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Risk Management Aviation Carbon

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									                            XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

                      DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
        HEADQUARTERS, XVIII AIRBORNE CORPS AND FORT BRAGG
              Fort Bragg, North Carolina 28307-5000

Regulation                                             11 Aug 94
No. 385-4

                              Safety
              SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FIELD OPERATIONS

                               CONTENTS

                                          Paragraph     Page
Section I
INTRODUCTION
Purpose                                      1            4
References                                   2            5
Explanation of Abbreviations
 and Terms                                   3            5
Responsibilities                             4            5
Section II
RISK MANAGEMENT
Rules for Risk Management                    5            5
Risk Management Process                      6            6
Section III
WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES
General Requirements                         7            10
Selecting and Training Drivers               8            13
Crew Rest and Safe Driving                   9            16
Operating Tracked Vehicles                   10           17
Towing Tracked Vehicles                      11           20
Operating Wheeled Vehicles                   12           20
Section IV
CONVOY OPERATIONS)WHEELED AND
TRACKED VEHICLES
Preoperation Requirements                    13           21
Requirements During Operations               14           22
Identifying March Columns                    15           24
Senior Occupant Responsibilities             16           25
Section V
TACTICAL OVERWATER OPERATIONS
Standards                                    17           27
Planning                                     18           27
Risk Analysis                                19           27



This directive supersedes Regulation 384-4, dated 5 June 1986.
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

                                        Paragraph   Page

Section VI
POL SAFETY
General                                    20        27
Refueling Procedures                       21        29
POL Supply Point Requirements              22        30
Section VII
RAIL LOADING OPERATIONS
Preoperation Requirements                  23        30
Loading and Unloading Procedures           24        32
Section VIII
EXPLOSIVES AND AMMUNITION SAFETY
General                                    25        34
Ammunition, Simulators, Pyrotechnics,
  and Chemicals                            26        35
Vehicle Requirements                       27        41
Ammunition and Explosives Loading
  Compatibility                            28        43
Load Stability                             29        44
Safety in Transit                          30        44
Fire Precautions                           31        46
Firefighting Procedures                    32        46
Accident Procedures                        33        46
Unloading Site                             34        47
Vehicle Parking                            35        47
Section IX
FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION
Responsibilities                           36        48
Tents                                      37        48
Installing and Operating Space Heaters     38        49
Field Mess                                 39        51
Fire Prevention Standards                  40        55
Section X
FIELD MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS
Fire Prevention                         41           57
Vehicle Operations in Maintenance Areas 42           58
Personnel Safety in Maintenance
  Operations                            43           59
Section XI
BIVOUAC ACCIDENT AND INJURY PREVENTION
Site Requirements                          44        60
General Safety Rules                       45        62



                                   2
                            XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

                                         Paragraph      Page
Section XII
AVIATION ACCIDENT PREVENTION
General                                    46             63
Operations In and Around Aircraft          47             63
Aviation Operation Requirements            48             64
Medical Air Evacuation Procedures          49             67
Section XIII
ACCIDENT REPORTING AND INVESTIGATION
Reports                                    50             68
Accident Types                             51             68
Section XIV
MEDICAL AND HEALTH CARE
Army Medical Support                       52             70
MEDEVAC                                    53             70
Civilian Medical Support                   54             71
Individual Health Responsibilities         55             72
Section XV
PREVENTING COLD AND HOT WEATHER INJURIES
Cold Weather Injury                      56               73
Hot Weather Injury                       57               77
Section XVI
PREVENTING CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING
Background                                 58             80
Responsibilities                           59             81
Precautions                                60             81
Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning      61             82
Treating Carbon Monoxide Poisoning         62             82
Section XVII
LASER SAFETY
Introduction                               63             83
General                                    64             83
Laser System Descriptions                  65             84
Section XVIII
RF/MICROWAVE RADIATION PROTECTION
Background                                 66             84
Hazards                                    67             84
Radiation Protection Program               68             85
Control Measures                           69             87




                                   3
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

                                                      Page

Appendixes
A. References                                           90
B. Army Vehicles Authorized to                          93
   Transport Ammunition and Explosives
C. Tank Fire Response Procedures                        94
   Involving Depleted Uranium (Staballoy)
   Ammunition


Glossary                                              100


SECTION I
INTRODUCTION

1. PURPOSE. This regulation establishes XVIII Abn Corps safety
standards for field operations.

    a.   Summary.   This regulation includes:

        (1) Safety standards and guidelines for planning and
executing field operations and operations orders.

        (2) Safety standards for field operations for use by
XVIII Abn Corps units. It covers the basic rules of risk
management, provides detailed safety guidance for wheeled and
tracked vehicles, POL Safety, rail loading operations,
explosives/ammunition safety, fire prevention, bivouac accident
prevention, aviation safety, accident reporting and
investigation, cold and hot injury prevention, carbon monoxide
poisoning, laser safety, and radiation protection.
    b. Applicability. This regulation applies to XVIII Airborne
Corps units during all CONUS and OCONUS operations.

    c. Interim Changes. Interim changes are not official unless
authenticated by the Chief of Staff, XVIII Abn Corps. Interim
changes will be destroyed on their expiration dates unless sooner
superseded or rescinded.

    d. Suggested Improvements. The proponent of this regulation
is the Directorate of Safety, Hqs, XVIII Abn Corps & Ft. Bragg,
ATTN: AFZA-SA-ST, Fort Bragg, NC 28307-5000; Comm: (910)396-7233;
DSN 236-7233. Users may send suggestions on DA Form 2028
(Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) to the
Commander, XVIII Abn Corps, ATTN: AFZA-SA-ST, Fort Bragg, NC
28307-5000.

                                  4
                             XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4


    e. Risk Management. Commanders may deviate from the
standards established by this regulation after conducting a Risk
Assessment, IAW Section II of this regulation, which identifies
the hazards, consequences and benefits of accepting the risks.

2. REFERENCES.      Required and related publications are listed at
Appendix A.

3. EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS. The glossary
explains abbreviations and terms used in this pamphlet.
4.   RESPONSIBILITIES

     a.   Commanders will)

        (1) Complete premission risk assessments and follow risk
management principles (sec II).

        (2) Develop crew rest policies that support mission
accomplishment and that conserve training resources.

        (3) Review safety standards in this regulation when
planning and executing field operations.

        (4) Coordinate safety measures not in this regulation
with the appropriate safety officers.

        (5) Ensure established safety standards are followed
during field operations.

        (6)     Review reports of accidents that occur during
exercises.

          (7)   Develop policy to prevent accidents.

          (8)   Develop severe weather warning plans.

    b. XVIII Abn Corps staff officers will ensure safety
standards in this regulation are included in operation plans
submitted by subordinate units for review.

SECTION II
RISK MANAGEMENT

5. RULES FOR RISK MANAGEMENT. Rules for risk management at all
levels of command are as follows:


                                    5
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    a. Integrate Into Planning. Leaders must ensure the risk
management process is integrated into all planning phases of
training and combat operations.

    b. Accept No Unnecessary Risk. The leader who has the
authority to accept a risk has the responsibility to protect
their soldiers from unnecessary risk. An unnecessary risk is a
risk which could be reduced or eliminated and still accomplish
the mission.

    c. Make Risk Decisions At The Proper Level. Leaders who will
be held directly responsible for decisions should make the
decisions. Small-unit commanders and first-line leaders will
make risk decisions in combat and should make risk decisions as
much as possible in training.

    d. Accept Risk If Benefits Outweigh The Cost. A risk is
acceptable when the risk benefits outweigh risk costs. Leaders
will understand and be prepared to take necessary risks to
accomplish their missions.

6.   RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS.   Leaders will perform

    a. Hazard Identification. Detect hazards and risks
associated with operations. Identifying risks involves closely
looking at each phase of training or operations (Refer to the
Risk Assessment Matrix at Figure 1).

    b. Hazard Assessment. Assess risks and determine risk
implications. A sample worksheet is shown at Figure 2.
(Commanders may develop and use their own worksheet.) Leaders
will consider the likelihood of a mishap and the degree to which
injury or equipment damage is possible. A low chance of
something happening with a high probability of minor injury is a
low risk. A low chance of something happening with a high
probability of a fatality is a high risk. Understanding facts is
the basis for deciding whether or not to take a risk.

    c. Risk Control Options & Decision Making. Develop risk
control alternatives and make risk decisions. When risk
elimination is not possible, risks will be controlled without
sacrificing essential mission requirements. Risk control
alternatives may include new or revised task standards,
operational procedures and parameters, training requirements, and
maintenance standards. Making decisions may include selecting
controls, trading off mission elements against risk controls, and
making a final decision whether controls are adequate to make a
risk acceptable, considering mission benefits.


                                 6
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4




       7
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4




    Figure 2.   Sample Risk Assessment Worksheet




                                 8
                     XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4




Figure 2.   Sample Risk Assessment Worksheet (continued)




                            9
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    d. Implement Controls. Implement risk control measures.
Leaders will integrate procedures for controlling risk into
plans, orders, standing operating procedures (SOPs), preliminary
training, and other channels that ensure procedures are used
during operations. Implementation will involve the chain of
command.

    e. Supervise operations. Supervision techniques used for
overall operations (such as spot checks and performance
indicators) will be used for risk control.

SECTION III
WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES

7.   GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.    Commanders will ensure)

    a. Army motor vehicle operators are selected trained,
tested, and licensed to operate vehicles (including tracked
vehicles) in XVIII Abn Corps according to:

          (1)   AR 600-55 , FORSCOM and XVIII Abn Corps Supplements.

        (2) The technical manuals (TMs) for the specific
vehicles they are operating.

    b. Drivers of wheeled vehicles carrying hazardous materials
will be qualified according to OSHA, EPA and DOT transporting of
hazardous materials requirements. This includes active duty
military drivers.

    c.    Convoy commanders or senior persons, as appropriate,
will)

          (1)   Properly and immediately place emergency warning
devices.

          (2)   Illuminate stopped vehicles.

    d. Vehicles participating in exercises have received
appropriate mechanical inspections. For example, before tracked
vehicles are deployed or operated on public roads, the track pad
connecting pins of each tracked vehicle must be checked and
replaced as necessary.

    e. Safety-related deficiencies on vehicles have been
corrected before operating vehicle.

     f.   Vehicle inspectors pay particular attention to)

                                  10
                              XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (1)    Brakes.
        (2)    Directional signals.
        (3)    Exhaust system.
        (4)    First aid kits.
        (5)    Fuel system.
        (6)    Headlights.
        (7)    Heating system switch position before operations.
        (8)    Reflectors.
        (9)    Seatbelts (if installed).
        (10)    Taillights.
        (11)    Tires.
        (12) Trailer hitch and electrical and air hose
connections, as applicable.
        (13)    Warning triangles.
        (14)    Windshield wipers.
    g. Built-up wheeled vehicles meet the standards in AR 385-
55, Section II.
    h. Ground guides are used when backing wheeled and tracked
vehicles. AR 385-55 contains ground guiding standards (See Figure
4). Ground guides will not stand between the vehicle being guided
and another object where an inadvertent engine surge or momentary
loss of vehicle control could cause injury or death. The vehicle
driver will stop the vehicle immediately if)
        (1)    He or she loses sight of the ground guide.
        (2) The ground guide is standing dangerously between the
vehicle and another object.
        (3) The ground guide will not walk backwards or stand in
the vehicle tracks.
    i. Wheeled vehicle drivers follow procedures for determining
clearance when ground guides are not available. In emergencies




                                    11
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

when a ground guide is not available (for example, in the
civilian domain), wheeled vehicle drivers will)

        (1)   Dismount.

        (2)   Walk completely around the vehicle to verify
clearance.

        (3) Select a ground reference point that can be seen
from the cab of the vehicle.

        (4) Mount the vehicle and ensure the ground reference
point can be seen from the cab of the vehicle.
        (5)   Sound the horn.

        (6)   Back to the preselected ground reference point.

        (7) Repeat the process, as necessary, until the desired
vehicle position is obtained.

    j. Procedures are followed for ground-guiding engineer
vehicles operating at supervised or controlled access
construction sites. Before starting vehicle engines, drivers of
graders, bulldozers, and other engineer vehicles will)

        (1) Walk around the vehicle to ensure the area is free
of obstructions. Ground guides are not required to back engineer
equipment operating at supervised or controlled access
construction sites.

        (2) Sound the vehicle horn before backing or ensure the
automatic backup alarm (Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1926.601) is operational.

    k. Drivers of engineer vehicles operating outside supervised
or controlled access construction sites use the standards and
number of ground guides required for vehicle types in OSHA
1926.601 and AR 385-55.

    l. Wheeled and tracked vehicles, trailers, and towed
equipment in convoy are marked appropriately.

    m. Exterior radio antennas have been tied down to a height
of no more than 13 feet and at least 8 feet from the ground
before movement. Antenna tips (national stock number (NSN) 5800-
00-437-2363) will be installed when applicable. Antennas will be
secured under the clip and clipped from below in the quick
release position.

                                12
                          XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    n. Soldiers do not ride on cargo in cargo areas of wheeled
vehicles. Soldiers riding in cargo areas will sit on seating
platforms or individual seats. Soldiers being transported in
cabins or cargo areas of wheeled vehicles will wear seatbelts, if
installed. Soldiers will not be transported in the same vehicle
with flammable/combustible materials or hazardous cargo or in the
last vehicle in a convoy.
    o. Wheeled vehicle tailgates are locked in the up position.
 If installed, restraining straps extending across rear cargo
beds will be secured before vehicle movement.
    p. Soldiers are not transported on top or on the sides of
tracked vehicles. Soldiers will sit in crewmember compartments,
use available seatbelts, and wear Kevlar or crewmember helmets
(if applicable).
    q. Army wheeled vehicles are equipped with and drivers use
chock blocks (Para 2-16, AR 385-55) when parked on inclines or
when maintenance is being performed. If chock block pairs have
not been issued, they may be made locally using 8-inch wood stock
cut at 45 degree angles. Chock blocks will be used as pairs,
placing one block in front of and one block behind the tire being
chocked.
    r. Drivers of wheeled vehicles do not wear mission-oriented
protective posture (MOPP) masks or night vision goggles on public
roads and access roads that lead to and from training areas
during training.
    s. Broken-down vehicles are moved as far as possible off the
side of the roadway, well onto the shoulder. Special precautions
will be taken to warn approaching drivers of potential danger
when vision is limited (includes posting guards and setting out
reflectors). Military personnel have no authority to direct
civilian traffic on public highways. Posted guards must wear
reflective vests and will warn drivers of traffic accidents,
oversized and broken-down vehicles, and other hazards on
highways. Host nation (HN) police may be called for assistance.
    t. Maximum speeds for normal driving conditions (table 1)
are observed.
    u.   Posted speed limits are not exceeded.
    v. Procedures are established to control vehicle operations
during adverse road or weather conditions.
8. SELECTING AND TRAINING DRIVERS. Commanders will ensure
drivers for single-vehicle missions (nonconvoy) are selected



                                13
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

carefully. Maturity, experience, and driver fatigue will be
considered. Possession of DA Form 348 (Equipment Operators
Qualification Record (Except Aircraft)) is the prerequisite for
heavy-vehicle or hazardous-cargo driver training. Senior vehicle
occupants will be briefed and will understand their duties and
responsibilities.




                               14
                                          XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4


        Table 1
        Maximum Speeds for Normal Driving Conditions

                    SPEED LIMITS FOR NONTACTICAL VEHICLES (mph/kph)
Other
                                                       Cities    Highways Roads

        NTVs under 7,000 GVW
        (for example, sedans, cargo trucks,
        carryalls, panel trucks, TDA-
        authorized vehicles)                           30/50        65/105 60/100
        EXCEPTIONS

        NTVs with trailers                             30/50        50/80    50/80
        Buses with passengers seated                   30/50        50/80    50/80
        Buses with passengers standing                 30/50        *        *

                                                                    * Not authorized

        NTVs over 7,000 GVW (for example,
        truck stake, wrecker, truck tractor,
        semitrailer, water tanker)                 30/50      50/80          40/60
                        SPEED LIMITS FOR TACTICAL VEHICLES (mph/kph)

        Trucks, - to 1 -ton (with or
        without trailers, incl HMMWVs and
        CUCVs)                                         30/50        50/80    40/60

        Trucks and truck tractors, 1 -ton
        and larger (with or without trailers)          25/40        50/80    40/60

        Track-laying vehicles                          15/30        30/50    25/40

        Oversized, overweight, and towed vehicles As prescribed by the responsible
        commander.

        Trucks transporting ammunition,
        explosives, and dangerous cargo                25/40        50/80    40/60

        Columns (excl vehicles that might
        further restrict speed)                        30/50        40/60    40/60
        NOTES:

                                                15
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

1. The above speed limits will be observed unless a lower speed
limit is posted.

2.   For vehicles carrying hazardous cargo)

    a. If visibility is less than 50 meters, the driver must
stop at the nearest parking area until visibility improves.

    b. If a vehicle weighing more than 2.8 tons and carrying
hazardous cargo is traveling below 40 mph, it must maintain a
distance of at least one second for each 10 feet of vehicle
length, from the vehicle in front (minimum distance is 50
meters).
    c. During Force Projection exercises to foreign countries,
first-time drivers will receive a special orientation for driving
and Accident Avoidance training conducted. The special training
is especially crucial in countries where driving on the left side
of the road is the rule.
9.   CREW REST AND SAFE DRIVING

    a. AR 385-55 states drivers will not be assigned to drive an
Army wheeled or tracked vehicle for more than 10 continuous
hours. Commanders should restrict driving periods when adverse
road or weather conditions exist. Other factors, such as amount
of driver training, type of vehicle, and availability of
assistant drivers, also should be considered before mission
execution. Unit commanders will develop, approve, and enforce
unit crew rest and assistant driver scheduling policies using
regulatory guidelines. Unit policies will include the following
requirements:

        (1) A combined duty period will not exceed 12 hours in a
24-hour period without at least 8 consecutive hours of rest.

