20 mm
                                    wood flooring with tongue and groove,
                                    floating installation                                page 100
                           8.5.4    Installation instructions for Kährs 22 mm wood
                                    flooring with tongue and groove on joists            page 102
                           8.5.5    Installation instructions for Kährs 15 mm wood
                                    flooring on foam plastic 150 kPa,
                                    floating installation in housing                     page 104
                           8.5.6    Installation instructions for Kährs 22 mm wood
                                    flooring on foam plastic 100 kPa,
                                    floating installation in housing                     page 104
                           8.5.7    Installation instructions for Kährs 7 mm wood flooring
                                    on foam plastic 150 kPa, floating installation on
                                    load-distributing chipboard in housing (Linnea)      page 105

                     8.6   Installing Kährs wood flooring on
                           underfloor heating                                            page 105
                           8.6.1    Special requirements                                 page 105
                           8.6.2    Choice of wood flooring                              page 105
                           8.6.3    Installation                                         page 106
                           8.6.4    Thermal transmission resistance                      page 106

                     8.7   Installation instructions for Kährs
                           stair nosings                                                 page 107

                     8.8   Installing Flexilist                                          page 108
                     8.9   Installing aluminium mouldings                                page 108




             9
                     9.1   Kährs wood flooring in housing                                page 110
                           9.1.1    Care and repairs (UV lacquer)                        page 111
                                    9.1.1.1 Preventive measures                          page 111
Surface treatment,                  9.1.1.2 Cleaning                                     page 111
  care and repairs                  9.1.1.3 Removing marks                               page 111
                                    9.1.1.4 Repairs                                      page 111
                                    9.1.1.5 Renovation                                   page 111
                     9.1.2    Care and repairs (UV oil)                     page 112
                              9.1.2.1 Preventive measures                   page 112
                              9.1.2.2 Cleaning                              page 112
                              9.1.2.3 Removing marks                        page 112
                              9.1.2.4 Maintenance                           page 113
                              9.1.2.5 Repairs                               page 113
                     9.1.3    Care and repairs (natural oil)                page 114
                              9.1.3.1 Preventive measures                   page 114
                              9.1.3.2 Cleaning                              page 114
                              9.1.3.3 Removing marks                        page 114
                              9.1.3.4 Care using care wax                   page 115
                              9.1.3.5 Repairs                               page 116
                              9.1.3.6 Renovation                            page 113

              9.2    Kährs wood flooring in public environments             page 117
                     9.2.1    UV lacquer in public environments             page 117
                              9.2.1.1 Complementary surface treatment       page 117
                              9.2.1.2 Cleaning                              page 117
                              9.2.1.3 Removing marks                        page 117
                              9.2.1.4 Maintenance                           page 117
                              9.2.1.5 Renovation                            page 117
                     9.2.2    UV oil in public environments                 page 118
                              9.2.2.1 Complementary surface treatment       page 118
                              9.2.2.2 Cleaning                              page 118
                              9.2.2.3 Removing marks                        page 118
                              9.2.2.4 Maintenance                           page 118
                              9.2.2.5 Renovation                            page 118
                     9.2.3    Natural oil in public environments            page 118
                              9.2.3.1 Complementary surface treatment       page 118
                              9.2.3.2 Cleaning (building cleaning, daily,
                              9.2.3.2 dance floors)                         page 119
                              9.2.3.3 Removing marks                        page 119
                              9.2.3.4 Maintenance                           page 119
                              9.2.3.5 Renovation                            page 120

              9.3    Replacing planks and strips                            page 122
                     9.3.1    Replacing planks with grooves and tongues     page 122
                     9.3.2    Replacing planks with woodloc®                page 122
                     9.3.3    Replacing strips                              page 122
                     9.3.4    Treatment with lime                           page 122




   10
              10.1   Underlay and protective paper                          page 124
                     10.1.1   Underlay material                             page 124
                     10.1.2   Protective paper                              page 124
 Wood floor
              10.2   Installation materials                                 page 125
accessories          10.2.1   Glue                                          page 125
                     10.2.2   Tools                                         page 125

              10.3   Interior design products                               page 126
                     10.3.1   Mouldings                                     page 126
                              10.3.1.1 Skirting boards                      page 126
                              10.3.1.2 Level moulding                       page 127
                              10.3.1.3 T moulding                           page 127
                              10.3.1.4 Finishing trim                       page 128
                                          10.3.1.5 Stair nosings                         page 129
                                          10.3.1.6 Suitable mouldings                    page 129
                                          10.3.2 Complementary products                  page 130
                                          10.3.2.1 Pipe collars                          page 130
                                          10.3.2.2 Twin rosettes                         page 130
                                          10.3.2.3 Doors stop                            page 130
                                          10.3.2.4 Furniture pads                        page 130

                         10.4   Maintenance materials                                    page 130
                                10.4.1    Maintenance accessories                        page 130
                                10.4.2    Tools                                          page 131

                         10.5   Repairs                                                  page 131
                                10.5.1    Lacquer and oil                                page 131
                                          10.5.1.1 Lacquer                               page 131
                                          10.5.1.2 Oil (Satin oil)                       page 131
                                10.5.2    Repair materials                               page 132
                                          10.5.2.1 Filler                                page 132
                                          10.5.2.2 Wear surface strips                   page 132
                                10.5.3    Tools                                          page 132




             11
                         11.1   General                                                  page 134
                                11.1.1    Practical tips                                 page 134
                                11.1.2    Before installing                              page 134
Tips, causes of faults          11.1.3    When installing                                page 135
and assessment basis            11.1.4    After installing                               page 135

                         11.2   Different faults and how to avoid
                                or rectify them                                          page 136

                         11.3   Assessment basis                                         page 138
                                11.3.1    Assessment basis for blemishes according to GBR page 138
                                11.3.2    Extract from HusAMA regarding blemishes        page 139
                                          11.3.2.1 Surface unevenness                    page 139
                                          11.3.2.2 Joint step                            page 139
                                          11.3.2.3 Pattern faults                        page 139




             12
                         12.1   Dimensions, weight and contents                          page 142
                         12.2   Thermal transmission resistance in m /KW      2
                                                                                         page 143
               Tables    12.3   Tolerances according to HusAMA                           page 143
                                12.3.1    Curvature                                      page 143
                                12.3.2    Joint lipping                                  page 143
                                12.3.3    Gaps                                           page 143
                                12.3.4    Pattern matching                               page 143

                         12.4   Latin names for trees, Brinell values
                                and colour changes                                       page 144

                         12.5   Wood filler – suitable colours                           page 145
                         12.6   Colour scale for wood flooring                           page 146
                         12.7   Suitable mouldings                                       page 147
                         12.8   Grading according to HusAMA                              page 147
1. Index
The following words may appear in a number of chapters. However, in most cases,
reference is made to the chapter where the respective word mostly belongs or where
there is the most natural association.


 Word                                  Found in Chapter

 7 mm wood floor                       4.2/ 45; 6.1/ 73
15 mm wood floor                       5.1/ 63
20 mm wood floor                       5.3/ 70
22 mm wood floor                       5.2/ 66


A
Accessories                            10/ 123
Air humidity                           8.1/ 89
Air-gap-forming stud system            7.21/ 85
Air-gap-forming vapour barrier         7.20/ 85
Alder                                  4.2/ 45
Aluminium mouldings                    8.9/ 108; 10/ 126
Angular fault                          11.2/ 136; 11.3.1/ 138
Angular room                           7.2/ 78
Areas of application                   4.1/ 44; 5.1/ 63; 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70; 6.1/ 73
Ash                                    4.2/ 45


B
Basis for assessment                   11.3/ 138
Beech                                  4.2/ 45; 7.4.2/ 80
Bioenergy                              3.2/ 24
Birch                                  4.2/ 45
Blemishes                              11.3.1/ 138; 11.3.2/ 139
Brinell hardness                       4.2/ 45


C
Cabin foundation (crawl space
foundation)                            7.1.2/ 76
Care                                   9/ 109
Carpets                                11.1.4/ 135
Castors                                11.1.4/ 135
Causes of faults                       11.2/ 136
Cellular plastic                       7.19/ 84; 8.5.5/ 96; 8.5.6/ 104; 8.5.7/ 104
Ceramic tiles                          7.15/ 83
Chair castors                          11.1.4/ 135
Cherry                                 4.2/ 45
Chipboard                              7.3.1/ 78; 7.10/ 82
Classic Selection                      4.3/ 47; 5/ 62
Cleaner                                10.4.1/ 130
Cleaning                               9.1.1.2/ 111; 9.1.2.2/ 112; 9.1.3.2/ 114; 9.2.1.2/ 117: 9.2.2.2/ 118; 9.2.3.2/ 119
Cleat                                  10.2.2/ 125
Colour changes                         4.2/ 45; 11.2/ 136; 11.3.1/ 138
Colour scale                           4.3.1/ 48
Concave plank shape                    11.2/ 136
Concentrated wear                      11.3.1/ 138
Concrete floor                         7.7/ 82
Construction                           5.1/ 63; 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70; 6.1/ 73
Contents                               12.1/ 142
Contents declaration                   3.7.1/ 31; 3.7.2/ 32; 3.7.3/ 33; 3.7.4/ 34; 3.7.5/ 35; 3.7.6/ 36; 3.7.7/ 37; 3.7.8/ 38
Convex plank shape                     11.2/ 136
Country of origin                      4.1/ 44




                                                                                                                                9
Crawl space foundation (cabin
foundation)                        7.1.2/ 76
Curvature                          7.1.3/ 77
Cycle                              3.8/ 39


D
Dealing with marks                 9.1.1.3/ 111; 9.1.2.3/ 112; 9.1.3.3/ 114; 9.2.1.3/ 117; 9.2.2.3/ 118; 9.2.3.3/ 119
Diagonal laying                    11.1.2/ 134; 8.2.4/ 91
Dimensions                         12.1/ 142
Discolouration                     11.2/ 136
Door stop                          10.3.2/ 130
Door transitions                   7.4.3/ 80; 8.3.8/ 94
Double-sided full gluing           7.2/ 78; 7.4.3/ 80; 8.3.10/ 94; 8.5.3/ 100


E
Electrical conductivity            4.5.8/ 54
EMAS                               3.5/ 27
Emissions                          3.3.2/ 25
End joints                         8.3.7/ 93
Entrance design                    9.2/ 117
Environment                        3./ 21
Environmental certification        3.5/ 27
Environmental management           3.5/ 27
Existing wood floors               7.9/ 82
Expansion joint                    4.2/ 45; 8.3.3/ 93; 11.3.1/ 138


F
Factory surface treatment          5.1/ 63; 6.1/ 73
Filled floor                       7.8 /82
Filler                             10/ 123
Fillet                             10.3.1.1/ 126
Fine cracks                        11.2/ 136
Finish lacquered                   5.1/ 63; 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70: 6.1/ 73
Finish oiled                       5.1/ 63; 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70: 6.1/ 73; 9.1.2/ 112
Finishing trim                     10.3.1.4/ 128
Fire properties                    4.5.5/ 53
Fitted carpet                      7.17/ 84
Flexilist                          8.9/ 108; 10.3.1.1/ 126
Floating floor                     5.1/ 63, 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70; 6.1/ 73
Floating installation              7.2/ 78; 8.1/ 89
Floor care wax                     9.1.3.4/ 115; 10.4.1/ 130
Floor renovation                   9.1.1.5/ 111; 9.1.2.5/ 113; 9.1.3.6/ 116;.9.2.1.5/ 117; 9.2.2.5/ 118; 9.2.3.5/ 120
Floor width                        4.5.6/ 53
Flooring on ground                 7.1.2/ 76
Flooring paper                     8.6/ 105; 10.1.1/ 124
Formaldehyde                       3.3.2/ 25


G
Gaps                               11.2/ 136
GBR                                3.6/ 29; 3.9/ 40
General sub-surface requirements   7.1/ 76
Gloss value of lacquer             5.1/ 63; 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70; 6.1/ 73
Glue                               7.2/ 78; 7.3.2.1/ 79; 7.4.3/ 80; 10.2.1/ 125
Glue residues                      11.1.3/ 135
Gluing                             8.3.10/ 94
Gluing into place                  7.3/ 78
Grading                            12.7/ 147
Guarantee                          4.5.6/ 53


H
Hammer block                       10.2.2/ 125
Hand block                         10.2.2/ 125


10
Hard Maple                             4.2/ 45
Hardness                               4.1/ 44; 11.1.2/ 134
Heated floors                          7.1.2/ 76
High density fibreboard                6.1/ 73


I
Impact sound insulation                4.5.3/ 53; 7.6/ 81
Inspection                             8.3.2/ 92
Installation                           8/ 88
Installation direction                 8.2.4/ 91
Installation fault                     8.1/ 89; 8.5/ 96
Installation instructions              5.1/ 63; 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70; 6.1/ 73
Installation materials                 10.2.2/ 125
Installation method                    8.1/ 89
Installation set                       10.2.2/ 125
Installation wedge                     8.1/ 89
Intermediate layer                     7.6/ 81; 8.1/ 89
ISO 14001                              3.5/ 27
ISO 9000                               3.5/ 27


J
Jarrah                                 4.2/ 45
Jatoba                                 4.2/ 45
Joint step                             11.3.1/ 138; 11.3.2.2/ 139

K
Kährs’ glue for wood floors            7.2/ 78: 8.3.10/ 94


L
Lacquer                                10.5.1.1/ 131
Level moulding                         10.3.1.2/ 127
Life Selection                         4.3/ 47; 5/ 62; 6/ 72
Light fastness                         4.5.9/ 54
Lightweight concrete floor structure   7.1.2/ 76; 7.18/ 84
Linoleum flooring                      7.14/ 83
Loss of adhesion                       11.3.1/ 138


M
Maintenance                            5.1/ 63; 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70; 6.1/73;9.1.2.4/ 113;9.1.3.4/ 115;9.2.1.4/ 117;9.2.2.4/ 118; 9.2.3.4/ 119
Maintenance costs                      4.6.2/ 59
Maintenance set                        10.4.2/ 131
Maximum width                          4.5.6/ 53
Mechanical joint                       4.5.2/ 52
Merbau                                 4.2/ 45
Moisture                               7.1.2/ 76; 8.1/ 89
Moisture ratio                         5.1/ 63; 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70; 6.1/ 73
Moisture sensitivity                   4.5.10/ 55
Mould                                  8.1/ 89


N
Natural oil                            9.1.3/ 114; 9.2.3/ 118
Needle-felt carpet                     7.16/ 84
NT Fire 007                            4.5.5/ 53


O
Oak                                    4.2/ 45
Oil                                    10.5.1.2/ 131
Oil refresher                          9.1.2.4/ 113; 10.4.1/ 130
Open bundles                           8.1/ 89
Over-lacquering                        9.1.1.1/ 111; 9.2.1/ 117
Overlap                                8.1/ 89




                                                                                                                                  11
P
Packaging                               5.1/ 63; 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70; 6.1/ 73
Pattern                                 4.1/ 44; 8.2.6/ 92
Pattern aligning                        8.2.5/ 92
Pattern faults                          11.3.2.3/ 139; 12.3.4/ 143
Patterned floor                         4.5.1/ 51
PE sheeting, plastic sheeting           7.1.2/ 76; 10.1.1/ 124
Pipe sleeves                            10.3.2/ 130
Plank patterns                          8.2.5/ 92
Plywood                                 7.3.1/ 78; 7.11/ 82
Practical tips                          11.1/ 134
Preparations                            8.1/ 89
Preventive measures                     9.1.1.1/ 111; 9.1.2.1/ 112; 9.1.3.1/ 114
Protective coating                      8.4.2/ 95
Protective paper                        10.1.1/ 124
Public environment                      4.6/ 55; 9.2.1/ 117; 9.2.2/ 118; 9.2.3/ 118
PVC flooring                            7.13/ 83
Quality                                 3.10/ 41
Quarter stave                           10.3.1.1/ 126


R
Recovery                                3.8/ 39
Recycling                               3.8/ 39
Red oak                                 4.2/ 45
Reference installations                 4.7/ 60
Relative humidity                       7.4.3/ 80
Repair materials                        10.5/ 131
Repairs                                 9.1.1.4/ 111; 9.1.3.5/ 116; 9.1.2.5/ 113
Replacing planks                        9.3.1/ 122; 9.3.2.1/ 122
Replacing planks in laminated parquet   9.3.1/ 122
Replacing strips                        9.3.3/ 122
Replacing strips in laminated parquet   9.3.2.1/ 122; 9.3.2.2/ 122
Resilience                              11.2/ 136
Rosewood                                4.2/ 45


S
Sand                                    7.2.3/ 85
Selection                               4.3/ 47; 4.4/ 50; 4.6/ 55
Service life                            3.9/ 40
Shape stability                         4.4/ 50
Shift                                   8.2.5/ 92; 8.3.5/ 93
Silicon                                 11.1.3/ 135
Single-sided full gluing                8.3.10/ 94
Skirting boards                         7.1.4/ 78; 8.3.9/ 94; 10.3/ 126
Small areas                             8.3.5/ 93
Splitting/chipping                      11.3.1/ 138
Stair nosings                           8.7/ 107; 10.3.1.5/ 129
Storage                                 8.2.2/ 91
Straightedge                            7.1.3/ 77
Stud floor structure                    7.9/ 82
Style Selection                         4.3/ 47; 5/ 62; 6/ 72
Sucupira                                4.2/ 45
Suitable mouldings                      10.3.1.6/ 129
Suitable wood filler                    10.5.2/ 131
Surface layer                           5.1/ 63; 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70; 6.1/ 73
Surface temperature                     7.4.1/ 79
Surface treatment                       5.1/ 63; 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70; 6.1/ 73
Surface treatment, supplementary        4.5.10/ 55; 9.2.1.1/ 117; 9.2.2.1/ 118
Surface unevenness/flatness             8.1/ 89; 8.3.4/ 93; 11.3.2.1/ 139
Sycamore                                4.2/ 45




12
T
T moulding                            10.3.1.3/ 127
Tape                                  8.4.3/ 95
Thermal conditions                    4.5.4/ 53
Thermal transmission resistance       5.1/ 63; 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70; 6.1/ 73; 7.4.1/ 79; 7.4.4/ 80
Thick surface layers                  5.3/ 70
Time of installation                  8.2.1/ 91
Tips (practical)                      11/ 133
Tolerances                            7.1.3/ 77; 11.2/ 136; 12.3.1/ 143; 12.3.3/ 143
Touch-up lacquer                      10.5.1/ 131
Touch-up lacquer                      10.5.1.1/ 131
Touch-up oil                          10.5.1/ 131
Touch-up oil                          10.5.2.1/ 132
Treatment with lye                    9.4/ 122
Tuplex                                10.1.1/ 124
Twin rosettes                         10.3.2/ 130
Types of wood                         4.1/ 44; 4.2/ 45

U
Underfloor heating                    5.1/ 63; 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70; 6.1/ 73; 7.4, 8.1/ 89
Undergolv                             7/ 76; 8.1/ 89
Underlay material                     10.1/ 124
UV lacquer                            9.1/ 110; 9.2.1/ 117
UV oil                                9.1.2/ 112

V
Vapour barrier                        7.1.2/ 76; 7.4.1/ 79; 7.5/ 81

W
Walnut                                4.2/ 45
Waste percentage                      8.2.4/ 91; 11.1.2/ 134
Wear resistance                       4.5.7/ 54
Wear surface strips (surface layer)   10.5.7.2/ 132
Wedges                                10.2.2/ 125
Weight                                5.1/ 63; 5.2/ 66; 5.3/ 70; 6.1/ 73; 12.1/ 142
Ventilation                           8.4.4/ 95
Wiping facilities                     4.6.3/ 59
Wood filler                           10.5.2.1/ 132
Wood floor/Existing wood floor        7.12/ 83
Wooden floor structures and studs     7.9/ 82
Woodloc                               4.5.2/ 52; 7.4.3/ 80; 9.3.2/ 122




                                                                                                 13
14
2. Information on Kährs and
   addresses around the world
        2.1   Flooring with sturdy roots   page 16

        2.2   Kährs worldwide              page 17




                                                     15
2. Kährs
2.1 Flooring with strong roots
Ever since the start in Nybro, Sweden in 1857, real       introduction of the woodloc® joint on laminated
wood and high quality have always been the corner-        parquet. This product has revolutionised thinking in
stones at AB Gustaf Kähr. The products at that time       parquet flooring since then.
were principally spinning wheels while by the
beginning of the 1900s production was directed at         Today the Kährs group has its own flooring and
toys, furniture and, later on, doors.                     sawmill production at five places in Sweden and one
                                                          in Norway. There are sales companies and offices in
In 1935 the third generation of Gustaf Kähr was award-    about 10 countries as well as agents and importers in
ed Patent No. 90223 for a laminated sheet of wood and     about 30 countries. The group has more than 2,100
this formed the basis for the substantial floor patents   employees.
that were awarded in 1941. Since then, parquet flooring
has gradually become the basis for activities.            Today, Kährs is one of Europe’s leading manufacturers
                                                          of parquet and wood flooring.
In 1993, after many years of quality work, Kährs
became certified according to ISO 9001 and the first      Facts about the Kährs group are published annually
laminated parquet manufacturer in the world to achieve    in the Kährs Facts folder that is available on
this distinction.                                         www.kahrs.se or by contacting any of Kährs offices.

In 1997 the companyís environmental commitment            As a company, Kährs in Nybro was owned for five
was rewarded with certification according to ISO 14001    generations of Kähr until 1982 when it was sold. The
and registration according to EMAS.                       present owner is Nybron Flooring International Corp,
                                                          St. Margrethen, Switzerland.
In 2001 Kährs was first again, this time through the




16
2.2 Kährs worldwide




         Parent Company

         Agents

         Importers

         Sales Companies/Offices

         Part-Owned Companies




Northern Europe

DK    Kährs Danmark A/S, Lyngby                          DE   Gustaf Kähr Deutschland GmbH, Bodelshausen


FI    Kährs Finland Oy, Helsinki                         EE   Lincona Konsult A/S, Tallinn


IS    Egill Árnason hf.-Parketval, Reykjavík             ES   Kährs Iberica S.A., Cornellà (Barcelona)


NO    Kährs Norge A/S, Oslo                              FR   Kährs France S.A.R.L., Limoges


                                                         GB   Kährs (UK) Ltd., Chichester
Europe and Africa

AT    Kährs Vertriebs GmbH, Adnet bei Hallein            GR   Unica S.A., Athens


BE    Kährs BeNeLux Sales Office, Neunkirchen (DE)       HU   Triba® Budapest


CH    AG Parqueterie Durrer, Alpnach Dorf                IR   Kährs (UK) Ltd. (GB)

                                                         IT   Emmegi Giuseppe Montrasio s.r.l.,
CZ    Kratochví l parket-profi s.r.o., Moravany u Brno        Concorezzo-MI

                                                                                                         17
IT   Pavingross Soc. Coop. a.r.l., Trento              Asia and Australasia

                                                       AU    Deco Rug, Sydney
IT   Winkler Import OHG, Castelfirmano (BZ)

                                                       AU    George Low Pty Limited, Melbourne
KZ   Alimp Group, Almaty

                                                       AU    Solid Floors, Perth
LT   Senukai Prekybos Centras Ltd, Kaunas

                                                       CN    Beijing Power & Decor Co., Ltd., Beijing
LV   Samnieks Serviss, Riga

                                                       HK    Sammy’s Collection Co., Ltd., Chai Wan
LU   Kährs BeNeLux Sales Office,Neunkirchen (DE)

NL   Kährs BeNeLux Sales Office, Neunkirchen (DE)      JP    ABC Trading Co., Ltd., Tokyo


PL   Svenska Group Sp.zo.o, Lipiany                    KR    Daedong Wallpaper Co., Ltd., Seoul


PT   Tito e Campos S.A., Coina                         NZ    The Wooden Floor Co., Ltd., Auckland


RO   ARHI-SIGN s.r.l., Bucharest                       TW    Fu Mao Building Material Corp., Taipei


RU   Kährs Russia Sales Office Moscow                  TW    Kährs Asia Sales Office, Tainan


SK   Parket profi spol. s.r.o., Bratislava


TR   Parkett Yer Dösemeleri, Istanbul


UA   Scandi Ltd, Kiev


ZA   Interior Wooden Floors CC, Bjärred



North and South America

AR   Eunor SRL, Buenos Aires


CA   Kährs International Inc. (US)


CL   Küpfer Y Küpfer S.A., Santiago


US   Kährs International Inc., Altamonte Springs, FL




18
Blomstermåla   Nybro




Brumunddal     Ljusdal




                         19
20
3. Environment and quality
        3.1    Real wood is wonderful                               page 22

        3.2    Wood flooring and ecology                            page 24

        3.3    Indoor climate and building biology                  page 25
               3.3.1    Thermal conditions                          page 25
               3.3.2    Emissions in housing                        page 25
               3.3.3    Allergies                                   page 25


        3.4    Ecological product testing                           page 26

        3.5    Environmental management                             page 27

        3.6    The four systems conditions                          page 28

        3.7    Contents declaration                                 page 31
               3.7.1    Kährs wood flooring, 15 mm                  page 31
               3.7.2    Kährs wood flooring, 15 mm, patterned       page 32
               3.7.3    Kährs wood flooring, UV oiled               page 33
               3.7.4    Kährs wood flooring, 15 mm, natural oiled   page 34
               3.7.5    Kährs wood flooring, 15 mm, untreated       page 35
               3.7.6    Kährs wood flooring, 22 mm                  page 36
               3.7.7    Kährs wood flooring, 20 mm                  page 37
               3.7.8    Kährs wood flooring, 7 mm (Linnea)          page 38


        3.8    Flooring material in the cycle according to GBR      page 39

        3.9    Service life of flooring material according to GBR page 40

        3.10   Kährs’ quality                                       page 41




                                                                              21
3.1 Real wood is wonderful
Wood is a very special material. It is produced in an          home. And this is not just the sum of certain physical
environmentally-friendly manner through photosyn-              or optical properties. Perhaps we instinctively feel that
thesis. It can withstand considerable loads and lasts a        we are related in some way to this material. It is well
long time. It has a regulating effect on both the climate      known that man has used wood for housing since time
and heat. It is attractive to look at and there is a type of   immemorial.
wood to suit every taste – modern, natural or classic.
                                                               The cycle is repeated endlessly – decomposing leaves
But there’s more to wood than this. It has a special           become the basic material for new life – with the sun
radiance that is difficult to describe. A wood floor           as the driving force. This is the cycle of life, it is very
changes a room. Quite simply, you experience a sense           rewarding to have this material all around us?
of well-being when you have wood flooring in your




22
Every individual log is assessed, and it’s
natural shape and pattern is exploited.
The whole stock is used, and the sawn
material is sorted according to appearance
by trained eyes. The result is beautiful one,
two and three-strip floors, with different
characters to suit different personalities
and decor styles.




                                                23
3.2 Wood flooring and ecology
Wood is wonderful – no material combines so many
advantages as wood. And the use of wood helps our
environment.




                       The present:                                                The future:
                The non-sustainable society                              The durable, sustainable society



In addition to being a “producer of wood” the forest       Wood requires less energy for extraction and process-
improves the quality of the air through the produc-        ing than other building materials.
tion of oxygen, water protection, ground protection
and recreation. Kährs uses wood principally from           The quantity of building material extracted per
forestry production in Sweden. This is where growth        1,000 kW (according to Dr Bogusch) is:
exceeds the rate of felling and applies also to valu-
able hardwoods such as Beech, Oak and Ash. Kährs           12 kg aluminium      250 kg plastics
converts residues from production to bioenergy, in this    40 kg copper         400 kg cement
way, Kährs not only supplies its own production with       60 kg steel          500 kg bricks
electricity (around 40%) but also generates heat for its   80 kg iron           1,200 kg sawn timber
own needs. In addition, we also deliver heat to Nybro’s
district heating network and wood powder to Kalmar         The development of a sustainable society is one of the
Energi.                                                    greatest challenges of our time. That is why Kährs
                                                           limits itself to processing timber raw materials to pro-
It is Kährs’ endeavour to promote environmental            duce finished products.
awareness even at a global level. That is why the tropi-
cal woods in our range come from countries that are        Living by learning
members of the International Tropical Timber Organi-       There are many examples of our commitment to help-
sation (ITTO). They are committed to work towards          ing nature on its way through environment-enhancing
ecological forestry production. When purchasing the        measures. One is the project where demolished oak
present types of tropical woods that we use, we also       beams have been returned to oak forests so that they
endeavour to purchase raw materials from responsibly       can become homes and food for around 1,000 insects
managed forests. Suppliers are chosen primarily from       and lichens, mosses and fungi that are dependent on
among those who hold FSC or PEFC certificates, Gröna       dead oak for their survival.
Skogsbruksplaner or equivalent, or from those who can
otherwise document that they operate environmen-           Another example of active environmental management
tally-aware timber procurement. Types of wood that         is the recycling of ash generated during energy recovery
are noted in CITES’ appendix on threatened types of        at our plant in Nybro. The ash is used as re-vitalising
wood may not be purchased under any circumstances.         fertiliser in acidified forests in south-west Sweden.

Forests and wood absorb carbon dioxide through pho-
tosynthesis. This reduces the increase of CO2 in the
atmosphere and, in so doing, counteracts the increased
greenhouse effect and climate change.                      !     Facts concerning wood can be obtained
                                                                 from www.nordictimber.org and on wood
                                                                 flooring from www.parquet.net




24
3.3 Indoor climate and building biology
Human life can exist only in a narrow range between           importance of the quality of the air we breathe. Wood
extreme climate conditions. The determining factor is         flooring from Kährs has a balancing and neutral effect
a balance between hot and cold and between low and            respectively on these factors.
high humidity. In addition we have to consider the



3.3.1 Thermal conditions
The temperature of walls and floors are more important        has an insulating effect. Wood flooring is therefore
to man’s thermal balance than the temperature of room         warm to walk on. The optimum room temperature lies
air. Wood is a poor conductor of heat and consequently        between 18-22°C.




