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					Atoms, Matter, and Change
by Jim Alton
    Today we will :


   Review the Atom
   Review states of matter
   Explore changes in states of matter (phase changes)
A concept map of the atom
      ATOMS ARE MADE OF:

   Protons
   Neutrons
   Electrons
       THE NUCLEUS

   Is where protons (+) and
    neutrons (0) hang out

   Is located at the center of the
    atom.
        PROTONS

   Have a positive (+) charge
   Are one part of the nucleus
   Are at the center of the atom

“Are you sure you’re a proton?”
“Yes, I’m positive!”
       Neutrons
   Have a neutral (0) charge
   Are another part of the nucleus
   Are also at the center of the atom

A guy walks into an atom store and
asks “How much for that neutron?”

The clerk says," No charge!”
       ELECTRONS
   Have a negative (-) charge
   Travel around the nucleus
   Are located in “Energy Levels”
    (Note the 2 energy levels of the
    Lithium atom)

What did the proton say to the
 neutron?

“Stay away from that electron.
 He’s so negative!”
Now let’s look at:
   Phases of matter
          and
   Phase changes
   What are phases of matter?
      Solids
      Liquids
      Gas
      Plasma




There are 4 phases of matter. Plasma is very rare on earth, although there
is a great abundance of it in the universe. We will concentrate on the three
phases (or states) that are commonly found on earth.
       SOLIDS:

   retain a fixed volume and shape
   are not easily compressible
   do not flow easily
   particles vibrate
       Liquids:
   assume the shape of the part of the container which it occupies
   not easily compressible
   flow easily
   Particles are close together with no regular arrangement
   Particles vibrate, move about, and slide past each other.
   Some liquids flow more easily than others.
   The resistance of a liquid to flow is called viscosity.
      Gases:

   assume the shape and volume of its
    container
   are compressible
   flow easily
   Particles are well separated with no
    regular arrangement
   Particles vibrate and move freely at
    high speeds
         Can we see a pattern here?

   Solids = molecular vibration       cooler
                                         ^
                                        ^
   Liquids = molecular motion          ^
                                   temperature
                                       v
                                       v
   Gasses = rapid motion              v
                                    warmer

    Anybody?
        Changes in the states of matter:

   Are physical, not chemical changes
   occur in an orderly pattern when
    sufficient heat is added or removed.
   Heat is released when changing from
    gas to liquid to solid.
   Heat is absorbed when changing
    from solid to liquid to gas.

“Hey, did you vaporize Ice Cube?”
“No, but you’re getting warmer!”
       Solid to Liquid Phase Changes

   The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid is
    called the melting point.
   Most substances have a characteristic melting point.
   It is a physical property that helps identify the substance.
   The melting point of ice is 0 Deg. C.
   The melting point of table salt is 801 Deg. C.
   The melting point of a diamond is 3700 Deg. C.
   The temperature at which a liquid turns to a solid is called
    the freezing point.
   When a substance undergoes a phase change, its volume
    changes but its mass remains the same.
   Hmmm…different volume…..same mass! That must mean
    the density has changed! Right?
   Just like our bread in the lab.
   Generally, when a solid melts, its volume increases and its
    density decreases.
   Water is an exception. Between 0 Degrees and 4 Degrees,
    the density of water increases as ice melts to water.
   Ice is less dense than water.
Liquid <> Gas Phase Changes

   The change from liquid to
    gas is called vaporization.
   Vaporization at the surface is
    called evaporation.
   If enough energy is supplied
    to a liquid, particles change
    to gas. This process is called
    boiling.
   The temperature which a liquid boils = the boiling
    point.
   The boiling point of H2O at sea level = 100 Deg. C.
   The boiling point of table salt = 1413 Deg. C.
   The boiling point of a diamond = 4200 Deg. C
   The opposite of vaporization is condensation.
       Solid-Gas Phase Changes

   Certain substances go from the
    solid phase directly to the gas
    phase without passing thru the
    liquid phase.
   Such substances are said to
    sublime.
   The phase change is called
    sublimation.
   An example of sublimation is dry
    ice, which is solid carbon dioxide.
    What is a Calorie?


   A calorie is a unit of
    measurement for
    energy
   1 calorie = the energy
    needed to increase the
    temperature of 1 g of
    water by 1 °C.
          Let’s look at water (H2O)


   H2O is the only matter that
    occurs naturally on Earth as a
    solid, liquid and gas
   Because of this, Science uses it
    as a standard on the Celsius
    scale.
   Can anyone identify the 3
    states of H2O in this picture?
The phase changes of H2O
What is Latent Heat?