        (2) A qualified assistant driver will be assigned to a
vehicle when more than 10 hours are needed to complete
operations.

     b.   Drivers will)

        (1) Take 15-minute breaks after every 2 to 3 hours of
driving or after driving every 100 to 150 miles (160 to 240
kilometers), whichever comes first.

        (2) Inspect their vehicles and ensure equipment and
cargo are secure during breaks.
         (3) Take 1-hour meal breaks.

                                  16
                           XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
        (4) Not use headphones or earphones while driving Army
motor vehicles. The driver and passengers are allowed to wear
hearing protection devices (Technical Bulletin (TB) MED 501).
        (5) Not consume intoxicating beverages within 8 hours
before scheduled duty or during normal duty.
        (6)    Not eat, drink, or smoke in an Army vehicle while it
is moving.
    c. Commanders may determine that additional rest periods are
necessary when)
        (1)    Drivers may encounter unusually poor weather or road
conditions.
         (2)   Hazardous materials are being transported.
        (3) Drivers will be involved in prolonged or unusually
difficult exercises or operations.
10.   OPERATING TRACKED VEHICLES
    a. General. During overseas deployment prior coordination
with host commands is essential. For example; commands deploying
to Europe will ensure tracked vehicles are escorted according to
the requirements in USAREUR Regulation 55-1. The escort vehicle)
        (1) Will follow tracked vehicles by 100 meters on high
speed (interstate/autobahn) roads.
        (2) Will lead tracked vehicles by 100 meters on
secondary roads.
        (3) May be a single vehicle with a rotating amber
warning light (RAWL) if the vehicle being escorted has a
functional RAWL.
        (4) Will be marked at the rear with retroreflective red
and yellow delineator plates.
    b. Ground Guiding Tracked Vehicles. Two ground guides are
required to guide tracked vehicles backward and forward. If only
one ground guide is available, a tracked vehicle may only be
guided forward. AR 385-55 provides ground guiding standards.
    c. Engineer Vehicles Operating at Supervised or Controlled
Access Construction Sites. Before starting vehicle engines,



    drivers of graders, bulldozers, and other engineer vehicles
will walk around the vehicles to ensure the area is free of

                                   17
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

obstructions. Ground guides are not required to back engineer
vehicles operating at supervised or controlled access
construction sites. Drivers of engineer vehicles, however, will
sound vehicle horns before backing. The sounding of horns before
backing will be SOP while operating at supervised or controlled
access construction sites. Engineer vehicles operating outside
supervised or controlled access construction sites will use the
standards and number of ground guides prescribed in regulations.

    d.   Safety Requirements.   Commanders will ensure)

        (1) Drivers of tracked vehicles do not wear protective
masks during operations on public roads.
        (2) Drivers use parking lights and RAWLs when tracked
vehicles are stopped on or near public highways during dusk,
dawn, or darkness.

        (3) Personnel warn approaching motorists of a stopped
vehicle by turning on the vehicle's warning lights and emplacing
warning triangles 75m in front and rear (150m in limited
visibility) for all stopped vehicles.

        (4) Tracked vehicle commanders use extreme caution and
yield the right-of-way when making left turns on public roads.

        (5) Disabled tracked vehicles being towed are escorted
and lit properly.

        (6) Highway warning devices, including two warning
triangles, are issued to every vehicle and are used in
emergencies according to Army Regulation and/or Host Nation
requirements.
        (7) Tracked vehicles are not started by towing. Slave
cables with threaded male-to-female couplings will be used. Bare
cable leads will not be used. Only vehicles parked side by side
may be joined with slave cables. Vehicles parked front to front
will not be joined with slave cables.

         (8)   Equipment stored in a vehicle is secured.

        (9) Leaders enforce the wearing of appropriate hearing
protection devices and protective headgear. Decals that state
"hearing protection required" will be placed in the crew
compartments of tracked vehicles.




                                 18
                           XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (10) Tank commanders alert the driver and crew and
ensure they are out of the way before moving a gun turret.

        (11) Observation personnel in tracked vehicles stay low
(not higher than uniform nametag-level on the rim of the hatch
cover).

        (12) Tracked vehicle ramps are not lowered until the
rear of the vehicle is clear.

        (13) Safety latches are installed on tracked vehicles
(excl M548, M667, and M578).

        (14)    Crewmembers)

        (a) Wear combat vehicle crewman helmets when operating
tracked vehicles.

        (b) Wear combat vehicle crewman uniform systems during
live-fire exercises.

        (c) Insert the safety pin when a vehicle is driven with
the hatch open.

        (d)    Shake closed hatch covers to ensure they are locked.

        (e)    Do not grip the edge or rim of an open hatch.

        (15) Personnel are briefed and trained on emergency
procedures to be taken if a tracked vehicle overturns (for
example, crewmembers will not jump from the vehicle but will
quickly drop inside and take a secure hold).

        (16) Personnel enter armored personnel carriers only
through the rear door or ramp. Climbing on tracked vehicles will
be restricted to mission-essential activities.

        (17) Heaters in tracked vehicles have no leaks in the
heater or exhaust ducts. At least one hatch will be open to
prevent carbon monoxide buildup. Heater area and all hoses are
clear of all flammables.

        (18) Operators are at the controls when the engine of a
tracked vehicle is running.

        (19) Vehicles will not be moved without an operational
internal communications system. Internal crew drills will be
practiced IAW unit SOPs.


                                 19
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (20) The TC will not permit the vehicle to move until he
has determined that all troops are securely aboard and
maintaining three-points of contact and the track's path is
clear.
        (21) TC will ensure that unit SOPs, fire and vehicle
evacuation drills are known and practiced by all crewmembers.
11.   TOWING TRACKED VEHICLES.     Commanders will ensure)
      a.   Vehicles are not towed if they can be repaired on site.
    b. The decision to tow a vehicle is made by one of the
following:
           (1)   An officer.
        (2) A senior noncommissioned officer (NCO) (sergeant
first class and above).
           (3)   A qualified unit motor sergeant.
    c. Vehicles towed have the final drive input shafts
disconnected to prevent further damage. Only approved tow bars
will be used. Cables or chains will not be used for towing when
final drives are disconnected.
    d.     Personnel do not ride on or in a tracked vehicle being
towed.
12. OPERATING WHEELED VEHICLES.         During convoy operations,
commanders will ensure)
    a.   Movement plans are in compliance with State and local
civil traffic regulations unless waived by competent civil
authority.
    b. Information on planning, operations, and control, of
motor marches and convoys, and accident reports are in AR 55-29,
AR 55-162, AR 600-55, AR 746-1, AR 385-40, FM 3-20, FM 55-30, and
FM 55-312.
    c. When and where possible, routes for oversized vehicles
will be inspected in advance and cleared with civil authorities.
    d. During travel, all vehicles will maintain at least a
minimum of a 1 1/2-second interval per 10 mph of speed.
    e. Halt areas (preplanned and designated "Safe Areas") have
been identified along the route.




                                   20
                          XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
    f. Drivers operating vehicles carrying hazardous cargo (fuel
or explosives) are properly briefed on safe vehicle operations,
convoy operations, proper "signage" for their vehicles and "Safe
Havens", both designated and preplanned. Also AR 55-4 series
(Accident Information Sheets) which will be given to drivers and
maintained as part of the vehicle movement package. Drivers will
be instructed to use the information in the package as a
checklist in an emergency. This requirement is for convoys and
individual vehicles transporting hazardous material.
    g. Headlights, taillights, reflectors, and reflecting tape
are wiped clean at each stop.
    h. Convoys moving on highways use the right traffic lane.
Hard shoulders (divided by a solid white line) should be used
only for emergency stops.
    i. Controls are established to prohibit smoking within 50
feet of vehicles carrying explosives or flammable material.
    j. Fuel cans are equipped with serviceable gaskets and are
marked according to Field Manual (FM) 10-69.
    k. Trailers are towed with safety chains attached to the
towing vehicle and signal and brake lights work. PS Magazine,
May 1989, and the vehicle TM provides information on properly
attaching air hoses to 2 1/2- and 5-ton trucks.
    l.   Precautions for broken-down vehicles are followed (para
7s).
    m. Not allow blackout driving lights or headlights to be
covered during operations on public highways.

SECTION IV
CONVOY OPERATIONS)WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES
13. PREOPERATION REQUIREMENTS. Before convoy operations,
commanders will review operating standards. Commanders of convoy
serials and march units must)
    a. Identify hazards along the march route. A physical
reconnaissance of the march route is encouraged.
    b. Prepare and distribute convoy strip maps during the pre-
mission briefing attended by vehicle crewmembers.
    c. Under normal circumstances, limit march units to 25
vehicles and march serials to no more than 5 march units.




                                21
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    d. Ensure at least 5 minutes are allowed between march units
and at least 15 minutes are allowed between march serials on the
open road.
14.    REQUIREMENTS DURING OPERATIONS

      a.   General.   Convoy commanders will)

        (1) Ensure the principles of march discipline are
observed (FM55-30, chap 5).

           (2)   Plan for and provide adequate rest periods (para
9b(1)).
           (3)   Plan for local or HN police assistance to regulate
traffic.

           (4)   Instruct drivers to obey police instructions.

        (5) Instruct drivers to assist passing vehicles by
slowing down and providing adequate space for passing vehicles to
return to the traffic lane safely.

        (6) Ensure lead vehicles and trail escort vehicles
(TEVs) are assigned and properly marked with lead and rear
vehicle signs.

        (7) Insure that TEVs should not carry passengers or
hazardous materials.

      b.   Space Between Vehicles.

        (1) The space between vehicles in an open column march
unit will be at least)

           (a)   One hundred meters/6-second interval on highways.

        (b) Fifty meters/4-second interval on secondary roads
(excl congested areas).

        (2) March units will reduce speed and vehicle intervals
when approaching congested areas and will proceed under closed
column. The space between vehicles may be reduced to 25
meters/2-second interval, whichever is greater, for movement
through congested areas. Units will resume prescribed distances
((1)(a) and (b) above) after leaving a congested area.

           (3)   Convoy commanders)


                                      22
                           XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4


        (a) May order the space between vehicles reduced to
permit drivers to see the vehicles in front of them in bad
weather or when road conditions are poor.

        (b) Will not reduce the space between vehicles when it
would prevent civilian vehicles from safely passing convoys.

    c. Reflective Clothing. Guide personnel, road guards,
wrecker operators, and other personnel should use reflective
clothing when walking on or near public roads. DA Pamphlet 385-3
provides information on sleeve bands (NSN 8564-00-177-4976) and
safety vests (NSN 8415-00-177-4974) that may be worn when walking
on or near public roads.

    d.   Stopping.   Military drivers will)

         (1)   Stop vehicles off roads and clear of intersections.

         (2)   Ensure spaces in halted convoys are closed.

         (3)   Use caution when resuming movement.

        (4) Not flash or otherwise signal civilian drivers that
it is safe to pass.

         (5)   Ensure that their load is still secure.

    e. Warning Approaching Traffic. Personnel in trailing
vehicles will post a guard wearing proper reflective clothing to
warn approaching traffic when the convoy stops.

    f.   Convoys Moving Through Intersections.

         (1)   Drivers in military convoys)

        (a) Will follow right-of-way rules for moving through
intersections.

        (b) Will not force the right-of-way on other drivers.
Military convoys have the right-of-way only when other drivers
yield.

        (c) Must be aware that in other countries drivers are
not required to stop when a military convoy is moving through an
intersection that has a traffic light.

        (2) Commanders will ensure convoys stop when other
traffic does not yield the right-of-way.

                                 23
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
        (3) In the absence of local or HN police, military
personnel will warn (not regulate or police) approaching civilian
traffic of a convoy passing through an intersection. Motor
vehicles may be used to warn other motorists but will not block
traffic lanes.
        (4) Military personnel will wear reflective clothing to
ensure they are visible and recognizable as warning guides. They
will not force drivers to stop.
15.    IDENTIFYING MARCH COLUMNS
      a.   Convoy commanders will)
        (1) Identify each convoy and oversized or overweight
vehicle movement by the movement number the transportation
movement officer or highway regulating team issued. The movement
number will be displayed prominently on)
           (a)   Both sides of each vehicle.
           (b)   The front of the leading vehicle.
        (c) The rear of the last vehicle of each organized
element of the column.
        (2) Identify each march column with convoy flags. Flags
should be approximately 30 centimeters high and 45 centimeters
wide. Flags are available through supply channels.
        (3) Ensure flags are mounted on the left side of each
vehicle. Flags will be placed on the right side of each vehicle
when traveling through a country where vehicles drive on the left
side of the road.
           (4)   Use leading and trailing escort vehicles.
           (5)   Ensure the lead vehicle of each march unit)
        (a) Displays a blue flag (NSN 8345-00-543-6912) and one
or two RAWLs.
        (b) Has a sign (black letters on nonglare white
background) with the words "Convoy Follows" in English. In
foreign countries the sign will be in the languages of the
nations traveled through, for example: "Kolonne Folgt" (German),
"Colonne Suit" (French), "Inizio Colonna" (Italian).
        (6) Ensure the last vehicle of each march unit displays
a green flag and a black sign on a nonglare white background.




                                     24
                         XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

The size of the sign will depend on the size and shape of the
rear of the vehicle. The sign will not obscure taillights,
directional signals, or signs announcing hazardous materials.
Each march unit will have its own TEV because of the distance
covered during the operations. TEVs will not transport hazardous
material (ammunition; explosives; petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL)) or carry personnel in the cargo area. The sign will state
"Convoy Ahead" in English and the languages of the nations
traveled through, for example: "Kolonne Voraus" (German),
"Colonne en TΛte" (French), "Fine Colonna" (Italian).

        (7) Determine which vehicles, in addition to the lead,
middle, and trail vehicles, should turn on RAWLs based on
visibility, weather conditions, and convoy spacing.

        (8) Ensure single-vehicle operators do not operate RAWLs
unless the vehicles meet the oversize, overweight, or slow-
moving.

        (9) Ensure tracked vehicles operating alone (with
required escort) or in a convoy on public roads are equipped with
RAWLs and are marked on the outside corners with reflective tape.

    b.   Tracked vehicle convoy commanders will ensure)

        (1) RAWLs are operating on the lead, middle, and trail
escort vehicles.

        (2) Each vehicle is equipped with a RAWL, which will be
turned on if a vehicle falls out of the convoy.

    c. March unit commanders will display a black and white flag
(NSN 8345-00-543-6911).

16. SENIOR OCCUPANT RESPONSIBILITIES. The senior occupant of an
Army motor vehicle is the person in the vehicle (operator or
passenger) with the highest rank. Senior occupants will)

    a. Ensure drivers are properly licensed to drive assigned
vehicles.

    b. Ensure drivers do not exceed driving times established by
the unit commander or prescribed in the unit SOP.

    c. Not permit a driver who appears fatigued or physically or
mentally impaired to operate a vehicle.

    d. Ensure vehicle occupants wear available seatbelts while
the vehicle is moving and the load is secure.

                                25
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    e. Ensure the authorized seating capacity of a vehicle is
not exceeded.

    f. Help drivers back vehicles or execute other difficult
maneuvers when an assistant driver is not available.

    g. Ensure the flow of civilian traffic is not interrupted by
sudden halts, U-turns, or other hazardous actions (for example,
backing on a roadway). When a turnaround is required, the
roadway will be clear before the vehicle reenters traffic.
Highway warning devices will be displayed properly when the
vehicle is stopped on or beside a street, road, or highway. The
senior occupant will post personnel and warning triangles to warn
approaching traffic when the vehicle has stopped or is broken
down.

    h. Be on the lookout for safety hazards and take prompt
corrective action when required.
    i. Obey traffic regulations and unit SOPs. Senior occupants
are responsible for ensuring drivers do not jeopardize the safety
of others with reckless speed. Drivers will exit highways only
at authorized points marked by the exit traffic sign. Drivers
will not stop, park, back, or make U-turns on highways unless
directed by convoy commander, local or HN police.
    j. Ensure personnel comply with convoy and march discipline
when at a halt. The senior occupant will ensure personnel)
         (1)   Are not closer than 25 feet from passing traffic.
        (2) Accomplish needed preventative maintenance checks
and services, including cleaning reflective surfaces.
         (3)   Smoke not closer than 50 feet from vehicles.
         (4)   Rest as time permits.
    k.   Ensure tire chains are used when needed.
    l. Ensure drivers keep the proper space between vehicles
when in convoy.
    m. Ensure the driver's field of vision is not obstructed by
ice, snow, dirt, or other items. Senior occupants must be
especially watchful when visibility is limited.

    n. Insure drivers wear night vision devices when driving
while using black out drive and that each vehicle has an observer
not wearing night vision devices.

    o.   Adhere to antenna tiedown requirements.

                                 26
                                   XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4


            p. Ensure vehicle wheel chock blocks are placed to the front
        and rear of vehicle rear tires when the vehicle is parked uphill
        or downhill.

        SECTION V
        TACTICAL OPERATIONS

        17. STANDARDS. XVIII Airborne Corps and Fort Bragg Regulation
        385-4, Safety Standards for Field Operations establishes the
        safety standards for tactical operations and supersede XVIII
        Airborne Corps and Fort Bragg Regulation 385-4, Tactical Safety
        dated 5 June 1986.

        18. PLANNING. Planning is critical to the success of tactical
        operations. Each commander will have a written safety plan
        specific to the unit and operations before beginning tactical
        operations.

        19. RISK ANALYSIS. Safety staff members and mission planners
        will prepare risk analyses of all operations. When safety
        standards in approved regulations must be modified, commanders
        will request approval from the chain of command up to the
        division or equivalent level.