3.3.2 Emissions in housing
Kährs wood flooring and Kährs 7 mm wood flooring              The values for the naturally-occurring gas formalde-
comprise several layers that are glued together. We           hyde are in the region of the lowest detectable quanti-
employ what are today’s most modern adhesives and             ties of around 0.01 to 0.05 ppm. This is approximately
lacquers in terms of the environment and performance.         half the E1 value.
The volatile and organic compounds (VOCs) indicated
relate almost exclusively to the wood’s own physical          Formaldehyde is a natural component of all organic
properties.                                                   substances such as untreated wood and also people.




3.3.3 Allergies
Some people have problems with allergies. This is often
the result of an over-sensitive reaction over time.

This occurs when an allergen, both artificial and natu-
ral, precipitates an antibody defence. Allergies arise as a
defensive reaction from the body.

We have done everything we can to avoid allergenic
substances in Kährs wood flooring so that you will feel
good at home.




                                                                                                                   25
3.4 Ecological product testing




     Type testing certificate from IHD.




26
3.5 Environmental management
It is not only flooring that should be good for the living
environment. Even the production at our six facilities
shall have as little impact on the external environment
as possible.

All the production units within the Kährs group will
introduce environmental and quality management
systems according to ISO 14001 and ISO 9000 as well
as being EMAS-registered.

The facilities that had achieved this status in 2001
were Kährs in Brumunddal, Ljusdal and Nybro Kährs
Blomstermåla was environmentally certified according
to ISO 14001 and EMAS-registered.

Environmental audits according to the EMAS directive
are issued annually and can be found on www.kahrs.se
or requested from all Kährs branches.




                                                             27
3.6 The basis for Kährs environmental work
– The ICC (The International Chamber of Commerce) economic programme
  for sustainable development’s 16 principles for environmentally-aware
  management.

– The four systems conditions. (Source: Det Naturliga Steget [The Natural Step])




     1.   Less use of finite raw materials such as metals    2.   Less use of foreign substances such as static
          and fossil fuels                                        chemicals




     3.   Increased space for natural cycles and diversity   4.   Efficient and justifiable management of the earth’s
                                                                  resources




28
We love the forest.




                      29
30
3.7 Contents declaration
3.7.1 Kährs wood flooring, 15 mm



 DECLARATION OF CONTENTS
 FLOOR SURFACE MATERIALS, wood floors
 Distributer: AB Gustaf Kähr                              Date: 2001-09-21

 Product:      15 mm lacquered parquet in multi layer construction
               Long strip appearance


  Components                       Specification                                                         Weight-%   g/m2

  Surface treatment                Acrylate based finish, UV-cured                                           <1     < 80

  Wearing surface                  Chemically untreated wood, thickness 3,6 mm, in the wood
                                   species available in the product range.                                   30     2 500

  Middle layer                     Chemically untreated wood in the form of lamells of pine
                                   (mainly) and spruce. One lamell of Birch in each end of the board.        57     4 800

  Bottom layer                     Chemically untreated spruce vener.                                         9     750

  Adhesive                         Urea-formaldehyde adhesive, hardended dry matter                           3     280
                                   PVAc-adesives, dry matter.                                               < 0,1   <4

  Other components                 Filler, hardened.                                                        < 0,1    <2



                                                                                       Total:                100    ___



  Other information

  1. The figures regarding weight-% and g/m2 are average values since the density varies both
     within as well as between the species of woods.
  2. The acrylate finish is free from solvents and formaldehyde as is the filler material.
  3. Both the Urea-formaldehyde adhesive and the PVAc-adhesive use water as solvents.



 Comments
 1. The declaration of contents shows all used components as dry matters. Comprehensive notations can be used.
 2. The used components shares are noted rounded to whole weight-% and g/m2.
 3. The values can be noted as intervals.
 4. Percentage shares below 1% can be specified as ”< 1%” respectively corresponding surface weight.
 5. Possible pigments will be specified under Other components with Color Index No. The amount of pigment can be
    specified in an interval. for the whole collection.




                                                                                                                            31
3.7.2 Kährs wood flooring, 15 mm, patterned


 DECLARATION OF CONTENTS
 FLOOR SURFACE MATERIALS, wood floors
 Distributer: AB Gustaf Kähr                                 Date: 2001-09-21

 Product:         15 mm lacquered parquet in multi layer construction
                  Pattern type


     Components                       Specification                                                       Weight-%   g/m2

     Surface treatment                Acrylate based finish, UV-cured                                        <1      < 80

     Wearing surface                  Chemically untreated wood, thickness 3,6 mm, in the wood
                                      species available in the product range.                                30      2 500

     Middle layer                     Chemically untreatedspruce veneer. < 1,5 mm                             7      575
                                      Chemically untreated wood in the form of lamells of pine
                                      (mainly) and spruce. One lamell of Birch in each end of the board      51      4300

     Bottom layer                     Chemically untreated spruce vener                                       7      575

     Adhesive                         Urea-formaldehyde adhesive, hardended dry matter                        4      360
                                      PVAc-adesives, dry matter                                             < 0,1    <2

     Other components                 Filler, hardened                                                      < 0,1     <2



                                                                                        Total:               100     ___


     Other information

     1. The figures regarding weight-% and g/m2 are average values since the density varies both
        within as well as between the species of woods.
     2. The acrylate finish is free from solvents and formaldehyde as is the filler material.
     3. Both the Urea-formaldehyde adhesive and the PVAc-adhesive use water as solvents.



 Comments
 1. The declaration of contents shows all used components as dry matters. Comprehensive notations can be used.
 2. The used components shares are noted rounded to whole weight-% and g/m2.
 3. The values can be noted as intervals.
 4. Percentage shares below 1% can be specified as ”< 1%” respectively corresponding surface weight.
 5. Possible pigments will be specified under Other components with Color Index No. The amount of pigment can be
       specified in an interval. for the whole collection.




32
3.7.3 Kährs wood flooring 15 mm, UV oiled



 DECLARATION OF CONTENTS
 FLOOR SURFACE MATERIALS, wood floors
 Distributer: AB Gustaf Kähr                              Date: 2001-09-21

 Product:      15 mm lacquered parquet in multi layer construction
               Long strip appearance


  Components                       Specification                                                         Weight-%   g/m2

  Surface treatment                Based on interpolymer of vegetable oil and acrylate resin.                <1     < 80

  Wearing surface                  Chemically untreated wood, thickness 3,6 mm, in the wood
                                   species available in the product range.                                   30     2 500

  Middle layer                     Chemically untreated wood in the form of lamells of pine
                                   (mainly) and spruce. One lamell of Birch in each end of the board.        57     4 800

  Bottom layer                     Chemically untreated spruce vener.                                         9     750

  Adhesive                         Urea-formaldehyde adhesive, hardended dry matter                           3     280
                                   PVAc-adesives, dry matter.                                               < 0,1   <4

  Other components                 Filler, hardened.                                                        < 0,1    <2



                                                                                       Total:                100    ___



  Other information

  1. The figures regarding weight-% and g/m2 are average values since the density varies both
     within as well as between the species of woods.
  2. The acrylate finish is free from solvents and formaldehyde as is the filler material.
  3. Both the Urea-formaldehyde adhesive and the PVAc-adhesive use water as solvents.



 Comments
 1. The declaration of contents shows all used components as dry matters. Comprehensive notations can be used.
 2. The used components shares are noted rounded to whole weight-% and g/m2.
 3. The values can be noted as intervals.
 4. Percentage shares below 1% can be specified as ”< 1%” respectively corresponding surface weight.
 5. Possible pigments will be specified under Other components with Color Index No. The amount of pigment can be
    specified in an interval. for the whole collection.




                                                                                                                            33
3.7.4 Kährs wood flooring 15 mm, natural oiled



 DECLARATION OF CONTENTS
 FLOOR SURFACE MATERIALS, wood floors
 Distributer: AB Gustaf Kähr                                 Date: 2001-09-21

 Product:         15 mm lacquered parquet in multi layer construction
                  Long strip appearance


     Components                       Specification                                                        Weight-%   g/m2

     Surface treatment                Based on vegetable oils and resins                                     <1       < 80

     Wearing surface                  Chemically untreated wood, thickness 3,6 mm, in the wood
                                      species available in the product range.                                30       2 500

     Middle layer                     Chemically untreated wood in the form of lamells of pine
                                      (mainly) and spruce. One lamell of Birch in each end of the board.     57       4 800

     Bottom layer                     Chemically untreated spruce vener.                                      9       750

     Adhesive                         Urea-formaldehyde adhesive, hardended dry matter                        3       280
                                      PVAc-adesives, dry matter.                                            < 0,1     <4

     Other components                 Filler, hardened.                                                     < 0,1      <2



                                                                                        Total:               100      ___



     Other information

     1. The figures regarding weight-% and g/m2 are average values since the density varies both
        within as well as between the species of woods.
     2. The acrylate finish is free from solvents and formaldehyde as is the filler material.
     3. Both the Urea-formaldehyde adhesive and the PVAc-adhesive use water as solvents.



 Comments
 1. The declaration of contents shows all used components as dry matters. Comprehensive notations can be used.
 2. The used components shares are noted rounded to whole weight-% and g/m2.
 3. The values can be noted as intervals.
 4. Percentage shares below 1% can be specified as ”< 1%” respectively corresponding surface weight.
 5. Possible pigments will be specified under Other components with Color Index No. The amount of pigment can be
       specified in an interval. for the whole collection.




34
3.7.5 Kährs wood flooring 15 mm, untreated



 DECLARATION OF CONTENTS
 FLOOR SURFACE MATERIALS, wood floors
 Distributer: AB Gustaf Kähr                              Date: 2001-09-21

 Product:      15 mm lacquered parquet in multi layer construction
               Long strip appearance


  Components                       Specification                                                         Weight-%   g/m2

  Surface treatment

  Wearing surface                  Chemically untreated wood, thickness 3,6 mm, in the wood
                                   species available in the product range.                                   30     2 500

  Middle layer                     Chemically untreated wood in the form of lamells of pine
                                   (mainly) and spruce. One lamell of Birch in each end of the board.        57     4 800

  Bottom layer                     Chemically untreated spruce vener.                                         9     750

  Adhesive                         Urea-formaldehyde adhesive, hardended dry matter                           3     280
                                   PVAc-adesives, dry matter.                                               < 0,1   <4

  Other components                 Filler, hardened.                                                        < 0,1    <2



                                                                                       Total:                100    ___



  Other information

  1. The figures regarding weight-% and g/m2 are average values since the density varies both
     within as well as between the species of woods.
  2. The acrylate finish is free from solvents and formaldehyde as is the filler material.
  3. Both the Urea-formaldehyde adhesive and the PVAc-adhesive use water as solvents.



 Comments
 1. The declaration of contents shows all used components as dry matters. Comprehensive notations can be used.
 2. The used components shares are noted rounded to whole weight-% and g/m2.
 3. The values can be noted as intervals.
 4. Percentage shares below 1% can be specified as ”< 1%” respectively corresponding surface weight.
 5. Possible pigments will be specified under Other components with Color Index No. The amount of pigment can be
    specified in an interval. for the whole collection.




                                                                                                                            35
3.7.6 Kährs wood flooring, 22 mm



 DECLARATION OF CONTENTS
 FLOOR SURFACE MATERIALS, wood floors
 Distributer: AB Gustaf Kähr                                 Date: 2001-09-21

 Product:         22 mm lacquered parquet in multi layer construction
                  Long strip appearance


     Components                       Specification                                                      Weight-%   g/m2

     Surface treatment                Acrylate based finish, UV-cured.                                       <1      < 80

     Wearing surface                  Chemically untreated wood, thickness 3,6 mm, in the wood
                                      species available in the product range.                                17     2 500

     Middle layer                     Specially made chip board, environmentally certified
                                      according to the ”Nordic Swan”.                                        75     10 850

     Bottom layer                     Chemically untreated spruce vener.                                      5      750

     Adhesive                         Urea-formaldehyde adhesive, hardended dry matter                        2      280
                                      PVAc-adesives, dry matter.                                            < 0,1    <4

     Other components                 Filler, hardened.                                                     < 0,1    <2



                                                                                       Total:                100     ___



     Other information

     1. The figures regarding weight-% and g/m2 are average values since the density varies both
        within as well as between the species of woods.
     2. The acrylate finish is free from solvents and formaldehyde as is the filler material.
     3. Both the Urea-formaldehyde adhesive and the PVAc-adhesive use water as solvents.



 Comments
 1. The declaration of contents shows all used components as dry matters. Comprehensive notations can be used.
 2. The used components shares are noted rounded to whole weight-% and g/m2.
 3. The values can be noted as intervals.
 4. Percentage shares below 1% can be specified as ”< 1%” respectively corresponding surface weight.
 5. Possible pigments will be specified under Other components with Color Index No. The amount of pigment can be
       specified in an interval. for the whole collection.




36
3.7.7 Kährs wood flooring, 20 mm



 DECLARATION OF CONTENTS
 FLOOR SURFACE MATERIALS, wood floors
 Distributer: AB Gustaf Kähr                              Date: 2001-09-21

 Product:      20 mm lacquered parquet in multi layer construction




  Components                       Specification                                                         Weight-%   g/m2

  Surface treatment                Acrylate based finish, UV-cured                                           <1     < 80

  Wearing surface                  Chemically untreated wood, thickness 5,5 mm, in the wood
                                   species available in the product range.                                   34     3 850

  Middle layer                     Chemically untreated wood in the form of lamells of pine
                                   (mainly) and spruce. One lamell of Birch in each end of the board.        57     6450

  Bottom layer                     Chemically untreated spruce vener.                                         6     750

  Adhesive                         Urea-formaldehyde adhesive, hardended dry matter                           2     280
                                   PVAc-adesives, dry matter.                                               < 0,1   <2

  Other components                 Filler, hardened.                                                        < 0,1    <2



                                                                                       Total:                100    ___




  Other information

  1. The figures regarding weight-% and g/m2 are average values since the density varies both
     within as well as between the species of woods.
  2. The acrylate finish is free from solvents and formaldehyde as is the filler material.
  3. Both the Urea-formaldehyde adhesive and the PVAc-adhesive use water as solvents.



 Comments
 1. The declaration of contents shows all used components as dry matters. Comprehensive notations can be used.
 2. The used components shares are noted rounded to whole weight-% and g/m2.
 3. The values can be noted as intervals.
 4. Percentage shares below 1% can be specified as ”< 1%” respectively corresponding surface weight.
 5. Possible pigments will be specified under Other components with Color Index No. The amount of pigment can be
    specified in an interval. for the whole collection.




                                                                                                                            37
3.7.8 Kährs wood flooring, 7 mm (Linnea)



 DECLARATION OF CONTENTS
 FLOOR SURFACE MATERIALS, wood floors
 Distributer: AB Gustaf Kähr                                 Date: 2001-09-21

 Product:         7 mm lacquered, 3–layer wood floor




     Components                       Specification                                                      Weight-%   g/m2

     Surface treatment                Acrylate based finish, UV-cured.                                       <1     < 80

     Wearing surface                  Chemically untreated wood, thickness 0,4 mm, in the wood
                                      species available in the product range.                                 5     300

     Middle layer                     HDF fibre board, 16% melamine adheiseve (MUF),
                                      84% pine fibres.                                                       86     5 500

     Bottom layer                     Chemically untreated spruce vener.                                      6     360

     Adhesive                         Urea-formaldehyde adhesive, hardended dry matter                        2     140

     Other components                 Filler, hardened.                                                     < 0,6    <3
                                      Adhesive thread, nylon thread/melting glue                            < 0,4    <2



                                                                                       Total:                100    ___



     Other information

     1. The figures regarding weight-% and g/m2 are average values since the density varies both
        within as well as between the species of woods.
     2. The acrylate finish is free from solvents and formaldehyde as is the filler material.
     3. Both the Urea-formaldehyde adhesive and the PVAc-adhesive use water as solvents.



 Comments
 1. The declaration of contents shows all used components as dry matters. Comprehensive notations can be used.
 2. The used components shares are noted rounded to whole weight-% and g/m2.
 3. The values can be noted as intervals.
 4. Percentage shares below 1% can be specified as ”< 1%” respectively corresponding surface weight.
 5. Possible pigments will be specified under Other components with Color Index No. The amount of pigment can be
       specified in an interval. for the whole collection.




38
3.8 Flooring material in the cycle
according to GBR
Extract from Industry-wide information appendix to GBR’s Environmental declaration,
Item 9 RESIDUAL PRODUCTS – March 2001.


Definitions                                                     Demolition and sorting
In terms of the conversion of residual products recov-          Functional systems for sorting installation and build-
ery can be divided into the following:                          ing waste plus the products of demolition must be
                                                                developed so that sorting is an integrated part of the
Recycling – when materials are recycled for use in the          building process.
same way (e.g. a wood floor that is taken up, cleaned
and installed as flooring at another location). The prop-       Recovery facilities
erty owner is responsible for handling the product that         Techniques and facilities for recovery, reprocessing and
is to be recycled.                                              energy extraction must be refined and developed so
                                                                that recovery, in itself, does not have a negative impact
Materials recovery – The material is processed so               on the environment and so that activities at the facili-
that it can be used again (e.g. plastic flooring that is        ties become economically viable.
ground down, processed and used as raw material in
the manufacture of other plastic products such as new           Marketing aspects
flooring, park benches and loading pallets).                    A market for “used” building materials and products
                                                                manufactured from recycled materials must exist for
Energy recovery – when a material’s energy content              the recycled products to be reintroduced into the cycle.
can be recovered during incineration for example.
                                                                Responsibilities and structures
                                                                The recycling society will require large-scale and long-
The recycling council’s action plan                             term solutions if it is going to function in practical and
The floor industry supports the Action Plan from the            economic terms. Since floor material has a life cycle
Building sector’s Recycling Council. This means an              that could very well exceed the life of the company that
undertaking to work towards limiting the negative               originally manufactured, installed or purchased the
environmental effects and to promote long-term man-             material, there is a need for coordinated solutions at an
agement of our natural resources by adapting the cycle          industry level that can guarantee the recovery system’s
of installation methods and materials to reduce the             continuity and long-term development (see below).
quantity of waste that is deposited.

                                                                Industry-wide work
Action areas                                                    Work throughout the industry has been in progress
Solutions are required in the following areas if recovery       since the beginning of the 90s. Some of the results are
shall be a practical possibility:                               the industry’s common contents and environmental
                                                                declarations for the majority of floor materials, indus-
Product / system development                                    try standard for emissions from floor constructions,
Material content, installation techniques and methods           systems for recovery and an industry-wide system for
for demolition must be adapted so that recovery is              life-cycle marking of floor material.
technically and economically possible. This includes
minimising the quantity of environmentally damaging
substances that are built into the product.                     More information
                                                                For obvious reasons, issues concerning life cycles have
Product declaration, marking and definition                     been given high priority in the flooring industry and
Product contents and other relevant information related         development is running with this in mind.
to recovery must be declared. The product must be
marked according to a uniform, reliable and long-term
system so that in the future it can be identified and
recycled in an environmentally appropriate manner
using tomorrow’s technology.




                                                                                                                       39
3.9 Service life of flooring material
according to GBR
Extract from the industry-wide information appendix to GBR’s Environmental declaration,
Item 5,3 RESIDUAL PRODUCTS – March 2001.


Introduction                                                    Procedures for care and maintenance
In principle it is impossible to give an exact answer           Proper care and maintenance of the floor is a neces-
to the life cycle of a specific floor material since the        sity for a long “floor life”. With inappropriate care a
life cycle depends on a number of independent factors           floor can be damaged or worn out in a relatively short
which, together, determine the total service life of the        period.
floor material.
                                                                Installation
Furthermore there is no clear definition of how worn            To obtain the maximum life of a floor material it is nec-
out a floor material is before it is considered to have         essary for the product to be installed according to the
come to the “end” of its life. A clear sign of this is, for     manufacturer’s instructions and that the installation be
example, is the management companies’ intervals for             made on a surface and in such an environment that is
replacing “worn-out” become extended when the eco-              prescribed for the product in question. A surface
nomics of managing buildings become tighter despite             that is damp can break down the components in the
the fact that the material wears out just as quickly/           glue and surface material so that the floor material’s
slowly as before.                                               functional life is drastically reduced.

The assessment of how much a material’s finish
and function are allowed to deteriorate before being            Floor-related factors
replaced also varies between different types of                 Technical product properties
premises/managers. The assessment of a floor’s wear             Today there are pan-European test methods and prod-
can also be made according to different criteria such as        uct standards for most types of floor material. By apply-
the abrasion of the surface layer, the quantity of high-        ing the different test methods (such as wear resistance,
wear points, heel marks and permanent marks on the              the effects of wheelchairs, delamination strength and
surface and the lack of “lustre” and “finish”.                  resistance to marking) manufacturers are able to clas-
                                                                sify their product according to different classes of use.
Wear to the floor material also varies significantly over
the floor area. At door openings, walk areas, at the            The system of different classes of use provides the user
bottom of stairs and next to a workbench, the mate-             with a quick overview of the floor material’s durability
rial is worn many times quicker than in a corner, for           and suitability in different environments.
example, where hardly anybody walks.
                                                                The classes of use are divided into Domestic (housing),
In addition to the above, the floor material service life       Commercial (office/commercial premises) and Light
is affected by the following factors:                           Industrial with 3–4 levels of intensity within each class.

                                                                By installing a material in premises with a lower load-
Building-related factors                                        ing that that for which it is classified, the material’s ser-
Location in the building                                        vice life can be extended (and vice versa). The service
At the entrance area, for example, the wear is much             life intervals given below assume that the product is
greater than levels higher up in the building. This             used according to the specified load class.
makes greater demands on the floor’s maintenance and
durability if the service life is not to be reduced.            Information on class of use, which test methods are
                                                                used, and the result obtained are shown on the
Design of the entrance                                          supplier’s product fact sheet.
The design of the entrance mat zone, is a significant
factor, in extending the life of the floor.                     Renovation
                                                                Some floor materials can be renovated when they
Traffic intensity and type of load                              become worn to the extent that their function and
In housing, the service life of a floor material in a           appearance are no longer acceptable. Wood floors can
bedroom is much longer than if the material had been            be sanded and lacquered or treated with oil several


                                                                                                         >>>
fitted in the kitchen or hall.




40
times. Linoleum can be sanded and treated once again          nance. Providing these conditions are met, the techni-
with wax or polish. The PUR coating on plastic flooring       cal service life of flooring from well-known suppliers
can be renovated and on many floor materials the parts        is normally between 10–30 years. (In life cycle analysis
of the floor that are subject to especially high wear can     of floor material, the standard value often used is 20
be replaced with new material. In this way the worn           years.) In the case of floors that can be renovated, the
flooring can be given a new lease of life.                    service life can often be increased several times through
                                                              repairs, sanding and repeated surface treatment.

Other factors
The service life of a specific floor, e.g. how long it can    Glue and floor levelling
be in use before it needs to be torn up, is also deter-       The service life of glue, filler and floor-levelling com-
mined by factors such as design and trends. These are         pound is affected primarily by factors other than those
the primary reasons why a floor material is replaced.         stated above. In the case of glue and floor-level com-
Homeowners also feel that the floor’s colour and              pound there are standard test methods that provide
pattern have become unfashionable or do not match the         information on the properties that affect the product’s
new wallpaper. A new company moving into premises             service life (resistance to chair castors, peel and tensile
will want to stamp their own authority on the place by        strength, impression strength etc.).
choosing a particular type of floor and so on.
                                                              Information on which test methods are used, and the
                                                              results obtained, are shown on the supplier’s product
Summary - surface materials                                   fact sheet.
Against the background of the above it is obvious that
it is not possible in practice to indicate the service life   Providing the product is used as indicated by the
of a floor material in advance. The most important            supplier’s instructions (mixing, application, maximum
factors to consider for ensuring a long service life of       permitted moisture contents in the sub-surface etc.)
the floor in accordance with the above is correct plan-       and under load conditions for which they are intended,
ning (i.e. “the right floor in the right place”) as well as   the product life cycle often exceeds that of the surface
suitable methods and procedures for care and mainte-          material.




3.10 Kährs quality
There are many reasons why Kährs wood flooring has            The latest generation of UV oil, which is almost mainte-
a recognised high quality. Everything from the well-          nance-free in a domestic environment, is clear evidence
tested design to the carefully-controlled production.         that only the best is good enough for maintaining high
                                                              quality. Further evidence of our quality work is the
The absolute precision of the product that makes DIY          certification referred to above in Section 3.5. For you
installation of Kährs flooring possible can be achieved       as a customer the ultimate proof is the 30-year guaran-
only when quality awareness is the guiding principle          tee that we provide for wood flooring and the 12-year
used in its manufacture.                                      guarantee on Kährs’ 7 mm wood floors.

The latest evidence is wood flooring with the woodloc®        Where we are concerned, quality also means working
joint. This joint is used to lock the floor planks together   together with our customers in the best possible way
without the use of glue and with almost invisible joints.     and to pass on the knowledge that is available in the
                                                              company and thereby benefit the market in the best
Kährs have chosen the strongest lacquers on the market        way. We also believe that quality contributes to long-
to optimise the quantity of lacquer so that the appear-       term business relations and vice versa.
ance is not “plastic-like” but still retains the feeling of
wood.
                                                                  “Our motto is – to radiate
                                                               quality in all respects”




                                                                                                                       41
42
4. Criteria when selecting
   wood and veneer flooring
       In this chapter we will help you to select the right wood flooring. In addition to optical and
       aesthetic criteria it is important to bear in mind the criteria that apply to the floor’s specific
       use.
         In the overview in Section 4.1 you can see which floors are suitable for different
       applications as well as the demands placed on flooring.
         There are technical selection criteria and information on usage of wood flooring subject
       to heavy loading.
         Important: Building criteria can also influence the choice of flooring.
       See the information in Chapter 7 - Sub-floors.


       4.1        Overview table when using Kährs’ wood flooring                       page 44

       4.2        Criteria when selecting the type of wood                             page 45

       4.3        Selection in terms of sort, style and character                      page 47
                  4.3.1       Interior design and aesthetics                           page 48


       4.4        Quality as a selection criterion                                     page 50

       4.5        Technical selection criteria                                         page 51
                  4.5.1 Thicknesses and constructions                                  page 51
                  4.5.2 Kährs woodloc®                                                 page 52
                  4.5.3 Impact sound insulation                                        page 53
                  4.5.4 Thermal conditions                                             page 53
                  4.5.5 Fire properties                                                page 53
                  4.5.6 Maximum floor width                                            page 53
                  4.5.7 Wear resistance                                                page 54
                  4.5.8 Electrical conductivity                                        page 54
                  4.5.9 Light sensitivity                                              page 54
                  4.5.10 Moisture sensitivity                                          page 55


       4.6        Selection for public environments                                    page 55
                  4.6.1 Suitable products                                              page 59
                  4.6.2 Maintenance cost                                               page 59
                  4.6.3 Wiping off surfaces                                            page 59


       4.7        Reference installations                                              page 60




                                                                                                        43
4.1 Overview table when using
Kährs’ wood flooring
                                           Kährs 15 mm wood flooring                   Kährs 7 mm wood flooring
                                                   Chapter 5                                   Chapter 6

     Characteristic and construction   15 mm fully-treated multi layer parquet    7 mm veneer floor-boards with Kährs
                                       with Kährs woodloc® joint or traditional   woodloc® joint. 3-layer construc-
                                       joint. 3-layer blocked design with         tion. Wear surface of thin hardwood
                                       approx 4 mm wear surface.                  veneer, intermediate layer of HDF and
                                                                                  base layer veneer.

     Special variants                  22 mm board with self-supporting struc-
                                       ture (with special particle board core)
                                       for installation on joists with maximum
                                       600 mm centres.
                                       20 mm board with 6 mm wear surface
                                       for public environments.

     Applications                      Principally domestic. Also for premises    Housing and similar premises.
                                       subject to heavy wear with additional
                                       surface treatment.

     Surface treatment                 Fully-treated with silk matt lacquer, UV   Fully-treated with silk matt lacquer,
                                       or natural oil.                            UV or natural oil.

     Sub-floor                         See Chapter 7                              See Chapter 7


     Building height                   Board thickness (15, 20 and 22 mm          7 mm + underlay
                                       respectively) + underlay

     Underfloor heating                Suitable (15 mm planks)                    Very suitable
     See Section 8.6                   See Section 4.2                            See Section 4.2

     Pattern                           3-strip board                              2-strip board
                                       2-strip board                              1-strip board
                                       1-strip board                              3-strip board
                                       Ship floor
                                       Herringbone pattern
                                       Dutch pattern.


     Types of wood                     Hard Maple, European Maple, Birch,         Hard Maple, Beech, Oak, Red Oak,
                                       Beech, Oak, Red Oak, Alder, Ash, Iroko,    Ash, Jatoba, Cherry, Walnut
                                       Jatoba, Jarrah, Cherry, Merbau, Walnut,
                                       Rosewood, Sucupira




44
4.2 Criteria when selecting the type of wood
  Type of wood - structure/colour/properties           Country of origin   Hardness      Colour change

Hard Maple (Canadian Maple): Light yellowish-brown     North America           4,8         Goes yellow
to dark yellowish-brown wood Dense pores with                              (3,2– 6,9)
brownish heartwood. Grain in thin streaks.
Hard Maple reacts more than other types of wood
to variations in room climate.

European Maple: Light yellow to yellowish-brown        Central Europe          3,0       Goes quite yellow
wood The heartwood is brownish. Dense pores.                               (2,3– 4,5)

Birch: Whitish-grey to light brown wood with mother    Sweden                 2,6          Goes yellow
of pearl structure. Brown streaks in the heartwood.                        (1,6- 4,0)
Dense pores.