   Latent heat describes the
    amount of energy in the
    form of heat that is required
    for a material to undergo a
    change of phase
So, Are you feeling lucky?
Let’s take a little quiz!
Quiz Index
(Click on a button to select a topic)



 ATOM QUIZ       STATES OF MATTER QUIZ




                 To PowerPoint Index
ATOM QUIZ
(Click on a button to choose a topic)
  Nucleus

   Proton

   Neutron

   Electron



Return to Index
States of Matter Quiz

        Solids


        Liquids

        Gasses


    Phase Changes


    Return to Index
 Which statement is true?
 The Electron:

  Has a negative (-) charge

   Is located in the nucleus


Is so small it has no (0) charge


  Has a positive (+) charge


      Return to index
  Which statement is true? The proton:


  Has a negative charge

Travels around the nucleus

  Has a neutral charge

  Has a positive charge

   Return to quiz index
Which statement is true? The nucleus:


    Has a neutral charge

 Contains protons & neutrons

   Travels around the atom

    Has a negative charge

     Return to quiz index
   Which statement is true?
   The neutron:
 Has a negative (-) charge

Is located in the energy level

  Has a neutral (0) charge

   Has a positive charge

       Return to index
                         Wrong Answer!
                         (Did your fingers slip?)



                                             Return to quiz index

Electrons, no. Protons & neutrons, yes.
Atomic nucleus, the collection of protons and neutrons in the center of
an atom that carries the bulk of the atom's mass and positive charge
                       Wrong Answer!
                       (Did your fingers slip?)



                                        Return to quiz index

Electron, no. Neutron, yes.
It is the neutron, not the electron, that is a subatomic
particle with no net, or neutral, electric charge.
                        Wrong Answer!
                        (Did your fingers slip?)



                                        Return to quiz index

Electron, no. Proton, yes.
Protons are much larger and heavier than electrons and have
the opposite charge, protons have a positive charge.
                     Wrong Answer!
                     (Did your fingers slip?)



                                   Return to quiz index

Proton, no. Electron, yes.

Electron - An elementary particle which is negatively
charged
                    Wrong Answer!
                    (Did your fingers slip?)



                                       Return to quiz index
Proton, no. Electron, yes.
The electron has magnetic properties by virtue of (1) its orbital
motion about the nucleus of its parent atom and (2) its rotation
about its own axis.
                         Wrong Answer!
                         (Did your fingers slip?)



                                         Return to quiz index


It is the neutron, not the proton, that is a subatomic particle with
no net, or neutral, electric charge.
                  Wrong Answer!

                  (Did your fingers slip?)


                                          Return to quiz index


It is the neutron, not the nucleus, that is a subatomic particle with
no net, or neutral, electric charge.
                          Wrong Answer!

                          (Did your fingers slip?)



                                       Return to quiz index

Nucleus, no. Electron, yes.
The electron has magnetic properties by virtue of (1) its orbital
motion about the nucleus of its parent atom and (2) its rotation
about its own axis.
               Wrong Answer!
               (Did your fingers slip?)



                               Return to quiz index

              Nucleus, no. Electron, yes.
Electron - An elementary particle which is negatively
                      charged
                     Wrong Answer!
                     (Did your fingers slip?)



                                    Return to quiz index

Neutron, no. Electron, yes.

Electron - An elementary particle which is negatively
charged
                      Wrong Answer!
                      (Did your fingers slip?)



                                           Return to quiz index

Neutrons, no. Electrons, yes.


Electrons are located in what are called energy levels that surround the
nucleus.
                  Wrong Answer!
                  (Did your fingers slip?)



                                      Return to quiz index
Neutrons, no. Protons, yes.


Protons are much larger and heavier than electrons and have
the opposite charge, protons have a positive charge.
                   Wrong Answer!
                   (Did your fingers slip?)



                                      Return to quiz index

Heat and temperature have more to do with the changes in
states of matter.
                     Wrong Answer!
                     (Did your fingers slip?)



                                       Return to quiz index

This statement describes the properties of liquid and gas
molecules.
                       Wrong Answer!
                       (Did your fingers slip?)




                                        Return to quiz index

Maybe you were thinking of 32 Degrees F? Water freezes at 32
Degrees F, but we use the Celcuis scale. Also, motion does not stop
in H2O molecule at freezing.
                     Wrong Answer!
                     (Did your fingers slip?)



                                           Return to quiz index
Gasses assumes the shape and volume of its container
Liquids assumes the shape of the part of the container which it
occupies.
Solids retains a fixed volume and shape.
                         Wrong Answer!
                         (Did your fingers slip?)