        SECTION VI
        POL SAFETY

        20.   GENERAL.   Commanders will)

            a. Enforce standards, develop procedures, and set
        responsibilities for handling hazardous cargo forms, attaching
        vehicle placards, and taking emergency actions (Army Regulation
        55-4).

            b. Implement a training program for personnel involved in
        refueling operations. This training should include information
        on)

                (1) Appropriate spacing between refueling and storage
        points and between refueling points and pumps, according to
        spacing standards in field and technical manuals for the pumps
        and tanker units being used.

(2)   Reporting fuel spills on U.S. installations to the local
         Directorate of Public Works and Environment (DPWE).


                                            27
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (3) Notifying the local fire department and the nearest
U.S. military community DPWE when fuel spills occur off U.S.
installations.

         (4)    Establishing a POL servicing point.

        (5) Using a receptacle (a 5-gallon can that is emptied
daily) for the nozzle.

        (6) Establishing a grounding system. A grounding rod
(NSN 5975-00-224-5260 or 5975-00-404-2684) and a grounding wire
(NSN 2590-00-792-8621) may be used.

    c.   Ensure fire extinguishers are used as follows:

        (1) A 50-pound carbon dioxide (CO2) extinguisher is
available at each tank and pump unit.

        (2) One 15-pound multipurpose ABC chemical extinguisher
is at each nozzle point.

    d.   Ensure)

        (1) Filters, hose joints, hoses, nozzles, pumps, and
tanks are inspected daily.

        (2)     Hazards are marked with reflective tape during night
operations.

        (3) Personnel operating fuel points wear protective
clothing and equipment.
        (4)     Explosion-proof lights are used during night
operations.
        (5) Operators shut down fueling operations immediately
when potential hazards (for example, spills, leaks, lack of fire
extinguishers) are recognized.

        (6) Refueling tankers are not parked closer than 15 feet
bumper-to-bumper or side-to-side in motor parks.

    e. Place signs that read as follows at least 50 feet from
refueling points and fuel tanks:

                       FLAMMABLE (6-inch letters)

               NO SMOKING WITHIN 50 FEET (3-inch letters)


                                   28
                              XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    f. Mark the fuel type (motor gasoline, JP8, or other)
clearly at fuel points.

    g. Discontinue fueling operations when there are
thunderstorms within 5 miles of a site.

    h. Ensure a written fire plan is available on site.          The
fire plan will explain)

           (1)   Handling fuel spills.

           (2)   Placement of fire extinguishers.

           (3)   Assigning personnel.
        (4) Conducting fire drills, including hands-on fire
extinguisher training.

           (5)   Controlling fuel.

           (6)   Evacuation routes and MEDIVAC information.

           (7)   Alarm/alert systems.
21.    REFUELING PROCEDURES

    a. Drivers will move their vehicles to refueling points,
shut down the vehicles, and turn off radios. Drivers and all
passengers will get out of the vehicles.

      b.   Fuel tank operators will)
           (1)   Not wear nylon outer or under clothing.
           (2)   Use protective goggles, uniforms, and gloves.
           (3)   Position fire extinguishers.
        (4) Electrically ground fuel tankers. Operators will
bond the nozzle to the vehicle being refueled using a bonding
cable or by touching the end of the nozzle to the filler neck.
        (5) Squeeze the nozzle to stop pressure surges.       Nozzles
will not be notched to keep them open.
           (6)   Stand by the nozzle at all times.
           (7)   Release fuel tanker electrical grounding points.
           (8)   Release the ground ((4) above).


                                     29
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (9) Not park closer than 15 feet of another vehicle
during fuel issue or receipt operations.

22.    POL SUPPLY POINT REQUIREMENTS.   Commanders will ensure)

    a. A checkpoint is established to extinguish smoking
materials.

    b. Lighting devices (for example, lighters, matches) are
collected and stored.

    c. Self-closing metal containers are used to dispose of
rubbish, rags, and oily waste.
    d. Hot work is coordinated with the fire department.
Mechanical or friction sparks are dangerous when produced near
POL.

      e.   Bonding and grounding systems are inspected daily.

    f. Drip pans are used for hose joints and tanker hookup
points.

      g.   Spills are cleaned up at once.

    h. The fire department reports to the site for a washdown
when ecologically permissible.

    i. Containers are inspected before filling and are marked
with the type of fuel being stored.

      j.   Fuel is not used for cleaning.

    k. Personnel know firefighting and evacuation procedures and
how to use fire extinguishers.

    l. That an emergency "shower" and eyewash facility, first-
aid treatment are available and MEDEVAC information is posted in
case of emergency fuel spills on personnel.

SECTION VII
RAIL LOADING OPERATIONS

23.    PREOPERATION REQUIREMENTS

    a. Commanders. Before beginning rail loading operations,
commanders will ensure)


                                   30
                           XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (1) Personnel conduct a risk analysis of the railhead
site, considering common risk factors.

        (2) Soldiers are briefed and instructed on the safety
standards and procedures.

        (3) Safety equipment (for example, reflective vests,
flashlights, hardhats for safety) and supervisory personnel or
ground guides are available.

        (4) Medical support is available at loading and
unloading sites.

        (5) Unit safety personnel are available.     Commanders
will monitor safety standards.

         (6)   Soldiers are shown the location of high voltage
lines.

    b. Train Commanders. Train commanders will ensure the
following requirements have been met before rail loading or
unloading:

         (1)   Military units and organization personnel have been)

        (a)    Briefed on regulatory requirements before each rail
movement.

         (b)   Made aware of unsafe conditions in the rail-head
area.

        (c) Told to keep a safe distance from electric
powerlines and systems in the work area.

         (2)   Supervisors are aware that)

        (a) When powerlines are switched on temporarily for
technical reasons) (1) Operations will cease, (2) The area will
be cleared of personnel, (3) Operations will not resume until the
appropriate railway authority confirms that electricity has been
shut off and grounded in the railhead area.

        (b) While supplies are moved, escorts may not ride in
freight cars or vehicles loaded on railcars.

WARNING: Electrified rail systems with overhead powerlines and
feeder lines installed beside rail tracks carry 15,000 volts or
more.


                                 31
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    c. Transportation Officers or Representatives.       The
transportation officer or representative will)

        (1) Coordinate with the responsible railway official and
confirm that electric overhead powerlines have been shut off and
grounded in the railhead work area. Under no circumstances will
operations start until confirmation is received.

           (2)   Keep units informed of changing conditions.

        (3)      Enforce the rules of conduct for ensuring safe
operations.

        (4) Make soldiers aware of warning signs posted in the
local work area and affixed to railway equipment, and of any
overhead swinging chains/cranes/booms. Equipment with steps or
stepladders extending higher than 2 meters above the rail surface
will be avoided.

      d.   Personnel.   Personnel will)

        (1) Wear Kevlar helmets or industrial hardhats and
protective gloves.

        (2) Be equipped with reflective vests and flashlights
during darkness.

        (3) Not work or walk on top of rail-loaded vehicles
without specific permission from the officer in charge (OIC) or
noncommissioned officer in charge (NCOIC) (This does not apply
when no overhead line is installed above the tracks). Only the
OIC or NCOIC may declare an area safe from electric hazards.

        (4) Be informed that the local transportation
representative in charge of rail uploading or downloading is the
only person authorized to inform the supervisor when railcars may
be moved. The transportation representative will be the only
person wearing a white armband.

           (5) Never stand under equipment being moved or unloaded.

    e. Vehicle Operators. Vehicle operators will remove whip
antennas from vehicles before entering a rail-loading site.
Antennas will not be remounted until vehicles are in the staging
area away from electric hazards.
24.    LOADING AND UNLOADING PROCEDURES

      a.   The OIC or NCOIC will ensure)

                                   32
                           XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (1) Support legs have been lowered and tailgates and
side braces are removed (if necessary) before loading or
unloading operations.

        (2) Trash has been cleared from the area before the
train leaves.

        (3) Railcars are inspected before loading to ensure ice,
snow, and dunnage have been removed.

    b. Ground guides will be used when moving vehicles in
staging areas. Ground guides will use hand and arm signals (with
flashlights after dark). Ground guides will not run or walk
backwards or place themselves in a dangerous position between two
vehicles or in the vehicle path.

    c.   Train commanders will lock the tracks and control the
keys.

    d. Compressed gas cylinders will be secured in upright
positions with safety caps on and separated from flammables (for
example, POL, fuel blends).

    e. The railhead supervisor must tie down and check equipment
with traversing tubes or booms.

    f. Commanders will ensure personnel working at rail-heads
are briefed on the following procedures. Personnel will not)

        (1) Be on the same railcar as a moving vehicle. The
only exception is when a second or third vehicle is being placed
on a railcar capable of carrying two or three vehicles. The
second or third vehicle will move forward only after the first
vehicle has stopped completely.
        (2) Ride in or climb on tanks, vehicles, and other
equipment being transported by rail after the vehicles and
equipment have been locked.

         (3)   Enter equipment during stops.

    g. Vehicles will be secured by chock blocks and bracing
locking the sides. Commanders must ensure)

         (1)   Vehicles are properly secured.

        (2) Gun barrels are locked and secured (confirmation by
the OIC in the consignment note).


                                 33
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (3) Railcars are returned well swept (after unloading)
and nails and wire remnants are removed completely.

SECTION VIII
EXPLOSIVES AND AMMUNITION SAFETY

25.   GENERAL

    a. Commanders will limit the number and exposure of
personnel working with explosives and ammunition to the minimum
number of personnel necessary to accomplish the mission.

    b. Flame-producing emergency signals are prohibited on any
vehicle carrying explosives.

    c. Matches, lighters, and other fire-, flame-, or spark-
producing devices are not permitted in areas containing
ammunition or explosives.

    d. Installation of perimeter defense ammunition items (for
example, Claymore mines, tripflares) at ammunition storage sites
is prohibited unless specifically authorized by the commander of
the appropriate MACOM.

    e. Incendiary devices required for destroying classified
material should be stored in dry, fire-retardant buildings and
rooms that can be locked to prevent tampering.

    f. No attempt will be made to fight fires when ammunition is
engulfed in flames.

    g. Only guards authorized by their commander will use or
carry live ammunition.

    h. Horseplay with weapons, pyrotechnics, ammunition, and
explosives is prohibited. NCOs will set standards for handling
these items.

    i. Weapons will be treated as if loaded with live ammunition
at all times.

    j. Training ammunition, fired or unfired, will not be given
to nonmilitary personnel.

    k. Loaded weapons will not be transported on vehicles or
carried by soldiers in uncontrolled areas. In training, soldiers
will not point weapons at anyone. Weapons will be fired only at
designated firing ranges. Individual soldiers will control and
secure weapons at all times.

                               34
                             XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    l. All Army/Air Force safety regulations and guidance will
be complied with when moving explosives/ammunitions throughout
Fort Bragg, Pope Air Force Base and Simmons Air Force
Installation.

26. AMMUNITION, SIMULATORS, PYROTECHNICS, AND CHEMICALS. The
use of blank ammunition, simulators, pyrotechnics, and chemicals
in training is subject to the following restrictions:

    a.   Blank Ammunition.

        (1) Blank and live ammunition will not be issued at the
same time to any person participating in a training exercise.

        (2) The blank firing adapter or attachment will be
secured on the weapon muzzle when firing blank ammunition during
force-on-force training.

        (3) Small caliber (5.56 millimeter, 7.62 mm, and 50 cal)
blank ammunition will not be fired toward unprotected personnel
within 20 meters. This distance may be reduced to 5 meters when
exposed personnel are wearing approved eye protection (ballistic
laser protective spectacles (B-LPSs)).

    b.   Simulators.   Personnel will)

        (1) Follow the detailed instructions for use and the
safety precautions provided with each simulator.

        (2) Observe the minimum safety distances printed on the
package or simulator. Hand-held (hand grenade and artillery)
simulators, however, will not be detonated within 25 meters of
unprotected personnel, vehicles, or buildings (excl military
operations on urbanized terrain (MOUT) facilities).

        (3) Not throw simulators directly at people, tents, or
vehicles. The fragment hazard distance for M115A2 simulators is
25 meters. Only designated and authorized personnel may use
M115A2 simulators. Personnel in charge of using the device must
be thoroughly trained trainers or controllers.

        (4) Not place hand-held simulators on armored personnel
vehicles or in tall grass or other combustible areas. A high
surface temperature could ignite simulators.

        (5) Guard emplaced booby trap simulators to prevent
people from approaching within 2 meters. These simulators will
not be abandoned under any circumstance.


                                   35
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

         (6) Not fire M1 tank main gun simulators (Hoffman
device) within 50 meters of people or within 150 meters of
buildings (excl MOUT facilities), aircraft, or flammable
materials. The Hoffman device must be loaded, reloaded, or
unloaded with the device in the loading position and the key
removed.

        (7) Wait at least 15 minutes after the expected
detonation time before investigating the reason for misfire.
Simulators that fail to function are extremely hazardous.

        (8)    Never open a simulator or attempt to burn the
contents.

    c.   Pyrotechnics.

        (1) Pyrotechnics will be used only for the purpose for
which they are designed.

        (2) Signal flares will not be fired at people, tents,
vehicles, or aircraft.

         (3)   Hand-held pyrotechnics will not be armed before use.

        (4) Firing positions for tripflares will be cleared of
flammable materials to prevent accidental fires.

        (5) Emplaced tripflares will be guarded to prevent
anyone from approaching within 2 meters. These flares will not
be abandoned under any circumstance.

    d.   Duds and Discarded Munitions.

        (1) After training, the OIC will collect all non-
expended munitions before soldiers leave the maneuver area.
Possession of blank ammunition, simulators, or pyrotechnics is
prohibited in billets and work areas.

        (2) Soldiers will be instructed not to touch or move
duds or discarded munitions. Locations of duds will be reported
through the chain of command. The supporting explosive ordnance
disposal unit will be called to provide support.

    e. Chemicals. The use of chemicals authorized for training
purposes is subject to the following guidance:

        (1) The same protective cover and boundary limits
observed during training with high-explosive ammunition (AR 385-


                                 36
                         XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

63) are required to protect against fragments and ricochet of
chemical ammunitions.
        (2) Commanders will consult school-trained nuclear,
biological, and chemical (NBC) officers or NCOs before using
chemical training agents.

        (3) Training with chemicals will be restricted to U.S.-
controlled training areas and mask-confidence chambers.

        (4) When using chemicals in training, commanders will
consider wind and other meteorological conditions, distance
factors, and the quantity of munitions to be used. Commanders of
chemical exercises will coordinate properly with other units and
with local or regional authorities (for example, county
administrator, mayor, military or local police, forestry
official) and take precautions to ensure the civilian population
will not be affected.

        (5) Before releasing chemical training agents in an open
area, the exercise commander will inspect the area to ensure only
appropriate military personnel are in the area to be affected by
the agent. Military personnel and units in the area who are not
participating in the training will be warned before the exercise
begins.

        (6) The commander of personnel taking part in training
with chemicals must get a medical clearance for persons whose
health or physical profile indicates participation may be
injurious. As a minimum, persons with a P3 profile because of
respiratory or cardiac conditions will be evaluated at a medical
facility.

        (7) A school-trained NBC officer or NCO will supervise
mask-confidence training. During mask-confidence exercises,
medical support will be present (incl personnel trained in
emergency care of chemical casualties and a vehicle for emergency
evacuation).

        (8) Firing projectiles or dropping bombs containing
chemicals that may be harmful to the environment or wildlife on
land or in bodies of water is prohibited.

        (9) At major training areas (MTAs), the Commander will
determine the safe distance for using chemicals.

        (10) Chemicals listed in appropriate FMs may be used to
train personnel in detecting and identifying toxic chemicals.
Chemical training agents, such as banana oil, may be used in
mask-confidence training to eliminate the irritation of riot-
control agents (CS).

                               37
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4




                               38
                           XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
    f. CS Riot-Control Agents. Commanders using CS riot-control
agents in training will observe the following restrictions:
        (1) In XVIII Airborne Corps units, the use of CS riot-
control agents will meet environmental restrictions outlined in
AR 200-1 and XVIII Airborne Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 200-1. CS
causes foliage damage and remains in the soil, adversely
affecting germination.
        (2) CS agents will be used in training only under the
supervision of a school-trained NBC officer or NCO.
        (3) CS agents may be used in open local training areas
if the agent source is 500 meters from the nearest community,
road, or highway. These agents will be used far enough from
roads and inhabited areas that a change of wind direction will
not carry the chemicals into these areas.
        (4) In densely wooded areas and on cool, cloudy days,
the minimum releasing distance from the nearest community, road,
or highway is 1,000 meters.
        (5) During demonstrations, CS riot-control agents will
not be released within 50 meters of spectators located upwind.
        (6) When using CS in the open, no more than two grenades
will be used at once. Additional grenades will not be ignited
until previously detonated grenades have stopped functioning.
        (7) Large CS dispensers (such as CS-1 drums) will not be
used without prior approval and guidance from Headquarters, XVIII
Airborne Corps.
        (8)    Only CS in capsule form will be used in CS chambers.
        (9) The protective mask and field clothing, with collar
and cuffs buttoned and trouser legs tucked into combat boots,
will be worn for protection from field concentrations of CS.
        (10)   Personnel adversely affected by CS should be)
        (a)    Placed in fresh air facing into the wind for 5 to 10
minutes.
        (b)    Placed away from other affected personnel.
        (c)    Instructed to avoid rubbing their eyes.
        (11) If major accidental contamination with CS occurs,
soldiers will be decontaminated as follows:



        (a)    Promptly flush bodies with large amounts of water.