Beech: Light yellowish-brown to reddish-brown          Sweden                 3,8          Goes yellow
wood. Dense pores with reddish-brown heartwood.                            (2,0- 5,9)
Beech has a very discrete grain. Beech reacts
more than other types of wood to variations in room
climate.

Oak: Brown to dark-brown wood. Porous with white       Sweden                 3,7          Goes yellow
surface wood. Marked grain.                                                (2,2-5,9)

Red oak: Yellow to slightly pink wood with the         Central Europe         3,7          Goes yellow
same structure as common oak. Porous with white                            (2,4-6,9)
surface wood.

Alder: Yellow to slightly red wood. Brown streaks in   Sweden                 2,1       Goes quite yellow
the heartwood. Dense pores with fine grain.                                (1,5-2,8)

Ash: Light yellow to yellowish-brown wood. Brown       Sweden                 4,0          Goes yellow
heartwood. Porous. Marked grain.                                           (2,8-6,2)

Iroko (Kambala): Golden-brown to dark-brown wood       Africa                 3,5       Goes dark/quickly
with narrow grain. Dense pores.                                            (1,4-5,4)

Jatoba: Reddish-brown porous wood with grey/white      Brasil                 7,0        Goes dark/quickly
surface wood. The grain is dense and moderate.                             (4,5-14,1)   becomes bright red

Jarrah: Reddish-brown to dark-brown wood. Dense        Australia              4,7         Goes quite dark
pores.                                                                     (2,9-9,0)

Cherry (Black Cherry): Light red, green to dark        North America          3,6        Goes dark/quickly
reddish-brown wood. Contains black streaks (gum).                          (1,7-6,2)    becomes bright red
Dense pores with white surface wood.

Merbau: Yellowish-brown to brown or blackish-brown     Indonesia              4,9        Darkens/goes red
wood. Visible porosity.                                                    (2,7-7,8)

Walnut: Brown to blackish-brown wood. Dense pores      North America          3,4          Goes yellow
with white surface wood. Varied and significant                            (2,0-5,1)
grain.

Rosewood: Pink to red, light brown to brown.           South Africa           4,6        Goes dark/quickly
Dense pores with whitish-grey surface wood.                                (3,5-6,1)    becomes bright red

Sucupira: Dark brown wood. Dense pores with slight     Brasil                 5,6          Little change
grain.                                                                     (2,8-7,8)

7 mm wood floor:                                       See the respect-     5,0-6,0     See the respective
                                                       ive types of wood                     types of
                                                       above                               wood above


                                                                                                            45
The hardness of wood flooring varies according to the                                               The harder the wood, the higher the value.
type of wood and is measured according to the Brinell
scale. A steel ball with a diameter of 10 mm is pressed                                             The structure of wood means that relatively large varia-
against the surface of the wood with a predetermined                                                tions occur. The stated value is an average of a large
force and time. The residual impression is then                                                     number of measurements taken on a finished floor.
measured and the actual Brinell hardness calculated.




       16



       14


       12


       10



        8


        6



        4


        2



        0
              European Maple

                               Hard Maple

                                            Ash

                                                  Birch

                                                          Oak

                                                                Iroko

                                                                        Sucupira

                                                                                   Walnut

                                                                                            Beech

                                                                                                    Alder

                                                                                                            Red oak

                                                                                                                      Cherry

                                                                                                                               Rosewood

                                                                                                                                          Jatoba

                                                                                                                                                   Merbau

                                                                                                                                                            Jarrah




46
4.3 Selection in terms of grading,
style and character
Most of Kährs wood flooring is available in different      • Lively, natural products and strongly structured
grading. This has nothing to do with the quality of          types of wood such as Oak are not so optically
the wood. By grading the different strips according          sensitive as light, evenly grained types of wood such
to appearance we are able to offer flooring with a           as Hard Maple even though the latter is slightly
number of different characteristics. By using wood as        harder.
a raw material, most wishes related to design can be
accommodated. The choice is therefore primarily a          • When choosing the floor, appearance and the style of
question of taste. But the choice also affects how the       décor are equally important as the practical aspects.
floor will be used and in which environment it will be       It is different if a wood floor maintains a low profile
installed.                                                   in the room so that furniture and other objects are
                                                             more prominent, or if the if the floor is to character
• The structure of the wood, together with its hard          ise the entire room.
  ness, determines how durable the floor is. The Brinell
  value, measured to indicate the hardness, is an
  average value of a number of measurements. Major
  or minor variations can occur within each type of
  wood. See Section 4.2.




                                                                                                                 47
Kährs has divided its products into three styles of wood flooring to be able to offer the customer the wood floor
that best suits the person’s lifestyle and personal taste: Style Selection, Life Selection, Classic Selection and Design
Selection. This is where everybody can find their own highly-personal floor.




              Style                                       Life                                    Classic
              Selection                                  Selection                                   Selection




Kährs Style Selection                      Kährs Life Selection                       Kährs Classic Selection
Stylish wood flooring in an even           Wood flooring with knots offers a          Wood flooring with charm and
and discrete grade that provides           very natural feeling and is produced       lustre from times gone by in both
a calm and timeless impression.            with exciting variations in colour         classic patterns and new, modern
These always work when it is not           and structure. These floors appeal         combinations.
the floor but the furniture and other      to people who wish to express a
interior designs that set the tone.        natural lifestyle.
The floor plays a more unobtrusive
role in this case. Wood flooring is
designed to lift your interior design.
Initially, certain Stockholm products
may appear to have quite a range
of colours but these even out quite
quickly.




4.3.1 Interior design and aesthetics
The floor constitutes the largest part of the interior design in a house.
There should therefore be harmony between the floor colour and the domi-
nant colour of the rest of the interior design.

In the product brochure you will find colour composition.




48
Colour scale
Yellow/brown colours                                                              Red/brown colours
                                         European Maple                   Beech




                                         Hard Maple                       Alder




                                         Ash                            Red oak




                                         Birch                           Cherry




                                         Oak                          Rosewood




                                         Iroko                           Jatoba




                                         Sucupira                       Merbau




                                         Walnut                          Jarrah




Note the colour changes in the different types of wood. Refer to Section 4.2.



                                                                                                 49
4.4 Quality as a selection criterion
The quality of a wood floor is not always so easy to        Maple swells and shrinks more than other types of
recognise optically. It concerns more than the charac-      wood. Underfloor heating causes increased drying and
teristics that are defined in the standard for finished     this results in extra shrinkage. If the climate is cold and
wood floors.                                                dry, such as in Sweden, gaps between strips and boards
                                                            may occur.
Form stability
Does the board maintain its shape during the normal         Quick and efficient installation:
climatic variation that occurs between summer and           A good fit and straight edges makes installation prob-
winter? The difference between high quality wood            lem-free. You always get the perfect result with Kährs
floors and cheap alternatives is not always evident until   woodloc®. Laying the floor is easy and quick which
after a period of use. The correct moisture content in      makes the installation efficient both for the professional
the different layers during manufacture is essential for    and the DIY enthusiast.
the board shape, stability and quality over many years
of use.                                                     Healthy living environment and ecological attitude:
                                                            Properly treated wood floors are the natural choice for
The multi layer construction’s natural barrier func-        those suffering from asthma and allergies thanks to the
tion is distributed evenly compared with a solid floor’s    low natural emissions. They are also very easy to keep
major movements. Wood flooring of Beech and Hard            clean. Refer to Section 3.3.3.




50
4.5 Technical selection criteria
4.5.1 Thicknesses and constructions

Kährs wood floors are available in different thicknesses. Suitable thicknesses for homes are 7 mm or 15 mm. The following
shows which thicknesses are available, how the planks are constructed and how they should be installed.




7 mm (veneer floor)                        15 mm (standard                            15 mm (pattern floor)
                                           board)
Number of layers: 3 (base layer                                                       Classic: Amsterdam, Rotterdam,
- veneer/middle HDF layer/surface          Number of layers: 3 (base layer            Toledo
layer)                                     - veneer/middle layer/surface layer
                                           - hardwood)                                Number of layers: 4 (base layer
Surface layer: approximately 0.6                                                      - veneer/two middle layers/surface
mm veneer (HDF intermediate layer          Surface layer: approximately 4 mm          layer - hardwood)
absorbs the loading)
                                           Installation: Floating installation on     Surface layer: approximately 4 mm
Installation: Floating installation on     a clean, level, dry and solid sub-
a clean, level, dry and solid sub-         floor such as concrete, chipboard or       Installation: Floating installation on
floor such as concrete, chipboard or       wood.                                      a clean, level, dry and solid sub-
wood. Suitable everywhere thanks                                                      floor such as concrete, chipboard or
to its low installed height.                                                          wood.




20 mm                                      22 mm
Number of layers: 3 (base layer            Number of layers: 3 (base layer
- veneer/middle layer/surface layer        - veneer/middle - chipboard/ surface
- hardwood)                                layer - hardwood)

Surface layer: approximately 6 mm          Surface layer: approximately 4 mm

Installation: Floating installation        Installation: Floating installation
on a sub-floor such as concrete,           directly on joists with maximum
chipboard or wood.                         600 mm centres. The studs must be
                                           clean, level, dry and solid.



                                                                                                                            51
4.5.2 Kährs woodloc®




Kährs wood flooring with woodloc® joints offers               Mechanical joint
several benefits                                              Thanks to the mechanical joint’s immediate locking
                                                              function, the line in the installation will be straight
Strength                                                      after two rows have been installed. No string line is
Kährs woodloc® joints are stronger than traditional           required. The rows of planks align themselves and the
glued joints. The mechanical joint retains its strength       floor can be walked on and used immediately after
during changes in the interior climate. This means            installation. Glued joints require a certain drying time
that the joint between the boards remains tight during        to achieve their maximum strength. Woodloc® has its
normal climate variations and loading. This property is       full strength immediately and needs no drying time.
retained throughout the entire life of the floor.
                                                              The obvious choice if you have underfloor heating is
Flexibility                                                   flooring with woodloc®.
Since no glue is used it is a simple matter to replace
damaged boards. Only the damaged board needs to be
replaced. The undamaged boards can be put back in
place again after the repair.

The sub-floor can be easily accessed if repairs are
required. This allows repairs to be made at a later date
- not such a simple matter in the case of glued floors.
In everyday use Kährs woodloc® offers flexibility and is
therefore an economic option if an accident occurs or,
for example, there is water damage to a small section of
the floor.

Highest precision
The precision resulting from manufacturing makes
it easy to lay the boards with a perfect result. Kährs
Woodloc® has sharp edges, which means that the wood
floor is virtually free from visible joints. Kährs original
design construction with an intermediate layer of pine
utilised to provide the best shape stability and climate
resistance.

                                                              Wood flooring is beautiful. It has
                                                              never been so easy to install a real
                                                              wood floor without visible joints.




52
4.5.3 Impact sound insulation

The normal requirements for impact sound insulation              Kährs have previously tested a number of floors with
according to BBR apply in Sweden. There is a range of            regard to impact sound insulation. The following shows
technical solutions to achieve the required value.               the results from these tests performed by the Swedish
                                                                 Testing and Research Institute, SP.
The flooring underlay is placed between the concrete
joists and the wood floor. This should be installed              It is also possible to meet higher requirements in con-
edge-to-edge without any overlap. When the under-                nection with solid joist structures. The wood floor in
lay is used in combination with a vapour barrier, the            itself does not provide any noticeable contribution to
underlay should be placed on top of the vapour barrier.          impact sound insulation.



        Description of the floor                           Impact sound ΔLw    Impact sound             Airborne sound ΔRw
                                                           (dB)                Class                    (dB)

         7 mm wood floor + floor paper L400                16                      7                    -2,0
         7 mm wood floor + Cellofloor 2 mm                 19                      7                    -2,0
         7 mm wood floor + Cellofloor 3 mm                 19                      7                    -3,0
         7 mm wood floor + Airolen® 1,8 mm                 18                      7                    -2,0
        15 mm Kährs wood floor + Cellofloor 2 mm           17                      7                    -1,0
        15 mm Kährs wood floor + Cellofloor 3 mm           18                      7                    -1,0
        15 mm Kährs wood floor + Airolen® 1,8 mm           17                      7                    -1,0
        15 mm Kährs wood floor + Airolen® 3,0 mm           18                      7                    -0,5




4.5.4 Thermal conditions
A wood floor is warm to walk on in bare feet because             make it suitable for laying on underfloor heating
‘of the floor’s low ability to conduct heat. Despite             (see Section 8.6).
this, a wood floor has sufficient heat conductivity to




4.5.5 Fire properties
Kährs wood flooring meets the Swedish requirements               material is fire-tested according to Nordic method
for class G - the highest fire rating class according to         - NT Fire 007 - and complied with the test by a good
the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning’s           margin. The result is shown in “Kontenta”, (sum-
Building Regulations BBR 94. The requirements are met            mary of results from Trätek, the Swedish Institute for
by all wood flooring with or without surface treatment.          Research in Wood Technology) “Brandklassade trägolv”
This is shown in a study conducted by Trätek. Floor              9604029.




4.5.6 Maximum floor width
The maximum width for wood flooring in a floating                For example, a room with a width of 4 m shall have
installation is 12 m. If the width is greater the floor          an expansion joint of 4 x 1.5 mm = 6 mm between the
should be divided using expansion joints.                        floor and all fixed objects.




                                                                 !
  There is no limitation if the planks are glued to a
concrete floor.
  If the surface onto which the wood floor is glued                    The size of the expansion joint in mm can
                                                                       be calculated using the formula: 1.5 mm
has limitations in terms of maximum width that is less
                                                                       per metre of floor width
than the above then the limited width will apply.



                                                                                                                        53
4.5.7 Wear resistance
The wear resistance will depend entirely on the surface    Natural-oiled floors should be maintained to main-
treatment. In a normal domestic environment our            tain their gloss and wear resistance. Natural-oiled
lacquered floors will last a long time without further     and waxed surfaces become even stronger if regularly
treatment being necessary. According to HusAMA98           maintained. Where there are greater demands for wear
Table MDB/1 the value shall be at least Class 5. Kährs’    resistance (public environments) the treated wood
lacquered products meet this by a good margin. The         floors are provided with a further protective coating
same applies to our UV-oiled floors.                       after installation.



4.5.8 Electrical conductivity
A wood floor’s electrical conductivity is low. Wood had    rubbing shoe soles against the floor for example.
good electrical conductivity resistance, because of its    These properties make wood floors suitable for
insulating capacity, wood offers protection when using     computer suites. Oiled floors are normally used in
electrical machinery. The insulation is not so strong      these areas.
that it will prevent a static charge being built up by



4.5.9 Light fastness/UV ageing
Wood is a natural material which, during the first few     laid on the floor during the initial months after installa-
months, matures to its natural colour. This characteris-   tion. If there are already light patches from carpets etc,
tic underlines the beauty and character of a real wood     these will mature when they are exposed to daylight.
floor. To produce an even surface, rugs should not be




Maple                          Beech                       Ash                           Birch




     Types of wood              Change                      Types of wood               Change

     Beech                      Goes yellow                 Merbau                      Goes red
     Oak                        Goes yellow                 Cherry                      Goes very dark quickly
     Ash                        Goes yellow                 Alder                       Goes quite yellow
     Hard Maple                 Goes yellow                 Sucupira                    Changes very little
     Birch                      Goes yellow                 European Red Oak            Goes yellow
     Jarrah                     Goes quiite dark            European Maple              Goes quite yellow
     Jatoba                     Goes bright red             Iroko                       Goes dark



54
4.5.10 Moisture sensitivity
Because of their open cell structure when dried,
certain types of wood have a greater capacity to absorb
and dissipate moisture than other types. Beech and
Hard Maple are among these. See Section 8.6.2. It is
particularly important to consider this when cleaning
installed floors with a damp cloth etc.
                                                          !     In areas where there is a risk of water being spilt and this
                                                                is not wiped up in time, we recommend additional surface
                                                                treatment after the floor is installed. See Sections 9.1.1.1,
                                                                9.1.2.1 or 9.1.3.1.




4.6 Selection for public environments
Wood and veneer floors from Kährs are generally           • How significant is the thickness of the surface layer?
suitable for use in public environments. The following    • Is gluing to the sub-surface the better option or is a
issues should however be considered:                        floating installation preferable?
                                                          • What type of surface treatment should be chosen
• What is the area going to be used for?                    - lacquer or oil?
• What is the level of foot traffic in the building?      • What is the entrance zone solution for removing grit
• What type of wood has the right degree of hardness?       and moisture from shoes?
  (Refer to Section 4.2)




Kährs Beech Cambridge, Bad Berka Hospital, Germany.




                                                                                                                          55
                                                               Kährs Oak London as a design component in a British
                                                               fashion shop chain.




Kährs Hard Maple Stockholm, Art Gallery in Birmingham,
England.



                                                               Kährs plank with a 6 mm wear surface (see Section 5.3).




Kährs Oak Monte Carlo with natural oil, at the environmental
centre, Neckar-Fils, Germany.




                                                               Kährs Birch Monte Carlo, at the Café-Bar Metropolitan in
                                                               Esslingen, Germany.


56
Kährs Beech Cambridge, oil finished, Rebmannshof Birnau, Germany.




Kährs 7 mm wood flooring.




                                                                    Kährs 7 mm wood floor Beech 2-strip, Firma Schuttheiss Werbemittel.


                                                                                                                                   57
Kährs Oak Monte Carlo


58
4.6.1 Suitable products
Kährs wood floors that can be used:                            7 mm wood floor:
                                                               Since this material cannot be sanded it is preferably
20 mm multi layer board with 6 mm surface layer                used in environments with low-level wear, nurseries
This is designed for environments that are subject to          and offices where there is little wear and where it
considerable wear, where several re-sanding operations         is sufficient to protect against increased wear with
and significant material removal down to clean wood            additional surface treatment.
may be necessary.

15 mm with 4 mm surface layer
This floor can be used in environments where wear
is less and sanding with a normal amount of material
removal is justified.
                                                               !     Kährs factory treatment is designed for domestic
                                                                     use and additional treatment is always necessary for
                                                                     floors in public environments.




4.6.2 Maintenance cost




                                                               !
It is important to follow the care instructions for
environments where there is heavy wear.
                                                                     Maintenance costs during the life of the floor in
                                                                     public environments are up to 5 times as much as
In certain premises such as in bars, department stores               the purchase and installation cost.
and libraries, special consideration is required when                As a consequence, a relatively exclusive floor can
selecting wood floors, surface treatment, maintenance                be selected without this having a significant effect
systems, inspection and cleaning.                                    on life-cycle cost.


The maintenance and cleaning of wood floors is more
important than the thickness of the surface layer.
Entrances should be designed with particular care.




4.6.3 Entrance Mat Zones
Effective entrance mat zones are very important to the         The best entrance design makes it possible to walk at
new wood floor’s life. All grit and moisture should be         least three steps on each mat – the more the better. This
removed from the soles of shoes to protect the floor.          method not only saves the floor but also makes day-to-
The best effect is achieved if this is done in three stages.   day cleaning easier.

• Coarse scraping facilities outside the entrance.             The cost that is incurred in designing a good entrance
  A scraper mat with rubber laminates will remove the          pays for itself many times over as a consequence of
  coarsest particles.                                          lower maintenance costs. Obviously the mats need to
• “Plastic turf” such as Astroturf that removes the            be cleaned regularly.
  remaining particles.
• Textile mat that removes moisture and remaining grit
  from shoes.




                                                                                                                            59
4.7 Reference installations


                                          Activity            Product   Surface treatment


     Butterickshuset, Malmö               Offices             Oak       Natural-oiled
     Butterickshuset, Malmö               Apartments          Oak       UV-oiled/lacquered
     Linbärets Förskola, Malmö            Kindergarten        Ash       Lacquered
     Kv. Östersjön, Malmö                 Offices             Oak       Lacquered
     Riksbanken, Malmö                    Offices             Beech     Lacquered
     Din Sko, throughout Sweden           Shops               Oak       Natural-oiled
     Hotell Skansen                       Corridors           Oak       Natural-oiled
     Intensia, Malmö                      Offices             Oak       Natural-oiled
     Max Mathiesen Mäklare                Offices             Oak WL    Natural-oiled
     Kronprinsen Bowling, Malmö           Restaurant          Oak WL    Lacquered
     Seating Concept                      Furniture shop      Ash       UV-oiled
     Ingvar Kamprad Designcenter, Lund    Workshop premises   Ash       Lacquered
     Bowlinghall, Malmö                   Bowling hall        Merbau    Lacquered
     Lindvallens Högfjällshotell          Hotel rooms         Oak       Lacquered
     Hotell Foresta, Lidingö              Hotel rooms         Jarrah    Lacquered
     Hotell Selma Lagerlöf, Sunne         Hotel rooms         Oak       Lacquered
     Tingshuset, Jakobsberg               Courthouse          Oak       Natural-oiled
     Sara Winn, Gävle                     Hotel rooms         Oak       Lacquered
     Carlstad Conferenscenter, Karlstad   Vänersalen          Merbau    Natural-oiled
     Högskolan, Malmö                     School premises
                                          and library         Beech     Natural-oiled
     SE-banken, Malmö                     Office premises     Ash       Lacquered
     Restaurang Gårdsvägen                Restaurant          Oak       Natural-oiled
     Hotell Quality, Nacka                Hotel rooms         Oak       UV-oiled
     Orgelpipan                           Offices             Oak       UV-oiled
     Scania                               Offices             Oak       Lacquered
     Sandhamns                            Värdshus            Oak       Lacquered
     Kunskapsskolan, Enskede              School premises     Oak       Natural-oiled
     Hästens Sängar                       Shop premises       Walnut    Natural oiled/
                                                                        Lacquered
     Infra                                Businesscenter      Oak
     Hotell Winn                          Hotel rooms         Oak       Lacquered
     Din Sko, Solna                       Shop premises       Oak       Natural-oiled




60
5. Kährs wood flooring
               Pre-finished planks with silk matt lacquer, UV oil or with natural oil. The planks are
               available with Kährs woodloc®, or with traditional tongue and groove. The floors are
               available in three decorative selections, with different thickness and grading.


Europe’s       5.1         Kährs wood flooring, standard planks (15 mm)                          page 63
best-selling   5.2         Kährs wood flooring for laying on joists in
                           housing (22 mm)                                                       page 66
wood           5.3         Kährs wood flooring for hard wear (20 mm
flooring                   with 6 mm surface layer)                                              page 70




               Wood floor selection depending on
               design style - Kährs Selection System
                                                      Style Selection Stylish wood flooring in an even and
                                                      discrete grading that provides a calm and timeless
                     Style                            impression.
                     Selection



                                                      Life Selection Wood flooring with knots offers a very
                                                      natural feeling and is graded with exciting variations in
                     Life                             colour and structure.
                     Selection



                                                      Classic Selection Wood flooring with charm and lustre
                                                      from times gone by in both classic patterns and new,
                Classic                               modern combinations.
                     Selection



                                                                                                                  61
Kährs Oak Stavanger with decorative ash strip.


62
5.1 Kährs wood flooring, standard planks (15 mm)
Applications and special characteristics                         with tongue and groove variants. The usual estimate for
The 15-mm standard plank can be used in many differ-             wastage is around 2% in normal installations and approxi-
ent types of premises but are suited primarily for domestic      mately 8–10% for diagonal or patterned installation. A floor
environments                                                     must be divided with expansion joints if the width is greater
                                                                 than 12 metres. An impact sound reducing underlay must be
• Stable shape because of the climate-controlled                 installed under the planks. The planks can also be glued to
  production processes.                                          the sub-floor. See Section 7.3.
• Kährs woodloc® or with tongue and groove.                         (Amount of Kährs glue required for wood flooring in tradi-
• Simple and easy to install because of the precision in         tional joints: approximately 0.5 l / 20 m 2.) Use Kährs glue or
  manufacturing.                                                 other glue recommended by Kährs.
• Wood floors with high quality, which will last for
  many years.                                                    Underfloor heating and
• Hardwood at the short ends, which make the end                 thermal transmission resistance
  joints even stronger.                                          Kährs 15 mm wood flooring is suitable for installation on
• Available for every taste in more than 40 patterns and         underfloor heating (see Section 8.6). Thermal transmission
  types of wood.                                                 resistance: approximately 0.16 m 2K/W (see Section 7.4.4).
• Natural and individual appearance.                             Wood flooring of Beech and Hard Maple swells and shrinks
• Finish-treated with UV-cured lacquer or UV-cured               more than other types of wood. Underfloor heating causes
  oil, some articles are also available with natural oil.        increased drying and this results in extra shrinkage. If the
• With Kährs UV treatment (lacquer or oil) the floor             climate is cold and dry, such as in Sweden, gaps may occur
  becomes durable and easy to clean.                             between strips and between planks.
• (Refer to Chapter 9)                                              Flooring paper is recommended as an underlay for under-
                                                                 floor heated installations.
Construction
• 1, 2 or 3-strip planks comprise three layers. Pat              Maintenance
  terned floors have four layers. All 3-layer planks are         Vacuum clean or wipe the floor as required with a damp
  available with Kährs woodloc®, 4 layer planks and              cloth that has been thoroughly wrung out or use Kährs
  certain articles of 3-layer construction are produced          Original maintenance mop. Too much water can damage the
  with traditional tongue and groove.                            floor. See Chapter 9 for special care instructions.
• Surface layer of sawn strips.
• Middle layer of solid pine strips.                             Moisture ratio
• Base layer of spruce veneer.                                   Moisture ratio when delivered:
• 3-strip and 2-strip planks can be combined with                7 + 2%
  each other. 1-strip planks and patterned planks can
  not be combined with other planks.                             Weight
• All planks with woodloc® joints can be combined.               • approximately 8–10 kg/m 2. See Section 12.1.

Surface layer thickness:                                         Packaging
• approximately 4 mm                                             • Protective edge of corrugated fibreboard
                                                                   (100% recycled paper).
Surface treatment                                                • Climatic protection of thin PE sheeting.
• Finish-lacquered (for normal and dry areas) with               • The packaging can be returned for paper recycling.
  UV-cured acrylic-based lacquer (silk matt
  approximately 30°Gardner). The lacquer does not                Package contents:
  contain solvents or formaldehyde and is durable as
  well as maintaining the wood’s natural character.              Width          Length              Qty        m2
• Finish-oiled with UV-cured oil (for normal and dry
  areas). The principal components of the oil are sun            200 mm         2,423 mm            6         2.91
  flower oil and rapeseed oil.
                                                                 (15 mm Rotterdam and Toledo are 2,425 mm long)
• Finish-oiled with natural oil (for dry areas subject to
  heavy wear). The surface treatment comprises >98%
  renewable raw materials.                                       205 mm         2,090 mm            6         2.57
                                                                 187 mm         1,800 mm            6         2.02
Sub-floor requirements
The sub-floor must be clean, flat, dry and solid. The regula-    187 mm         2,100 mm            6         2.36
tions in HusAMA98, Table 43.DC/-1 and MDB.3 apply. Refer         187 mm         2,420 mm            6         2.72
also to our other requirements for sub-flooring in Chapter 7.    130 mm         1,800 mm            6         1.40
Refer to Kährs installation instructions, Chapter 8.
                                                                 105 mm         1,800 mm            6         1.03
Installation
Kährs wood flooring is installed floating. In other words, the   Grading
planks are not bonded to the sub-floor and joined to each        The grading is shown in the guide in our product brochure
other using Kährs Woodloc® or are fully-glued to each other      where the respective appearance is also shown.