                                           Return to quiz index
The electric slide is a line dance, popular at weddings.
                      Wrong Answer!
                      (Did your fingers slip?)



                                          Return to quiz index

Freezing is the process of cooling a liquid to the temperature
(called freezing point) where it turns solid.
                    Wrong Answer!
                    (Did your fingers slip?)



                                           Return to quiz index

Certain substances go from the solid phase directly to the gas
phase without passing thru the liquid phase.
Such substances are said to sublime.
The phase change is called sublimation.
                Wrong Answer!
                (Did your fingers slip?)



                                     Return to quiz index
The Symbionese Liberation Army was an
American paramilitary group. They are
famous for their spectacular kidnapping of
wealthy media heiress Patty Hearst. They
didn’t know the answer to this question,
either.
                  Wrong Answer!
                  (Did your fingers slip?)



                                         Return to quiz index

Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs
when a liquid is heated to a temperature such that its vapor pressure
is above that of the surroundings, such as air pressure.
                      Wrong Answer!
                      (Did your fingers slip?)



                                           Return to quiz index

Wow, too bad we are studying states of matter and not engineering.
This definition almost fits.
A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or
retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment.
                       Wrong Answer!
                       (Did your fingers slip?)



                                           Return to quiz index

The freezing point of water is 0 Deg. C.
Wrong Answer!

(Did your fingers slip?)

Click the button below to try another
question.
                                              Return to quiz index

     Liquid assumes the shape of the part of the container which it
     occupies.
                    Wrong Answer!
                    (Did your fingers slip?)



                                           Return to quiz index

Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under
shear stress. It is commonly perceived as "thickness", or resistance
to pouring.
                       Wrong Answer!
                       (Did your fingers slip?)



                                          Return to quiz index

Generally, when a solid melts, its volume increases and its density
decreases.
Water is an exception. Between 0 Degrees and 4 Degrees, the density
of water increases as ice melts to water.
                Wrong Answer!
                (Did your fingers slip?)



                                         Return to quiz index

Were you thinking about the Fahrenheit Scale? Scientists use the
Celsius scale.
                      Wrong Answer!
                      (Did your fingers slip?)



                                   Return to quiz index


Phase changes are
physical in nature.
        Fantastic!!!           Way to go!!!!


        Click on the button below to go again!


Electron - An elementary                 Return to quiz index
particle which is negatively
charged
       Fantastic!!!             Way to go!!!!


       Click on the button below to go again!


                                           Return to quiz index
Protons are much larger and heavier than
electrons and have the opposite charge,
protons have a positive charge.
     Fantastic!!!               Way to go!!!!


      Click on the button below to go again!


                                                  Return to quiz index

The nucleus of an atom is the very dense region in its center consisting
of protons and neutrons.
          Fantastic!!!               Way to go!!!!


          Click on the button below to go again!


                                              Return to quiz index
The neutron is a subatomic particle
with no net electric charge and is located
in the nucleus.
           Fantastic!!!                     Way to go!!!!


            Click on the button below to go again!


                                                     Return to quiz index
Particles in a solid vibrate (jiggle) but
generally do not move from place to
place.
          Fantastic!!!               Way to go!!!!


           Click on the button below to go again!


Viscosity is a measure of the                 Return to quiz index
resistance of a fluid to deform under
shear stress. It is commonly perceived
as "thickness", or resistance to
pouring.
          Fantastic!!!         Way to go!!!!


          Click on the button below to go again!


                                           Return to quiz index
Gasses assumes the shape and
volume of its container
         Fantastic!!!                Way to go!!!!


          Click on the button below to go again!


Changes in the states of matter               Return to quiz index
involve
the release or absorption of heat.
Which statement is true about solids?

The basic movement of particles in a solid:

     is from hot to cold               is vibration


                                  takes the shape
  has no regular arrangement
                                   of the container


    Stops at 32 Deg. C.           is an electric slide




                Return to quiz index
Which statement is true about liquids?
The resistance of liquids to flow is called:
       freezing                    boiling


     sublimation                   a dam


      The SLA                     viscosity



           Return to quiz index
Which statement is true about gasses?
Gasses:

                             assume the shape but not
   assume the shape and      the volume of its container
   volume of its container



    freeze at 0 Deg. C.          are highly viscous




                    Return to Index
      Which statement is true about phase changes?


 All matter increases in density     Changes in the states of matter involve
when changing from liquid to solid     the release or absorption of heat.



   The freezing point of water                 Phase changes are
          is 32 Deg. C.                        chemical in nature.



                             Return to Index

				
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