                                 39
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4


        (b) While protecting the eyes, wash with a 5-percent
sodium bisulfite solution to remove the CS agent from the body.
If sodium bisulfite is not available, a 1-percent solution of
sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or yellow Government-issue
soap and water may be used.

        (c) For showering after exposure to CS, flush the
soldier's body with water for 3 to 5 minutes before normal
showering. If agent residue is on the clothing, remove the
clothing to prevent unmasked personnel from being affected.

    g.   Using Smoke in Training.

        (1) White phosphorous smoke grenades will not be used
for training.

        (2) Commanders of units planning to use smoke-producing
munitions or devices in training, except for colored signaling
smoke, will notify other nearby units.

        (3) When using smoke in training areas, commanders must
take special care to ensure appropriate protection is provided to
people who are likely to be exposed. Specific consideration will
be given to weather conditions and the potential downwind effects
of the smoke.

        (4) Before scheduling smoke operations in the general
area of major highways, railways, or water traffic arteries,
commanders will coordinate with local authorities to obtain
clearance. The responsible commander will ensure precautions are
taken to minimize interference with all types of traffic.
Patrols, guards, and warning signs will be posted, as necessary,
to give adequate warning to personnel in the area.
        (5) Soldiers will carry protective masks when
participating in an exercise that includes the use of smoke.

        (6) Soldiers will put on masks before being exposed to
any concentration of smoke produced by white smoke grenades or
smoke pots (hexachloroethane (HC) smoke) or metallic powder.
Additionally, personnel will put on masks when)

        (a) Passing through or operating in dense smoke
(visibility less than 50 meters), such as smoke blankets and
smoke curtains.




                                40
                             XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (b) Operating in or passing through a smoke haze
(visibility greater than 50 meters) when the exposure will last
more than 4 hours.

        (c) Exposure to smoke produces breathing difficultly,
eye irritation, or discomfort. Such effects in one person will
serve as a signal for all similarly exposed personnel to put on
masks.

        (d) Conducting MOUT training in enclosed spaces. The
protective mask is not effective in oxygen-deficient atmospheres.
 Care must be taken not to enter confined space where oxygen may
have been displaced by smoke.

        (e) Operating smoke generator equipment if the operator
cannot be positioned upwind from smoke being generated.

        (7) The following precautions will be observed when
using HC smokepots:

        (a) HC smokepots will remain dry before use. Wet
smokepots are subject to erratic burning or explosion or may
produce spontaneous combustion.

        (b) The firer will be trained to keep his or her face
turned away from the smokepot as much as possible during manual
firing and to move quickly at least 30 meters from the smokepot
after ignition. Because HC smokepots produce great heat when
burning, precautions will be taken to prevent fires.

        (c) HC smokepots will not be fired inside buildings,
tents, or other enclosed areas because of fire and health hazards
from the fumes.

        (8) When grenades are used in training, care will be
taken to prevent grass and forest fires. Grenades will not be
activated within 10 meters of people and will not be used for
mask-confidence exercises or in confined areas.

NOTE:    Smoke is toxic.   Prolonged exposure to smoke can be fatal.

    h.    Aircraft Sprays.

        (1) The portable helicopter dispenser may be used to
spray CS or chloracetophenoe in MTAs.

        (2) When agents are sprayed from low-flying Army
aircraft, permanent injury to unprotected eyes and severe


                                   41
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

irritation of the skin of exposed personnel may occur. To
prevent injuries, the following precautions will be taken:
        (a) Soldiers will be instructed not to look up unless
their eyes are protected when planes are directly overhead or
upwind.

        (b) Soldiers contaminated with liquid in a spray attack
will remove clothing as soon as possible and will go to shower or
washing facilities. Contaminated eyes should be washed
immediately with fresh water.

        (3) Aircraft spraying operations will not be conducted
within 1 kilometer of buildings, equipment, or non-participating
soldiers.
27.   VEHICLE REQUIREMENTS

    a. Vehicles Transporting Explosives and Ammunition. For
vehicles transporting explosives and ammunition.
        (1) Army motor vehicles and trailers may be used to
transport ammunition and explosives. Drivers of vehicles loaded
with ammunition or explosives, regardless of the type or quantity
of explosives, will be trained and licensed to transport
hazardous materials.
        (2) Built-up vehicles not manufactured to military
specifications (trucks or trailers with exterior shelters
installed locally) will not be used to transport ammunition or
explosives.
         (3)   Vehicle electrical systems will not exceed 24 volts.
        (4) When transporting all hazard classes of ammunition,
two metal reflecting orange placards (NSN 9905-01-V40-0650) and
two placard frames (NSN 9999-01-V40-0653) will be affixed to the
front and rear of each vehicle no higher than 5 feet above road
level. Placards are not required when transporting less than 75
kilogram (kg) (165 pounds) gross weight of hazard class 1.4 items
(for example, small arms).
        (5) Trailers used to carry ammunition or explosives will
be equipped either with brakes that may be operated from the
driver's cab or with automatic brakes that lock when the trailer
is detached from the towing vehicle. Only one trailer will be
towed at a time. Two-wheeled trailers will be equipped with a
rear support leg.
         (6)   Vehicles will)



                                 42
                             XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
        (a) Have a loading compartment with secure sides of
sufficient height and strength to contain a load safely. The
floor will not have openings. The floor and sides will be clean
and free of protruding nails and other sharp objects.
        (b) Not have any operational deficiencies that could
cause a brake, steering, or lighting failure.
        (7)   Before using vehicles, drivers will ensure)
        (a) There are no deficiencies in the lighting or
electrical system.
        (b) There are no leaks in the fuel (carburetor, line,
pump, tank), oil, or exhaust systems.
        (c) Daily preventive maintenance checks and services
inspections and DD Form 626 (Motor Vehicle Inspection) have been
completed.
        (8) Required documentation for vehicles transporting
ammunition or explosives includes)

        (a) DD Form 1384 (Transportation Control and Movement
Document), DD Form 1348-1 (DOD Single Line Item Release/Receipt
Document), DA Form 581 (Request for Issue and Turn-In of
Ammunition), or other applicable document ordering movement.

        (b)   DD Form 626.

        (c)   Appropriate Host Nation forms such as, DD Form 836
AE.

        (d) The appropriate AE 55-4-series forms describing
hazard divisions and required safety measures. These forms will
be in English and the host nation language.

        (e)   Authorized route (strip map).

        (f)   Emergency telephone numbers.

    b. Equipment Requirements. The following equipment is
required for each vehicle transporting explosives or ammunition:

        (1)   Two 10-B-C fire extinguishers mounted on the
vehicle.

        (2)   Enough tools to make minor repairs.



                                   43
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (3) Two portable flashing amber warning lights with
self-contained batteries in case of a breakdown.

          (4)   Two warning triangles.

          (5)   Two wheel chock blocks.

          (6)   A first-aid kit.

          (7)   Reflectorized vests for occupants.

        (8) A spare tire for each type of tire on vehicle or
trailer and the necessary tools to change the tires.

    c. Wheel Chains on Vehicles Transporting Ammunition or
Explosives. Commanders of command where snow and ice are the
norm during the period October through February will have wheel
chains available on vehicles when picking up ammunition or
explosives. Chains will be installed on wheels)

          (1)   When tank trail conditions are amber because of snow
or ice.

          (2)   When advised by range control.

          (3)   According to the appropriate vehicle operators
manual.
28.   AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES LOADING COMPATIBILITY

    a. Markings on individual packages or items approved by the
U.S. Army and normally used in the United States are valid in
overseas areas.

    b. Ammunition and explosives will not be combined for
movement with flammable, oxidizing, corrosive, or combustible
materials.

    c. Information on compatibility of items can be found in TM
38-410, Storage and Handling of Hazardous Materials. Generally,
loading is limited to materials within the same compatibility
group.

    d. Loads will not be more than one pallet high.      The height
of pallets and loads will not exceed 54 inches.

    e. Primers may be loaded in the same vehicle as the
propelling charges with which they are used.


                                   44
                          XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    f. Fuses, projectiles, primers, and propelling charges in
approximately equal numbers to make complete rounds may be loaded
on the same vehicle.
29. LOAD STABILITY

    a. According to approved loading plans and diagrams, loads
will be blocked and braced to prevent movement during transport.

    b. Piling loads higher than the tops of the sideboards or
tailboards is prohibited.

    c. Electro-explosive devices and ammunition containing
electro-explosive devices may be transported only in original

packaging or in closed-metal, small arms containers to protect
against initiation by electromagnetic radiation hazards.
30.   SAFETY IN TRANSIT

    a. Except for convoys, a minimum vehicle crew will be a
driver and an assistant driver. For convoys, the first, last,
and every fifth vehicle will have a driver and assistant driver.
 Both crewmembers will be licensed properly.

    b. Drivers transporting hazardous materials such as
ammunition and explosives should be briefed on safe movement and
the requirements established in AR 385-55.

    c. Vehicle drivers should avoid densely populated areas when
transporting ammunition.

    d. Commanders will ensure unauthorized persons and persons
suspected to be under the influence of drugs or alcohol do not
approach or handle ammunition or explosives.

    e. No person will be allowed to ride on or in the cargo
compartment of a motor vehicle transporting ammunition and
explosives.

    f. Vehicle operators will obey local traffic laws and drive
safely according to road and weather conditions. Vehicles will
not exceed 60 kilometers per hour (kph) (37 miles per hour (mph))
on normal roads and 80 kph (50 mph) on highways.

    g. The distance between vehicles transporting ammunition and
explosives should be at least 100 meters. Convoy commanders may
order the distance between vehicles reduced in special
circumstances.



                                45
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    h.   Stops should be made)

         (1)   Approximately every 2 hours to)
         (a)   Check the stability and security of a load.

         (b)   Avoid overheating the vehicle.

         (c)   Allow drivers to rest.

        (2) At least 300 meters from inhabited buildings and
places of assembly. These stops will be made only where they are
not hazardous to other vehicles.

    i. Temporary parking restrictions apply to vehicles
transporting explosives and ammunition. These restrictions do
not apply to overnight parking, download sites or "safe havens".

        (1) There will be at least 50 meters between parked
vehicles carrying ammunition and explosives.

         (2)   Drivers will not leave vehicles unattended.

        (3) Commanders will not allow smoking, fire, or open
flames within 50 feet of vehicles.

        (4) Portable flashing amber lights should be placed
about 100 meters in front of and behind stopped vehicles during
darkness and bad weather. RAWLs will be used when available.

    j. If a vehicle transporting ammunition or explosives breaks
down, operators will)

        (1) Warn traffic by placing flashing amber lights 50
meters in front of and behind the vehicle and placing warning
triangles 100 meters in front of and behind the vehicle. If on
an expressway or a four-lane divided highway, operators will
place both triangles to the rear at 200 and 300 meters. Distance
may vary depending on conditions.

        (2) Move the vehicle to a safe area away from traffic
lanes and at least 200 meters from inhabited buildings.

         (3)   Notify local police for required assistance.

        (4) Not perform major repairs until a load has been
transferred to a relief vehicle.




                                 46
                        XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (5) Contact the appropriate local authority or commander
of the unit nearest the operator's unit for a relief vehicle and
work party, if required.




                               47
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (6) Make minor repairs if there is no risk of fire or
other hazard.

31.    FIRE PRECAUTIONS.   Commanders will ensure)

      a.   There is no smoking, fire, or open flame in vehicles.

    b. Matches, lighters, and other flame-producing devices are
not carried by the vehicle crew. No flammable/combustibles such
as papers or bedrolls are jammed into areas of the exhaust pipe
or heater.

    c. Spare fuel is carried in approved 5-gallon fuel
containers. The containers must be marked according to FM 10-69.
 Containers will have leakproof gaskets on the caps and will be
placed properly in holders on the outside of vehicles.

      d.   Engines are turned off during loading and unloading.

      e.   Vehicles are not refueled during loading and unloading.

      f.   Operators -

        (1) Secure radio antennas to prevent contact with high
voltage lines.

        (2) Inspect vehicle heaters and fire extinguishers
before and during ammunition upload to ensure proper operating
order.
        (3) Ensure vehicles that have, or that are reported to
have, unresolved short circuits or frayed wires are not operated.

    g. Vehicles carrying ammunition or explosives will not be
used as trailing escort vehicles in a convoy.

32. FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES. Appendix C provides tank fire
response procedures involving depleted uranium (staballoy)
ammunition. Required actions are on DD Form 836 AE and on
AE 55-4-series forms.

33. ACCIDENT PROCEDURES. The driver or person in charge will do
the following when a vehicle transporting ammunition and
explosives is in an accident:

    a. Safeguard the load and the accident scene until the
accident investigation is completed.

      b.   Ensure traffic is warned.

                                  48
                             XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

      c.   Direct care and evacuation of the injured.

      d.   Keep spectators at a safe distance.

    e. Prevent smoking, use of matches, or open flames within
100 meters of the accident scene.

    f. Notify local police of the location of the accident, the
type of load, and the extent of injuries or fire.

      g.   Notify the chain of command as soon as possible.

    h. Ensure ammunition and explosives are not moved without
proper authority.

34. UNLOADING SITE. The following procedures apply at peacetime
temporary holding areas within unit ammunition or explosives
dispersal areas:

    a. The quantity-distance requirements will be met to protect
exposed sites from damage by accidental explosions. Ammunition
and stacks of ammunition will be arranged so no stack or group of
vehicles contains more than 4,000 kg (net) of explosive weight.
    b. An explosive stack or a vehicle loaded with explosives
must be kept at least 381 meters from the nearest inhabited
building (min. IHB, DOD 6055.9 STD).
    c. An explosive stack or a vehicle loaded with explosives
must be kept at least 235 meters from the nearest public traffic
route(min.PTR, DOD 6055.9 STD).
35.    VEHICLE PARKING
    a. Vehicles (other than armored) will be parked at least 15
meters apart in groups of two vehicles. They will be parked at
least 200 meters from inhabited buildings and at least 100 meters
from public traffic routes.
    b. Light-armored vehicles (M109 howitzer and M113 armored
personnel carriers) will be parked)
           (1)   In groups of three vehicles at least 3 meters apart.
        (2) At least 200 meters from inhabited buildings and at
least 100 meters from public highways.

    c. The necessary parking requirements for medium and light
armored vehicles equipped with tube-launched, optically tracked,
wire-guided missiles are)


                                   49
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

           (1)   In groups of three vehicles, at least 2 meters
apart.

           (2)   At least 20 meters from inhabited buildings.

      d.   Heavy-armored vehicles (M1 and M60) will be parked)

           (1)   In groups of three at least 2 meters apart.

        (2) At least 20 meters from inhabited buildings and
public highways.

SECTION IX
FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION

36.    RESPONSIBILITIES

    a. Commanders will appoint a fire marshal and a safety
officer for each bivouac area.

    b. Fire marshals will conduct periodic fire inspections in
bivouac and maintenance areas.

    c. Fire marshals and safety officers will work together to
ensure units provide a predeployment briefing that includes the
fire prevention standards in this section.
37.    TENTS

    a. Tents for billeting personnel and storing unit equipment
and supplies will be set in rows with a 2-meter clearance on all
sides. A 9-meter clearance will be kept between a double row of
tents and any other row of tents with frames.

    b. Tents will be set up away from roads and trails.         Tent
ropes should not be crossed.

    c. Tent areas will be level and free of potholes, sharp
rocks, and other hazards.

    d. POL storage areas will not be located within 50 meters of
tents, single cans of fuel must be stored at least 50 feet from
the tent. When possible, POL storage areas will be located at a
lower elevation than bivouac areas to prevent fuel leaks from
drawing towards the tents.

    e. Walking paths between tents will be planned and
established.

                                   50
                            XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    f.   Camouflage nets will not touch space heater stovepipes in
tents.

    g. Stovepipe flaps will be rolled back and secured before
stoves are operated.

38. INSTALLING AND OPERATING SPACE HEATERS. TM 10-4500-200-13
provides operating instructions and preventive maintenance
checklists for using type I and II space heaters. Personnel will
consult TM 10-4500-200-13 when installing space heaters.
Additional fire safety standards for installing and operating
tent space heaters are as follows:

    a.   Commanders will)

        (1) Develop and implement a field fire alarm system. A
fire extinguisher, shovel, and ax will be available at selected
fire points.

         (2)   Inform soldiers of the location of fire points.

        (3) Select and train personnel in operator maintenance
of fuel systems (b(13) below).

        (4) Ensure soldiers receive enough training to operate
space heaters safely and are licensed according to AR 600-55.
Soldiers who do not receive training and who are not licensed
will be prohibited from installing or operating space heaters.

        (5) Instruct soldiers not to place sealed watercans on
heaters. Boiling water may cause a sealed can to explode because
of increased pressure as the liquid changes to vapor.

        (6) Instruct soldiers not to place wet clothing within
24 inches of the stove.

         (7)   Designate a fireguard for each tent.

        (8) Brief fireguards on fire hazards and conditions that
may cause asphyxiation.

        (9) Appoint a roving guard to conduct hourly inspections
when several tents are erected in the same area. Guards will
remove fire and asphyxiation hazards.

    b. Tent stoves will be placed on a noncombustible base and
will be surrounded by a sandbox no smaller than 36 by 36 by 4
inches when sand and wooden construction materials are available.
When metal-base trays are used, there will be two inches between

                                  51
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

the bottom of the stove and the metal tray. Tent stoves will be
installed at least 4 feet from tent walls if possible.

        (1) Tent stoves with float valves and overflow outlets
will be equipped with a hose to drain the overflow.

        (2) The M1941 potbellied stove will be fueled with
Diesel, or IAW local or HN policy (e.g., JP8 in USAEUR; Diesel in
ROK) on tent stoves. The M1950 Yukon stove will be fueled only
with gasoline. MOGAS will not be mixed with other fuels. When,
and if MOGAS has commander approval for use in stoves, all hoses
and connections must be without leaks or flaws. Leaking hoses or
connections will deadline the stove, and the stove will not be
used until repairs render the stove safe for use. Repairs will
be made only by a licensed operator.