                                                                                                                             63
Kährs Alder Monte Carlo (3-strip plank)


64
Kährs Ash London (1-strip plank)


                            65
5.2 Kährs wood flooring for installation on
joists (22 mm)
Applications and special characteristics                      if the width is greater than 12 metres. An impact sound
Kährs 22 mm wood flooring is self-supporting and is           reducing layer can be fitted under the planks to reduce
designed for installation on studs.                           the risk of impact sound if required.
                                                                 Quantity of glue required for wood floors: approxi-
• Stable shape because of the climate-controlled pro          mately 0.5 l / 7-10 m2). Use Kährs glue for wood floor-
    duction process.                                          ing or other glue recommended by Kährs.
• Self-supporting.
• Chipboard core of E1 quality with especially high           Note. The joists must be installed with a smaller
    lateral tensile strength.                                 distance between joists if diagonal installation is
•   Rational and simple to install thanks to the exact        required so that the c/c distance does not exceed
    groove and tongue design.                                 600 mm in the longitudinal direction of the planks.
•   Floating installation directly on joist structures with
    maximum centres of 600 mm                                 Underfloor heating and
•   Wood floors with high quality, which will last for        thermal transmission resistance
    many years.                                               Kährs 22 mm wood flooring is suitable for installa-
•   Natural and individual appearance.                        tion on underfloor heating (see Section 8.6). Thermal
•   Finish-treated with UV-cured lacquer.                     transmission resistance: approximately 0.20 m2K/W
•   As a result of Kährs UV treatment the floor becomes       (see Chapter 7). Wood flooring of Beech and Hard
    strong and easy to clean (see Chapter 9).                 Maple swells and shrinks more than other types of
                                                              wood. Underfloor heating causes increased drying and
Construction                                                  this results in extra shrinkage. If the climate is cold and
• Board in three layers with tongue and groove all            dry, such as in Sweden, gaps may occur between strips
  round.                                                      and between planks. Flooring paper is recommended
• Surface layer of sawn strips.                               as an intermediate layer for underfloor heating.
• Intermediate layer of class E1 special chipboard core
• Base layer of 2-mm spruce veneer.                           Maintenance
                                                              Vacuum clean or wipe the floor as required with a
Surface layer thickness:                                      damp cloth that has been thoroughly wrung out or use
• approximately 4 mm                                          Kährs Original maintenance mop. Too much water
                                                              can damage the floor. See Chapter 9 for special care
Surface treatment                                             instructions.
• Finish-lacquered (for normal and dry areas) with
  UV-cured acrylic-based lacquer (silk matt                   Moisture ratio
  approximately 30° Gardner). The lacquer does not            Moisture ratio when delivered:
  contain solvents or formaldehyde and is durable as          7 + 2%
  well as maintaining the wood’s natural character.
• Finish-oiled with UV-cured oil (for normal and dry          Weight
  areas). The principal components of the oil are sun         approximately 15 kg/m 2
  flower oil and rapeseed oil.
                                                              Packaging
Sub-surface requirements                                      • Protective edge of corrugated fibreboard
Designed to be installed on joists with maximum cen-            (100% recycled paper).
tres of 600 mm. The sub-surface must be clean, level,         • Climatic protection of thin PE sheeting.
dry and solid. The regulations in HusAMA98, Table             • The packaging can be returned for paper recycling.
43.DC/-1 and MDB.3 apply. Also note our requirements
for the sub-floor according to Chapter 7 as well as           Package contents:
Kährs installation instructions in Chapter 8.
                                                              Width         Length             Qty        m2
Installation
Kährs wood flooring is designed primarily for floating        200 mm        2,423 mm           4          1.94 m2
installation. See the installation instructions in Chap-
ter 8. The planks are laid loose on the joists and are        Grading
glued to each other in the tongue and groove joint. The       The grading is shown in the guide in our product bro-
estimated wastage is approximately 2% in most instal-         chure where the respective appearance is also shown.
lations. A floor must be divided with expansion joints



66
Kährs Ash Stockholm (3-strip plank)


                               67
Kährs Oak Copenhagen (3-strip plank)


68
Kährs Walnut Genua


               69
5.3 Kährs wood flooring
(20 mm with 6 mm surface layer)
Applications and special characteristics                    Quantity of glue required for wood floors: approxi-
Kährs 20 mm wood flooring is designed for public            mately 0.5 l / 10 m2.) Use Kährs glue for wood flooring
environments.                                               or other glue recommended by Kährs.
  This plank is especially designed for hard wear. In         Make an allowance for approximately 2% waste when
public environments we recommend that the floor be          installing lengthwise and approximately 8-10% when
given additional surface treatment after installation to    installing diagonally. A floor must be divided with
seal against water penetration between the planks.          expansion joints if the width is greater than 12 m. An
                                                            impact sound reducing underlay must be installed
• Stable shape because of the climate-controlled pro        under the planks. The planks can also be glued to the
  duction process.                                          sub-floor. See Section 7.3.
• Simple and easy to install because of the precision in
  manufacturing.                                            Maintenance
• Wood floors with high quality, which will last for        Vacuum clean or wipe the floor as required with a
  many years.                                               damp cloth that has been thoroughly wrung out or use
• Hardwood at the short ends, which make the end            Kährs Original maintenance mop. Too much water
  joints even stronger.                                     can damage the floor. See Chapter 9 for special care
• Extra thick surface layer to cope with hard wear and      instructions.
  a greater number of sanding operations than 15 mm.
• Finish-treated with UV-cured lacquer or with              Moisture ratio
  natural oil.                                              Moisture ratio when delivered:
                                                            7 + 2%
Construction
• The plank comprises three layers and traditional          Weight
  tongue and groove.                                        • approximately 11 kg/m 2
• Surface layer of sawn strips (not veneer).
• Intermediate layer of solid pine strips.                  Packaging
• Base layer of spruce veneer.                              • Protective edge of corrugated fibreboard
                                                              (100% recycled paper).
Surface layer thickness:                                    • Climatic protection of thin PE sheeting.
• approximately 6 mm                                        • The packaging can be returned for paper recycling.

Surface treatment
• Finish-lacquered with UV-cured acrylic-based lac          Package contents
  quer (silk matt lacquer). Does not contain solvents or
  formaldehyde.                                             Width          Length             Qty    m2
• Finish-oiled with Kährs natural oil.
  In public environments, the factory treatment should      200 mm         2,423 mm           4      1.94 m2
  be considered as a base finish that requires additional
  treatment on site (see Section 9.2.3).
                                                            Grading
Sub-surface requirements                                    The grading is shown in the guide in our product bro-
The sub-surface must be clean, flat, dry and solid. The     chure where the respective appearance is also shown.
regulations in HusAMA98, Table 43.DC/-1 and MDB.3




                                                            !
apply. Refer also to our other requirements for sub-
flooring in Chapter 7. Kährs installation instructions
(Refer to Chapter 8).
                                                                  Extra thick surface layer
                                                                  approximately 6 mm.
Installation
Kährs wood flooring is installed floating. The planks
are placed loose on the sub-floor and glued to each
other in the tongue and groove with full double gluing.
Refer to Kährs installation instructions, Chapter 8.




70
6. Kährs 7 mm wood flooring
   (veneer floor planks)
        Pre-finished veneer planks with silk matt lacquer, UV or natural oil. The planks are supplied
        with Kährs woodloc®. The design is stable with an intermediate layer of HDF. The surface
        layer is made in different types of hardwood veneer in 1, 2 or 3-strip planks, and has a
        base layer of Pine veneer.



        6.1        Kährs 7 mm wood flooring (Linnea)                                     page 73




        The new generation of floors:
        Beautiful thanks to real wood
        and the practical advantages
        of a modern floor.



        Wood floor selection depending on
        design style - Kährs Selection System
                                              Style Selection Stylish wood flooring in an even and
                                              discrete grading that provides a calm and timeless
           Style                              impression.
            Selection



                                              Life Selection Wood floor with a natural feel, colour
                                              variations, knots and structure.
              Life
            Selection




                                                                                                      71
  Veneer layer of real hardwood.
  No wood imitation made of plastic can replace                             Lacquer or UV oil?
  the sense and character of wood. The thin                                 UV lacquer and UV oil protect the wood
  veneer layer means that the intermediate layer                            against hard wear. Neither contains sol-
  of HDF can absorb many day-to-day knocks                                  vents or formaldehyde. The surfaces are
  and impacts.                                                              easy to clean and can be easily renovated.




Hard wood fibreboard
The high-density fibreboard
(HDF) reduces the risks of
impression marks.


                                                             Kährs woodloc®
     Base layer of real wood veneer
                                                             The mechanical joint means that the floor can be quickly
     The base layer of Pine provides high shape stability.
                                                             and easily installed with a perfect result without the
                                                             need for gluing. The first two planks will be automati-
                                                             cally straight and this simplifies the rest of the installa-
                                                             tion. The floor will have almost invisible joints and lasts
                                                             for decades. Kährs woodloc® is more durable than
                                                             glued tongue and groove joints.




72
6.1 Kährs 7 mm wood flooring (Linnea)
Applications
Kährs 7 mm wood flooring is primarily best for use in      width is greater than 12 metres. An impact sound re-
domestic areas. This wood flooring combines an attrac-     ducing underlay must be installed under the planks.
tive appearance with simple installation.                    Underfloor heating and thermal transmission resis-
                                                           tance 7 mm wood floor is very suitable for installation
• Real wood surface.                                       on underfloor heating. Thermal transmission resis-
• One of the hardest floors in Kährs range thanks to       tance: approximately 0.08 m 2K/W (see Section 8.6).
  the intermediate layer of HDF.                           Flooring paper is recommended as an intermediate
• Very stable and climate resistant thanks to the base     layer for underfloor heating.
  layer veneer of real wood.
• Adds only approximately 7 mm in height, which            Maintenance
  reduces the need to trim doors.                          Vacuum clean or wipe the floor as required with a
• Simple to install thanks to Kährs woodloc®.              damp cloth that has been thoroughly wrung out or use
• Fully-treated with UV lacquer or UV oil.                 Kährs Original maintenance mop. Too much water
• Durable and easy to maintain.                            can damage the floor. See Chapter 9 for special care
• The surface treatment can be renovated.                  instructions.
• Carefully tested from an ecological aspect by IHD
  (Institut für Holzteknologie in Germany)                 Moisture ratio
                                                           Moisture ratio when delivered: 7 + 2%.
Structure
• Three-layer planks with Kährs woodloc® all round.        Weight
• Surface layer of hardwood veneer.                        • 7 kg/m 2
• Intermediate layer of HDF.
• base layer of real wood veneer.                          Packaging
                                                           • Packed in 100% recycled paper.
Wear surface thickness                                     • Climate protection of thin PE sheeting.
7-mm flooring has the same tough lacquer as the            • The packaging can be returned for paper recycling.
standard wood floors, with a surface layer of real wood
veneer. The thin veneer makes it possible for the under-
lying HDF to absorb most loads and gives the product       Package contents
its Brinell hardness of 5–6.
                                                           Width         Length           Qty        m2
Surface treatment
• Finish-lacquered (for normal and dry areas) with         193 mm        1,225 mm         10         2.36
  UV-cured acrylic-based lacquer (silk matt
  approximately 30° Gardner). The lacquer does not
  contain solvents or formaldehyde and is durable as       Grading
  well as maintaining the wood’s natural character (see    The grading is shown in the guide in our product bro-
  Section 9.2).                                            chure where the respective appearance is also shown.
• Finish-oiled with UV oil. The principal components
  of the oil are sunflower oil and rapeseed oil.

Sub-floor requirements
The sub-floor must be clean, flat, dry and solid. The




                                                           !
regulations in HusAMA98, Table 43.DC/-1 and MDB.3
apply. Also note our requirements for the sub-floor
according to Chapter 7 as well as Kährs installation
instructions in Section 8.4.                                     Extra thin surface layer 0.6 mm.


Installation
Kährs 7 mm wood flooring is installed floating. The
planks are installed loose on the sub-floor and linked
together with Kährs woodloc®. Make an allowance for
approximately 2% waste when installing lengthwise
and approximately 8-10% when installing diagonally.
A floor must be divided with expansion joints if the




                                                                                                                 73
74
7. Sub-floors
        7.1    General sub-floor requirements                                       page 76
               7.1.1     A floor cannot be better than what the sub-floor permits   page 76
               7.1.2     Moisture                                                   page 76
               7.1.3     Curvature                                                  page 77
               7.1.4     Expansion joints                                           page 78


        7.2    Specific requirements for floating installations                     page 78

        7.3    Specific requirements for flooring glued
               to the sub-surface                                                   page 78
               7.3.1     General                                                    page 78
               7.3.2     Glue used when gluing                                      page 79


        7.4    Parquet and underfloor heating                                       page 79
               7.4.1     Specific requirements when laying
                         wood flooring on underfloor heating                        page 79
               7.4.2     Choice of wood flooring                                    page 80
               7.4.3     Installation                                               page 80
               7.4.4     Thermal transmission resistance in m2/KW                   page 80


        7.5    Vapour barrier                                                       page 81

        7.6    Impact sound insulation                                              page 81

        7.7    Concrete floor                                                       page 82

        7.8    Floors where levelling compounds are used                            page 82

        7.9    Wooden joists and battens                                            page 82

        7.10   Chipboard                                                            page 82

        7.11   Plywood                                                              page 82

        7.12   Existing wood floors                                                 page 83

        7.13   PVC flooring                                                         page 83

        7.14   Linoleum flooring                                                    page 83

        7.15   Ceramic tiles                                                        page 83

        7.16   Needle-felt carpets                                                  page 84

        7.17   Fitted carpets                                                       page 84

        7.18   Lightweight concrete                                                 page 84

        7.19   EPS (Expanded PolyStyrene) foam plastic                              page 84

        7.20   Air-gap forming vapour barrier
               of HD polyethylene                                                   page 85

        7.21   Air-gap-forming stud system                                          page 85

        7.22   Secondary spaced boarding                                            page 85

        7.23   Sand                                                                 page 85
                                                                                              75
7.1 General sub-floor requirements
7.1.1 A floor cannot be better than what the sub-floor permits
For wood floors of different types to last for many years     • EPS foam plastic shall have sufficient compression
it is necessary for the sub-floor to meet certain criteria.     strength, RA98Hus IBF.11, HusAMA98 IBF.11 or
These are as follows:                                           SS-EN13163

When installing, the material, sub-floor and workplace        • Foam plastic sheets shall comply with the necessary
shall be heated to at least 18°C. The relative air humid-       thickness tolerance, HusAMA98 IBF.11 or
ity in the premises shall be between 30-60%,                    SS-EN13163
RA98Hus MD.
                                                              • The sub-floor shall comply with HusAMA98, Table
• The sub-surface shall be clean and dry or provided            43.DC/-1 Class A and MDB.3.
  with the necessary vapour barrier.
                                                              • Soft sub-floors that give must be rectified. For
• The sub-floor shall be sufficiently flat, see                 example, textile carpeting with a thick pile must be
  HusAMA98, Table 43.DC/-1 Class A and MDB.3.                   removed.

• The same requirement applies to sub-flooring that
  has additional insulation of foam plastic, EPS – ex
  panded polystyrene.




7.1.2 Moisture
HusAMA98 JSF.52 specifies the temperature and                 specifies 60% RH as the upper limit in intermediate
humidity requirements that apply. For example, the            joists of concrete where moisture protection in the form
premises need to be dehumidified if the air humidity is       of a vapour barrier is not usually necessary. The table
greater than 60% RH. The temperature must be raised           also states for the same type of joist structure that par-
if it is below 18°C.                                          quet may not be installed if the RH is higher than 95%.

Even in a steady state condition it is important for          Note that newly cast concrete joists are never sufficient-
parquet flooring that the air’s RH be maintained within       ly dry at the time of floor laying and a vapour barrier
the specified limits. Permanent damage can occur if           is always required. A few months after casting the RH
the RH is too high. HusAMA98 JSF states, for example,         in the joist structure is usually < 95% and moisture
that if the number and size of gaps is greater than as        measurement is not normally necessary.
prescribed in AMA, this is often the consequence of the
effects of high moisture levels followed by drying.           Certain types of joist structure require an obligatory
                                                              vapour barrier irrespective of the age of the joist struc-
Parquet should always be protected against moisture           ture. HusAMA98, MD states:




                                                              !
from the sub-floor. As a vapour barrier we recommend
0.2 mm ageing resistant PE sheeting, i.e. of a quality
that complies with the requirements in the relevant
issue of SPF’s Verksnorm 2000. The sheeting must be                    When installing on
installed with an overlap of at least 200-mm. We also                  • a floor on the ground
approve Kährs Tuplex.                                                  • on a joist structure above warm or humid areas
                                                                         (boiler rooms, laundry rooms)
                                                                       • crawl space foundations
The sub-surface should be clean and free from organic                  • warm floors (underfloor heating)
material such as wood chips and paper before the                         the floor structure must be fitted with a vapour
vapour barrier is installed. As organic material can                     barrier.
cause mould when the RH humidity under the sheeting
increases.
                                                              We recommend that a vapour barrier also be installed
Hus AMA98 JSF.52 deals with building humidity and             on lightweight concrete joist structures.


76
7.1.3 Curvature
For an installed parquet floor to work well it is neces-      Procedure:
sary for the sub-surface to be sufficiently flat. The         When measuring, the straightedge should be placed in
requirements according to HusAMA98, Table 43.DC/-1,           the least favourable position on the surface.
class A apply to all types of floor from Kährs.               • The centres must not be located at joints in brick
                                                                work or other similar marked joints.
Over a measured length of 2 meters the tolerance is           • Working joints in concrete or sheet flooring are
+3 mm and for a measured length of 0.25 m the toler-            ex cepted from the measurement requirements.
ance is +1.2 mm. We also accept a 1 m measured                • The tolerance requirements in AMA are set as abso
length with a tolerance of ± 2-mm.                              lute values and shall therefore be complied with at
                                                                each measurement point. A measurement taken in
Equipment:                                                      this way always gives the answer pass or fail.
A straightedge should be used. Two lengths can be used        • The imaginary line between the centres’ applica
with a centre spacing of 0.25 and 2.0 m. The centres            tion to the sub-surface is used as a starting value.
should have a 100 mm2 application area against the              All measurement points along the line shall
surface. We also approve a 1.0 m straightedge for con-          then meet the requirements irrespective of where
trol measurement. A measuring wedge should be used.             the straight edge is positioned.
The alternative to a straightedge is “precision levelling”.



Example of curvature measurement:




Plus value
                                                                                                        Minus value



                                                              Example A
                                                              Criteria:        Measurement length = 2 m.
                                                                               Centre height = 10 mm. Aid = Measurement
                                                                               wedge.

                                                              a. When measuring with a straightedge it shows 7 mm and the
                                                                 plus value (+) is 10–7 = 3 mm. This is therefore acceptable.




                                                              Example B
                                                              Criteria: as in Example A.

                                                              If the straightedge is moved to the right so that the centres are
                                                              on elevations the minus value (-) will be 16–10 = 6 mm. This is
                                                              not acceptable since all measurement points must be within the
                                                              stated tolerance requirements. No plus or minus value must be
                                                              greater than 3 mm.




                                                              Example C
                                                              Criteria: as in Example A.

                                                              A movement of the straightedge to the left gives a plus value
                                                              (+) of 16–10 = 6 mm. This is not acceptable either.




                                                                                                                                77
7.1.4 Expansion joints
The seasonal climate variations cause a certain amount




                                                                   !
of movement, swelling and shrinkage in parquet floor-
ing. This is why flooring must not be installed tightly
against adjacent walls or other permanent building                        Note that the skirting board dimensions must not
sections without leaving room for movement all round                      determine the size of the expansion joints. In large
according to HusAMA98 MDB.3 The floor must be                             areas the skirting board must therefore be chosen on
allowed to swell at thresholds, door frames, heating                      the basis of the expansion joint dimensions and not
                                                                          vice versa.
pipes, pillars, stairs and other parquet flooring.

The expansion joints shall be sufficiently wide - mini-
mum 1.5 mm/metre floor width. A floor with a width
of 4 m therefore requires an expansion joint of 4 x 1.5
mm = at least 6 mm. It is however practical to work            To achieve neat finishes there are different types of
with a measurement of 10 mm in small areas. A large            moulding that can be used. See Chapter 10 and Kährs
floor requires larger expansion joints of course.              product brochure.




7.2 Specific requirements for
floating installations


                                                                   !
Kährs wood floors with wooodloc® joint are installed
without glue.
                                                                          Double full gluing, i.e. a full bead along the top and bot-
                                                                          tom edges of the groove shall be used in the following:
For traditional joint with tongue and groove, always                      • Floors on underfloor heating
use Kährs glue for wooden floors or equivalent accord-                    • Floors in public areas
ing to Kährs’ recommendations (Bona T-175). Note that                     • L shaped rooms
                                                                          • 20 mm wood flooring in floating instalations
some other adhesives have considerable lower strength
and are therefore unsuitable.




7.3 Specific requirements for flooring
glued to the sub-surface
7.3.1 General
If the floor material needs to be glued against a con-         •   Good quality 19 mm thick chipboard to at least class
crete surface, the latter must have sufficient strength to         2 SIS 234801. A minimum of 16 mm is acceptable if
withstand a scratch test without the concrete surface              the surface is level.
flaking. This applies also to floor surfaces that are          •   Plywood (preferably pine), at least B quality and at
finished with levelling compound. If there is a weak               least 12 mm thick.
casting skin it must be removed or ground off. Other-
wise the glue will have poor adhesion.                         Always follow the sheet manufacturer’s instructions for
                                                               installation.
If the structure of the sub-surface is such that gluing
directly to it is not possible, or if a vapour barrier i ac-   Observe the glue manufacturer’s requirements concern-
cordance with Section 7.1.2 is required, sheet material        ing priming on these surfaces. The surface should be
must be installed as a sub-surface for the parquet. Suit-      clean and free from dust, grease and dirt. A surface
able sheet materials for this are:



78
with old glue should preferably be cleaned (follow the
glue manufacturer’s instructions).

If the sub-surface requires an expansion joint at a
distance less than 12 m then this applies also to the
parquet.




7.3.2 Glue used when gluing
Products that are surface treated should be bonded         short joints must be glued with “Kährs glue for parquet
with a glue that does not contain water. Other types of    flooring” or other glue recommended by Kährs. Note
floor can be glued with water-based parquet glue.          that certain other glues may have a significantly lower
                                                           strength and are therefore unsuitable.
Irregularities in the surface must not be levelled using
glue. This results in uneven and inadequate adhesion       Kährs parquet planks with woodloc® can be glued to
in such areas. Always follow the glue manufacturer’s       the sub-surface. MS polymer glue is normally used for
instructions. Use a glue spreader that ensures the cor-    gluing on intermediate concrete joists where the RH at
rect coverage.                                             the surface exceeds 65%. Follow the glue manufactur-
                                                           er’s instructions.
If multi-layer parquet planks with traditional tongue
and groove joints are glued to the sub-surface, the




7.4 Parquet and underfloor heating
General
Underfloor heating that works efficiently, either elec-    The installation instructions that apply to the respec-
trical or hot water, provides almost an ideal heating      tive floor type apply also when installing on underfloor
method and, by combining underfloor heating with a         heating. The following considers issues that are partic-
wood floor, the result is optimum living comfort.          ular to wood flooring installed on underfloor heating.




7.4.1 Specific requirements for laying wood flooring on underfloor heating

•   The floor construction should have a heat-                 without too many or thick rugs it is reasonable to
    dissipating layer that provides an even temperature        achieve 23°C at the exposed floor areas which gives
    across the entire floor area and avoids high tempera       a room temperature of approximately 21°C.
    tures at certain places.                                   This rests heavilly on the room size, insulation levels
•   The entire living area should be heated. This does         and draught proofing.
    not apply however in what are termed comfort heat      •   A vapour barrier must be present in the floor con
    ing systems that complement the usual heating. The         struction. This should lie as close to the wood
    temperature in this case is significantly lower than       floor as possible. If there are thick or heavy joists
    the permitted 27°C at the floor surface.                   it is additionally important that the vapour barrier is
•   The floor covering shall have a low thermal transmit       near the wood floor. Under no circumstances must
    tance resistance.                                          the vapour barrier be installed on the other side of
•   Accurate control systems should be in place to regu        the joist structure.
    late and limit the surface temperature.                •   The wood floor must lie tight against the sub-surface
•   The finished floor’s surface temperature must not          without an air gap that can cause considerable
    exceed 27°C at any time. This also applies under           drying-out of the wood.
    rugs, carpets and furniture. By furnishing




                                                                                                                    79
7.4.2 Choice of wood flooring




                                                                !
The first choice should be 15 mm or 7 mm wood floor-
ing with woodloc® joints. This reduces the risk of gaps.                 Laminated parquet of Beech or Hard Maple swells and
22 mm should be used if the floor is to have self-sup-                   shrinks more than other types of wood. Underfloor
porting characteristics.                                                 heating results in increased drying and additional
                                                                         shrinkage. In a cold and dry climate such as in Sweden
                                                                         it is poosible that gaps can occur between strips and
Solid wood floors swell and shrink as a consequence of                   between planks.
climate variations more than floors with a multi-layer
construction. This is clearly evident on underfloor heat-
ing with a greater risk of gaps.




7.4.3 Installation
The ambient temperature when installing should be               Kährs. If poor quality glue is used there is a risk that
at least 18oC. This applies to the planks, sub-surface          the planks could eventually separate.
and room air. The air’s RH must be less than 60% both
before, during, and after installation.                         Remember that flooring installed above underfloor
                                                                heating is more sensitive to moisture than a floor that is
Parquet with woodloc® must not be glued.                        not heated. This is because the moisture ratio differ-
                                                                ence between the floor’s driest and wettest state will
When gluing using traditional tongue and groove                 become greater.




                                                                !
joints, double full gluing, i.e. a full bead along the top
and bottom edges of the groove should be used for
floors on underfloor heating, floors in public areas and
                                                                         Where there is underfloor heating it is additionally
L shaped rooms. See Section 7.2.
                                                                         important to devide the floating glued floor at door
                                                                         transitions because of the increased movements cause
Make sure to use good quality glue such as Kährs glue                    by this type of heating.
for wood flooring or other glue recommended by




7.4.4 Thermal transmittance resistance in m2 K/W
(including transfer resistance)

  Product             Including Tuplex            Without                  Including                  Including 3 mm
                                                  intermediate layer       flooring paper             foam plastic

  15 mm
  Kährs wood          Approx 0.225                0.141                    0.155                      0.219
  flooring

  7 mm
  Kährs wood          Approx 0.17                 0.06-0.07                Approx 0.08                Approx 0.16
  flooring




Flooring paper should be used as an intermediate layer. Polyethylene foam plastic, Tuplex and cork granule paper have
a higher heat transfer resistance and this is unsuitable for underfloor heating.




80
7.5 Vapour barrier
We recommend a 0.2 thick polyethylene sheet (PE               moisture. Refer to Section 7.1.2 for which surfaces a
sheet) as a vapour barrier providing this meets the           vapour barrier is always required.
requirements of the current version of the Swedish
Plastics Federation’s Engineering Standard 2000, i.e. it      When the intermediate layer is used in combination
is age-resistant. The sheet is installed with an overlap      with a vapour barrier, the intermediate layer should
of at least 200 mm according to RA98Hus JSF.5 and             be placed on top of the sheet. Tuplex (ses Section 10.1)
JSF.52 respectively. Taping of the joints is not necessary    is approved by us as a vapour barrier if installed as
if this overlap is used.                                      instructed. It has an integral fold.

Any coating with moisture insulation can never replace
a vapour barrier, i.e. even protection against applied




7.6 Impact sound insulation -
intermediate layer
To achieve a floor that is quiet and comfortable to walk      floor. This shall be installed edge-to-edge without any
on, some form of intermediate layer shall be installed        overlap.
between the sub-surface and the wood floor. Those
used most commonly today are polyethylene foam plas-          When an intermediate layer is used in combination
tic, flooring paper or Tuplex.                                with a vapour barrier, the intermediate layer shall be
                                                              placed on top of the vapour barrier which is then pro-
The basic construction is very significant for nominal        tected against abrasion and perforation.
requirements for impact sound insulation. This means
that general recommendations cannot be provided.              Kährs have previously tested a number of floors with
Tuplex or polyethylene foam plastic are normally              regard to impact sound insulation. The following shows
sufficient when installing floors in detached houses          the results from these tests performed by the Swedish
(there are no standard requirements). The intermediate        Testing and Research Institute, SP.
layer is placed between the sub-surface and the wood



                                                      Impact sound ΔLw   Impact sound           Airborne sound ΔRw
  Description of the floor                            (dB)               klass                  (dB)

   7 mm Kährs wood floor + floor paper L400           16                 7                      -2,0

   7 mm Kährs wood floor + Cellofloor 2 mm            19                 7                      -2,0

   7 mm Kährs wood floor + Cellofloor 3 mm            19                 7                      -3,0

   7 mm Kährs wood floor + Airolen® 1,8 mm            18                 7                      -2,0

  15 mm Kährs wood floor + Cellofloor 2 mm            17                 7                      -1,0

  15 mm Kährs wood floor + Cellofloor 3 mm            18                 7                      -1,0

  15 mm Kährs wood floor + Airolen® 1,8 mm            17                 7                      -1,0

  15 mm Kährs wood floor + Airolen® 3,0 mm            18                 7                      -0,5

  15 mm Kährs wood floor + Tuplex                     18




                                                                                                                      81
7.7 Concrete floor
The following applies in addition to the general re-          Floors glued in position: A sheet construction shall
quirements: A vapour barrier is obligatory for floors on      be placed above if the design requires a vapour bar-
the ground, crawl space foundations and on newly-cast         rier. See Section 7.3. Large floor areas can be installed
concrete joists.                                              without expansion joints if the floor is glued to sheets
                                                              and concrete sub-floors.
Floating floor: Uneven concrete floors shall be levelled
with the appropriate compound.




7.8 Floors where levelling compound is used.
The following applies in addition to the general
requirements: The same requirements as for concrete
floors. See Section 7.7.




7.9 Wooden joists and studs
The following applies in addition to the general              There should be a stagger of at least 500 mm between
requirements: Timber in wooden joists and studs must          end joints in adjacent rows of planks.
be sufficiently dry. Ensure that studs and joists are level
to avoid creaking. Multi-layer parquet with a thickness       Floating floor: We recommend this method principally
of at least 22 mm should be used on studs and joists          for 22 mm laminated parquet. For other installation
in housing where the maximum c/c is 600 mm. Two               methods see the installation instructions in Section
adjacent planks must not be jointed at the same joist         8.5.4 for Kährs 22 mm laminated parquet on studs.
compartment (the space between two joists or studs).




7.10 Chipboard
The following applies in addition to the general              Floors glued in position: The thickness of the chip-
requirements: Sheets of chipboard shall be of good            board shall be at least 19 mm on the joist structure.
quality – at least class 2. See Section 7.3.1. Note that      When installing on a floating sub-floor of chipboard on
the maximum width for installing chipboard sheets             a fixed sub-floor, e.g. floor on ground, the sheet shall
may be less than that for laminated parquet.                  be at least 16 mm thick.

Floating floor: Uneven concrete floors shall be levelled      If the design requires a vapour barrier, this must be
with filler compound. Depressions can also be evened          installed under the chipboard sheet.
out with one or two layers of flooring paper that are
shaped to the extent of depression.




82
7.11 Plywood
Plywood can be used as an underlay for glued parquet        when installing on a flat surface, e.g. floor on ground.
flooring if a vapour barrier is required.                   If the design requires a vapour barrier, this must be
                                                            placed under the plywood sheet that shall be nailed/ or
The following applies in addition to the general            screwed to the surface, c/c distance 400 mm.
requirements: Floors glued in position: The thick-
ness of the plywood sheet shall be at least 12 mm




7.12 Existing wood floors
The following applies in addition to the general            Floating floor: Multi-layer parquet is normally in-
requirements: The timber in wooden joists and studs         stalled at right angles to the existing floor. Providing
must be sufficiently dry, i.e. it shall have achieved a     the existing floorboards are flat, the new floor can be
steady state.                                               laid in the same direction as the old floorboards.