        (3) Stove pipe sections will have at least two sheet-
metal screws or rivets securing the ends of each pipe section.

         (4)   At least two pipe sections will extend above a tent
peak.

        (5) Spark arresters will be installed on model M1941,
type I, solid-fuel space heaters.

        (6) A draft diverter will be installed at the top of
exhaust pipes of M1941 type II and M1950 Yukon liquid-fuel space
heaters.

        (7) A 2-inch ventilation space will be kept between the
exhaust pipe and tent.

         (8) Three guy wires/lines will be used to secure exhaust
pipes.   These wires should be attached to the tent.

        (9) Only approved 5-gallon cans will be used as fuel
supply containers. Fuel supplies will be located at least 5 feet
from the outside wall of a tent. Fuel containers will be diked
to prevent fuel from spreading to space heaters and will be
painted with a 4-inch yellow horizontal band. The words "FUEL
OIL" or "GASOLINE" will be painted on the band in a contrasting
color. These cans will have pouring spouts.

        (10) The ties for the stovepipe openings will be tied
back to avoid contact with the hot pipes. These ties are
combustible.

        (11) The fuel can, fuel line connection, and carburetor
will be checked for leaks after changing fuel cans. Leaks will
be corrected before continuing operation.

                                 52
                            XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (12) Space heaters will be turned off and allowed to
cool for at least 30 minutes before refueling or relighting.

        (13) Fuel systems (incl fuel tank lines and connections
of heating devices) will be checked daily for leaks and
malfunctions. Only qualified maintenance personnel will make
repairs. Equipment will be turned in through supply channels
when local maintenance personnel are unable to make repairs.

         (14)   Heating equipment will not be modified locally.

        (15) Combustible and flammable materials will be kept at
least 50 feet from space heaters to prevent accidental ignition
or explosion.
39.   FIELD MESS

    a. General. Safety considerations and layout for field mess
operations are in FM 10-23. Commanders will brief mess personnel
on safety guidance in FM 10-23, chapter 12; and this pamphlet.
Safety guidance includes proper operating procedures for M2
burner units, storing flammable liquids, and controlling ignition
sources. Soldiers will change clothes before igniting burners if
they spilled fuel on their clothing while refueling any type of
equipment described in b through d below.

    b. M2 Burner Units. Only properly trained and licensed (AR
600-55) mess personnel will operate M2 burner units (TM 10-7360-
204-13&P). Soldiers operating M2 burners will)

        (1) Ensure fuel tanks are at least 50 feet from open
flames or other flammable sources before filling them.

        (2) Store burner fuel (gasoline) at least 50 feet
outside of kitchen enclosures.

        (3) Not fill a tank while a flame is burning or when a
burner is hot.

         (4)    Wipe up spilled fuel immediately.

        (5) Not operate a burner when the pressure gauge reaches
or exceeds 25 pounds per square inch or is in the "red" area.

        (6) Not release fuel tanks until the burners have cooled
(escaping gas vapor can ignite).

         (7)    Not tighten joints while a burner is operating.


                                  53
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4




              Figure 4.   Ground Guide Hand Signals

                                54
                 XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4




Figure 4.   Ground Guide Hand Signals (Continued)

                        55
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (8) Designate separate refueling and lighting areas away
from fuel/storage areas.

    c.     Immersion Heaters.   Soldiers operating immersion heaters
will)

          (1)    Be licensed (AR 600-55) to operate an immersion
heater.

          (2)    Know the type of heater they are working with.

        (3) Check TM 5-4540-202-12&P or TM 10-4500-200-13 for
preheating and lighting instructions.


        (4) Ensure ventilating pipe seams are aligned and are
facing away from where the user will stand.

        (5) Keep a fire extinguisher (dry chemical CO2 or Halon)
close to equipment.

          (6)    Choose a level, sheltered site for the corrugated
cans.

        (7) Ensure exhaust gases are funneled outside in pipes
when a heater is in a closed space.

          (8)    Wipe up spilled fuel immediately.

          (9)    Ensure the valve ends of fuel tanks are dry and free
of fuel.

        (10) Ensure there is no fuel in the combustion chamber
of a heater before the burner is lit.

        (11) Ensure water is at least 3 inches above the top of
a combustion chamber.

        (12) Never hold lit torches under fuel valves to wet
torches with fuel.

          (13)    Not allow fuel to flow in a steady stream.

        (14) Ensure the burner assembly is in the burner
compartment before lighting a heater.

        (15)      Turn in defective heaters to supporting maintenance
facilities.


                                   56
                              XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (16)       Use leaded or white gas for fuel.   Diesel fuel will
not be used.

           (17)    Not solder any part of a heater.

    d. Gasoline Lanterns. Tent fires, explosions, and personal
injury may occur if a lantern is not operated or maintained
properly. Soldiers will)

           (1) Inspect lanterns for loose, damaged, or missing
parts.     Nuts and caps on lanterns will be tightened by hand.

        (2) Not place lanterns near space heaters. The pressure
seal on lanterns may rupture, allowing fuel to escape.

        (3) Inspect ventilator hood openings to ensure the
openings are free of obstructions.

        (4) Ensure the pump leather is lubricated properly and
is in good condition.

        (5)       Ensure the filler cap gasket is on and is in good
condition.

           (6)    Use only authorized fuel.
40.   FIRE PREVENTION STANDARDS

    a. Signs that read "No smoking within 50 feet," in red
letters on a white background, will be posted at POL and
ammunition storage areas (AR 385-30).

    b. FM 10-69 contains POL storage and handling procedures.
POL vehicles will be bonded and grounded at field locations.
Fire extinguishers will be located outside of POL points (storage
locations).

    c. Privately owned heating and cooking devices will not be
used in tents and vehicles.

    d. Smoking is prohibited within 50 feet of vehicles carrying
explosives or flammable fuels.

      e.   Fuel cans will have serviceable gaskets.

    f. Gasoline will not be used as a cleaning solvent or a fire
starter.

      g.   Personnel will)

                                    57
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (1) Ensure areas in and around vehicles, tents,
buildings, and storage areas are clean. Cigarettes will be
extinguished completely before discarding. When butt cans are
not available, personnel will field-strip cigarettes.

        (2) Not smoke in or around fuel, ammunition, and other
areas where indiscriminate smoking could cause a fire or
explosion. Personnel will not smoke in tents, beds, or sleeping
bags.

    h. Be aware of local and host nation (HN) laws governing
open fires. For example: German law prohibits open fires (incl
smoking) in forests, woods, and other locations where fires may
present a hazard.

    i. Only trained personnel will install electrical wiring and
equipment. Circuit breakers and fuses will not be bypassed or
replaced with those having higher amperage. The current will be
turned off until trained personnel correct faults in electrical
wiring (for example, short circuits, overheating, exposed
conductors, repeated tripping of the circuit breaker, blown
fuses). Lamp fixtures will be supported so that they are not
suspended directly by electrical connections. When working with
electrical circuits, use lockout/tagout procedures according to
OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910. All field electrical installations
will be properly installed and grounded.

   j. Gasoline in portable containers will be stored in stacks.
Each stack will)

        (1)   Not exceed 1,000 gallons.

        (2)   Be at least 50 feet from the next stack.

        (3) Not be closer than 50 meters to occupied tents,
buildings, warehouses, or combustible storage areas.

        (4) Be located at lower elevations than bivouac areas,
when possible.

    k. A daily working supply of lubricants with a flash point
of more than 100 degrees ( ) Fahrenheit (F) may be stored in
shops and maintenance areas. Gasoline and other flammable fuels
with a flash point of 100   F or less will not be stored in
tents, buildings, or other structures with closed sides.

    l. Gasoline and other flammable liquids will not be used to
start solid fuel fires.


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                         XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
NOTE: The M2 cooking stove may be started with a flammable
liquid but will be refueled only in an open, well-ventilated
area. A heat shield will be installed before an M2 burner is
operated.
    m. Field stoves and ranges with attached fuel tanks will be
allowed to cool off for at least 30 minutes before being
refueled.
    n. Vehicles, trailers, and temporary storage areas
containing packed or bulk flammable and combustible liquids will
be located)
        (1) One hundred meters from vehicles loaded with
explosives and ammunition.
        (2) Fifty meters from structures and other vehicles when
the amount of flammable liquid is 750 gallons or less.
    o. Incendiary devices for destroying classified material
will be stored so that any accidental ignition will not be
hazardous. Installing explosives and pyrotechnics for additional
security of classified material is prohibited.
    p. Ammunition simulators and similar devices (for example,
pyrotechnics) will not be thrown at or near people or into
vehicles, structures, tents, and other enclosures.

    q. Commanders will designate and mark authorized smoking
areas clearly. Grass, leaves, and other combustible materials
will be removed from designated smoking areas. Butt cans will be
provided. Supervisors will instruct soldiers to empty butt cans
into trash containers only after smoking materials have been
extinguished completely.

    r. Vehicle operators will turn off vehicle motors being
refueled.

SECTION X
FIELD MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS

41. FIRE PREVENTION.   To prevent fires during field maintenance,
Commanders will)

    a. Post "No Smoking" signs in shop areas. Smoking is not
permitted within 50 feet of vehicles or stored flammables.

    b. Store paint, POL products, and cleaning solutions only in
designated areas.


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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

      c.   Not use gasoline as a cleaning solvent.
    d. Separate and store dirty, oily rags in covered metal
containers.
    e. Ensure vehicles are parked at least 15 meters from tents
and buildings. Vehicles will not block exits.
    f. Ensure equipment is not refueled inside tents or
buildings, or when an engine (incl power generators, small
engineering equipment, Herman Nelson heaters) is running or hot.
    g. Ensure personnel clean areas to reduce fire and other
safety hazards. Personnel will be trained in the proper use of
fire extinguishers and fire drills will be conducted.
      h.   Have the proper containers for hazardous waste.
42.    VEHICLE OPERATIONS IN MAINTENANCE AREAS
      a.   The maximum speed in motorpools is 5 mph.
    b. Only properly licensed drivers will start or operate
vehicles.
      c.   Drivers will)
        (1)      Not leave a vehicle unattended while the engine is
running.
        (2) Use the rear safety strap when transporting
personnel in vehicle cargo beds. Riders in cargo beds will stay
seated while the vehicle is moving.

        (3)      Use ground guides when moving a vehicle in a
motorpool.

      d.   Ground guides will)

           (1)   Not run when guiding vehicles.

           (2)   Work in pairs when backing vehicles.

        (3) Always be visible to the driver, never in the
vehicle path.

           (4)   Know proper arm and hand signals (See Figure 1).

        (5) Not stand between a moving vehicle and any object
and avoid unsafe positions.



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                              XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
      e.   Personnel riding in tracked vehicles will--
           (1)   Wear head protection.
           (2)   Not sit on top of vehicles.
           (3)   Use installed seatbelts.
           (4)   Never dismount unless instructed to.
        (5)      Read and understand unit SOP reference vehicle
movements.
     f. Exhaust will be vented outside when internal combustion
engine vehicles are used in enclosed areas.
     g. Parked vehicles will be spaced and arranged so vehicles
and fire lanes are accessible.
43.    PERSONNEL SAFETY IN MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS
      a.   Commanders will)
        (1) Not permit horseplay in maintenance facilities and
surrounding areas.
        (2) Maintain lifting and support devices (for example,
perform a weight test).
        (3) Stress the proper use of compressed air and
hydraulic equipment.
        (4) Ensure emergency shower and eye wash facilities are
available and MEDIVAC informations is posted.
      b.   Operators and maintenance personnel will)
        (1) Have and wear hearing protection devices in areas
with high noise levels.
        (2) Wear appropriate respirators (TB MED 502) as needed
for prolonged vehicle maintenance operations at fixed repair
facilities. Personnel must be protected from asbestos fiber and
toxic gas inhalation while repairing brakes and clutches,
painting in enclosed areas, and cleaning.

      c.   Personnel will)

        (1) Not lean on, stand on, or sit under equipment
suspended by recovery vehicles, A-frames, jacks, or other
overhead lifts. When vehicles are lifted by a crane, A-frame, or
wrecker, jackstands will be placed under the vehicle being
lifted.

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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (2) Wear face and eye protection when welding, cutting,
sanding, or chipping.

         (3)   Wear protective clothing when handling batteries.

        (4) Use tools for their intended purpose only.
Personnel will not use power tools with frayed electrical cords
or without proper grounding.

        (5) Use motorpool tire cages, when available, to protect
themselves from exploding split wheel rims when inflating tires.
 When using tire cages, personnel will use air hose extensions to
ensure they are no closer than 10 feet from the tire being
inflated.

SECTION XI
BIVOUAC ACCIDENT AND INJURY PREVENTION

44.   SITE REQUIREMENTS

    a. Responsibilities. Commanders will designate a safety
officer and a fire marshal for each bivouac area.
Responsibilities of safety officers and fire marshals are as
follows:

        (1) Bivouac Site. Bivouac areas will be free of hazards
(for example, debris, poisonous plants, dangerous animals, large
and sharp rocks). Safety officers will check bivouac areas for
high voltage lines before laying wire and erecting antennas and
bridges (The 2X rule applies).

        (2) Parking Area. A natural or artificial barrier will
exist or will be constructed between the parking area and tent
areas. Vehicles will be parked so they will not roll into
sleeping, mess or work facilities. Vehicle parking areas will be
located at least 15 meters from sleeping areas.

        (3) POL Storage Area. The POL storage area will be
located at an elevation equal to or lower than bivouac areas.
Safety personnel will ensure that any catastrophic event,
involving fuel spills or fires are prevented from flowing,
leaking or seeping into, or affecting bivouac areas.

        (4) Ammunition and Explosives Storage Area. Storage
areas for ammunition and explosives will be surrounded by natural




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                           XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

barricades and will be at least 100 meters from the POL storage
area, when possible.

    b.   Sleeping Areas.   Commanders will)

        (1) Designate and mark sleeping areas with white
engineer tape. When sleeping areas are around the perimeter of
the bivouac area and it is not practical to mark sleeping areas
with white engineer tape, commanders will place extra emphasis on
keeping vehicles away from the perimeter.

        (2) Ensure sleeping areas are barricaded and are away
from roads and vehicle trails, when possible.
         (3)   Not permit soldiers to sleep)

        (a) Immediately in front of, behind, or under wheeled or
tracked vehicles.

         (b)   In vehicles with the engine running.

        (4) Encourage soldiers to sleep next to natural barriers
(for example, trees) within command-designated sleeping areas.
Soldiers will sleep in safe places when in areas without natural
barriers.

        (5) Ensure guards challenge vehicles to halt at bivouac
perimeters and have people dismount from vehicles before entering
assembly or bivouac areas.

        (6) Ensure vehicles pass through assembly or bivouac
areas only for operational necessity. To move through assembly
or bivouac areas, or areas where troops may be present, drivers
will have ground guides. There will be 10 yards between vehicles
and ground guides (FM 21-306). Ground guides must be trained in
using hand and arm signals in FM 21-305 and their soldiers
manual.

NOTE: A complete blackout of vehicles in bivouac areas is
prohibited during tactical exercises. Isolated blackout
movements in bivouac areas may be authorized when a ground guide
precedes with a flashlight. Vehicle drivers will comply with
flashlight and arm and hand signals given by ground guides.

        (7) Ensure walking guards are posted and carry working
flashlights after dark. Commanders will brief walking guards on
their duties.



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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    c. Latrines. Bivouac latrines will be located at a lower
elevation and at least 90 meters from the unit mess and 28 meters
from the nearest water source.
45.    GENERAL SAFETY RULES

    a. Antennas. Antenna tip caps (NSN 5985-00-930-7223) or
other suitable protective items will be placed on OE-254 and RC-
292 antenna elements. Only authorized mast assemblies will be
used with antennas. Camouflage poles will not be used with
either the OE-254 or the RC-292. Soldiers will inspect the mast
section for cracks before assembly. If the antenna mast is
lowered and left unattended, the elements must be removed when it
is on the ground. Soldiers will wear a helmet, protective
goggles, and gloves when erecting and disassembling antennas and
be given a safety briefing prior to erection/disassembly.

    b. Electrical Equipment. Electrical generators and
electrical equipment (for example, signal vans) will be grounded.
 Generator outriggers will be extended after the generator is
placed in the desired position.

    c. Tent Pins. Tent pins originally issued in color will not
be repainted in subdued colors.

      d.   Passengers.   Soldiers will)

        (1) Sit when riding on beds of trucks to avoid being
struck by branches, trees, or wires.

        (2) Not ride on vehicle running boards or jump off
moving vehicles.

        (3) Not disembark from vehicle cargo areas when
tailgates are up.

      e.   Drivers.   Drivers will)

        (1) Fasten restraining straps across vehicle tailgates
before leaving.

           (2)   Use chock blocks.

        (3) Not park vehicles uphill from bivouac, work or
sleeping areas without a barrier.




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                              XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

SECTION XII
AVIATION ACCIDENT PREVENTION

46.    GENERAL.    Commanders will ensure)

      a.   Aviation units establish and comply with SOPs.

    b. Flight altitude restrictions are published for each
exercise.

      c.   Flight crews meet minimum weather criteria in AR 95-1.

    d. Appropriate fire extinguishers are available        at
helicopter landing sites.
      e.   Aviation accidents are reported according to)

           (1)   AR 95-1.

           (2)   AR 385-40.

           (3)   DA Pamphlet 385-40.