7.13 PVC flooring
The following applies in addition to the general            of how the flooring is attached to the sub-floor or what
requirements: Floating floor: PVC flooring can func-        glue has been used. If there is poor adhesion there is a
tion as a vapour barrier as long as the flooring and any    risk that the flooring will loosen as a result of tensile
joints are tight and complete.                              forces from the glued wood flooring. It is recommended
                                                            that the linoleum be removed.
Floors glued in position: Underlay of PVC flooring can
be difficult to glue against. Often there is no knowledge




7.14 Linoleum flooring
The following applies in addition to the general            edge of how the flooring is attached to the sub-floor. If
requirements: Floating floor: Since linoleum flooring       there is poor adhesion there is a risk that the flooring
is an organic material it must be removed if the design     will loosen as a result of tensile forces from the glued
requires a vapour barrier.                                  parquet flooring. It is recommended that the linoleum
                                                            be removed.
Floors glued in position: Underlay of linoleum can
be difficult to glue against. Often there is no knowl-




7.15 Ceramic tiles
The following applies in addition to the general            carborundum, for example, gluing can be done with a
requirements: Note that it used to be common for this       spirit-based glue. Ceramic tiles are often used in humid
type of floor to be used because of the risk of moisture    areas and in hygiene areas. The difficulty of removing
coming up from below. Check carefully for any require-      any grease, principally from joints in hygiene areas,
ment for a vapour barrier.                                  makes it very difficult to glue against this surface.

Floors glued in position: Gluing cannot be done             Refer to Section 7.3 for suitable sheet material. Contact
directly on the tiles. If the surface is roughened with     your glue supplier for more detailed information.

                                                                                                                       83
7.16 Needle-felt carpets
The following applies in addition to the general            recommendation is that the carpet be removed. Kährs
requirements: Remember that carpets may contain             7 mm wood flooring can be installed on this surface.
residues of organic material that can go mouldy when
affected by moisture.                                       Floors glued in position: Gluing cannot be done. Re-
                                                            move the carpet. Sheet material must be applied if the
Floating floor: Floating installation is generally pos-     floor lies on a structure that requires a vapour barrier.
sible. Carpets must be removed if the floor lies on a       See Section 7.3.
structure that requires a vapour barrier. The general




7.17 Fitted carpets
The following applies in addition to the general            a vapour barrier. The general recommendation is that
requirements: Remember that carpets may contain             the carpet be removed.
residues of organic material that can go mouldy when        Floating installation of 7 mm wood flooring: The car-
affected by moisture.                                       pet must be removed under all circumstances.

Floating installation of 15-mm multi-layer parquet:         Floors glued in position: Gluing cannot be done.
Floating installation can be done directly on the carpet    Remove the carpet. Sheet material must be applied if
if the pile is short. If not, the carpet must be removed.   the floor lies on a structure that requires a vapour bar-
The carpet must be removed if the floor design requires     rier. See Section 7.3.




7.18 Lightweight concrete
The following applies in addition to the general            Floors glued in position: Because of the requirement
requirements: We always recommend a vapour barrier          for a vapour barrier there is a requirement for a sheet
for this surface irrespective of its age. Uneven light-     construction to which the flooring can be glued. The
weight concrete floors shall be corrected with levelling    vapour barrier is installed under the sheet construc-
compound.                                                   tion. See Section 7.3.




7.19 EPS (Expanded PolyStyrene foam plastic)
When applying supplementary insulation on concrete          SS-EN 13163. An intermediate layer is placed between
joists it is important to use a type of EPS designed for    the foam plastic and planks. See the installation in-
wood floor installation. To avoid unpleasant sagging        structions in Section 8.5.5.
and damage in the long term the thickness tolerance
of the sheets shall be ± 0.5 mm, HusAMA98 IBF.11. In        Floating installation of 22 mm wood flooring in do-
this context it should be observed that EPS sheets for      mestic applications: EPS foam plastic with at least 100
insulation in foundations below a concrete joist struc-     kPa (density20 kg/m 2) according to SS-EN 13163 with-
ture have a much greater thickness tolerance and, be-       out load-distributing layer of chipboard. An intermedi-
cause of this, such sheets are directly unsuitable. Arc-    ate layer is placed between the foam plastic and planks.
shaped sheets must not be used for the same reasons.        See the installation instructions in Section 8.5.6.
Follow the foam plastic manufacturer’s instructions.
                                                            Floating installation of 7 mm wood flooring in
Our recommendations concerning EPS foam plastic are:        domestic applications: EPS foam plastic with at least
The following applies in addition to the general            150 kPa (density 30 kg/m 2) according to SS-EN 13163.
requirements: Floating installation of 15 mm wood           Shall be fitted with a load-distributing layer of chip-
flooring in domestic applications: EPS foam plastic         board that has a thickness of at least 10 mm. See the
with at least 150 kPa (density 30 kg/m 2) according to      installation instructions in Section 8.5.7.

84
7.20 Air-gap forming vapour barrier
of HD polyethylene
The following applies in addition to the general          Floating installation of 7 mm wood flooring in
requirements: An air-gap forming vapour barriers are      domestic applications: 7 mm wood flooring can be
significantly more dense and thus additional mois-        installed on Platon Stop and Delta FM Yellow Line
ture protection is not necessary. These shall meet the    without load-distributing sheets. Otherwise refer to the
requirements of HusAMA 98 JSF.71 and JSF.72 respec-       manufacturer’s recommendations and instructions.
tively.                                                   Floors glued in position: Refer to the installation in-
                                                          structions for wood flooring on sheet material, Sections
Floating installation of 15 mm or 20 mm wood              7.10 and 7.11.
flooring: There are several alternatives on the market.
Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations and in-
structions.




7.21 Air-gap-forming stud system
The following applies in addition to the general
requirements: Floating floor: 22 mm wood flooring
can be installed on air-gap forming steel stud systems
such as Granab. Follow the instructions for 22 mm
wood flooring on studs. See Chapter 8.




7.22 Secondary spaced boarding
The following applies in addition to the general          28x70 mm, with a maximum c/c of 150 mm. The wood
requirements: Floating floor: 15-mm multi-layer           flooring shall be installed at right angles to the sec-
parquet can be installed on secondary spaced boarding,    ondary spaced boarding. Since these designs are used
28x120 mm, with a maximum c/c of 160 mm. A c/c of         mostly for underfloor heating please refer underfloor
140 mm should be aimed for. 22 mm laminate parquet        heating instructions or Section 7.4.
can be installed on secondary spaced boarding,




7.23 Sand
The following applies in addition to the general
requirements: Floating floor: 15 mm parquet floor-
ing can be laid on a layer of sand. According to
HusAMA98.MDB.336 the sand must be covered with
plastic sheeting with overlaps of at least 200 mm and
the sides drawn up against walls.




                                                                                                               85
86
8. Installing wood flooring
         8.1   General installation instructions for
               parquet flooring                                                  page 89

         8.2   Before installing                                                 page 91
               8.2.1    The time for installing                                  page 91
               8.2.2    Storage                                                  page 91
               8.2.3    Inspection                                               page 91
               8.2.4    Choice of installation direction                         page 91
               8.2.5    Installing patterned planks                              page 92
               8.2.6    Installing planks in patterns                            page 92
               8.2.7    Fitting interior design components                       page 92
               8.2.8    Planning floor installation                              page 92


         8.3   When installing                                                   page 92
               8.3.1    Cleaning the sub-floor                                   page 92
               8.3.2    Opening bundles                                          page 92
               8.3.3    Expansion joints                                         page 93
               8.3.4    Unevenness in the sub-floor                              page 93
               8.3.5    End joints in small areas                                page 93
               8.3.6    Gluing end joints                                        page 93
               8.3.7    Tight end joints                                         page 93
               8.3.8    Door transitions                                         page 94
               8.3.9    Fitting skirting boards                                  page 94
               8.3.10   Gluing                                                   page 94


         8.4   After installing                                                  page 95
               8.4.1    Lacquering                                               page 95
               8.4.2    Protective coating                                       page 95
               8.4.3    Tape                                                     page 95
               8.4.4    Ventilation                                              page 95


         8.5   Installation instructions                                         page 96
               8.5.1    Installation instructions for Kährs 15 mm wood
                        flooring with woodloc®; floating installation            page 96
               8.5.2    Installation instructions for Kährs 7 mm wood
                        flooring with woodloc®; floating installation (Linnea)   page 98
               8.5.3    Installation instructions for Kährs 15 and 20 mm
                        wood flooring with tongue and groove, floating
                        installation                                             page 100
               8.5.4    Installation instructions for Kährs 22 mm wood
                        flooring with tongue and groove on joists                page 102
               8.5.5    Installation instructions for Kährs 15 mm wood
                        flooring on foam plastic 150 kPa, floating
                        installation in housing                                  page 104
               8.5.6    Installation instructions for Kährs 22 mm wood
                        flooring on foam plastic 100 kPa, floating
                        installation in housing                                  page 104
               8.5.7    Installation instructions for Kährs 7 mm wood
                        flooringon foam plastic 150 kPa, floating installation
                        on load-distributing chipboard in housing (Linnea)       page 105




                                                                                 >>>
                                                                                            87
8.6   Installing Kährs wood flooring on
      underfloor heating                                  page 105
      8.6.1     Special requirements                      page 105
      8.6.2     Choice of wood flooring                   page 105
      8.6.3     Installation                              page 106
      8.6.4     Thermal transmission resistance           page 106


8.7   Installation instructions for Kährs stair nosings   page 107

8.8   Installing Flexilist                                page 108

8.9   Installing aluminium mouldings                      page 108




88
8.1 General installation instructions for
parquet flooring
General:
Wood is a hygroscopic material, termed a living mate-           followed by drying out. The humidity of the wood
rial in everyday speech, and depending on the ambient           and thus the wood floor is in direct proportion to the
relative humidity and temperature it either gives off           humidity of the surrounding air. If the air is humid the
or absorbs moisture. This causes a change in volume             moisture content of the wood increases and it swells.
– swelling or shrinkage. It is therefore important that         High air humidity is often caused by general building
an expansion joint be provided between the floor-               moisture or, more commonly, by building moisture in
ing and wall, and other fixed objects, when a floating          concrete joist structures and incidental water vapour
installation of parquet flooring is made. To prevent            through diffusion from the ground via the joist struc-
the flooring from absorbing moisture before it is even          ture. In many cases this is caused by the lack of an
installed it is important that packaging is not opened          obligatory vapour barrier.
until just before the time of installation.
                                                                When the floor later dries out it shrinks. If the mois-
Important: This is particularly important in newly-             ture level has been excessive there can be permanent
built houses since when the parquet flooring is laid            damage to the floor. In such cases, the relative humid-
there is often quite a large amount of building moisture        ity (RH) around the floor has been far too high. Mea-
remaining. To avoid damage it is important for the              sures to prevent damage have not been implemented to
relative humidity to be less than 60% both during and           the appropriate extent. Even natural, seasonal climate
after installation. The temperature of the room and             variations can cause a certain movement, swelling
material shall be at least 18°C. See Hus AMA98 MD.              and shrinkage in a wood floor and even minor shape
Parquet flooring should therefore be installed when             changes. These changes are not usually permanent.
all other trades have completed their work, i.e. when           Multi-layer planks gain a slightly convex cross section
painters and tilers are finished and the building site has      during the summer and autumn as a consequence of
the correct RH.                                                 swelling. Our 7-mm wood flooring may react different-
                                                                ly as a result of absorbing moisture. The planks shrink
Moisture protection is not normally necessary on joist          later during the heating season and, in the winter, have
structures if the RH is less than 60%. Note that newly-         a slightly concave cross section. Even insignificant gaps
cast joist structures do not meet this requirement and          can also be formed between planks but these disappear
moisture protection is always necessary.                        later.

Moisture protection is obligatory on the following sub-         The most serious installation faults are:
floors irrespective of age:                                     • The sub-floor has not met the requirement
                                                                  for flatness.




!
                                                                • Inadequate gluing, incorrect placement of the glue,
         8.8  Concrete floors that lie directly on the ground     use of incorrect glue or no glue at all.
              (slabs on ground)
         8.9 Floors on top of warm or humid premises (such as
                                                                • Lack of dehumidification when the air humidity is
              a boiler room or laundry room)
         8.10 Joist structures above ventilated crawl space
                                                                  too high as a result of building moisture.
              foundations
         8.11 Lightweight concrete joist structures             • Sub-floor too moist or there is no obligatory
                                                                  vapour barrier.

                                                                • The expansion joints are not large enough.
The floor must not be installed under any circum-
stances if the sub-floor’s RH is in excess of 95%. Refer        • No gluing of the planks’ end joints.
to Section 7.1.2.
                                                                • Insufficient removal of excess glue.
All floor areas shall always be laid in a staggered way
and this also applies to small areas such as halls or           • Incorrect tools or aids used.
small rooms. See Section 8.3.5. An even distribution of
short ends means that the floor will remain level even          • Packaging opened too soon.
as the climate changes.
                                                                • Parquet planks were installed “backwards” and thus
The most common reason for complaint concerning                   the surface layer edge is damaged instead of the
wood floors is damage caused by a high moisture level


                                                                                                                        89
  protruding tongue absorbing the force of knocking           • The relative humidity in the room must not
  planks together.                                              exceed 60% (Hus AMA98 JSF.52 ). Both the room
                                                                and the planks shall be warmed to normal room
• The incorrect floor product has been installed.               temperature. An ageing-resistant 0.2 mm
                                                                polyethylene vapour barrier shall first be installed on
The above mistakes and damage to flooring can be                a sub-floor that is a newly-cast concrete joist
avoided by studying the installation instructions before        structure, lightweight concrete joist structure,
starting installation and by following them.                    concrete floor directly on the ground, crawl space
                                                                foundation or has an underfloor heating system. This
                                                                shall be installed with an overlap of at least 200 mm.
General preparations                                            The sub-floor shall be cleaned thoroughly to avoid
• Store the planks in their packaging. Open as you              mould. Flooring must not be installed if the relative
  install. Read the installation instructions before            humidity in the sub-floor is more than 95% (HusA
  installing.                                                   MA98, MD).

• Kährs wood flooring with woodloc® joints are                • An intermediate layer shall be installed on top of the
  installed floating, i.e. they are joined together without     sheeting to reduce impact sound. Use 2–3 mm poly
  being attached to the sub-floor. Note that the planks         thene foam plastic of good quality or flooring paper.
  are joined together without glue.                             The intermediate layer is laid edge to edge. Contact
                                                                an acoustic engineer if you have specific require
• The sub-surface must be clean, flat, dry and solid.           ments for impact sound insulation.
  Remove fitted carpets. Refer to the special instruction
  in Section 8.5.5 when laying foam plastic (EPS).            • In narrow areas the planks are laid in a longitudinal
                                                                direction. The floor moves as the relative humidity
• Kährs parquet can be installed on underfloor                  varies and should therefore have an expansion joint
  heating and any underfloor heating system will                of at least 10-mm next to walls and fixed objects
  provide an efficient and even distribution of                 (stairs, pillar, door frames etc.). For larger floor areas
  warmth across the floor. The surface temperature of           it is necessary to allow for 1.5 mm of expansion joint
  the floor must never exceed 27°. This also applies            per metre width of floor. This expansion joint shall
  to pipes for radiators and under any carpets etc.             be provided around the entire floor. If the floor width
  Laminated parquet of Beech and Hard Maple swells              is greater than 12 m the floor should be divided with
  and shrinks more than other types of wood.                    an expansion joint.
  Underfloor heating causes increased drying and this
  results in extra shrinkage. If the climate is cold and      • If you find a damaged or faulty plank, put it to one
  dry, such as in Sweden, gaps between strips and be            side. It could be surplus or used for finishing off.
  tween planks could occur. Refer to the special                Naturally you can exchange a faulty plank at the
  instruction in Section 8.6.                                   place where you purchased it. Ask the advice of
                                                                your floor supplier or us if you have any questions
• Check the flatness of the sub-floor over a measured           concerning building moisture, if you plan to install
  length of 2 m and a measured length of 0.25 m.                a floor on a floor structure that is different to what
  If unevenness is greater than + 3 mm over 2 m                 we have described, if you plan to in stall a large floor,
  or greater than + 1.2 mm over 0.25 m the uneven               or if anything else is unclear.
  ness must first be levelled (HusAMA98, Table 43.
  DC/-1 Class A and MDB.3).




90
8.2 Before installing
8.2.1 The time for installing
Parquet flooring should be installed when all other          When installing using woodloc®, the speed of installa-
trades have completed their work, i.e. when painting,        tion will be improved if the door architrave’s are fitted
wallpapering and tiling are finished and the building        after the floor installation is complete.
site has the correct RH. This is the only way to avoid
dirt and moisture damage to the floor.



8.2.2 Storage
It is of the greatest importance for parquet flooring        packaging until installation commences. Open the
to be stored in a dry place. Do not open the bundle’s        bundles as the installation progresses.




8.2.3 Inspection
We are also capable of making mistakes. It is always         boards as you install. Of course, we or your supplier
easier to rectify faults if they are detected in time. You   will replace any defective boards.
should therefore make a habit of always inspecting the




8.2.4 Choice of installation direction

We recommend installation in the room’s longitudinal         that the maximum width must not be exceeded (max
direction since the wood moves less in the direction of      12 m). Room for an expansion joint must be provided
the grain than across the grain.                             if this dimension is exceeded. Take into consideration
                                                             that wastage will be somewhat higher (8-10%).
Diagonal installation means more work but results in
a entirely different impression in the room. Remember




                                                                                                                     91
8.2.5 Installing patterned planks
Minor shifts in the pattern are permitted during manu-         that must be matched. The Toledo floor must be laid at
facture according to HusAMA.                                   an angle of 45° for the herringbone pattern to be visible
                                                               in the room’s installation direction.
Toledo, Amsterdam and Rotterdam floors have patterns




8.2.6 Installing planks in patterns
We recommend fully bonding the floor to the sub-floor          should change within an area. Woodloc® cannot be
where it is intended that the direction of the boards          installed with the short ends against a plank side.




8.2.7 Fitting interior design components

Interior design components and office partition walls          on the floor. The floor can cope with the load in most
must never be attached to or fastened in the parquet if        cases but we do however recommend that support legs
this is a floating installation. Install all interior design   rest against the sub-floor.
components first and then the floor. If, for any rea-
son, you still want a wood floor under interior design         If the floor is glued in position the interior design
components there must be an expansion joint under              component can be attached to the wood floor without it
the kick board. Modern kitchen fittings are normally           affecting the floor’s function.
attached to walls with the front edge support leg resting




8.2.8 Planning floor installation
Measure the width of the room and work out how wide            and last rows are about the same width. Do not forget
the last plank row will be. If it is less than 30 mm you       to include the expansion joints!
should also trim the first row of planks so that the first




8.3 When installing
8.3.1 Cleaning the sub-floor
Never leave sawdust or other organic residue on the            a vapour barrier that is required is laid on top of the
concrete. There is a considerable risk that mould              organic material.
could grow in the damp environment that can arise if



8.3.2 Opening bundles
The parquet is supplied “furniture-dry”. If the bundles        to lay them together and gaps could arise between the
are opened prematurely the planks could absorb mois-           planks when they dry out later and the risk of a poor
ture from the air and swell. It could then be difficult        result increases. This also applies to Kährs woodloc®.




92
8.3.3 Expansion joints
It is important to leave sufficient movement allowance        For example, a room with a width of 4 m shall have
next to all connecting surfaces such as walls, radiator       an expansion joint of 4 x 1.5 mm = 6 mm between the
pipes, connection mouldings and pillars.                      floor and all fixed objects.




                                                              !
Wood floors must be able to move according to the
level of humidity that varies with the seasons. When
                                                                    In the case of rooms that are narrower
flooring is delivered it has a moisture content that cor-
                                                                    than 6 m it is best to have an expansion
responds to approximately 40% RH. The variation in                  joint of 10 mm.
the RH of the floor fluctuates between 30–60% under
normal conditions.
                                                              An expansion joint between two areas can be concealed
The size of the expansion joint in mm can be calculated       under a threshold for example.
using the formula: 1.5 mm/metre of floor width.



8.3.4 Unevenness in the sub-floor
If small depressions in the sub-floor are detected dur-       paper. No more than one layer of Cellofloor or similar
ing floating installation, this can be filled with flooring   products should be installed since they are far too soft.




8.3.5 End joints in small areas
Installations in small areas should also be staggered.        helps to keep the floor level in climate variations.
A generous stagger in the lateral joints in adjacent rows,    Otherwise there is a risk that the floor could buckle.
at least 500 mm (at least 300 mm for 1.2 m planks),




8.3.6 Gluing end joints
End joints must be glued at traditional joints even in        Otherwise gaps could arise as the floor moves.
the case of glued-down, screwed or nailed planks.             Naturally this does not apply to Kährs woodloc®!




8.3.7 Tight end joints
With Kährs woodloc® you automatically get tight               the previous plank. Then tap in the long side halfway
end joints!                                                   and then the short end fully. Then lightly tap in the
                                                              long side until it is fully tight. Use a hammer block and
A good way of getting tight end joints using the tradi-       jemmy.
tional joint is first to push in only the short end into




                                                                                                                       93
8.3.8 Door transitions
When installing past a door opening or arch, the floor
must be divided with an expansion joint which is then
concealed with a threshold or moulding. If an exist-
ing threshold is attached to the sub-floor, an expan-
sion joint with the same dimensions as the rest of the
expansion joints in the room must be left between the
parquet and the threshold. Note that the requirement                  Expansion gap
for expansions joints at door transitions according to
HusAMA98 increases if underfloor heating is installed.

The threshold can also be taken up and re-installed
when the floor in installed and the joint concealed
under the threshold section. Check afterwards that the
door can be opened and closed. If the threshold is too
high, trim the door by the appropriate amount. A fine-
toothed saw and taped marking will make sawing the
door easier.



8.3.9 Fitting skirting boards
Skirting boards must not be pressed down against the          nails, screws or glue. The neatest joints are made if they
parquet otherwise the floor could be locked in place.         are mitred.
The skirting boards can be attached to the wall using


8.3.10 Gluing
Glue should not normally be used on Kährs woodloc®.           Double full gluing, i.e. a full bead along the top and
                                                              bottom edges of the groove should be used in the fol-
Traditional tongue and grooved joints should be glued         lowing installations:




                                                              !
against the groove on both the short and long sides.
Note that the bead of glue must be applied on the up-
per side of the groove (referred to as full single gluing),            •   Floors on underfloor heating
as shown in the figure – not in the bottom. The planks                 •   Floors in public areas
are then tapped together immediately.                                  •   L shaped rooms
                                                                       •   20 mm wood flooring in floating installations

A suitable glue is “Kährs adhesive for wooden floors” or
other glue recommended by Kährs (Bona Lim T-175).
Note that certain other glues may have a significantly        Glue that lands up on the floor surface must be re-
lower strength and are therefore unsuitable. The nor-         moved immediately with a damp cloth. Dried-on glue
mal consumption is 0.5 l per 20 m2.                           can be removed with methylated spirits.




94
8.4 After installation
8.4.1 Lacquering
Any spilt liquid must be cleaned up immediately. This        In this way the causes of discolouration and moisture
is particularly important for Beech and Hard Maple           damage to plank and strip joints can be prevented. On
since they are more sensitive to moisture and move           lacquered floors, this treatment is applied using Kährs
more than other types of wood. We therefore recom-           lacquer or equivalent lacquer. UV-oiled floors can be
mend additional surface treatment to seal between the        treated with Kährs Oil Refresher while naturally-oiled
planks in the areas where there is a risk of spillage and    floors can be treated with Kährs care wax, Watco Satin
it is allowed to lie.                                        Oil or similar.




8.4.2 Protective coating
If further work needs to be carried out in the area          that certain types of common packaging paper are im-
where the floor has been installed, the floor must           pervious to moisture and also have a wax coating that
be protected with a material that porous and allows          can be transferred to the wood floor. This produces
moisture vapour to rise from the floor (such as paper).      undesirable gloss variations. Refer to Section 10.1 for
Check also that it does not discolour the floor. Note        protective paper.




8.4.3 Tape
Do not apply tape to the wood floor but only against         surface lacquer when the tape is removed. The longer
the protective coating. Many types of tape stick so well     the tape is allowed to stick the greater the risk that it
to the floor surface that there is a risk of damage to the   adheres strongly to the lacquer.




8.4.4 Ventilation
When the floor is installed in a newly-built house it        the room is not adequately ventilated is that the entire
should be ventilated so that the building moisture does      floor can swell and buckle upwards in the middle.
not damage the floor. A phenomenon that can occur if




                                                                                                                     95
8.5 Installation instructions
8.5.1 Installation instructions for Kährs 15 mm wood flooring with
woodloc®; floating installation
Complete installation instructions are found in every other bundle.



1. Begin in one corner and work              be staggered by at least 500 mm (at   7.Carefully knock the plank’s long
from left to right with the tongue           least 300 mm for 1.2 metre planks).   side in place with Kährs hand block
sides towards the wall. The distance                                               so that it is tight.
of the long side to the wall can be
adjusted later when three rows have          4.Press the floor plank at an angle
been installed. Bear in mind that it         against the plank in front. Press     8. Press the plank down in stages to
may be simpler on many occasions             the plank forwards and then press     the floor so that it lies flat. Useful
to start the plank row at the door.          down at the same time in stages       tip: tap lightly with the hand block
                                             towards the floor.                    on the long side and the plank will
                                                                                   move easier into place.
2. Press the next floor plank at an
angle against the first one and lay          5.Press in a Kährs installation
it down. Continue in the same way            wedge at the short end under the      9. The distance to the walls can be
along the length of the first row.           plank already installed.              adjusted when three rows have been
                                                                                   laid. Place wedges between the floor
                                                                                   and wall.
3.Cut the last plank in the first row        6.Press in the next plank’s short
to the correct length and begin the          end at an angle and lay it down.
next row with the piece that is left
over. The planks end joints must




                                                     4                                                       7
                1




                                                                      5                                       8
 2




                                                                       6
        3                                                                                   9




96
10. The first floor row sometimes        13. If you need to cut a door archi-     15.Planks can be laid from all
needs to be adjusted to a crooked        trave use an off cut of flooring as a    directions if necessary. Woodloc® is
wall. Draw the contour of the wall       guide so you get the right height. If    also easy to take up. This helps the
on the floor planks. Then detach         you need to knock a plank length-        installation at doors for example.
the planks in the first row by tak-      ways protect the plank joint with a      Proceed as follows if you cannot
ing hold of the long side, pulling       off cut from a short end.                gain access to angle in a plank under
it upwards while knocking gently                                                  a door architrave or low radiators for
against the joint. Saw according to                                               example: 15a, cut away 2/3 of the
the contour.                             14. The last plank row is sawn to a      locking edge. 15b, Glue. Push the
                                         suitable width. Place the last plank     plank into position.
                                         on top of the next to last plank row
11. Then replace the sawn floor          so that there is a 5 mm stagger next     Woodloc® cannot be installed with
planks from left to right. Push in       to the wall. Mark where the saw          the short end against a plank side.
the first one with the moulding          cut should be with the help of a
first. Make sure that the next plank     piece of plank without the locking
is against the short side moulding.      moulding. Lay the sawn plank. Do
Knock the short sides together with      the same with the next one. Fit the
the hand block. Continue in the          skirting boards. This must not be
same way with the rest in the row.       pressed down so that the floor is
Place wedges between the floor and       pinched. T sections or trim mould-
wall.                                    ings can be used at transitions to
                                         other rooms. If you plan to carry
                                         out more building work in the room
12. The last plank row is sawn to        remember to protect the floor with
a suitable width. Holes are drilled      material that allows moisture to
in the plank for radiator pipes. The     permeate through.
holes shall be at least 20 mm greater
in diameter than the pipe. Saw as
illustrated. When the plank is fitted,
the sawn-out piece is glued in place
and the holes covered with pipe
collars.




                                                 13                                     15a
         10




                                               14                                        15b
         11




         12                              Useful tip: Even though the long sides can be installed only by angling in a
                                         plank, the short ends can be knocked together with a hammer block when
                                         the planks lie flat against the sub-floor. This may be necessary, for example,
                                         at doors or other difficult places when the plank needs to slide into place.
                                         When a plank must be knocked in a longitudinal direction, a small piece of a
                                         plank end may need to be cut to size and the fitted into the joint. The end of
                                         the plank is protected from damage in this way.


                                                                                                                     97
8.5.2 Installation instructions for Kährs 7 mm wood flooring with
woodloc®; floating installation (Linnea)
Complete installation instructions are found in each bundle.




1. Begin in one corner and work             4.Press the floor plank at an angle    7a.Carefully knock the plank’s long
from left to right with the grooved         against the plank in front. Press      side in place with Kährs hand block
sides towards the wall. The distance        the plank forwards and lay it at the   so that it is tight.
of the long side to the wall can be         same time against the floor.
adjusted later when three rows have                                                7b. Press the plank down in stages
been installed. Bear in mind that it        5.Press in a Kährs installation        to the floor so that it lies flat. Useful
may be simpler on many occasions            wedge at the short end under the       tip: tap lightly with the hand block
to start the plank row at the door.         plank already installed.               on the long side and the plank will
                                                                                   move easier into place.
2. Press the next floor plank at an         6.Press in the next plank’s short
angle against the first one and lay         end at an angle and lay it down.       8. The distance to the walls can be
it down. Continue in the same way                                                  adjusted when three rows have been
along the length of the first row.                                                 laid. Insert wedges between the
                                                                                   floor and wall.
3.Cut the last plank in the first row
to the correct length and begin the
next row with the piece that is left
over. The end joints of the planks
must be staggered by at least
300 mm.