47. OPERATIONS IN AND AROUND AIRCRAFT. Commanders will brief
supported units on the following precautions for working around
aircraft:

    a. Only "tape" antennas will be installed on      SINGARS/PRC-77
radios when soldiers are close to Army aircraft.      Using "whip"
antennas around aircraft is prohibited because of     probable damage
to main rotor systems if an antenna should strike     a spinning
rotor system.

      b.   Personnel will)

        (1) Approach and leave helicopters at a crouch from the
front, at 45 to 90 degrees angles, in view of the crew, because a
helicopter rotor system can be lowered to less than 5 feet.

        (2) Not approach or leave on the uphill side of
operating helicopters.

        (3)      Approach a CH-47 from the side or rear in view of
the crew.

        (4) Not walk between, under, or close to helicopter
rotors unless cleared by a crewmember.

           (5)   Tie down vehicle radio antennas when near aircraft.

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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (6) Not chamber rounds in weapons when in aircraft or
carry explosives or pyrotechnics in rucksacks. If the tactical
situation requires otherwise, Commanders may make Risk
Assessment.

            (7)    Refuel aircraft according to FM 10-68 and the local
SOP.

            (8)    Use hearing protection around aircraft operations.

            (9)    Not smoke in Army aircraft.

        (10) Use FM 21-60 procedures to marshal aircraft in
landing zones.

            (11)    Secure headgear before approaching the Aircraft.

    c. Aircrews will secure lightweight or loose objects (for
example, blankets, ponchos, cameras, tents) in)

            (1)    Helicopters when the doors are open during flight.

            (2)    Landing zones to prevent rotor wash disturbance.

       d.   Smoking is prohibited within 50 feet of aircraft.

    e. An aircrew member will give detailed safety briefings to
personnel being transported aboard aircraft.

    f.      Vehicles within 50 feet of aircraft will not exceed 5
mph.

    g. Vehicles will not be driven within 50 feet of rotating
helicopter blades.

    h. Passengers will sit in authorized aircraft seats and use
seatbelts.

    i. The pilot in command (PC) is responsible for safety in
and around the aircraft. The orders of the PC or the crew chief
are legal orders that will be followed.

48. AVIATION OPERATION REQUIREMENTS. U.S. Army visual flight
rule (VFR) guidelines for day and night operations are as
follows:

    a. VFR operations will be conducted according to AR 95-1 and
aviation procedural guides published for the applicable
exercises.

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                            XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
    b. Procedures for obtaining weather briefings will be
published for each exercise. Weather service also may be
obtained by telephoning the U.S. Army Flight Operations
Detachment; see local phone listings.
    c.   Commanders will)
        (1)   Present a mission briefing to aircrews before they
conduct aviation missions. Supporting and supported unit
Commanders will work together to designate persons to give the
briefing when Aircrews are separated from their parent units.
        (2)   Publish requirements for navigation and
communication equipment for each exercise.
        (3)   Ensure aviators are familiar with and understand
wire-crossing procedures in the aircrew training manual (ATM).
    d. Single aircraft will flight-follow when operating alone
in exercise airspace. One aircraft in each formation operating
in the exercise area will flight-follow (keep in radio contact)
for the formation. Tactical aircraft may flight-follow with
their unit operations section, another aircraft, or established
flight-following facilities. Administrative missions will
conduct flight-following with established flight-following
facilities.
    e. Aircraft operating in an exercise area will have the
following publications on board for each mission, in addition to
publications required by the applicable operators manual:

         (1)   The current DOD flight information publication.

         (2)   The exercise aviator procedures guide.

        (3) Exercise maps that cover an exercise flying area and
include wire hazard overlays.

    f. Aviators will be thoroughly familiar with and, when
necessary, will use the recovery procedures for inadvertent
instrument meteorological conditions (IMCs). AR 95-1, appendix
H, describes IMCs.

    g. Depending on local and/or host nation guidance, the unit
commander or PC may decide to fly under wires and bridges after
determining that underflight is tactically necessary and can be
done safely. Flight under wires and bridges will be specified in
mission briefings and will be conducted according to the
appropriate regulations and SOPs. Overflight and underflight of
wires and bridges will be accomplished according to the ATM.



                                  67
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    h. Except when waived by a general officer, night vision
devices operations will be performed according to DA guidance and
Regulatory requirements.

    i. Each aviation unit will develop and publish a field
tactical preaccident plan (AR 385-95) that includes specific
procedures to follow if there is an aircraft accident during an
FTX. The plan will include)

        (1) Information for using local and HN telephone lines
to speed up notifying rescue, aeromedical evacuation, and chain-
of-command personnel.

        (2) The locations of the nearest military and civilian
medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and fire departments.

        (3)   The locations and means of notifying flight
surgeons.

        (4)   Training for field site rescue personnel.

        (5) Identification of unit personnel who speak the HN
language, when required.

        (6)   Accident site security.

    j. Previous major FTXs indicate the following topics require
additional emphasis:

        (1)   Wire and tree-strike prevention.

        (2) Restricted visibility because of environmental
conditions (for example, snow, dust, ice).

         (3) Procedures for poor weather conditions.
         (4) Crew endurance criteria (compliance with the unit
SOP).   Commanders should not exceed endurance criteria.

        (5)   Refueling procedures.

        (6)   Sling load operations.

        (7)   Crew selection (mix experienced and inexperienced
personnel).

        (8)   Terrain flight procedures.

        (9)   Accident reporting procedures.


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                                XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

           (10)    Premission planning.

           (11)    Field maintenance procedures.

           (12)    Aircrew medical treatment.
49.    MEDICAL AIR EVACUATION PROCEDURES

    a. Army medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) services will be
available during joint service exercises when troop
concentrations exist.

    b. The standard peacetime AN/VCR-12 series radio frequency
(RF) to request air MEDEVAC is 30.75 megahertz (MHz). The new
squelch control must be set to the "on" position. Supporting
MEDEVAC Aircrews must be informed when PCR-77 radios are the only
radios in use by supporting units or when an air MEDEVAC mission
can be expected to be relayed by telephone.

    c. Air ambulance MEDEVAC is only for actual patients.
Priorities are as follows:

        (1) Urgent. Required immediately to save a life or
limb, within a maximum of 2 hours.

        (2) Urgent - Surgical. Must receive far forward
surgical intervention to save life and stabilize before further
evacuation.

           (3)    Priority.    Required within 4 hours.

           (4)    Routine.    Required within 24 hours.

        (5) Convenience.          Matter of convenience rather than
medical necessity.

      d.   Persons requesting air ambulance service will)

        (1) Provide the pickup location (8-digit grid
coordinates).

           (2)    Describe the landmarks at the pickup location.

        (3) Indicate any aircraft landing hazards, particularly
the position of electric and telephone lines.

        (4) Indicate patient priority (c above) based on the
type of injury and the condition of the patient.


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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (5) Describe the type of injury, the wound, and the
condition of the patient.

        (6) Indicate the number of patients and whether or not
the patients can walk.

          (7)   List special equipment required during MEDEVAC
flight.

          (8)   Give their name, unit, location, and telephone
number.
SECTION XIII
ACCIDENT REPORTING AND INVESTIGATION

50. REPORTS. Military or civilian police initially estimate
Army and civilian damages and include the damage estimates in
official police reports. Army unit maintenance personnel inspect
vehicles to determine actual Army damage.

51. ACCIDENT TYPES.      All Commanders will ensure the following
types of accidents are reported according to AR 385-40:

NOTE:    This requirement is not waiverable by Commanders.

    a. Reportable Accidents.    All classes of accidents are
reportable to the Safety Office that supports the home station or
the unit, including class E (aviation) accidents (AR 385-40).
Aviation class D accidents require a Preliminary Report of
Aircraft Mishap (PRAM) (RCS CSGPA-1550 (MIN)) within 5 working
days.

    b. Recordable Accident. If an Army driver is determined or
is suspected to be at fault, if combined civilian and Army
property damage is estimated to be more than $2,000, or if a
soldier loses a workday as a result of an injury, the occurrence
is considered a recordable accident and is assigned to class A,
B, or C (paras c, d, and f below) depending on the severity.
Class A, B, and C accidents are required to be reported on DA
Form 285 (U.S. Army Accident Investigation Report) and submitted
to the appropriate Safety Office IAW AR 385-40.

    c.    Class A Accident.

        (1) Class A accident is - an Army accident in which the
resulting total cost of property damage and personnel injuries or
occupational illness is $1,000,000 or more; a DOD aircraft,
missile, or spacecraft is destroyed; or an injury or occupational
illness that results in a fatality or permanent total disability.

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                             XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (2) Commanders will notify the following people
immediately of a class A accident:

         (a)   Their chain of command.

        (b) The Director of Safety, XVIII Airborne Corps and Ft
Bragg, ATTN: AFZA-SA, DSN 236-7233 ext 101 or FAX, DSN 236-9460.
 Initial report can be by telephone.

    d.   Class B Accident.

        (1) Class B accident is - an Army accident in which the
resulting total cost of property damage is $200,000 or more, but
less than $1,000,000; an injury and/or occupational illness
results in permanent partial disability; or when five or more
personnel are inpatient hospitalized.

        (2) Commanders will notify the following people
immediately of a class B accident:

         (a)   Their chain of command

        (b) The Director of Safety, XVIII Airborne Corps and Ft
Bragg, ATTN: AFZA-SA, DSN 236-7233 ext 101 or FAX, DSN 236-9460.
 Initial report can be by telephone.

    e. Centralized Accident Investigation, Ground,
Procedures. Class A and B accidents will be investigated using
the procedures in AR 385-40.
    f.   Class C Accident.

        (1) Class C accident is - an Army accident in which the
resulting total cost of property damage is $10,000 or more, but
less than $200,000; a nonfatal injury that causes any loss of
time (hospital and/or quarters) from work beyond the day or shift
on which it occurred; or a nonfatal illness or disability that
causes loss of time from work or disability at any time (Lost
time case).

NOTE: The day an accident occurs is not counted as a lost
workday.

        (2) Commanders will notify their chain of command within
2 hours of a class C accident.

    g.   Class D Accident.



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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (1) Class D accident is - an Army accident in which the
Army is at fault and the resulting property damage (military and
civilian combined) is $2,000 or more, but less than $10,000, and
does not meet the criteria of a LOST TIME case (e.g.,
hospitalized and/or quarters for at least one full day).
        (a) Results in a restricted workday loss. A restricted
workday is when a soldier) Is assigned to another job temporarily
because of injuries, is assigned work at a permanent job less
than full time because of injuries, cannot perform all duties
connected with his or her normal job because of injuries.
        (b) Accidents involving a POV and an AMV in which the
AMV driver is NOT at fault will be reported to the local safety
office. However, these accidents will not be RECORDED unless
recordable injuries are incurred by Army personnel or recordable
damage to Army equipment occurs.
        (2) Commanders will notify the servicing safety office
within 4 hours of a class D accident.
    h. Class E Incident (Army Aircraft Only). A Class E incident
is defined as aircraft damage less than $2,000.
    i. Foreign Object Damage (FOD) incident. Reportable
incidents confined to turbine engine damage as a result of
internal or external turbine engine FOD. FOD incidents are to be
reported as a separate category.

SECTION XIV
MEDICAL AND HEALTH CARE
52.   ARMY MEDICAL SUPPORT
    a. The Commander, of the US supporting Medical unit, working
in conjunction with local or host nation MEDCOM activities will
determine procedures for treating and hospitalizing participants
in joint field exercises. Local medical personnel of
participating units will help the supporting US Medical Brigade
treat participants of joint field exercises.
    b. The supporting US Medical unit (normally 44th Medical
Brigade) treatment facilities and established field hospitals for
joint exercises will provide the care that is beyond the
capability of medical units at field site locations.
53.   MEDEVAC




                               72
                             XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
    a. Ground ambulances will be used to evacuate patients from
field medical units. The location of MEDEVAC units is provided
in operation orders. Ambulance drivers will)
           (1)   Comply with Army and HN traffic laws.
        (2) Reduce ambulance speed when required by the
condition of a patient or driving conditions.
        (3) Use vehicle lights and emergency flashers only when
transporting patients or responding to an emergency dispatch.
    b. Evacuation by Army air ambulance will be requested only
when a patient's condition prevents using a ground ambulance.
A competent medical authority at the field site medical unit will
decide when using an Army air ambulance is appropriate.
      c.   Unit commanders will)
        (1) Immediately report personnel injured or evacuated to
a fixed Army or civilian facility for medical treatment to the
unit adjutant or assistant chief of staff, G1 (Personnel).
        (2) Include in the report ((1) above) the condition of
each patient admitted to any facility.
        (3) Notify the unit safety representative when people
are injured in accidents or fires.
        (4) Ensure patients do not take individual or unit
weapons to MTFs.
           (5)   Secure weapons prior to MEDEVAC.
    d. Weapons arriving at MTF will be secured and control by
serial number inventory. MTF commanders will immediately
inventory, secure, and transfer weapons to a patient's unit
commander if the weapons arrive at an Army MTF. Weapons receipts
and turn-ins will be IAW unit supply procedures. Proper paper
trails will be maintained for a reasonable length of time (TBD by
MTF commander).
54.    CIVILIAN MEDICAL SUPPORT
    a.   Local and HN agreements allow U.S. Forces engaged in
joint field exercises to use local MTFs. These agreements apply
only when necessary medical support cannot be provided by unit,
field, or U.S. Army fixed MTFs.




                                   73
XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
    b. The injured soldier or a fellow soldier will inform the
chain of command when civilian medical treatment or care was
provided by an HN facility.
    c. Unit commanders will notify the nearest U.S. Army fixed
MTF when an assigned soldier has been hospitalized at an HN
medical facility. Arrangements then will be made to transfer the
patient to a U.S. Army MTF as soon as possible.
55.   INDIVIDUAL HEALTH RESPONSIBILITIES
    a. Commanders should train personnel who will attend a field
exercise to protect themselves before the exercise begins.
Commanders are also responsible for soldiers complying with
appropriate field sanitation and hygiene measures: personal
hygiene, use of insect repellant, proper waste disposal, etc.
    b. Leaders will check and verify that soldiers can perform
lifesaving techniques.
    c. Prompt and correct medical emergency procedures are
essential. Soldiers must be confident and capable in common
tasks to save their own lives and the lives of fellow soldiers
(for example, performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR),
controlling bleeding, counteracting shock, preventing hot and
cold weather injuries).
    d. Commanders will emphasize knowing how and where medical
help may be obtained. Self-treatment of injuries will be
temporary, sufficient, and followed by a prompt visit to a field
first aid station, MTF, dispensary, or hospital.
    e. Health hazards encountered by soldiers in   bivouac areas
are as follows:
        (1) Water. Natural bodies of water (lakes, ponds,
quarries, rivers, and streams) are off limits because of health
hazards and the possibility of drowning.
        (2)   Poisonous Snakes.
        (a) Poisonous snakes can be found in every country of the
world. Local policies on safety are generally sound and apply
regardless of where snakes are encountered. Snakebites can result
in death if untreated. The majority of poisonous snakes try to
avoid encounters with humans and will yield and crawl away if
given the opportunity. Personnel should never attempt to pick up
or capture a poisonous snake. Most people are attacked when
handling snakes.



                                  74
                             XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
        (b) Victims of snake bites should be immobilized and a
medium tourniquet should be applied between the wound and the
heart. The victim should then be taken to an MTF.
        (3) Poisonous Berries and Mushrooms. Everyone will
avoid berries and mushrooms and toadstools. Some are poisonous
and deadly.
        (4) Rabid Animals. Rabies exists throughout the world.
 Avoid and do not handle wild or domestic animals (including cats
and dogs). Avoid foxes, which are a primary carrier of rabies.
If bitten by an animal, try to secure it. Wash the bitten area
with soap and water. Go immediately to the nearest MTF.

SECTION XV
PREVENTING COLD AND HOT WEATHER INJURIES
56.    COLD WEATHER INJURY
    a. Responsibilities.       Preventing cold weather injury is a
command responsibility.
        (1) Unit commanders will appoint a cold weather injury
prevention officer or NCO who is familiar with TB MED 81, and
this regulation
        (2) Troop leaders will ensure personnel are protected
from cold weather injuries. Troops will be supervised during
periods of exposure.
        (3) Soldiers will keep cold weather gear serviceable and
will wear it when directed.
      b.   Reactions to Cold Weather.
        (1) Trench foot or immersion foot ooccurs after the feet
                                    o
are exposed to temperatures below 50 F (10 Celsius (C)) during
wet conditions.

 o
        (2) Frostbite occurs at freezing temperatures (32o F or
0 C) and below. The body parts most vulnerable to frostbite are
fingers, cheeks, nose, ears, forehead, wrists, and feet.
           (3)   Snow blindness)
           (a)   Occurs when there is glare from ice or snow.
           (b)   Usually does not occur on hazy or cloudy days.




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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
        (4) Dehydration occurs during cold weather because
liquids are difficult to find and inconvenient to drink during
cold weather operations.
        (5) Slower thinking and reactions are effects of low
temperatures and may cause accidents.