                                                                                                               7a




                                                                     5                                          7b




                                                                      6




98
9. Crooked wall. The first floor row   11. Press the next floor plank at an
sometimes needs to be adjusted to      angle against the first one and lay
a crooked wall. Draw the contour       it down. Continue in the same way
of the wall on the floor planks. Do    along the length of the first row. The
not forget to include the expansion    last plank row is sawn to a suitable
joints! Then detach the planks in      width. Holes are drilled in the plank
the first row by taking hold of the    for heater pipes. The holes should be
long side, pulling it upwards while    at least 20 mm greater in diameter
knocking gently against the joint.     than the pipe. Saw as illustrated.
Saw according to the contour.          When the plank is fitted, the sawn-
                                       out piece is glued in place and the
10. Then replace the sawn floor        holes covered with pipe collars.
planks from left to right. Push in
the first one with the moulded edge    12. If the door architrave needs to be
first. Make sure that the next plank   cut use a piece of floor plank to get
is against the short side moulding.    the correct height. Fit the skirting
Knock the short sides together with    board. It must not be pressed down
the hammer block. Continue in the      so that the floor is pinched. T sec-
same way with the rest in the row.     tions or trim mouldings can be used
                                       at transitions to other rooms.




                                                                                99
8.5.3 Installation instructions for Kährs 15 and 20 mm wood
flooring with tongue and groove, floating installation

Complete installation instructions are found in every other bundle.



1.Begin the installation at a left           long sides. Note that the bead of        the end joints in plank rows next to
corner and lay the first plank in the        glue must be applied on the up-          each other are staggered by at least
room’s longitudinal direction. Insert        per side of the groove as shown in       50 cm.
wedges between the planks and the            the figure – not to the bottom. The
wall. The tongue must face inwards           planks are then tapped together
towards the room.                            immediately. A suitable glue is          5.Use a jemmy or crowbar to press
                                             “Kährs Lim För Trägolv” or other         the final plank’s end joint together
Cut the last plank in the first row          glue recognised by Kährs such as         in each row. Remember to protect
to the correct length – do not forget        “Bona T-175”. 0.5 l of Kährs glue is     the wall. Do not forget to place
to take account of the expansion             sufficient for approximately 20 m2 of    wedges between the floor and wall.
joint. Do not count on the wall be-          single full gluing of 15 mm floor and
ing straight. Check with a stretched         approximately 10 m 2 when install-
string that the first line really is         ing 20 mm floor when double full
straight. This is important to the           gluing.
final result.




                                                                                       !
                                             4.  Knock the planks together with
2. Begin the next line with the piece        a hammer and knocking block so
that was left over from the first line,      that there are no gaps. Useful tip:            • Note. When laying 20 mm flooring,
                                                                                              the planks shall be double full-
ensuring that you have a minimum             first slide in the short end into the            glued for floating installations
stagger on the end joints on adjacent        previous plank. Then tap in the long             (public environments) 15 mm
rows of at least 50cm.                       side halfway and then the short end              flooring shall be double full-glued
                                             fully. Then lightly tap in the long              for the following:
                                             side together until it is fully tight.         • Floors on underfloor heating
                                                                                            • Floors in public areas
3. The planks must be fully-glued            Use a straight knocking block at               • L shaped rooms
in the groove on both the short and          least 30 cm long. Make sure that



 1                                            3                                        5




 2                                            4                                        6




100
6.Drill holes in the plank for heater   9. Use a jemmy or crowbar to get        If you find a damaged or faulty
pipes etc. The holes should be at       the last plank row in position. Then    plank, put it to one side. It could
least 20 mm greater in diameter         place wedges against the wall.          be surplus or used for finishing
than the pipe.                                                                  off. Naturally you can exchange a
                                        10.  When the glue has dried, remove    faulty plank at the place where you
Saw out a wedge as illustrated.         the wedges. All that remains is to      purchased it.
When the plank is in position glue      fit the skirting boards. The skirting
the sawn piece in place and then        boards must not be pressed down so      Ask the advice of your floor sup-
cover the holes with pipe collars.      they pinch the floor.                   plier or us if you have any questions
                                                                                concerning building moisture, if
                                                                                you plan to install a floor on a floor
7.If you need to cut a door archi-      11.T sections or trim mouldings         structure that is different to what we
trave use a floor plank as a guide so   can be fitted at transitions to other   have described, if you plan to install
you get the right height.               rooms.                                  a large floor, or if anything else is
                                                                                unclear.

8. The last plank row is sawn to a      12. Ventilate the room thoroughly.
suitable width. Place it above the      If you plan to carry out more build-
next to last plank row with a 5 mm      ing work in the room remember
stagger from the wall so that you get   to protect the floor with material
a sufficiently large expansion joint.   that allows moisture to permeate
Mark the saw cut with a pen and a       through.
piece of plank as illustrated.




 7                                       9                                      11




 8                                      10                                      12




                                                                                                                  101
8.5.4 Installation instructions for Kährs 22 mm wood
flooring with tongue and groove on joists

Complete installation instructions are found in every other bundle.



1.Begin   the installation at a left         long sides. Note that the bead of       plank row’s longitudinal joint must
corner and lay the first plank in            glue must be applied on the up-         be glued.
the room’s longitudinal direction,           per side of the groove as shown in
if this is not possible due to the           the figure – not to the bottom. The
direction of the joists ensure that          planks are then tapped together im-     4, 5.Knock the planks together with
the expansion allowance is correctly         mediately. A suitable glue is “Kährs    a hammer and knocking block so
calculated. Insert wedges between            Lim För Trägolv” or other glue          that there are no gaps. Useful tip:
the planks and the wall. The tongue          recommended by Kährs (Bona Sven-        First slide in only the short end into
must face inwards towards the                ska Lim T-175). 0.5 l of Kährs glue     the previous plank. Then tap in
room.                                        is sufficient for about 15-20 m2 of     the long side halfway and then the
                                             floor. Note that certain PVAc glues     short end fully. Then lightly tap in
Cut the last plank in the first row          do not provide sufficient strength!     the long side together until it is fully
to the correct length – do not forget                                                tight. Use a straight hammer block
to take account of the expansion             If the planks are to be nailed use      at least 30 cm long. Make sure that
joint. Do not count on the wall be-          galvanised flooring wire nails          the end joints in plank rows next to
ing straight. Check with a stretched         60 x 23 or nails with equivalent ten-   each other are staggered at least
string that the first line really is         sile force. Note. Do not use brads.     50 cm. When installing on joist
straight. This is important to the           Screws can also be used. Nail at an     structures and studs, no two adja-
final result.                                angle above the tongue. Conceal         cent planks can have lateral joints in
                                             the nail with a nail set - but not so   the same joist space.
                                             hard so that the tongue is damaged.
2.Begin the next line with the piece         This could cause the joint to spring
that was left over from the first line.      back and make it difficult to insert    6.Use a jemmy or crowbar to press
                                             the next plank. Note. If the planks     the final plank’s end joints together
                                             are nailed they must not be glued as    in each row. Remember to protect
3.The planks must be fully-glued             well in longitudinal joints. On the     the wall. Do not forget to place
in the groove on both the short and          other hand, end joints and the last     wedges between the floor and wall.



 1                                            3                                       4–5




 2                                                                                    6




102
7.Drill holes in the plank for heater     11. When the glue has dried, remove     be surplus or used for finishing
pipes etc. The drill should be at least   all the wedges. All that remains is     off. Naturally you can exchange a
20 mm greater in diameter than the        to fit the skirting boards (at least    faulty plank at the place where you
pipe. Saw out a wedge as illustrated.     12 mm thick in normal rooms in          purchased it.
When the plank is in position glue        housing). The skirting boards must
the sawn piece in place and then          not be pressed down so they lock        Ask the advice of your floor sup-
cover the holes with pipe collars.        the floor.                              plier or us if you have any questions
                                                                                  concerning building moisture, if
                                                                                  you plan to install a floor on a floor
8.If you need to cut a door archi-        12.Levelling strips or trim mould-      structure that is different to what we
trave use a floor plank as a guide so     ings can be fitted at transitions to    have described, if you plan to install
you can get the right height.             other rooms.                            a large floor, or if anything else is
                                                                                  unclear.

9.The last plank row is sawn to a         13. Ventilate the room thoroughly. If
suitable width. Place it above the        you plan to carry out more build-
next to last plank row with a 5 mm        ing work in the room remember to        11
stagger from the wall so that you get     protect the floor with material that
a sufficiently large expansion joint.     allows moisture through.
Mark the saw cut with a pen and a
piece of plank as illustrated.            Kährs laminated parquet is supplied
                                          already varnished (but is also avail-
                                          able untreated).
10.Use a jemmy or crowbar to get
the last plank row in position. Then      If you find a damaged or faulty
place wedges against the wall.            plank, put it to one side. It could




 7                                         9                                      12




 8                                        10                                      13




                                                                                                                   103
8.5.5 Installation instructions for Kährs 15 mm wood flooring on foam
plastic 150 kPa, floating installation in housing

Sub-floor
A sub-floor is normally made from concrete. To provide        ness tolerance and density that are necessary for an
an acceptable surface for foam plastic insulation, the        acceptable result. The density shall be to within
requirements for curvature according to HusAMA98,             ± 10%. To avoid unpleasant sagging of the finished
Table 43.DC/-1 Class A and MDB.3 shall be complied            floor, the tolerance of the sheeting thickness shall be
with, i.e. ± 3 mm over a 2 m measured length and              + 0.5 mm. Arc-shaped sheets must not be used for the
± 1.2 mm over a 0.25 m measured length. If a 1 m              same reasons.
straightedge is used our requirement is + 2 mm. If
these values are not complied with, the sub-floor must        The foam plastic sheets are installed in the longitudinal
be levelled by filling or grinding.                           direction against the direction that the floor planks
                                                              shall have and shall be staggered so that no continuous
Moisture protection                                           joins are formed in the planks’ longitudinal direc-
Moisture protection in the form of 0.2 mm ageing-re-          tion. The entire sub-floor shall be covered with foam
sistant polyethylene sheeting must be laid on top of          plastic sheeting in such a way that there is support for
the foam plastic. The sheeting must be installed with         the planks. Special attention should be given to pipes
overlaps of at least 200 mm at all joints and must cover      and door transitions etc. Reinforcement with wooden
the entire surface.Plastic sheeting is also obligatory for    studs may be necessary in some cases. Follow the foam
other types of sub-floor. See the installation instruc-       plastic manufacturer’s instructions. The foam plastic
tions for 15 mm. Foam plastic sheeting shall meet             sheeting should be protected if there is traffic before the
at least the requirements of Group M, compressive             floor is installed to stop people or objects damaging the
strength 150 kPa, according to SS-EN13163.                    sheets.

It is important that the sheeting be adapted to the ap-
plication and that it meets the requirements for thick-




8.5.6 Installation instructions for Kährs 22 mm wood flooring on foam
plastic 100 kPa, floating installation in housing

Sub-floor
A sub-floor is normally made from concrete. To provide        tion and that it meets the requirements for thickness
an acceptable surface for foam plastic insulation, the        tolerance and density that are necessary for an accept-
requirements for curvature according to HusAMA98,             able result.
Table 43.DC/-1 Class A and MDB.3 shall be complied
with, i.e. ± 3 mm over a 2 m measured length and              To avoid unpleasant sagging of the finished floor, the
± 1.2 mm over a 0.25 m measured length. If a 1 m              tolerance of the sheeting thickness shall be +0.5 mm.
straightedge is used our requirement is + 2 mm. If            Arc-shaped sheets must not be used for the same
these values are not complied with, the sub-floor must        reasons. The foam plastic sheets are installed in the
be levelled by filling or grinding.                           longitudinal direction against the direction that the
                                                              floor planks shall have and shall be staggered so that
Moisture protection                                           no continuous joins are formed in the planks’ longitu-
Moisture protection in the form of 0.2 mm ageing-             dinal direction. The entire sub-floor shall be covered
resistant polyethylene sheeting shall be laid on top of       with foam plastic sheeting in such a way that there
the foam plastic. The sheeting must be installed with         is support for the planks. Special attention should be
overlaps of at least 200 mm at all joints and must cover      given to pipes and door transitions etc. Reinforcement
the entire surface. Plastic sheeting is also obligatory for   with wooden studs may be necessary in some cases.
other types of sub-floor. See the installation instruc-       Follow the foam plastic manufacturer’s instructions.
tions for 22 mm, 14.3. Foam plastic sheeting shall            The foam plastic sheeting shall be protected if there
meet at least the requirements of Group L, compres-           is traffic before the floor is installed to stop people or
sive strength 100 kPa, according to SS-EN13163. It is         objects damaging the sheets.
important that the sheeting be adapted to the applica-




104
8.5.7 Installation instructions for Kährs 7 mm wood flooring on foam
plastic 150 kPa, floating installation in housing on load-distributing
chipboard in housing
General
For Kährs 7 mm wood flooring to be laid on EPS, the          layer shall be at least 10 mm thick. Otherwise refer to
foam plastic shall have a compressive strength of at         the installation instructions for 7 mm wood flooring in
least 150 kPa (density 30 kg/m 2) according to               Section 8.5
SS-EN13163. Chipboard used as a load-distributing




8.6 Installing Kährs wood flooring on
underfloor heating
General
For Kährs 7 mm wood flooring to be laid on EPS, the          layer shall be at least 10 mm thick. Otherwise refer to
foam plastic shall have a compressive strength of at         the installation instructions for 7 mm wood flooring in
least 150 kPa (density 30 kg/m 2) according to               Section 8.5
SS-EN13163. Chipboard used as a load-distributing



8.6.1 Special requirements
• The floor design shall have a heat-distributing layer        not include too many or thick rugs it is reasonable to
  that provides a very even temperature across the en          achieve a temperature of 23°C at the exposed
  tire floor to avoid high temperatures in certain places.     floor areas and this will provide a room temperature
                                                               of around 21°C. This assumes that the room has a
• The entire floor surface shall be heated. This does          normal heating requirement. This means that the
  not apply however to what is called a comfort heating        room should be free of draughts and that the
  system that is a supplement to normal heating. The           insulation and window areas are of the correct
  temperature in this case is significantly lower than         standard.
  the maximum permitted temperature of 27°C at the
  floor surface.                                             • A vapour barrier must be included in the floor
                                                               design and should lie as near to the wooden floor
• The floor covering should have a low thermal trans           as possible. If the joist structure is thick or heavy
  mission resistance.                                          it is particularly important that the vapour barrier
                                                               lies near the wood flooring. Under no circumstances
• There must be a facility for accurately controlling and      must the vapour barrier be situated on the opposite
  limiting the surface temperature.                            side of the joist structure.

• The finished floor’s surface temperature shall not         • The wood flooring should lie as tight as possible
  exceed 27°C at any point. This also applies                  against the surface below and there should be no air
  under rugs and furniture. Where furnishing does              gaps that could cause severe drying of the wood.



8.6.2 Choice of wood flooring
The first choice should be 15 mm wood flooring with          ing with a greater risk of gaps in the floor. Laminated
woodloc® joints or Kährs 7 mm wood flooring. 22 or           parquet of Beech and Hard Maple swells and shrinks
23 mm should be used if the floor is to have self-sup-       more than other types of wood. Underfloor heat-
porting characteristics.                                     ing causes increased drying and this results in extra
                                                             shrinkage. If the climate is cold and dry, such as in
Solid wood floors swell and shrink as a consequence of       Sweden, gaps between strips and between planks could
climate variations more than floors with a multi layer       occur.
construction. This is clearly evident on underfloor heat-

                                                                                                                 105
8.6.3 Installation
The ambient temperature when installing should be              bottom edges of the groove shall be used for large floor
20 +2°C. This applies to the sub-floor and room air.           and L shaped rooms.
Similarly when installing without underfloor heating
the RH of the air shall be less than 60% both before           Note the requirement for expansions joints at door
and after installation.                                        transitions increases if underfloor heating is installed.

Make sure that you use a good quality glue such as             Remember that a floor installed above underfloor heat-
Kährs Lim För Trägolv or other glue recommended                ing is more sensitive to humidity than a floor without
by Kährs such as Bona T-175. There is a risk that the          underfloor heating because of the difference in mois-
planks could slide apart if an inferior glue is used.          ture ratios between the floor’s driest and dampest state
Double full gluing, i.e. a full bead along the top and         is greater in the former.




8.6.4 Thermal transmission resistance in m2 K/W
Including transfer resistance.

  Product            Including Tuplex         Without intermediate Including flooring              Including 3 mm
                                              layer                paper                           foam plastic

  15 mm
  wood floor         Approx 0,225             0,141                   0,155                        0,219

  7 mm
  wood floor         Approx 0,17              0,06–0,07               Approx 0,08                  Approx 0,16




Flooring paper should be used as an intermediate layer. Polyethylene cellular plastic and cork granule paper have a
higher heat transfer resistance and this is unsuitable for underfloor heating.




106
8.7 Installation instructions for Kährs stair
    nosings
OPTION A:
When installing the floor from the wall to the stairs.




A1                                                       A2
                                                                                                             19mm




             19mm




A3                                                       A4
                                                  1




                                              1
                                                                      19mm    10mm




OPTION B:
When installing the floor from the stairs to the wall.   Screw installation applicable to options A and B.


                                                         1.                    2.

B1                                                                         2mm
                                                                                                 4,5 mm




                                                         3.




                                                                                                             107
8.8 Installing Flexilist
                                                               – the skirting board that can be shaped.


Flexilist is particularly suitable, for example, around            Measure the length and shape as required. Note that
pillars and reception desks with a minimum diameter                a certain amount of shrinkage will occur as the wood
of 200 mm. It is important to follow the instructions.             dries.

If Flexilist is not sufficiently supple to start with it can       Allow it to dry in the shaped position for at least 48
be moistened with a wet sponge. Place the moulding                 hours before attaching and applying surface treatment.
in the plastic bag provided and seal it. Allow the mois-           By remoistening the moulding it can be reshaped at any
ture to act overnight. Repeat the process if it is still not       time providing no surface treatment has been applied.
supple enough.




8.9 Installing aluminium mouldings
                                                               – the complete moulding system.


The mouldings system comprises a base moulding plus                Saw off the base moulding to the correct level and
different types of top moulding. The base moulding is              match it. Do not forget the expansion joint! Attach the
provided with threads for the special screws that are              base moulding to the sub floor using the screws sup-
provided. Level, end, and transition mouldings can                 plied.
be used for wood flooring of different thicknesses
(7-16 mm). Level mouldings are used for transitions to             Drill 5 mm holes for concrete floors. Knock in the
lower levels. End mouldings are used for ends against              plastic plugs supplied and screw the moulding in place
a higher level.                                                    with the screws supplied (3.5 x 30 mm, Pozidrive 1).

Transition mouldings are used for floors at the same
level. (Level differences of up to 5 mm can be levelled).




108
9. Surface treatment, care
   and repairs
        9.1   Kährs wood flooring in housing                                      page 110
              9.1.1   Care and repairs (UV lacquer)                               page 111
                      9.1.1.1 Preventive measures                                 page 111
                      9.1.1.2 Cleaning                                            page 111
                      9.1.1.3 Removing marks                                      page 111
                      9.1.1.4 Repairs                                             page 111
                      9.1.1.5 Renovation                                          page 111
              9.1.2   Care and repairs (UV oil)                                   page 112
                      9.1.2.1 Preventive measures                                 page 112
                      9.1.2.2 Cleaning                                            page 112
                      9.1.2.3 Removing marks                                      page 112
                      9.1.2.4 Maintenance                                         page 113
                      9.1.2.5 Repairs                                             page 113
              9.1.3   Care and repairs (natural oil)                              page 114
                      9.1.3.1 Preventive measures                                 page 114
                      9.1.3.2 Cleaning                                            page 114
                      9.1.3.3 Removing marks                                      page 114
                      9.1.3.4 Care using care wax                                 page 115
                      9.1.3.5 Repairs                                             page 116
                      9.1.3.6 Renovation                                          page 116


        9.2   Kährs wood flooring in public environments                          page 117
              9.2.1   UV lacquer in public environments                           page 117
                      9.2.1.1 Complementary surface treatment                     page 117
                      9.2.1.2 Cleaning                                            page 117
                      9.2.1.3 Removing marks                                      page 117
                      9.2.1.4 Maintenance                                         page 117
                      9.2.1.5 Renovation                                          page 117
              9.2.2   UV oil in public environments                               page 118
                      9.2.2.1 Complementary surface treatment                     page 118
                      9.2.2.2 Cleaning                                            page 118
                      9.2.2.3 Removing marks                                      page 118
                      9.2.2.4 Maintenance                                         page 118
                      9.2.2.5 Renovation                                          page 118
              9.2.3   Natural oil in public environments                          page 118
                      9.2.3.1 Complementary surface treatment                     page 118
                      9.2.3.2 Cleaning (building cleaning, daily, dance floors)   page 119
                      9.2.3.3 Removing marks                                      page 119
                      9.2.3.4 Maintenance                                         page 119
                      9.2.3.5 Renovation                                          page 120


        9.3   Replacing planks and strips                                         page 122
              9.3.1   Replacing planks with grooves and tongues                   page 122
              9.3.2   Replacing planks with woodloc®                              page 122
              9.3.3   Replacing strips                                            page 122
              9.3.4   Treatment with lime                                         page 122




                                                                                             109
9.1 Kährs wood flooring in housing
The following information refers to
different products – Kährs wood
flooring (Chapter 5) and Kährs
7 mm wood flooring (Chapter 6)
with silk matt lacquer. Kährs lac-
quer comprises acrylates, polyester,
pigment, filler and photo-initiators.

Polymers are created when curing
using UV light and these produce
a hard and chemical-resistant sur-
face. The lacquer does not contain
solvents or formaldehyde. During
UV curing there are only traces of
bensaldehyde (bitter almond oil)
and this evaporates very quickly.
Bitter almond oil occurs naturally in
cherries and almonds for example.
Kährs silk matt lacquer is durable,
easy to care for, hygienic and retains
the real wood’s natural character.
This means that the wood floor can
withstand a lot of wear and lasts a
long time. Since the lacquer main-
tains such a high quality it is pos-
sible to keep the quantity of lacquer
at a low level so that the appearance
of the wood comes into its own. As
a consequence, wood with a strong
character such as Oak and Ash
retains its characteristics so that, in
optical terms, it is less sensitive to
scratches than wood with a softer
structure.




                                                                       Durability of UV-cured lacquer




                                          Kährs lacquer     The wood’s pores   The surface structure of the lacquer




                                            Surface layer



110
9.1.1 Care and repairs (UV lacquer)

9.1.1.1 Preventive measures                                 9.1.1.4 Repairs
In rooms where you know that water is often spilt and       • Small scratches and scrape marks can be dealt with
where there is also a risk that it is allowed to remain,      using touch-up lacquer.
we recommend additional lacquering of the floor             • Small impact marks can be filled with wood filler of
after installation. In this way you can cover the joints      a suitable colour and lacquered using touch-up
between the planks to provide better protection against       lacquer.
liquids.                                                    • If there are deep scratches, cracks and damage, the
   If you have a doormat both inside and outside any          strips or planks that are damaged can be replaced.
external door you can prevent the ingress of dirt and
grit that could otherwise cause considerable wear to        Repairs to worn lacquered surfaces:
your floors.
   Fit pads to furniture to avoid unnecessary marks and     • Repairs to the lacquer surface:
scratches to the floor. After the floor has been in place     Remove any dirt or wax residues from the lacquer
for a number of years you can easily freshen the surface      surface. Kährs wood flooring does not need sanding
by applying lacquer.                                          in between. Veneer flooring must not be sanded in
                                                              between. Carefully vacuum clean and wipe the floor
9.1.1.2 Cleaning                                              with a cloth containing Kährs Cleaner to remove any
One of the major benefits with a Kährs floor is that it       traces of grease. Then apply lacquer according to the
is so easy to keep clean and tidy. It is treated with UV-     lacquer manufacturer’s instructions.
cured lacquer. This produces a surface that is smooth       • Total renovation of wood flooring:
and easy to clean. All you need do is vacuum it and           If the floor is very worn or if it needs renovation for
clean it off with Kährs Original maintenance mop or           other reasons it is probably best to machine sand
a well-wrung floor cloth now and again. Use Kährs             down to clean wood and re-lacquer. Note. Kährs
Cleaner or a neutral cleaning agent that has a pH of          7 mm wood flooring cannot be sanded! Follow the
no more than 8. Spillage will not make any marks on           lacquer manufacturer’s instructions.
your Kährs floor if you wipe it up straight away. Do not
allow any water to remain especially not in Beech and       Refer to Chapter 10 for materials used in care and
Hard Maple flooring since these are extra sensitive to      repair.
moisture.
                                                            9.1.1.5 Renovation
9.1.1.3 Removing marks                                      If the floor is subjected to heavy wear it is probably best
If you should get a mark on the floor you can try and       to renovate it by machine sanding and applying new
remove it using a mild detergent (without ammonia)          lacquer. Kährs floors have a thick surface coating that
such as Kährs Cleaner or washing-up liquid diluted in       can be sanded and lacquered time and time again.
warm water. If this does not help, the following are a
few hints on how to remove difficult marks. Take care
when using strong stain removal materials since using
too much and applying too much pressure could affect
the lacquer.


         Marks from                 Removed using



Asphalt, rubber, oil, shoe    White spirit, benzene or
cream, soot or dried-in resi- similar.
dues of chocolate or fat.

Wax crayons, lipstick, felt   White spirit.
tip pens.

Candle wax, chewing gum.      Coolant spray or place a
                              plastic bag containing ice
                              cubes on the mark. Then
                              carefully scrape off.

Blood.                        Cold water.




                                                                                                                   111
9.1.2 Care and repairs (UV oil)

This floor is ready oiled for use in a domestic environ-    (max pH 8). Unnecessary cleaning using damp
ment. It is treated with a UV-cured oil which, for the      methods causes more damage than good. This applies
most part, comprises renewable raw materials.               particularly during the first weeks after maintenance
                                                            using Kährs Oil Refresher The frequency of damp
                                                            cleaning depends on the use and how dirty the floor
9.1.2.1 Preventive measures                                 gets. Regular cleaning of the floor prevents dirt sticking
Make sure that you have a correctly-designed entrance       to the oiled surface.
and an effective wiping-off system. If possible, provide
a scraping-off grating first, then a coarse mat followed
by a textile mat that removes moisture and fine grit. Fit   9.1.2.3 Removing marks
pads to furniture (but not metal pads since they can        Remove marks as soon as possible using water and
cause marks on wood flooring) to prevent unnecessary        Kährs Cleaner or other neutral cleaning agent. If this
marks and scratches in the floor.                           does not help the mark can be removed using a green
   In rooms where you know that water is often spilt        nylon pad such as Scotch-Brite. After removing the
and where there is also a risk that it is allowed to        mark apply a small amount of new oil before new
remain, we recommend surface treatment of the floor         Oil Refresher is applied. Read more about this under
with Oil Refresher after installation. In this way you      “Renovation” in Section 9.1.3.6.
can cover the joints between the planks to provide bet-
ter protection against liquids.
   In public environments that are similar to domestic               Marks from                 Removed using
environments, such as kindergartens and offices where
there is light wear, maintenance must be conducted at
shorter intervals. Additional surface treatment of the      Asphalt, rubber, oil, shoe    White spirit, benzene or
floor with Kährs Oil Refresher should be done directly      cream, soot or dried-in resi- similar.
after installation.                                         dues of chocolate or fat.

                                                            Wax crayons, lipstick, felt   White spirit.
9.1.2.2 Cleaning                                            tip pens.
Daily cleaning should be done using dry methods
such as vacuum cleaning. Where necessary the floor          Candle wax, chewing gum.      Coolant spray or place a
                                                                                          plastic bag containing ice
can be wiped using Kährs Original maintenance mop
                                                                                          cubes on the mark. Then
or a well-wrung out floor cloth. The floor must not
                                                                                          carefully scrape off.
receive excessive moisture. The best cleaning results
are achieved using Kährs Cleaner. If you use any other                                    Cold water.
                                                            Blood.
cleaning agent make sure that it is pH-neutral




112
9.1.2.4 Maintenance                                          green nylon pad such as Scotch-Brite. Do not use sand-
Kährs UV-oiled flooring does not need maintenance            paper since this can damage the thin layer of veneer.
other than regular cleaning for several years under          Then apply a relatively thick layer of Kährs Touch-up
normal domestic conditions.                                  oil. After 30 minutes: Wipe off the oil that has not been
  Floors in areas where there is a risk of water being       absorbed by the wood. Allow the renovated surface
spilt, such as in a kitchen or hall should be maintained     to dry overnight. Repeat this 2–3 times. Then apply
with Kährs Oil Refresher following installation.             a coating of Kährs Oil Refresher as described under
                                                             “Maintenance”. Treatment with Kährs Oil Refresher
1. Clean the floor thoroughly. If there is dirt on the       can be repeated as required. A damaged plank can be
floor when maintenance is done it may be difficult to        replaced.
remove the dirt later.
                                                             Total renovation of wood flooring: If normal renovation of
2. Shake the bottle. Pour Kährs Oil Refresher directly       surface treatment is insufficient, the wood flooring can
from the bottle onto the floor. Hold the bottle as near to   be machine sanded down to clean wood and then oiled
the floor as possible to avoid splashing.                    and waxed again. Consult your floor supplier.




                                                             !
3. Spread using a Kährs fibre mop (40 cm) for example.
Work in the longitudinal direction of the planks. Take
care to work in the refresher so that all parts of the               Note. Equipment used with Kährs Touch-up
floor are covered and that no puddles are formed. Good               can suffer spontaneous combustion and shall
lighting, preferably mobile lighting will aid this work.             therefore be immersed in water after use
                                                                     and then stored in a metal container with a
                                                                     tightly-fitting lid or incinerated. The equip-
4. Allow the floor to dry for 1–2 hours before walking
                                                                     ment can also be washed in white spirit.
on it. Do not walk on the floor with outdoor shoes dur-
ing the first 24 hours after maintenance. Bear in mind
that it takes a week before the surface is fully dirt-re-
sistant.                                                     One litre of Kährs Oil Refresher is sufficient for around
                                                             150 m2. Kährs wood flooring, Oak London with UV-
When conducting maintenance it is best to move the           cured oil (1-strip plank).
furniture to one half of the room, treat the cleared area,
and wait 1–2 hours. All the furniture is then moved to
the other half and the treatment is repeated on the rest     9.1.3 Care and repairs (natural oil)
of the floor. Subsequent maintenance can be done on          • Natural oil is very suitable for use in public areas
the parts of the floor surface where it is really needed       such as dance floors and restaurants that are subject
such as areas where people walk. Maintenance work              to considerable wear. With proper and regular
does not necessarily mean therefore that all the furni-        maintenance there is no floor that is better at
ture must be moved out of the room.                            withstanding heavy-duty wear.
   The need for maintenance depends on a number
of factors and varies from case to case. More regular        Product characteristics of Kährs natural oil:
maintenance is required on floors where there is greater     • Natural oil contains no solvents (100% solid
wear such as where people walk with outdoor shoes. It          particles).
becomes evident when a floor needs maintenance since         • It is made up almost exclusively from vegetable raw
it starts to feel more difficult to clean than before.         materials.
   Tools used together with Kährs Oil Refresher can be       • The contents declaration is comprehensive: linseed
washed out with warm water.                                    oil, Chinese wood oil, canauba wax, candellila wax,
                                                               beeswax, colofonium resin plus drier based on
                                                               cobalt, zirconium and calcium octate.
9.1.2.5 Repairs                                              • It is easy to look after a floor in a domestic
Partial renovation of wood flooring: A small area that is      environment and polishing is not necessary. Care
worn or damaged can be scraped or sanded down to               must not be neglected however otherwise “walkways”
clean wood. Finish with 220 grit sandpaper. Then ap-           or a greyish coating can be formed.
ply a relatively thick layer of Kährs Touch-up oil. After    • The floor can be renovated a number of times. It is
30 minutes: Wipe off the oil that has not been absorbed        also possible to renovate only parts of it.
by the wood. Allow the renovated surface to dry over-




                                                             !
night. Repeat this 2-3 times. A coating of protective
Oil Refresher is then applied. Use Kährs water-based
refresher in the same way as described above. Refresher
                                                                   For guidance: Do not confuse natural oil with
treatment can be repeated as required. A damaged                   UV-cured oil. The special care instructions
plank or strip can be replaced.                                    are quite different.


Partial renovation of Kährs 7 mm wood flooring: A small
area that is worn or damaged can be scoured using a


                                                                                                                      113
9.1.3 Care and repairs (natural oil)

Care and maintenance of Kährs ready-oiled wood              floor prevents dirt sticking to the oiled surface. On the
flooring.                                                   other hand, when cleaning the surface wax coating
   Kährs oiled flooring is ready-treated for use in a       is worn away which means that new wax needs to be
domestic environment. If the floor is subjected to heavy    applied every now and again. For more details refer to
wear refer to Kährs special instructions for the care of    “Maintenance” in Section 9.1.3.4.
oiled floors in a public environment.

                                                            9.1.3.3 Removing marks
9.1.3.1 Preventive measures                                 Remove marks as soon as possible using water and
Make sure that you have a correctly-designed entrance       Kährs Cleaner or other neutral cleaning agent. If this
and effective wiping-off areas. If possible, provide a      does not help the mark can be removed using a green
scraping-off grating first, then a coarse mat followed by   nylon pad such as Scotch-Brite. After removing the
a textile mat that removes moisture and fine grit.          mark the cleaned surface requires a small amount
   In rooms where you know that water is often spilt        of fresh oil to be applied before new Oil Refresher is
and where there is also a risk that it is allowed to        applied. Read more about this under “Renovation” in
remain, we recommend care wax after installation. In        Section 9.1.3.6.
this way you can cover the joints between the planks to
provide better protection against liquids.                           Marks from                 Removed using
   Fit pads to furniture (but not metal pads since they
can cause marks on wood flooring) to prevent unneces-
sary marks and scratches in the floor.
                                                            Asphalt, rubber, oil, shoe    White spirit, benzene or
                                                            cream, soot or dried-in resi- similar.
                                                            dues of chocolate or fat.
9.1.3.2 Cleaning
Daily cleaning should be done using dry methods such
                                                            Wax crayons, lipstick, felt   White spirit.
as vacuum cleaning.                                         tip pens.
   Where necessary the floor can be wiped using Kährs
Original maintenance mop or a well-wrung out floor          Candle wax, chewing gum.      Coolant spray or place a
cloth. The floor should only receive minimum mois-                                        plastic bag containing ice
ture. The best cleaning results are achieved using Kährs                                  cubes on the mark. Then
Cleaner. If you use any other cleaning agent make sure                                    carefully scrape off.
that it is pH-neutral (max pH 8).
   How often the floor needs to be cleaned depends on       Blood.                        Cold water.
its use and how dirty it gets. Regular cleaning of the




114
9.1.3.4 Care using care wax                                  creases each time maintenance is done. Thus the need
The need for maintenance depends on a number of              for maintenance decreases over time.
factors and varies from case to case. Maintenance needs
to be carried out more often if the floor is cleaned with    1-2.Clean the floor thoroughly. If there is dirt on the
a damp cloth regularly since this has an abrasive effect     floor when maintenance is done it may be difficult to
on the protective coating. More regular maintenance          remove the dirt later.
is required on floors where there is greater wear such
as where people walk with outdoor shoes. Light, soft         3.Apply maintenance in rows directly from the bottle
and porous types of wood also require more regular           on the clear part of the floor. About 0.1 – 0.25 l is
maintenance. It becomes evident when a floor needs           needed for 10 m 2 of floor.
maintenance since it starts to feel more difficult to
clean than before. In most cases this means that the         4. Spread the maintenance wax using a clean and
floor needs maintenance twice during the first year and      slightly damp yarn mop. The fact that the mop or floor
then annually.                                               cloth is moistened means that it does not absorb un-
   The floor should be maintained 1–2 times a year. It       necessary quantities of floor wax and is therefore more
is recommended that the first maintenance be done di-        economical. Work in the longitudinal direction of the
rectly after the floor is installed. The first maintenance   planks.
exercise should cover the entire floor area and, if this
is done directly after the floor installation, there will    5.Allow the floor to dry for 1–2 hours before walk-
be no need to move any furniture. You also get extra         ing on it. Do not walk on the floor with outdoor shoes
protection from the start against moisture that can get      during the first 24 hours after maintenance. Bear in
into the joints between planks.                              mind that it takes 1–2 weeks before the surface is fully
   When conducting the first maintenance after 6–12          dirt-resistant.
months it is best to move the furniture to one half of




                                                              !
the room, treat the cleared area, and wait 1–2 hours.
All the furniture is then moved to the other half and
the treatment is repeated on the rest of the floor.
Subsequent maintenance can be done on the parts
                                                                     Tools use together with maintenance wax can
of the floor surface where it is really needed such as               be washed in warm water and then re-used.
areas where people walk. Maintenance work does not                   Kährs maintenance wax does not constitute
necessarily mean therefore that all the furniture must               a risk of spontaneous combustion of the tools
be moved out of the room. The surface’s dirt resistance,             used.
along with it’s resistance to moisture and durability in-




1.                                         2.




3.                                         4.                                     5.




                                                                                                                     115
9.1.3.5 Repairs                                             vate the surface treatment and apply a new oil treat-
Worn or damaged surfaces can be sanded or scraped           ment. Spread a thick layer of Watco Satin Oil on the
down to clean wood. Finish with 220 grit sandpaper          floor. Then polish the floor using a polishing machine
and then apply a thick layer of Kährs Touch-up oil.         (150 r/min) so that the oil dissolves any dirt in the
After 30 minutes: Wipe off the oil that has not been        floor. Use a nylon pad such as a green or coarse Scotch
absorbed by the wood. Allow the renovated surface to        Brite. Remove any excess oil and dissolved dirt with
dry overnight. A coating of protective care wax is then     the help of a rubber scraper. Remove any residual oil by
applied. Use Kährs water-based care wax in the same         attaching a cloth under the polishing machine roundel
way as described in Section 9.1.3.4. Care wax treatment     and polishing the floor as dry as possible. Work over
can be repeated as required. The differences between        small areas at a time so that the dissolved dirt doesn’t
the part of the floor that has been treated and the rest    have a chance to dry. The floor can be used again once
of the floor disappear with time. Damaged planks or         the Watco Satin Oil has had a chance to dry.
strips can be replaced.
   If indentations are to be removed as well as renew-      Total renovation of wood flooring:
ing the oil treatment it may be better to sand the entire   If normal renovation of surface treatment is insuffi-
floor. Then treat the floor again with oil and wax. Ask     cient, the wood flooring can be machine sanded down
your Kährs dealer for the appropriate Kährs products.       to clean wood and then oiled and waxed again. Consult
                                                            your floor supplier.
Refer to Sections 9.3.2 and 9.3.3 if you need to replace
planks or strips.                                           Note. Equipment used with Kährs Touch-up Oil or
                                                            Watco Satin Oil can suffer spontaneous combustion
                                                            and should therefore be immersed in water after use
9.1.3.6 Renovation                                          and then stored in a metal container with a tightly-
Renovating the surface treatment of wood flooring           fitting lid or incinerated. The equipment can also be
After a long period of use it may be necessary to reno-     washed in white spirit.




Kährs wood flooring Maple Cambridge (3-strip plank)


116
9.2 Kährs wood flooring in public
environments
Preventive measures to reduce wear and the need for cleaning:   • Fit pads to furniture to avoid unnecessary marks and
                                                                  scratches to the floor.
• Floors in public environments shall be supplemented
  with further surface treatment to cope with the               • Remove all marks as soon as possible.
  stresses to which flooring in such areas is subjected.

• Make sure that you have a correctly-designed
  entrance and an effective wiping-off system. If
  possible, provide a scraping-off grating first, then a
  coarse mat followed by a textile mat that removes
  moisture and fine grit.




9.2.1 UV lacquer in public
environments
                                                                         Marks from                 Removed using
9.2.1.1 Complementary surface treatment
The factory-lacquered surface is normally strengthened
with a further coating of lacquer. Extra lacquering is          Asphalt, rubber, oil, shoe    White spirit, benzene or
not necessary if use of the floor is similar to that of a       cream, soot or dried-in resi- similar.
domestic environment. Lacquering can be done with               dues of chocolate or fat.
all the lacquers that are presently available and which
are intended for lacquering factory-treated wood floor-         Wax crayons, lipstick, felt   White spirit.
ing. Follow the lacquer manufacturer’s instructions.            tip pens.

                                                                Candle wax, chewing gum.      Coolant spray or place a
                                                                                              plastic bag containing ice
9.2.1.2 Cleaning
                                                                                              cubes on the mark. Then
Daily cleaning is done using dry methods. Where nec-                                          carefully scrape off.
essary, the floor is damp-cleaned using Kährs Cleaner
or other neutral cleaning agent, max pH 8, in water and         Blood.                        Cold water.
a well-wrung mop or floor cloth. Note that moisture
and cleaning agent increase the need for maintenance.
  If a combi machine is used, the amount of water shall
be as little as possible. Residual moisture shall have          9.2.1.4 Maintenance
dried completely within a minute. The machine must              Take care to maintain surface treatment in good time.
not leave any watermarks when it turns or stops.                Do not let the lacquer wear down. This will prevent
                                                                dirt and water penetrating the wood and will allow the
                                                                floor to retain its easily-cleaned and beautiful surface.
9.2.1.3 Removing marks
If you should get a mark on the floor you can try and
remove it using a mild detergent (without ammonia)              9.2.1.5 Renovation
such as Kährs Cleaner or washing-up liquid diluted in           If the floor is subject to heavy wear it is probably best
warm water. If this does not help, the following are a          to renovate it by machine sanding and applying a new
few hints on how to remove difficult marks. Take care           surface treatment.
when using strong stain removal materials since using              Kährs 20 mm flooring has a thick surface layer that
too much and applying too much pressure could affect            can withstand sanding and surface treatment several
the lacquer.                                                    times.




                                                                                                                         117
9.2.2 UV oil in public
environments
9.2.2.1 Complementary surface treatment
                                                                       Marks from                 Removed using
The factory-treated surface should normally be rein-
forced using Kährs Oil Refresher. Take care to maintain
surface treatment in good time. Do not let the UV oil
                                                              Asphalt, rubber, oil, shoe    White spirit, benzene or
wear down. This will prevent dirt and water penetrat-
                                                              cream, soot or dried-in resi- similar.
ing the wood and will allow the floor to retain its eas-      dues of chocolate or fat.
ily-cleaned and beautiful surface.
                                                              Wax crayons, lipstick, felt   White spirit.
                                                              tip pens.
9.2.2.2 Cleaning
Daily cleaning is done using dry methods. Where nec-          Candle wax, chewing gum.      Coolant spray or place a
essary, the floor is damp-cleaned using Kährs Cleaner                                       plastic bag containing ice
or other neutral cleaning agent, max pH 8, in water and                                     cubes on the mark. Then
a well-wrung mop or floor cloth.                                                            carefully scrape off.
  Note that moisture and cleaning agent increase the
                                                              Blood.                        Cold water.
need for maintenance.
  If a combi machine is used, the amount of water
should be as little as possible. Residual moisture shall
have dried completely within a minute. The machine
must not leave any watermarks when it turns or stops.         9.2.2.4 Maintenance
                                                              Take care to maintain surface treatment in good time.
                                                              Do not let the UV oil wear down. This will prevent dirt
9.2.2.3 Removing marks                                        and water penetrating the wood and will allow the floor
If you should get a mark on the floor you can try and         to retain its easily-cleaned and beautiful surface.
remove it using a mild detergent (without ammonia)
such as Kährs Cleaner or washing-up liquid diluted            9.2.2.5 Renovation
in warm water. If this does not help the mark can be          If the floor is subject to heavy wear it is probably best
removed using a green nylon pad such as Scotch-Brite.         to renovate it by machine sanding and applying a new
Take care when using strong stain removal materials           surface treatment of natural oil or lacquer.
since using too much and applying too much pressure
could affect the lacquer.



9.2.3 Natural oil in public
environments
9.2.3.1 Complementary surface treatment
These floors are primed with oil for public environ-          not be provided by using an impermeable material
ments.                                                        such as plastic sheeting.
   Two different methods can be applied. One method              Reduce wear and the need for cleaning through pre-
means that maintenance is done using Kährs care wax           ventive measures.
in the same way as for floors in domestic environments           Make sure that you have a correctly-designed en-
but at shorter intervals. See Section 9.1.3.4. The other      trance and an effective wiping-off system. If possible,
method is discussed in Section 9.1.3.4.                       provide a scraping-off grating first, then a coarse mat
   Take care to maintain surface treatment in good time.      followed by a textile mat that removes moisture and
Do not let the oil wear down. This will prevent dirt and      fine grit. Fit pads to furniture (but not metal pads since
water penetrating the wood and will allow the floor to        they can cause marks on wood flooring) to prevent un-
retain its easily-cleaned and beautiful surface.              necessary marks and scratches in the floor.
   If work is still in progress in the room, the newly-laid
floor must be protected immediately after installation to
avoid unnecessary contamination. The protection must




118
9.2.3.2 Cleaning                                              9.2.3.4 Maintenance
Building cleaning                                             After careful cleaning apply a thin coating of Watco
Clean the floor thoroughly. Avoid too much water and          Satin Oil from a spray bottle for example. Polish using a
strong cleaning agents. Be careful to remove any marks        buffing machine and soft pad 150 r/min. The quantity
before finish treatment. If the floor is still not clean or   of oil is around 1–3 g/m 2 (corresponds to 0.1–0.3 l
has large marks after damp-cleaning, renovate the sur-        oil/100 m 2. The quantity of oil must not exceed the
face as described in Section 9.2.3.5, “Renovation”.           amount that permits the surface to feel almost dry im-
                                                              mediately. Allow the oil to cure overnight.
Daily cleaning                                                   The first maintenance is carried out immediately af-
Daily cleaning is done using dry methods. Where               ter the building is cleaned. How often the floor needs to
necessary, the floor can be damp-cleaned using Kährs          be cleaned depends on factors such as usage and clean-
Cleaner or other neutral cleaning agent, max pH 8,            ing. Maintenance is required more frequently to start
in water using Kährs Original maintenance mop or a            with in order to build up a dirt-repellent, moisture-re-
well-wrung out floor cloth.                                   sistant and durable surface. In most environments it is
                                                              recommended that maintenance be done once a week
The floor must not receive excessive moisture. Note           during the first two months. The frequency can then be
that moisture and cleaning agent increase the need for        reduced to once a month.
maintenance.                                                     If you want to achieve the maximum dirt resistance,
                                                              the floor can be dry-polished between each time it is
If a combi machine is used, the amount of water should        oiled. Polishing is done on properly cured oil using a
be as little as possible. Residual moisture should have       buffing machine at 300–1000 r/min and a machine
dried completely within a minute. The machine must            weight of 35–40 kg. The floor needs to be maintained
not leave any watermarks when it turns or stops.              at more regular intervals if it becomes difficult to clean
                                                              and looks dirty.
Cleaning a dance floor                                           The floor can also become more difficult to clean if
Kährs ready-oiled wood flooring can be treated in situ        too much oil is used on each occasion or if the oil is not
using wax. Follow the wax manufacturer’s instructions.        allowed to cure properly before the floor is used.
Note that waxed dance floors are particularly sensitive          Less regular maintenance is required on floors where
to cleaning using damp methods. Water and cleaning            there is less wear such as where people do not walk
agents can destroy the wax surface so that it will not        with outdoor shoes. Dark, hard and pore-free types of
stand up to being danced on.                                  wood require less maintenance.


9.2.3.3 Removing marks
Remove marks as soon as possible using water and
Kährs Cleaner or other neutral cleaning agent. If this
does not help the mark can be removed using a green
nylon pad such as Scotch-Brite. After removing marks,
the cleaned surface may need further treatment with
new oil.

Read more above this under “Renovation”.


         Marks from                 Removed using



Asphalt, rubber, oil, shoe    White spirit, benzene or
cream, soot or dried-in resi- similar.
dues of chocolate or fat.

Wax crayons, lipstick, felt   White spirit.
tip pens.

Candle wax, chewing gum.      Coolant spray or place a
                              plastic bag containing ice
                              cubes on the mark. Then
                              carefully scrape off.

Blood.                        Cold water.




                                                                                                                   119
9.2.3.5 Renovation                                                    oil that remains on the floor using a cloth under the
Partial renovation:                                                   scouring machine. Work in small areas so that the oil
A small area that is worn or damaged can be scraped or                cannot dry before it is taken up. An oiled floor can of
sanded down to clean wood. Finish with approximately                  course be sanded by machine down to clean wood and
220 grit sandpaper. Then apply a relatively thick layer               oiled again.
of Kährs Touch-up oil. After approximately 30 minutes:
Wipe off the oil that has not been absorbed by the                    It is of course possible to replace a damaged plank or
wood. Allow the renovated surface to dry overnight.                   strip.




                                                                        !
The oil treatment can be repeated as required. The
residual differences in appearance disappear with time.

Renovating a large area:
                                                                                   Safety measures:
Scour the floor as follows if large areas require renovation as                    The cloths and roundels plus oil-saturated sanding dust
a result of dirt penetrating the oil coating: Spread a thick                       resulting from oil treatment, maintenance or renovation
layer of Watco Satin Oil on the floor. Scour the floor                             can suffer spontaneous combustion. They should there-
with a green or coarse disc depending on how dirty the                             fore be rinsed in water after use and placed in the metal
                                                                                   container with a tightly-fitting lid. Tools can be cleaned
floor is. Speed – 150 r/min. Scrape together the dirty
                                                                                   with white spirit.
oil using a rubber scraper and collect it. Clean up the




Kährs wood flooring Beech Cambridge, oil finished, Volksbank Offenburg, Germany.


120
121
9.3 Replacing planks and strips
9.3.1 Replacing planks with grooves and tongues

                                                Remove the sawn-out piece.
                                                Then release the edge using a
           Saw through with a circular          chisel and clean the tongue           Saw through with a circular saw.
           saw.                                 and groove.




                                                         Damaged plank



           Glue with wood glue.                                     New plank




                                         Saw off the lower part of the groove.


                                                                             Glue with wood glue.




9.3.2 Replacing planks with woodloc®
Take up the floor as far as the damaged plank, replace               damaged plank. Install the new plank in a place where
the plank and then re-lay the floor. The best result is              the fresh colour does not stand out so much.
achieved by using a plank that was in the vicinity of the




9.3.3 Replacing strips




              Cut through the lacquer      Chisel out the strip          Select and match a replacement strip.
              coating in the joints        and 2 mm of the inter-        Fill the cavity with polyester filler and
              around the strip.            mediate layer.                press the strip into place.




9.3.4 Treatment with lime
Lime treatment of laminated parquet is not recom-
mended because of the excessive amount of moisture
used (the strips can loosen).



122
10. Wood floor accessories
                     10.1   Underlay and protective paper            page 124
                            10.1.1    Underlay material              page 124
                            10.1.2    Protective paper               page 124


                     10.2   Installation materials                   page 125
                            10.2.1    Glue                           page 125
                            10.2.2    Tools                          page 125


                     10.3   Interior design products                 page 126
                            10.3.1    Mouldings                      page 126
                                      10.3.1.1 Skirting boards       page 126
                                      10.3.1.2 Level moulding        page 127
                                      10.3.1.3 T moulding            page 127
                                      10.3.1.4 Finishing trim        page 128
                                      10.3.1.5 Stair nosings         page 129
                                      10.3.1.6 Suitable mouldings    page 129
                            10.3.2    Complementary products         page 130
                                      10.3.2.1 Pipe collars          page 130
                                      10.3.2.2 Twin rosettes         page 130
                                      10.3.2.3 Doors stop            page 130
                                      10.3.2.4 Furniture pads        page 130


                     10.4   Maintenance materials                    page 130
                            10.4.1    Maintenance accessories        page 130
                            10.4.2    Tools                          page 131


                     10.5   Repairs                                  page 131
                            10.5.1    Lacquer and oil                page 131
                                      10.5.1.1 Lacquer               page 131
                                      10.5.1.2 Oil (Satin oil)       page 131
                            10.5.2    Repair materials               page 132
                                      10.5.2.1 Filler                page 132
                                      10.5.2.2 Wear surface strips   page 132
                            10.5.3    Tools                          page 132




The accessories have been developed to facilitate installation
and maintenance of wood floors as have mouldings to complete
the installation work.
                                                                                123
10.1 Underlay and protective paper
10.1.1 Underlay material
0.2 mm Plastic sheeting                                      3 mm Tuplex
The plastic sheeting is ageing-resistant polyethylene        Tuplex is a combination of a moisture barrier and a
that is used in constructions that require a vapour          floor underlay. It comprises a layer of EPS foam plastic
barrier. It meets the requirements of SPF Verksnorm          beads between two polyethylene plastic sheets includ-
2000. It is supplied folded double and its size is           ing a 200 mm overlap on one side. It shall be laid
2,700 mm x 25,000 mm. Each roll contains 67 m 2.             edge-to-edge.
                                                                Impacts sound attenuation 18-19 dB. Compression
2 mm Flooring paper                                          during long-term test: 4%
Flooring paper is suitable for use as an intermediate           The dimensions are 1,100 mm x 30,000 mm. Each
layer when installing underfloor heating because of its      roll contains 33 m2.
low thermal transmittance resistance. It shall be laid
edge-to-edge. The paper must be laid on top of the
plastic sheeting in constructions that require a vapour
barrier. The weight is around 400 g/m 2 and the dimen-
sions are 1,000 mm x 15,000. Each roll contains 15m 2.

2 mm Floor underlay
This intermediate layer of polyethylene foam has a
density of 35 kg/m3. It is laid edge to edge.
  The dimensions are 1,000 mm x 15,000 mm and
each roll contains 15m 2.
  It is also available in 1,000 mm x 75,000 mm. Each
roll contains 75 m2.

3 mm Floor underlay
This intermediate layer of polyethylene foam has a den-
sity of 30 kg/m3. It shall be laid edge-to-edge.
   The dimensions are 1,200 mm x 62,500 mm and
each roll contains 75 m2.
   It is also available in 1,200 mm x 12,500 mm. Each
roll contains 15 m 2.




10.1.2 Protective paper
Protective paper is degradable and is used to protect
wood flooring after installation. Its weight is 250 g/m2.
It is provided with a 0.12 g/m 2 PE film. The film side is
laid downwards.
   The dimensions are 1,100 mm x 15,000 mm. Each
roll contains 16.5 m2.




124
10.2 Installation materials
10.2.1 Glue
This is a PVAc glue of the highest quality and strength   The consumer package with glue nozzle contains
and is used for gluing planks with traditional joints.    0.5 liter. The glue is also available in a 5 liter drum for
The glue can withstand temperatures down to -15°C.        refilling.




10.2.2 Tools
Installation kit - long woodloc®                          Installation wedge
This kit contains a handblock, installation wedge,        Plastic wedge with withdrawal string used for
jemmy, 30 wedges, Carpenter’s pencil and installation     woodloc® installation.
instructions.
                                                          Hammer block with handle, length 500 mm
Wedges                                                    Manufactured from recycled plastic and used when
Plastic wedges are used to create a varying clearance     installing with traditional joints.
against adjacent surfaces during installation.
(20 per package).                                         Hammer block with handle, length 500 mm
                                                          Manufactured from recycled plastic and used when
Hand block, length 300 mm                                 installing with traditional joints. Designed for GDS.
Manufactured from recycled plastic and used for
installing long planks with woodloc® joints.              Jemmies for professionals
                                                          Used when installing traditional joints.
Hand block, length 300 mm
Manufactured from wood and used for installing long
planks with woodloc® joints. Designed for GCS.




                                                                                                                  125
10.3 Interior design products
10.3.1 Mouldings
10.3.1.1 Skirting boards                                                    Quarter-round stave, 14 x 14 mm
Skirting boards are used to conceal the expansion joint                     The quarter-round stave is lacquered
between the floor and adjacent vertical surfaces. Skirt-                    using silk matt lacquer and is available
ing boards in matching timber provide the finishing                         in Ash, Beech, Oak, Merbau-stained
touch for wood flooring.                                                    Oak, Cherry and Maple. Length
                                                                            2,400 mm.



              Solid skirting board,                                          Veneer skirting board, 23 x 60 mm
              15 x 69 mm, moulded                                            The veneer skirting board is finished
              The skirting board is lacquered using                          in silk matt lacquer. The core is made
              silk matt lacquer and is available in                          of softwood and the surface layer is
              Ash, Beech, Oak, Merbau-stained Oak,                           made of veneer in Ash, white-stained
              Cherry and Maple. Length 2,400 mm.                             Ash, Beech, steamed Beech, brown-
                                                                             stained Beech, red-stained Beech,
                                                                             Oak, Iroko, Jarrah, Jatoba, Cherry,
                                                                             Maple, Red Oak and Walnut.
                                                                             Length 2,400 mm.




                     Solid skirting board,                 Flexilist
                     21 x 40 mm                            Flexilist is used for installation around pillars etc.
                     This skirting board is available
                     in Ash, Beech, steamed Beech,
                     Oak, Maple and Cherry. When
                     lacquered it is available in Ash,
                     Maple and Oak.
                     Length 2,400 mm.




                     Solid skirting board,
                     25 x 25 mm
                     The skirting board is lacquered
                     using silk matt lacquer and is        Flexilist, 10 x 14 mm and 10 x 59 mm
                     available in Ash, Beech, Oak,         Flexilist is available in two different lengths. It is sup-
                     Merbau-stained Oak, Cherry and        plied untreated and provided with installation instruc-
                     Maple. Length 2,400 mm.               tions. You can read more about installation in Section
                                                           8.9. This skirting moulding is flexible and can be
                                                           moulded to a minimum diameter of 200 mm.
               Fillet, 12 x 21 mm                          It is available in Ash, Beech, Maple and Oak.
               The fillet is lacquered using silk matt     Length 1,500 mm.
               lacquer and is available in Ash, Beech,
               Oak, Merbau-stained Oak, Cherry and
               Maple. Length 2,400 mm.




126
10.3.1.2 Level moulding
Level moulding is used to conceal the level difference
between wood flooring and a lower floor level.




Level moulding (solid, for 15 mm floor), 58 x 20 mm
The level moulding is finished using silk matt lacquer
and is available in Ash, Beech, Oak, Merbau-stained
Oak, Cherry and Maple. Lengths, 2,400 mm and
1,000 mm.


Level moulding (solid, for 7 mm floor), 41 x 14 mm
The level moulding is supplied finished in silk matt
lacquer. The moulding is used to conceal level differ-
ences between 7 mm wood flooring and a lower floor
surface. It is available in Beech, Cherry, Maple and
Oak. Lengths, 2,400 mm and 1,000 mm.


Level moulding (7–16 mm)
in aluminium, 56 x 7–16 mm
The level moulding is supplied anodised in gold, silver
and bronze. Installation instructions are found in
Section 8.10. Lengths, 1,800 mm and 900 mm.