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                           XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
        (6) Everyone is susceptible to cold weather injury.     The
following factors increase the chance of contracting a cold
weather injury:
         (a)   A previous cold injury.
        (b) Fatigue (for example, persons may become tired and
not take simple preventive measures).
        (c) Skin type. A dark-skinned soldier, with all
environmental conditions equal, is about six times more
vulnerable to cold weather injury than a light-skinned soldier,
and the injury is usually more severe.
         (d)   Tobacco and alcohol use.
        (e) Too little or too much physical activity.
Overactivity with labored breathing may cause the loss of large
amounts of body heat. Too little activity decreases body heat
production. Perspiring reduces the insulating quality of
clothing.
    c.   Training Requirements.
        (1) A medical officer or cold weather injury prevention
officer or NCO will brief and train soldiers and unit leaders on
preventing, recognizing, and treating cold weather injuries using
TB MED 81.
        (2) Cold weather injury prevention officers and NCOs
will address the type and use of cold weather gear to be issued
and carried by personnel. They also will explain proper dressing
as follows:
        (a) Wearing one pair of socks and glove inserts at a
time. Wearing more than one pair can make boots and gloves too
tight and can restrict blood circulation.
        (b) Wearing several layers of loose clothing to protect
the upper body. Clothing may be removed in layers as needed.
        (c) Protecting ears and nose or other exposed flesh when
temperatures are extremely low.
        (d) Wearing insulated boots in snow and slush; during
cold, damp weather; or when the ground is frozen. Wearing these
boots is especially important when soldiers have limited movement
or ride in open vehicles.
    d. Other Preventive Measures.      Commanders will ensure
soldiers)

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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
        (1) Keep the body, especially the feet, clean and dry.
Soldiers will change socks and massage their feet at least every
12 hours or when there is a break in action.
        (2) Avoid extreme activity and inactivity, exercise
their feet and hands, and massage their face for better blood
circulation.
        (3)    Eat hot foods and drink warm liquids, when possible.
        (4) Sit or stand on something that insulates (for
example, cardboard, weeds) instead of cold or wet ground.

        (5) Avoid handling cold materials with bare hands and
avoid letting bare skin touch cold metal, snow, and other objects
that retain the cold.

        (6)    Do the following in extreme cold:

        (a)    Tighten and relax arm and leg muscles.

        (b)    Bend their knees.

        (c)    Stamp their feet.

        (d)    Run in place.

        (e)    Wiggle their toes and fingers.

        (7) Elevate their feet, when possible, to help blood
circulation.

        (8)    Remove their boots before getting into a sleeping
bag.

        (9) Use the buddy system to check each other for signs
of cold weather injury.

        (10)    Avoid extreme wind/windchill.

        (11)     Avoid wet/damp clothing as much as possible.

    e. Wearing MOPP Gear in the Cold. Unit leaders will ensure
soldiers take precautions to prevent cold weather injury while
wearing MOPP gear. Problems and recommended actions for reducing
the potential for frostbite and hypothermia are as follows:

        (1) Problem: Perspiration collects inside the facepiece
and may freeze when MOPP gear is removed outside.
Solution: Soldiers should)

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                          XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
        (a) Be allowed to exchange MOPP gear or unmask in warm
areas when possible.
        (b) Wipe their face and the inside of their mask with a
cloth (for example, an extra glove, sock, handkerchief, wool
scarf) to keep perspiration from freezing after unmasking in the
open air.
        (2) Problem: Exposed metal rivets inside the facepiece
may contribute to discomfort and frostbite to that part of the
face. Solution: Soldiers should)
        (a) Place a small piece of tape over the exposed metal
rivets inside the facepiece. The tape should be only large
enough to cover the metal and not so large that it interferes
with putting on or wearing the mask.
        (b) Not tape over metal buckles on the protective mask.
 The metal buckles should have little or no contact with the skin
if the mask is worn properly. Taping the buckles could interfere
with proper adjustment and fit of the mask and could lead to
problems in properly clearing and sealing the mask.

        (3) Problem: Hands are susceptible to cold weather
injury when soldiers wear chemical protective gloves.
Solution: Soldiers should wear)

        (a) The green wool liners from the black shell gloves
underneath the protective gloves instead of the white glove
liners.

        (b) Standard work gloves, standard issue cold weather
mittens, or black leather shells over the butyl-rubber gloves.

        (4) Problem: Ears are susceptible to cold weather
injury while soldiers wear the protective mask and hood.
Solution: Soldiers (outside the Arctic) who are not issued a
balaclava (combination ski mask and cap) should be encouraged to
wear one of the following:

        (a) Hooded cold weather parka over the MOPP jacket.
Soldiers should mask with the hood and the helmet.
        (b)   Sleeping cap issued with the cold weather sleeping
bag.

    f. Symptoms of Cold Weather Injury.    Persons suffering a
cold weather injury may experience)

        (1)   A tingling sensation, aches, or cramps.


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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (2) White and wrinkled soles of the feet.     Walking and
standing are extremely painful.

        (3) Waxy and pale or red skin.     This is a symptom of
more severe cold weather injury.

        (4) A scratchy feeling when eyelids close.     This can be
an early symptom of snow blindness.

    g. Basic First Aid. Personnel will seek medical treatment
as soon as possible and will follow the appropriate instructions
in (1) through (6) below.

        (1) Frostbitten Face. Cover the affected area with your
bare hands until color returns to the face.

        (2) Frostbitten Feet. Remove the casualty's boots and
place the exposed feet under the clothing and against the body of
another person.

        (3) Frostbitten Hands. Open the casualty's field jacket
and shirt and place his or her hands under the armpits. Close
the shirt and field jacket to prevent further exposure.

        (4) Protection From the Cold. Remove the casualty to
the most sheltered area and cover him or her with a blanket. Be
sure the blanket is over and under the casualty.

        (5) Snow Blindness. Cover the person's eyes with a dark
cloth, shutting out all light.

        (6)   Superficial Frostbite.   Rub the affected area with
bare hands.

    h. Hospitalization. Cold weather injuries requiring
hospitalization will be reported using the Special Telegraphic
Report (RCS MED-16 (R4)) (AR 40-400, paras 6-1, 6-2, 6-3, and
6-7). Lost-time injuries will be reported on DA Form 285.
57.   HOT WEATHER INJURY

    a. Responsibilities. Responsibilities for preventing heat
injuries are the same as those for preventing cold weather
injuries (para 57). Heat injury prevention officers and NCOs
will be familiar with TB MED 507 and this pamphlet.

    b. Types of Heat Injuries. Heat injury may occur when
persons work or stay in hot environments. Heat injury is
preventable. The following are types of heat injury:

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                              XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4


         (1)   Heat Cramps.    Heat cramps)

        (a) Are painful muscle contractions of the limbs,
stomach, and back.

         (b)   Are caused by heavy salt losses through sweating.

        (2) Heat Exhaustion. Heat exhaustion is an inability to
continue working in the heat and usually is characterized by
extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting, giddiness, muscle cramps,
rapid breathing, and fainting.

        (3) Heat Stroke. Heat stroke is a breakdown of body
temperature control accompanied by severe mental impairment.
This impairment is characterized by mental confusion,
disorientation, bizarre behavior, and coma. Other symptoms
include)

        (4) Sunburn. Sunburn is caused by overexposing skin to
the ultraviolet radiation of the sun. Severe sunburn is
disabling and may cause a victim to be susceptible to other forms
of heat injury.

         (a)   Lack of perspiration.

         (b)   A throbbing headache.

         (c)   Flushed, dry skin.

         (d)   Nausea.

         (e)   Elevated body temperature.

    c. Heat Casualties During MOPP Training. Dehydration may
cause heat casualties during MOPP training. Soldiers must drink
enough water to replace body fluids lost in perspiration (FM 3-
4). Dehydration will occur under moderate temperatures during
extended operations in MOPP-4. Leaders must institute and
enforce a drinking policy, because most personnel will not be
aware they are becoming dehydrated. TB MED 507 explains the need
to acclimatize and gradually increase the workload in stress
situations, which will require work and schedule alteration
normally. Soldiers should wear full MOPP gear for 6 hours a day
only after they have become acclimatized and are trained
properly.

    d.   Training Requirements.


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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (1) Heat injury prevention officers, NCOs, or medical
officers will brief and train leaders and soldiers on preventing,
recognizing, and treating heat injuries.

        (2) Heat injury prevention officers and NCOs will
address the following subjects:

          (a)   Causes of heat injury.

          (b)   Types of clothing and equipment to prevent heat
injury.

          (c)   Preventive measures.

          (d)   Signs and symptoms of heat injury.

          (e)   Basic first aid treatment.

    e.    Other Preventive Measures.

        (1) Preventing heat injury includes) (a) Adjusting to
the weather, (b) Consuming proper amounts of salt and water,
(c) Avoiding causes of heat injury, (d) Adjusting clothing for
hot environments, (e) Following the wet bulb globe temperature
index, (f) Using a sunscreen to prevent sunburn.

        (2) People may adjust to heat by working in hot
environments for limited periods. Significant adjustments may be
made in 1 to 2 weeks of limited exposure; however, large periods
of adjustment are not always possible in field exercises.

        (3) Adequate water intake is the most important factor
in avoiding heat injury. Water loss from sweat can be as much as
1 quart (one canteen) an hour. The body also loses great amounts
of salt with water loss. Regular meals normally provide
sufficient salt replacement.

        (4) Soldiers should avoid direct exposure to the sun as
much as possible.

        (5) The heavy meal of the day should be eaten in the
evening rather than at noon on hot days.

        (6) Loose-fitting clothing allows air to circulate
around the body and enhances the cooling effect when sweat
evaporates. Clothing should be removed in shaded areas.
Blousing trousers and wearing tight neckwear should not be
permitted in hot environments.


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                              XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    f. Basic First Aid. Personnel will follow the instructions
in (1) through (4) below, as appropriate.

        (1)    Heat Cramps.    Provide water.

        (2)    Heat Exhaustion.    Remove the casualty from the heat.

        (3) Heat Stroke. Call for medical aid immediately.
Cool the body quickly but do not overchill a victim once body
                        o
temperature is below 102 F. Care for the victim as follows:
        (a) Undress the victim and do one of the following:
(1) Repeatedly sponge the skin with cool water or rubbing
alcohol, (2) Continuously apply coldpacks, (3) Place the victim
in a tub of cold water until the body temperature is lowered
sufficiently. Do not add ice. Dry the victim after the
temperature is reduced.

        (b)    Cool the victim with fans or air conditioners, if
available.

        (c) Start the cooling process ((a) and (b) above) again
if the body temperature starts to rise.

         (d)   Do not give the victim stimulants.

        (4) Protection From the Heat.        Move the casualty to a
shaded or sheltered area.

    g. Hospitalization. Heat injuries requiring hospitalization
will be reported using the Special Telegraphic Report (RCS MED-16
(R4)) (AR 40-400, chap 2, sec III). Lost-time injuries will be
reported on DA Form 285.

SECTION XVI
PREVENTING CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING

58.   BACKGROUND

    a. Carbon monoxide is formed when a fuel is burned in the
absence of enough oxygen or when combustion is incomplete. The
fuels that produce the greatest risk of carbon monoxide poisoning
are natural and manufactured gas, petroleum products, wood, coal,
and coke. Operating any internal combustion engine or stove may
produce carbon monoxide. Petroleum-powered space heaters and
internal combustion engines present the greatest hazard of
causing carbon monoxide poisoning.


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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4


      b.   Carbon monoxide poisoning is commonly caused by)

           (1)   Sleeping in a vehicle while the engine is running.

        (2) Using the exhaust of a motor vehicle to warm people
or equipment.

           (3)   Operating engines in inadequately ventilated areas.

           (4)   Placing field generator exhausts near troop areas.

           (5)   Airtight tentage and poor/no ventilation.
      c.   Carbon monoxide poisoning also can be caused by)

        (1) Sleeping in a room warmed by a space heater that has
a leaky vent or no outside stack or vent.

        (2) Bathing or showering in a room that has an
improperly vented space heater or gas-powered water heater.
59.    RESPONSIBILITIES

    a. Commanders and supervisors will ensure subordinates are
briefed on the dangers of operating fuel-operated equipment and
on first aid treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning.

    b. First-line supervisors will frequently inspect workplaces
and sleeping areas.

    c. Senior occupants of sleeping quarters will control heater
settings.

60. PRECAUTIONS. The following safety rules will help prevent
carbon monoxide poisoning:

    a. Maintain proper room ventilation at all times, especially
in sleeping quarters.

    b. Ensure heating and cooking devices are ventilated
adequately.

      c.   Ensure there is a safety shutoff valve on gas appliances.

    d. Check hoses, pipes, fittings, and connections on
appliances daily.



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                              XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

    e. Ensure the proper fuel is being used in burners and
appliances.
    f. Shut off appliances not in use.

    g. Check heating and cooking appliances before leaving the
premises.

    h. Vent vehicle exhaust outside or turn off motors in
unventilated buildings, tents, and other enclosures. Operators
and mechanics will inspect vehicles thoroughly for exhaust leaks
during service maintenance.

61. SYMPTOMS OF CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING.        The symptoms of
carbon monoxide poisoning)

    a. Vary depending on the concentration of the gas and the
duration of the exposure. A person may lose consciousness
without warning. The effects of carbon monoxide poisoning are
not so unpleasant that a sleeping person would awaken.
Comparatively low concentrations of carbon monoxide can be
dangerous because the accumulation of the poison is a gradual
process and may not be noticed immediately.

    b. May include a mild headache, nausea, and fatigue. More
severe symptoms may progress through the following stages,
depending on the degree of poisoning:

         (1)   Severe, throbbing headache.

         (2)   Generalized weakness and dizziness.

         (3)   Dimness of vision.

         (4)   Nausea and vomiting.

         (5)   Lack of coordination.

         (6)   Collapse.

         (7)   Convulsions.

         (8)   Death.

62. TREATING CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING. Recommended treatment
for carbon monoxide poisoning is as follows:

    a.   Move the victim to fresh air.

    b.   Call for medical aid immediately.

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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4


      c.   Keep the victim warm and quiet.
      d.   Watch the victim for weak or irregular breathing.

      e.   Apply CPR, if necessary.

SECTION XVII
LASER SAFETY

63.    INTRODUCTION

    a. The effects of laser (light amplification by stimulated
emission of radiation) are basically the same as optical
radiation produced by ultraviolet, infrared, and visible light
sources. Laser radiation is unique, however, because a large
number of the light beams are parallel and very intense and
because many laser devices produce only one color. The increased
directional intensity of the optical radiation results in a
concentrated optical beam of light at considerable distances.

    b. The U.S. Armed Forces have increased their use of laser
devices because of recent developments in laser technology.
Military lasers are used principally for target acquisition
(detection) and fire control. The widespread use of these
systems increases the possibility of exposure to injurious levels
of laser radiation. Laser rangefinders and designators are
potentially hazardous, but the risk can be minimized with
adequate safeguards.
64. GENERAL. Commanders will appoint a Laser Range Safety
Officer in writing. This individual will be knowledgeable in the
use, principles, hazards, and protective equipment (for example,
eyewear) associated with laser equipment. A written SOP or an
approved laser safety guide will be established to ensure
compliance with TB MED 524 and AR 385-63. Medical surveillance
programs will be established for all laser workers and incidental
laser workers according to current DA policy. Except for its
inability to penetrate targets, precautions for laser systems
must be considered identical to a direct-fire, line-of-sight
weapon, such as a rifle or a machinegun. Accordingly, lasers
will be fired only at approved targets. With laser filters
removed, lasers will be fired only on approved laser ranges.
Personnel considered high risk from laser exposure must be placed
in a medical surveillance program according to TB MED 523.
Special control measures for laser beam use are as follows:

    a. The hazard of laser devices is limited to exposing
unprotected eyes to a direct laser beam or to a laser beam


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                         XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

reflected from a mirror-like surface. Serious eye damage with
permanent vision impairment can result from exposure to laser
beams at ranges less than the nominal hazardous distance (NOHD).
    b. Commanders should ensure targets have a backstop (for
example, a hill) during laser training. Because a laser beam
travels in a straight line, the calculated NOHD often is long.

    c. Every object a laser beam strikes will reflect some
energy back to the laser. This energy is a diffuse reflection
and is not hazardous in most cases. To prevent reflecting
hazardous amounts of radiation, shiny, reflective surfaces will
not be used as targets.

    d. Using optical devices to observe targets during laser
operations should not be permitted unless both of the following
actions have been taken:

        (1) Flat, reflective surfaces have been removed from the
target area.

        (2) Appropriate laser safety filters have been placed in
the optical train of the binoculars, telescopes, or lasers.

    e. When B-LPSs are issued, soldiers will wear them while
participating in tactical FTXs.

65. LASER SYSTEM DESCRIPTIONS. AR 385-63 provides lists of
laser systems and their surface danger zones.

SECTION XVIII
RF/MICROWAVE RADIATION PROTECTION

66.   BACKGROUND

    a. Developments in radar, communication systems, and missile
technology have resulted in the use of high-power output
microwave transmitters.

    b. Most microwave equipment produces intense non-ionizing
radiation that may injure people who are exposed to the
radiation.

    c. Standards and safeguards for microwave radiation have
been incorporated into systems development, equipment
manufacture, operating techniques, and maintenance procedures.

    d. Commanders, equipment installers, operators, maintenance
personnel, and other persons monitoring equipment are responsible


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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

for protecting people from microwave radiation sources under
their control.
67.    HAZARDS
      a. General Hazards.

        (1) The microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum
(10 to 300,000 MHz) has a different frequency than X-rays and
gamma rays.

           (2)   Microwaves)

        (a) Are between the very high frequency radio and
infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

           (b)   Can heat and penetrate the human body.

        (3) Microwave radiation produces electrical and magnetic
forces and generates heat. These effects can be useful (for
example, microwave ovens) but are also potentially dangerous.

      b.   Hazards to the Body.

        (1) Heating of body tissue is the main hazard associated
with absorbing microwave and RF radiation, because the body is
comprised mainly of water. A great amount of heat is required to
                            o
raise the body temperature 1 C.
        (2) The testicles and the eyes are more susceptible to
heat than the rest of the body.

        (a) The testicles are sensitive to temperature. Sperm
production will cease with a few degrees rise in temperature.
This change is reversible when the body returns to a normal
temperature.

        (b) The blood circulation to the lens of the eye is
insufficient for distributing heat. The eyes can be damaged more
easily by microwave and RF radiation than other body parts.
Destroyed eye cells collect at the rear of the eye capsule and
may cloud vision. Cataracts may develop when the eye is exposed
to power densities of 100 milliwatts and above per square
centimeter. A safety factor of 10 has been applied to set the
base exposure standard to 10 milliwatts.