10.3.1.3 T moulding
T moulding are used for transitions between floor
surfaces at the same level.




T moulding (solid, for 15 mm floor), 58 x 20 mm
The T moulding is lacquered using silk matt lacquer
and is available in Ash, Beech, Oak, Merbau-stained
Oak, Cherry and Maple. Lengths, 2,400 and
1,000 mm.


T moulding (solid, for 7 mm floor), 58 x 14 mm
It is available in Beech, Cherry, Maple and Oak.
Lengths, 2,400 and 1,000 mm.


T moulding (7-16 mm) in aluminium, 44 x 7–16 mm
The T moulding is supplied anodised in gold, silver and
bronze. Installation instructions are found in Section
8.10. Lengths, 1,800 mm and 900 mm.




                                                          127
10.3.1.4 Finishing trim
Finishing trim is used for wood flooring for connec-
tions to a higher level.




Finishing trim (solid, for 15 mm floor), 38 x 20 mm
The finishing trim is lacquered using silk matt lacquer
and is available in Ash, Beech, Oak, Merbau-stained
Oak, Cherry and Maple. Lengths, 2,400 and
1,000 mm.

Finishing trim (solid, for 7 mm floor), 34 x 14 mm
The finishing trim is finished in silk matt lacquer and
is available in Beech, Oak, Cherry and Maple.
Lengths, 2,400 and 1,000 mm.


Finishing trim (7-16 mm) in aluminium
The finishing trim is supplied anodised in gold, silver
and bronze. Installation instructions are found in
Section 8.10. Lengths, 1,800 and 900 mm.




128
10.3.1.5 Stair nosings
The stair nosing is used to provide a neat joint between
the floor and stairs. Installation instructions are found
in Section 8.7.




Stair nosing (solid, for 15 mm flooring), 40 x 56 mm
The stair nosing is lacquered using silk matt lacquer
and is available in Ash, Beech, Oak, Merbau-stained
Oak, Cherry and Maple. Length 1,200 mm.

Stair nosing (solid, for 7 mm flooring), 44 x 54 mm
The stair nosing is finished in silk matt lacquer and is
available in Beech, Oak, Cherry and Maple.
Length 1,200 mm.

Stair nosing in a different type of wood effectively mark
where the stairs begin.




!     Note the requirement for an expansion joint
      between mouldings and wood flooring as well.                   Flooring              Suitable wood
                                                                                           for mouldings


                                                            Red Oak             Merbau
10.3.1.6 Suitable mouldings
Since not all types of wood have the corresponding          Sycamore            Maple
range in mouldings, the following summary provides a
guide for suitable mouldings.                               Sucupira            Brown-stained Beech

                                                            Birch               Maple

                                                            Jatoba              Merbau-stained Oak

                                                            Jarrah              Merbau-stained Oak

                                                            Rosewood            Merbau-stained Oak

                                                            Iroko               Brown-stained Beech




                                                                                                           129
10.3.2 Complementary products
10.3.2.1 Pipe collars                                       10.3.2.4 Furniture pads

Pipe collars                                                Furniture pads (self-adhesive)
(solid, for 18 and 22 mm pipes) Ø 48 x 20 mm                Ø 20 mm and Ø 38 mm
Pipe collars are finished in silk matt lacquer and are
available in Oak, Beech and Maple.                          Furniture pads (tubular rivet)
                                                            Ø 22 mm and Ø 26 mm. These are fitted using
Pipe collars (solid, for 22 mm pipes) Ø 55 x 20 mm          a hammer and are suitable for heavy furniture.
Pipe collars are finished in silk matt lacquer and are
available in Oak, Beech and Maple.

10.3.2.2 Twin rosettes
Twin rosettes (solid) 50 x 110 x 10 mm
Twin rosettes are supplied for cutting by the customer
to the required size and c/c dimension. They are
finished in silk matt lacquer and are available in Oak,
Ash, Beech, Maple and Cherry. Installation instructions
are supplied.


10.3.2.3 Door stops

Door stop (solid) Ø 30 x 35 mm
The door stop is screwed to the floor with the screw
supplied. It is available in Ash, Oak, Cherry, Beech and
Maple. Installation instructions supplied in the packet.




10.4 Maintenance materials
10.4.1 Maintenance accessories
Cleaner
Cleaner is used for cleaning both lacquered and oiled
surfaces. It has the correct pH value so that it does not
damage the wood or the surface and contains anion
and non-ion tensides. A packet contains 1 liter. Clean-
ing instructions are provided on the packet.

Floor care wax
The wax is used for periodic maintenance of floors
treated with natural oil. It contains carnauba wax,
alkyd oil and acrylic resin. A packet contains 1 liter.
Cleaning instructions are provided on the packet.

Oil Refresher
Refresher is used for periodic maintenance of floors
treated with UV oil. It contains alkyd oil, waxes, acry-
late and butyl glycol. A packet contains 1 liter. Clean-
ing instructions are provided on the packet.


130
10.4.2 Tools
Maintenance set
The set contains all that is necessary for maintaining a
floor - mop, mop plate, stand and cleaner.

Mop
The mop is manufactured from microfibres and is
washed at 95°C.

Ergobend
Ergobend is designed as an extension of the mop plate
and makes it easy to reach under bookshelves and
sofas.




10.5 Repairs
10.5.1 Lacquer and oil
10.5.1.1 Lacquer                                              Touch-up lacquer
The silk matt lacquer is water-based and is easy to           This lacquer is supplied in a 30 ml bottle that has a
apply. Instructions are found on the packets. The pack-       brush and can be used for repairs to small areas and
ets contain 1 liter and 5 liters respectively. Installation   scratches.
instructions are found in Section 9.1.1.
                                                              10.5.1.2 Oil (Satin oil)
                                                              Instructions are found on the packets. The packets
                                                              contain 1 liter and 5 liters respectively. Installation
                                                              instructions are found in Section 9.1.2.

                                                              Touch-up oil
                                                              The oil is supplied in a 30 ml bottle that has a brush
                                                              and can be used for repairs to small areas and
                                                              scratches.




                                                                                                                        131
10.5.2 Repair materials
10.5.2.1 Filler                                                  10.5.2.2 Wear surface strips, 67 x 337 mm
                                                                 The strips are available in all types of wood. The are
AGES Woodfiller                                                  available pre-treated: UV lacquered, UV-oiled, natu-
The wood filler is water-soluble. It can withstand frost         ral-oiled and untreated. The strips are used for minor
and softens when it warms up. Dried wood filler can be           repairs in installed floors when only strips need
dissolved in water. It is available in eight shades to suit      replacing. See the instructions in Section 9.3.3.
the respective flooring range’s general appearance. Indi-
vidual colour differences in strips must be considered.



Suitable wood filler

  Types of wood                     Sort                      Filler number



 Oak                Stockholm, Cambridge, Vancouver,          710231
                    7 mm wood floor                           710232
                    Monte Carlo, Glasgow                      710233
                    Others

 Beech              Stockholm, Genua, 7 mm wood               710231
                    floor, Others                             710234

 Ash                Stockholm, Genua                          710230
                    Cambridge                                 710234
                    Glasgow, London                           710230/710234

 Sycamore /         Stockholm, Genua, Cambridge,              710231
 Hard Maple         Glasgow, 7 mm wood floor                  710234/710231

 Birch              All                                       710230

 Merbau             All                                       710235

 Cherry             Stockholm, Genua, 7 mm wood               710237
                    floor, Cambridge                          710237 / 710231

 Walnut             Stockholm, 7 mm wood floor                710236

 Jarrah/Jatoba      Stockholm                                 710235

 Alder              Monte Carlo                               710234

 Red Oak            Gent, Monte Carlo                         710234

 Sucupira           Stockholm                                 710236

 Rosewood           Stockholm                                 710235

 Iroko              Stockholm                                 710236




10.5.3 Tools
Repair set for simple repairs
This set contains filler, touch-up lacquer, touch-up oil,        self-adhesive furniture protection with 100 x 150 mm
green Scotch-Brite, furniture pads, tubular rivets and           self-adhesive felt.




132
11. Tips, causes of faults and
    assessment basis
        11.1   General                                                       page 134
               11.1.1 Practical tips                                         page 134
               11.1.2 Before installing                                      page 134
               11.1.3 When installing                                        page 135
               11.1.4 After installing                                       page 135


        11.2   Different faults and how to avoid or rectify them             page 136

        11.3   Assessment basis                                              page 138
               11.3.1      Assessment basis for blemishes according to GBR   page 138
               11.3.2      Extract from HusAMA regarding blemishes           page 139
                           11.3.2.1 Surface unevenness                       page 139
                           11.3.2.2 Joint step                               page 139
                           11.3.2.3 Pattern faults                           page 139




                                                                                        133
11.1 General
The following tips and advice are given in addition to the tips given in Chapter 8 on installation.



11.1.1 Practical tips
11.1.2 Before installing
Use the practical tools developed by Kährs to ease installation. See Chapter 10.



Waste percentage                         Calculate what you need so that you have sufficient planks. The amount
                                         of wastage is normally around 2% but you should allow 8-10% for
                                         patterned floors.

Diagonal laying, see Section 8.2.4.      Wood flooring that is installed diagonally adds extra style to the room.
                                            Combining different types of wood can also be effective. Remember not to
                                         exceed the maximum width for the wood floor. Allow for additional wastage
                                         if you install diagonally. This will be about 10% more than in normal instal-
                                         lation. When installing at an angle of 45° the width of the room must not
                                         exceed 8.5 m. (The width can be greater when gluing against the sub-sur-
                                         face). Toledo is always laid at an angle of 45° so that the herringbone pattern
                                         is obvious in the room’s longitudinal direction.




The wood’s hardness and                  Impact wear should be considered when choosing the type of wood. An
choice of wood                           example of impact wear is that from a nail exposed by worn heels on high-
                                         heeled shoes. Such wear can affect even the hardest types of wood. Because
                                         of its lively structure, Oak Monte Carlo and other sorts may make it difficult
                                         to detect such impact marks.

Large areas                              Broad patterns in the floor on large areas (1 and 2 strip patterns) are effective
                                         and create a strong sensation of wood.


Stair nosings                            A stair nosing in a contrasting type clearly identifies where the floor ends and
                                         the stairs start.




134
11.1.3 When installing

Glue residues                     Glue that has dripped on the floor or has been squeezed out between planks
                                  must be cleaned up immediately. Change cloths regularly otherwise glue can
                                  be smeared on the floor instead of being cleaned up. Moisten the cloth with
                                  water. If you apply glue correctly it should not be squeezed out when the
                                  planks are knocked together. Use methylated spirits to clean up the glue.
                                  Kährs woodloc® is a mechanical jointing system that is glued only in excep-
                                  tional cases. Glue is seldom or never a problem in this case.


Screw holes for aluminium         When fitting at the bottom of a door opening the moulding can be cut so that
mouldings                         the screw holes are equidistant from the door frame.


Silicon                           Never use silicon on a wood floor! Use the appropriate wood filler, such as
                                  Woodfiller, to fill a gap. The slightest trace of silicon on a wood floor or else-
                                  where can cause problems when re-lacquering.


Always use a hammer block         When installing planks that are tongued and grooved, it is the tongue side
                                  of the plank that is tapped when inserting. The surface coating is the only
                                  part of the plank that fits tightly when the planks are knocked together. This
                                  means that the risk of crush damage in this layer is obvious if the correct
                                  process is not followed. There is a special hand block for use with Kährs
                                  woodloc®.




11.1.4 After installation

Complementary surface treatment   We recommend complementary surface treatment in rooms where there is
                                  a risk of water being spilt and where it is not wiped up immediately. In this
                                  way you can cover the joints between the planks to provide better protection
                                  against liquids. Use Kährs lacquer for lacquered floors, Oil Refresher for
                                  UV–oiled floors and care wax for natural-oiled floors.


Wood floors on stairs             We recommend anti-slip tape to prevent accidents caused by slipping on
                                  stairs with wood flooring.


Thick carpets                     If underfloor heating is installed, thick rugs can provide so much insulation
                                  that the critical surface temperature of 27°C is exceeded. This can cause
                                  irreparable damage to wood flooring.


Do not use chairs with castors    Chair castors and furniture with other types of wheel exert considerable
                                  pressure on the floor. In many cases the pressure can exceed the surface
                                  strength of the wood and thus cause damage from impressions. Always use
                                  floor protection in the form of castor cups or mats.
                                     Be aware that perspex protection under chairs can generate static electricity
                                  which in turn means that dirt and small particles easily get trapped between
                                  the floor and the perspex. This results in the protection having no effect.
                                     Many refrigerators, freezers etc are fitted with “wheels” but they are often
                                  too small and cause floor damage if the floor is not protected when these
                                  appliances are installed.




                                                                                                                 135
11.2 Different faults and how to
avoid or rectify them
Fault                     Description/Cause              How to avoid the fault         Action

Fine cracks               Fine cracks, especially in     Cannot be avoided. This        Replace the damaged strip.
                          oak, that can be caused by     is a natural occurrence in
                          the wood’s movement some       some types of wood.
                          while after installation or
                          lacquering.


Colour changes in         Colour changes when            UV radiation cannot be         Avoid laying carpets im-
the wood                  affected by the sun’s UV       avoided. Different types       mediately after installing
                          radiation.                     of wood react in different     the floor. Allow the floor to
                                                         ways.                          settle.

                          The effects of water can      Any spilt liquid must be        Replace the damaged
                          cause discolouration. This    cleaned up immediately.         section.
                          often also causes other seri- See Section 4.2.
                          ous damage.

Gaps                      Shrinkage occurs if the        Shrinkage is often preceded    Maintain a relative humid-
(See tolerances in        indoor air is too dry. Small   by swelling of the wood        ity of 30–60% and a tem-
Section 12.3.3)           gaps are natural during the    caused by too much mois-       perature of around 20°C.
                          winter. These disappear        ture during the building       Care should be taken with
                          during the warm time of        phase.                         Beech and Hard Maple on
                          the year.                                                     underfloor heating.

                          Excessive temperature of       Certain types of wood          Make sure that the under-
                          the heating system.            move more than others          floor heating system does
                                                         such as Beech and Hard         not generate an excessive
                                                         Maple. Gaps may occur in       surface temperature on the
                                                         these cases.                   wood flooring.

Concave cross section     Drying out of the wood as      A vapour barrier is obliga-    Maintain a relative humid-
of plank.                 a consequence of exces-        tory for underfloor heating.   ity of 30–60%. The tem-
                          sively dry indoor air. Up to   It should be installed as      perature should be around
                          0.5 mm is natural during       near to the wood flooring      20°C.
                          the cold part of the year.     as possible.


Convex planks             Moisturising the plank can     When building, a vapour        Install a vapour barrier.
                          cause this effect.             barrier should be installed    Small optical changes can
                          Excessive air humidity can     under the intermediate         occur in Beech and Hard
                          also have the same effect.     layer to protect against       Maple even at normal air
                          This is clearly visible on     moisture. Installation must    humidity. This is normal.
                          sensitive types of wood        not take place if the
                          such as Beech and Hard         RH > 95%. Dehumidify if
                          Maple.                         the RH is above 60%.


Brown marks and discol-   A reaction to urine, water     Clean up spilt water im-       Sanding and lacquering or
ouration.                 or cleaning agent for ex-      mediately.                     replacement of strips.
                          ample.                         Do not use cleaning agents
                                                         that contain ammonia.




136
The floor sags.               The effect of moisture           Adequate expansion joints,     Saw out adequate expan-
(See tolerances in            and/or the lack of expan-        even next to radiator pipes,   sion joints. Check that a
Section 12.3.1).              sion joints.                     thresholds, door frames,       vapour barrier is fitted.
                                                               open fires etc.

                              Sub-floor not level.             Adjust the floor before in-    Adjust the floor before in-
                                                               stallation. See the require-   stallation. See the require-
                                                               ments in the installation      ments in the installation
                                                               instructions.                  instructions.

                              Insufficient staggering of       Staggering of the end joints Re-laying that includes
                              end joints.                      minimum 0.5 m. 0.3 m in      lateral joints.
                                                               Kährs 7 mm wood flooring.


Tongues and grooves           Packaging opened too soon. Open the bundles as the              Dry the planks.
difficult to fit.                                        installation progresses.

                              Production fault.                If there is a production fault The tongues can be sanded
                                                               discontinue installation and slightly with sandpaper.
                                                               replace the planks.


Angular fault at plank        Production fault.                                               Replace planks with
ends. (See tolerances in                                                                      angular faults.
Section 12.3.3).
                              Installation faults will         Lay the first row of planks    Fill in the cracks with
                              occur if the first plank         straight.                      plastic wood.
                              is not laid straight.


Gaps between planks’          Installation fault that arises   Accurate installation.         Fill in the cracks with
longitudinal sides.           when the planks are not                                         plastic wood.
(See tolerances in            sufficiently closed up on
Section 12.3.3).              the longitudinal sides.

                              Angular fault at plank ends.                                    Replace tapered planks.


Kährs woodloc® – the          Obstruction in the groove.       Make sure the groove is
planks do not fit together.                                    clear.
                              The plank is incorrectly                                        Replace the plank.
                              planed.

The lacquer comes away        All tape sticks tightly to the   Do not tape the protective     Re-sanding and lacquering
when tape is removed          lacquer.                         paper to the floor.            of the floor. Small amounts
with the covering paper.                                                                      of damaged can be
                              The tape has been in place                                      touched up.
                              too long.


Greyish coating on the        Soap has probably been      Use a neutral cleaning              Use Kährs Cleaner.
floor surface.                used when cleaning. A high agent (Kährs Cleaner).
                              pH value precipitates chalk
                              from the water.



                                                                                                                        137
11.3 Assessment basis
11.3.1 Assessment basis for blemishes according to HusAMA.
Recommendations are issued by the Swedish Flooring Trade Association but comprise only an
assessment of blemishes that do not affect the floor’s function in context.


Principal rules

• To be considered, minor blemishes shall be directly             consideration shall be given to minor shifts that can
  visible during an impartial inspection conducted                arise as a consequence of patterns and the
  with the care that is normally applied during final             manufacturing method.
  and guarantee inspection of housebuilding work.               • If the blemishes are not considered negligible then
• Blemishes that appear under certain lights, can be              the initial measure is to rectify the fault. The second
  detected only from certain parts of the room, seen              measure is to evaluate the fault in relation to the pur
  after being pointed out etc, or are not considered to           chase price (i.e. what the purchaser paid for the
  be faults in this context.                                      floor), how long the floor has been in use and the
• Areas that are subject to local wear should be                  standard of the rest of the premises. If, as a result, it
  provided with floor protection. For example, floors             is found that the value of the fault is less than 30%
  should be protected with an underlay where office               of the purchase price, the purchase price is reduced
  chairs are used.                                                by the corresponding rate.
• When carrying out an assessment, the tolerances               • If, after any rectification, it is considered that the
  and instructions for installation that are shown in the         value of the fault exceeds 30% of the purchase price,
  relevant sections of the current HusAMA with Advice             the relevant floor installation should be replaced.
  and Guidance shall apply. When laying patterns,




Other rules - Minor faults are rectified as follows:


Type of fault                            Suitable action


Faults in the material or installation

Flaking or edge damage                   Replace the surface layer. Fill minor faults.
(such as hammer marks)

Joints gaps (level faults)               Individual strips or planks are replaced (outside HusAMA’s tolerance of 0.2
                                         and 0.3 mm respectively). Re-sand the floor if there are general joint cracks.

Open knot holes, knot splits             Fill with filler and apply touch-up lacquer.

Dark or light strips. Knots or           Outside the manufacturer’s sorting rules, replace wear surface.
surface wood.

Gaps and angular faults                  Outside HusAMA’s tolerance, fill with filler.

Loose wear layer                         Replace wear surface or plank.
(loss of glue adhesion)

Pressure marks, scratches,               Replace the wear surface in bad cases.
finish damage.

Insufficient room for expansion          Clear with a saw.
(expansion joint)


138
Faults in treatment techniques

Uneven lacquer surface or stain-           Touch-up. If touching up is insufficient carry out light sanding or staining
ing, corrugations, knots, glue             plus lacquering of the entire surface.
stickiness

Bare patches in the lacquer surface        Touch up with a brush and levelling of edges or rectifying with lacquer spray.


Insufficient lacquer                       Light sanding and lacquering of the entire surface.


Faults in sanding work

Lacquer flakes                             Re-sanding and lacquering.

Insufficient flat sanding, sanding         Re-sanding and lacquering.
marks or undulations.

Insufficient local sanding                 Touching up by scraping, sanding and lacquering.

Rings when edge sanding                    Light sanding and lacquering of the entire surface.


Miscellaneous

Colour changes in the wood                 No action taken.
caused by UV light. Reddening
of pine flooring

Surface marks, scratches etc on            Touch-up. If touching up is insufficient carry out light sanding or staining
stained flooring                           plus lacquering of the entire surface.

Moisture damage, sagging                   Determine the cause. Take action according to the result of the investigation.

Bowing (concave/convex)                    According to the principal rules.




11.3.2 Extract from HusAMA regarding blemishes
11.3.2.1 Surface unevenness                                      11.3.2.2 Joint lipping
The gap width must not exceed 0.2 mm when install-               Joint lipping must not exceed 0.2 mm. A maximum of
ing flooring with a multilayer construction. However             five individual steps up to 0.3 mm are permitted for a
within the guarantee period two 1 mm gaps are per-               floor area of up to 30 m2. If the area is greater the num-
mitted in a floor area up to 30 m2. If the area is greater       ber of steps permitted is in proportion to the area.
the number of gaps permitted is in proportion to the
area.                                                            11.3.2.3 Pattern faults
  In cases where the number of gaps and size is greater          Minor shifts in patterns that occur during manufactur-
than permitted by AMA, this is often a consequence               ing are permitted between adjacent pattern boards.
of the effects of moisture followed by harsh drying,
RA98 Hus MDB.3.




                                                                                                                       139
140
12. Tabels
        12.1   Dimensions, weight and contents             page 142

        12.2   Thermal transmission resistance in m2/KW    page 143

        12.3   Tolerances according to HusAMA              page 143
               12.3.1   Curvature                          page 143
               12.3.2   Joint lipping                      page 143
               12.3.3   Gaps                               page 143
               12.3.4   Pattern matching                   page 143


        12.4   Latin names for trees, Brinell values and
               colour changes                              page 144

        12.5   Wood filler – suitable colours              page 145

        12.6   Colour scale for wood flooring              page 146

        12.7   Suitable mouldings                          page 147

        12.8   Sorting according to HusAMA                 page 147




                                                                      141
12.1 Dimensions weight and contents

 Product           Length/   Width/   Weight/    Qty/    Contents/   Contents/   Weight/pallet.
                      mm       mm         m2    pack.        pack.      wood.           Gross

 7 mm                1225      193       7 kg   10 stk     2,36 m2    94,40 m2          670 kg

 15 mm               2423      200       8 kg    6 stk     2,91 m2   130,95 m2         1067 kg

 15 mm               2090      205       8 kg    6 stk     2,57 m2   115.65 m2          943 kg

 15 mm London        1800      187       8 kg    6 stk     2,02 m2    90,90 m2          741 kg

 15 mm London        2100      187       8 kg    6 stk     2,36 m2   106,20 m2          866 kg

 15 mm London        2400      187       8 kg    6 stk     2,69 m2   121,05 m2          998 kg

 15 mm Vancouver     1800      130       8 kg    6 stk     1,40 m2    88,20 m2          719 kg

 15 mm Calgary       1800      130       8 kg    6 stk     1,40 m2    88,20 m2          719 kg

 15 mm Stavanger     1800      105       8 kg    6 stk     1,13 m2   81,36 m2           663 kg

 15 mm Jarrah                          9,5 kg                                          1237 kg
 15 mm
       Jatoba        2423      200       9 kg    6 stk     2,91 m2   130,95 m2         1159 kg

 15 mm Boston
 15 mm
       Miami         1800       95       9 kg    6 stk     1,03 m2    64,89 m2          574 kg

 20 mm               2423      200    11,5 kg    4 stk     1,94 m2    87,30 m2         1004 kg

 22 mm               2423      200    14,5 kg    4 stk     1,94 m2    87,30 m2         1318 kg




142
12.2 Thermal transmission
resistance in m2 K/W
(Including transfer resistance)

  Product                Including Tuplex     Without                  Including flooring        Including 3 mm
                                              intermediate layer       paper                     foam plastic

  15 mm
  Kährs wood floor       Approx 0,225         0,141                    0,155                     0,219

  7 mm
  Kährs wood floor       Approx 0,17          0,06–0,07                Approx 0,08               Approx 0,16



Felt paper should be chosen as the intermediate layer. Tuplex, polyethylene cellular plastic and granulated
corkboard have higher thermal transfer resistance, which is not suitable in connection with floor heating.




12.3 Tolerances according to HusAMA
12.3.1 Curvature                                               12.3.2 Joint lipping
                                                               No more than 0.2 mm. Max 5 = 0.3 mm over an
Measured      Tolerance*                                       area of 30 m 2.
length

2 meter       ± 3 mm                                           12.3.3 Gaps
0,25 meter    ± 1,2 mm                                         No more than 0.2 mm. Max 2 = 1 mm over an
                                                               area of 30 m 2.
1m            ± 2 mm
              (Not a tolerance as per HusAMA,
              but accepted by us.)
                                                               12.3.4 Pattern matching

* Note that either plus values or minus values apply,          Minor shifts in patterns that occur during manufactur-
  not both/and.                                                ing are permitted between adjacent pattern planks.




                                                                                                                  143
12.4 Latin names for trees, Brinell values and
colour changes

Types of wood             Latin name    Brinell    Spread           Colour


 Alder          Alnus Glutinosa          2,1      1,5 – 2,8    Goes quite yellow

 Ash            Fraxinus Exelsior        4,0      2,8 – 6,2    Goes yellow

 Sycamore       Acer Pseudoplatanus      3,0      2,3 – 4,5    Goes quite yellow

 Birch          Betula Alba              2,6      1,6 – 4,0    Goes yellow

 Beech          Fagus Silvatica          3,8      2,0 – 5,9    Goes yellow

 Oak            Quercus Robur            3,7      2,2 – 5,9    Goes yellow

 Hard Maple     Acer Saccarhum           4,8      3,2 – 6,9    Goes yellow

 Iroko          hlorofora Exselsa        3,5      1,4 – 5,4    Goes quite yellow

 Jarrah         Eucalyptus Marginata     4,7      2,9 – 9,0    Goes quite dark

 Jatoba         Hymenaea Cuorbaril       7,0      4,5 – 14,1   Darkens/goes quickly
                                                               bright red

 Cherry         Prunus Serotina          3,6      1,7 – 6,2    Darkens/goes quickly
                                                               bright red

 Merbau         Intsia Bijuga            4,9      2,7 – 7,8    Darkens/goes red

 Rosewood       Guibortia Coleosperma    4,6      3,5 – 6,1    Darkens/goes quickly
                                                               bright red

 Read Oak       Quercus Rubra            3,7      2,4 – 6,9    Goes yellow

 Sucupira       Diplotropis Purpurea     5,6      2,8 – 7,8    Little change

 Walnut         Juglans Nigra            3,4      2,0 – 5,1    Goes yellow




144
12.5. Woodfiller - suitable colours


Types of wood                  Sort                Filler number



Oak             Stockholm, Cambridge, Vancouver,   710231
                7 mm wood floor                    710232
                Monte Carlo, Glasgow               710233
                Others

Beech           Stockholm, Genua, 7 mm wood        710231
                floor, Others                      710234

Ash             Stockholm, Genua                   710230
                Cambridge                          710234
                Glasgow, London                    710230/710234

Sycamore /      Stockholm, Genua, Cambridge,       710231
Hard Maple      Glasgow, 7 mm wood floor           710234/710231

Birch           All                                710230

Merbau          All                                710235

Cherry          Stockholm, Genua, 7 mm wood        710237
                floor, Cambridge                   710237 / 710231

Walnut          Stockholm, 7 mm wood floor         710236

Jarrah/Jatoba   Stockholm                          710235

Alder           Monte Carlo                        710234

Red Oak         Gent, Monte Carlo                  710234

Sucupira        Stockholm                          710236

Rosewood        Stockholm                          710235

Iroko           Stockholm                          710236




                                                                     145
Colour scale
Yellow/brown colours                                                              Red/brown colours

                                         European Maple                   Beech




                                         Hard Maple                       Alder




                                         Ash                            Red oak




                                         Birch                           Cherry




                                         Oak                          Rosewood




                                         Iroko                           Jatoba




                                         Sucupira                       Merbau




                                         Walnut                          Jarrah




Note the colour changes in the different types of wood. Refer to Section 4.2.


146
12.7 Suitable mouldings where exact species
is not available
         Flooring                 Suitable
                             wood for mouldings


Read Oak            Merbau

Sycamore            Maple

Sucupira            Brown–stained Beech

Birch               Maple

Jatoba              Merbau, Merbau–stained Oak

Jarrah              Merbau, Merbau–stained Oak

Rosewood            Merbau, Merbau–stained Oak

Iroko               Brown–stained Beech




12.8 Sorting according to HusAMA
Those that can be classified according to sort 1   Those that can be classified according to sort 2 are:
for Oak are:

Stockholm                    Copenhagen            Cambridge                  Lyon

Amsterdam                    Vancouver

Rotterdam                    Toledo

Genua




                                                                                                           147
148
149
           HEAD OFFICE: AB Gustaf Kähr, Box 805, SE-382 28 Nybro, SWEDEN
    Phone: +46 481 460 00, Fax: +46 481 178 31, E-mail: info@kahrs.se www.kahrs.se

                     SALES OFFICE UNITED KINGDOM AND IRLAND:
       Kährs UK Ltd., Unit 2 West, 68 Bognor Road, Chichester, West Sussex P019 8NS
Phone: +44-1 243 778 747, Fax: +44-1 243 531 237, E-mail: sales@kahrs.co.uk www.kahrs.se

				
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