        (3) A person may hear a buzz when exposed to microwave
radiation. This sound is probably the pulse repetition
frequency, not the microwave frequency.


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                          XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

68. RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAM. Fort Bragg Suppl 1, to AR 385-
11, Ionizing Radiation protection establishes policies and
responsibilities for administration of the Fort Bragg Radiation
Protection Program (RPP). The increased use if radiation
emitting devices in medicine, industrial operation, and military
systems increases the risk of personnel being exposed to
hazardous radiation. Procedures outlined in regulation and
Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) license will be complied with
without deviation.

    a. GENERAL. Commander, Major Subordinate Units, will
appoint, in writing, an Local Radiation Protection Officer (LRPO)
and an Alternate LRPO IAW AR 385-11 and AR 40-14.

        (1) Provide annual radiation training and guidance to
personnel whose duties expose them to radioactive sources.

        (2) Conduct quarterly radiation wipe and surveys of
radiation controlled areas.

        (3) Periodically review the medical surveillance program
for Non-ionizing radiation and identified as laser workers and
incidental workers.

        (4)   Review bioassay and dosimetry records.

        (5) Ensure proper posting/marking of restricted area
with radioactive signs.

        (6)   Test/survey incoming and outgoing radioactive
shipment.

        (7)   Inventory radioactive items annually.
        (8) Perform wipe tests when requested by Fort Bragg
Radiation Protection Officer or other license holders of
radioactive materials.

        (9) Suspend operations in the event of a radiation
accident/incident. Notify HQ, XVII Airborne Corps and Fort
Bragg, Directorate of Safety. The installation Radiation
Protection Officer will be in charge of all operations.

        (10) In event of a radiation accident/incident, ensure
personnel receive medical assistance, bioassay tests, etc.

        (11) Conduct periodic evaluations of unit radiation
protection programs. Provide feedback in writing to commanders
of units evaluated.

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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4


    b. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES. If a radioluminous lamp breaks or
is discovered to be broken radioactive source, the following
steps should be taken:

        (1) Anyone who may have touched or handled the broken
radioactive source should wash arms, face, hands and other
exposed areas of the body as soon as possible with soap and
water.

        (2) Report injury, regardless of how minor, to the
medical clinic for medical attention.

        (3) Report the incident/accident to the Local Radiation
Protection Officer or Local Safety Office. Take other actions
below only under guidance of Installation Radiation Protection
Office.

           (a)   Put on rubber or latex gloves.

        (b) Wrap device in double plastic bag and seal. Place
  package in cardboard box. Label "Caution--Broken Device. Do
Not Open."

        (c) Store broken devices in outdoor, restricted storage
area, such as a locked cage.

        (d) Dispose of used gloves as radioactive waste, per
 direction from Installation RPO, and wash hand well.

        (e) Restrict room or area of breakage. Rope or tape-off
area and post signs to designate area as "Hazardous--Do Not
Enter." Area remains restricted until wipe test indicate
  no contamination.
69.    CONTROL MEASURES

      a.   General Control.

        (1) Engineering controls are the best way to prevent
microwave and RF radiation hazards. These controls may range
from restricting azimuth and elevation settings on radar antennas
to completely shielding and enclosing the sources of
electromagnetic radiation in communications and navigational
equipment.

        (2) Maintaining strict standards for communications
equipment may prevent microwave and RF radiation hazards to
personnel operating or servicing such equipment. Varying strict

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                            XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

standards when installing, moving, or modifying equipment can be
hazardous to site personnel.

        (3) The Surgeon General, HQDA, is responsible for
microwave and RF protection programs (AR 40-5).

    b.   Command Control.

         (1)   Commanders, site chiefs, and supervisors will)

        (a) Establish measures to control exposing people to
microwave and RF radiation. Measures will include excluding
personnel from the beam path of points where the power density
level exceed the safety standard.

        (b) Develop checklists and inspect equipment on a
regular schedule at least once a week. Records will be
maintained at each site.

        (c) Ensure microwave and RF equipment components are
inspected daily for) (1) Breaks, (2) Cracks, (3) Fatigue,
(4) Flange assembly damage, (5) Flange thread stripping,
(6) Gasket condition, (7) Overstressing.

        (d) Conduct initial    and periodic briefings on radiation
safety for personnel working   around microwave or RF radiating
equipment. Potential health    hazards associated with exposure to
rays from specific equipment   will be stressed.

        (2) Supervisors will consider the following when
determining the number of people required to operate or maintain
electric or electronic equipment safely:

         (a)   The type of function to be performed.

        (b) The physical conditions at the location where work
is to be performed (for example, a wet work surface, a congested
work area, lighting, elevation of work, weather conditions for
outside work, noise).

        (c) The physical condition of the persons and the
procedures to be used.

        (d) The type and layout of equipment and the RF unsafe
zone or footprint.

        (e) The degree of isolation and availability of help if
there is an emergency.


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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (3) Supervisors, operators, and maintenance personnel
will prescribe conditions under which interlocks (limiting or
warning devices installed on equipment) may be bypassed or
overridden during combat alerts and training exercises and while
maintaining and calibrating equipment.




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                          XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

        (4) Site supervisors will publish and enforce, as
required, general and specific SOPs. SOPs will contain guidance
on)

        (a) Controlling, positioning, and operating microwave
and RF radiation-generating equipment and devices.

        (b)   Elevating antennas.

        (c)   Interlocking functions

(AFZA-SA-ST/6-7233)

FOR THE COMMANDER:
                                 OFFICIAL:
                                 FRANK H. AKERS, JR.
                                 Brigadier General, GS
                                 Chief of Staff

    /S/
PAUL T. HENGST
LTC, SC
Director of Information Management

DISTRIBUTION:
A; E; F
10,000 - AFZA-ST-SA




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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

                              APPENDIX A

                              REFERENCES
Section I
Required Publications

AR 40-5, Preventive Medicine.

AR 200-1, Environmental Protection and Enhancement.

AR 385-10, Army Safety Program.

AR 385-11, Ionizing Radiation Protection (Licensing, Control,
Trans-portation, Disposal, and Radiation Safety).

AR 385-30, Safety Color Code Markings and Signs.

AR 385-40, Accident Reporting and Records.

AR 385-55, Prevention of Motor Vehicle Accidents.

AR 385-63, Policies and Procedures for Firing Ammunition for
Training, Target Practice, and Combat.

AR 385-64, Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards.

AR 420-90, Fire Protection.

DA Pamphlet 385-1, Unit Safety Management.

DA Pamphlet 385-3, Protective Clothing and Equipment.

FM 21-60, Visual Signals.
FM 21-305, Manual for the Wheeled Vehicle Driver.

TM 9-1300-206, Military Ammunition and Explosives Standards.

TM 9-1300-214, Military Explosives Standards.

TM 9-1370-207-10, Pyrotechnic Simulators, Operator Manual.
TM 10-4500-200-13, Operator's, Organizational and Direct Support
Maintenance Manual (Including Repair Parts and Special Tools
List): Heaters, Space: Radiant Type, Portable (Type I, Model
1941, Solid Fuel) (NSN 4520-00-257-4877); (Type II, Model 1941,
Liquid Fuel) (4520-00-927-4214); (Yukon Model M1950, Solid or
Liquid Fuel) (4520-00-287-3353); Heaters, Immersion: Liquid Fuel
Fired for Corrugated Cans (All Makes and Models) (4540-00-266-
6835) (Preway Model 447-2EX) (4540-00-266-6834).

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                          XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
TM 10-7360-204-13&P, Operator's, Organizational and Direct
Support Maintenance Manual Including Repair Parts and Special
Tools List for Range Outfit, Field: Gasoline, Model M59 (NSN
7360-00-082-2153); Burner Unit, Gasoline, Model M2 (7310-00-842-
9247); Model M2A (7310-01-017-1285); Model M2A W/Safety Device
(7310-01-113-9172) and Accessory Outfit, Gasoline, Field Range
W/Baking Rack (7360-00-187-4757).
TB MED 81, Cold Injury.
TB MED 501, Occupational and Environmental Health: Hearing
Conservation.
TB MED 502, Occupational and Environmental Health Respiratory
Protection Program.
TB MED 507, Occupational and Environmental Health Prevention,
Treatment and Control of Heat Injury.
TB MED 524, Occupational and Environmental Health:   Control of
Hazards to Health From Laser Radiation.
XVIII Airborne Corps and Fort Bragg Regulation 385-10, Safety
Program Requirements.

XVIII Airborne Corps and Fort Bragg Regulation 385-5, Hazard
Communication Program.

XVIII Airborne Corps and Fort Bragg Memorandum, 14 Apr 93,
Radiation Protection Program Requirements.

Section II
Related Publications. A related publication is merely a source
of additional information. The user does not have to read it to
understand this regulation.

AR 40-400, Patient Administration

AR 95-1, Army Aviation: Flight Regulations

AR 385-40, Army Aviation Accident Prevention

AR 600-55, Motor Vehicle Driver and Equipment Operator Selection,
Training, Testing, and Licensing.

DA Pamphlet 385-95, Aircraft Accident Investigation and
Reporting.

FM 3-4, NBC Protection.

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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

FM 10-23, Army Food Service Operations,

FM 10-68, Petroleum Supply Point Equipment and Operations.

FM 21-306, Manual for the Tracked Combat Vehicle Driver.

FM 25-101, Battle Focus Training.

FM 55-30, Army Motor Transport Units and Operations.

Technical Manual (TM) 5-4540-202-12&P, Operator's and
Organizational Maintenance Manual (Including Repair Parts and
Special Tools List) for Heater, Immersion, Liquid Fuel Fired;
35,000 BTU Output for Corrugated Cans (Military Model M67) (NSN
4540-00-469-6593).

TM 9-2320-233-10, Operator's Manual for Truck, Cargo: 8-ton, 4X4,
M520 W/W (NSN 2320-00-873-5422) W/O (2320-00-191-1310). M877 W/W
W/Material Handling Crane (2320-01-010-4956) W/O W/Material
Handling Crane (2320-01-010-4957); Truck, Wrecker: 10-ton 4X4
M553 (2320-00-873-5426); Truck, Tanker, Fuel Servicing: 2500
Gallon, 4X4, M559 W/W (2320-00-873-5420) and W/O W (2320-00-445-
7250).

TM 9-2320-242-10-1, Operation, Installation and Reference Data
Operator Level for Truck, Cargo: 1 1/4-Ton, 6X6, M561 (NSN 2320-
00-873-5407) and Truck, Ambulance: 1 1/4-Ton, 6X6, M792 (2310-00-
832-9907).

Technical Bulletin (TB) 9-1300-278, Guidelines for Safe Response
to Handling, Storage, and Transportation Accidents Involving Army
Tank Munitions Which Contain Depleted Uranium.

TB 9-2320-218-10-1, Safe Operation of Truck, Utility: 1/4-Ton,
4X4, M151 Series.

OSHA Standard 29, CFR 1910.

PS Magazine, May 89.

82d Airborne Division, Airborne Standing Operating Procedures
(ASOP), Volumes I and II




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                            XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

                              APPENDIX B

ARMY VEHICLES AUTHORIZED TO TRANSPORT AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES

Table B-1 shows Army vehicles authorized to transport ammunition
and explosives.

Table B-1
Vehicles Authorized To Transport Ammunition and Explosives

Type                            Hazard Classes

Prime Movers:                      1.1     1.2   1.3       1.4   Note


Cargo carriers, tracked
    (all series)                   X       X     X     X

Truck, cargo (all series incl
    HEMTT, Goer, dump)             X       X     X     X         1

M1008 Truck, cargo (CUCV)          X       X     X     X

M1009 Truck, truck utility
    (CUCV)                                             X         2

M938 Truck, cargo, 1   ton
    (HMMWV)                        X       X     X     X         3

M1025 and 1026 Truck, cargo,
1 ton (HMMWV)                                          X

Trailers:

Cargo, all capacities, military
    or commercial               X          X     X     X         3

NOTES: 1. Gasoline-powered vehicles or vehicles with the engine
underneath the cargo compartment are authorized to carry items of
hazard class 1.4 only.

2. These vehicles are authorized to carry hazard class 1.4S
only.

3. Use of one-axle trailers is authorized to convoy ammunition
and explosives. Normal compatibility loading and marking
requirements apply. Trailers must have side and end walls. Tarp
requirements will be met.

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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
                               APPENDIX C
TANK FIRE RESPONSE PROCEDURES INVOLVING DEPLETED URANIUM
(STABALLOY) AMMUNITION
SECTION I
RESPONSE PROCEDURES
C-1. PURPOSE. This appendix establishes minimum procedures for
preventing, fighting, reporting, and following up on accidents
involving fires in tanks loaded with ammunition containing
depleted uranium (staballoy).
C-2. GENERAL. Armor units using staballoy rounds will have at
least one officer familiar with the procedures in this appendix
and Technical Bulletin (TB) 9-1300-278. This appendix applies
only in accidents where the ammunition has exploded or burned.
If procedures in this appendix are inadequate, TB 9-1300-278
should be followed.
C-3. PREVENTION. The primary causes of tank fires are engines
overheating and antennas striking trolley and railroad electric
overhead cables. Antennas on tanks must be tied down to a height
below 13 feet in the turret bustle nearest the antenna mount.
Debris, organizational clothing and individual equipment, and
other equipment must be stored according to loading plans to
reduce combustible material in the turret area.
C-4.     IN CASE OF FIRE
    a.    In case of fire, the crew will)
        (1) Evacuate the tank, attempt to shut down the engine,
and close all hatches (if possible).
           (2)   Turn on fire suppression systems.
           (3)   Notify the chain of command.
           (4)   Establish a 300 meter safety perimeter around tank.
        (5) Notify the local military community or host nation
(HN) fire department.
        (6) Coordinate actions with HN authorities for
accidents occurring in areas not under U.S. control.
   b.     The battalion commander of the tank crew will)
        (1) Have a tank fire control officer (captain or higher
in armor units) familiar with this appendix to implement and


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                         XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
        coordinate control, reporting, and disposal procedures.
 The tank fire control officer or the relieving officer will
remain in charge until the site is cleared by the Installation
radiological protection officer (RPO) or by the president of the
Centralized Accident Investigation, Ground (CAIG), Board.
        (2) Limit access only to emergency response personnel
(for example, firefighters, explosive ordnance disposal (EOD)
personnel, RPO). The names and units of persons entering the
safety perimeter will be recorded.
        (3) Keep people as far away as possible. If hatches
are closed, a minimum safety perimeter of 60 meters will be
established to prevent injury from explosions. If the hatches
are open or rounds are expelled, a safety perimeter of 300 meters
is required. Access will be controlled to the accident site and
for 20 meters under any smoke cloud, if possible.
        (4) Evacuate injured people through medical channels.
Medical attention for serious injuries takes precedence over
decontamination (para C-6a). The battalion commander will alert
medical personnel that injured victims may have been exposed to
depleted uranium contamination.
        (5) Not allow people into smoke without self-contained
breathing apparatus or, in an emergency, a field protective mask.
 Smoke may contain uranium oxides.
        (6) Alert firefighters that ammunition may produce
hazardous vapors when involved in a fire and that respiratory
protection is needed. A copy of figure C-1 will be given to
firefighters. Figure C-1 will be reproduced locally and carried
by drivers transporting hazardous cargo.
        (7) Report the accident immediately through emergency
action channels to higher headquarters.
        (8) Coordinate actions with the HN authorities for
accidents not under U.S. control.
    c. Brigade and area support group (ASG) or base support
battalion (BSB) personnel will)
        (1) Notify local military and HN police to assist in
site control.
        (2) Notify local fire, military, and civil officials,
and alert firefighters that there is depleted uranium (staballoy)
ammunition present and respiratory protection is needed.
        (3)   Request EOD support from the nearest EOD unit.

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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES
FIRE DEPARTMENTS
TANK FIRES CONTAINING
STABALLOY AMMUNITION
1. When approaching the scene of a fire, prevent equipment and
personnel from entering a smoke cloud.
2. High intensity ammunition fires and small explosions must be
expected. Ammunition smoke and fumes are toxic.
3. When ammunition is directly involved in a fire or when rounds
have been expelled, do not try to fight the fire. Fire trucks
will be positioned not closer than 60 meters of tanks with a
closed hatch or 300 meters of tanks with an open hatch.
4. Firefighters must wear self-contained breathing apparatus.
The recommended type is the M17A2 mask with M13A2 filter element.

5.   Expose a minimum number of firefighters to the fire.
6. When ammunition is not involved in a fire in the crew
compartment and when the hatches are open, the fire should be
fought with water stream, spray, or fog, using as much protective
cover as possible.
7. If the engine is on fire, dry, chemical, foam, or water
should be used to extinguish the fire. Water is highly effective
in cooling the engine and in preventing the fire from involving
the ammunition.
C-5.   REPORTS
   a. The battalion commander will notify HQ XVIII Airborne
Corps immediately of the accident through the chain of command.
   b. The battalion commander will send a written report (AR
385-11) giving details of the accident and corrective action
taken to HQs XVIII Airborne Corps, ATTN: AFZA-SA (RPO) within 20
days of the accident.
   c. The battalion commander or CAIG board president will send
the accident report through channels according to AR 385-40,
chapter 10.
C-6.   ONSITE ACTIONS AFTER THE FIRE
   a. Medical personnel will evacuate people injured by fire.
Serious injuries, burns, and broken bones should receive

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                         XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4


   immediate medical attention for decontamination.   Injured
persons will be labeled "POSSIBLE DEPLETED URANIUM
CONTAMINATION."
   b.   No one will enter the tank before EOD personnel.
   c.   No one will remove equipment.
   d. The RPO will mark and secure any debris expelled from the
tank during the fire.
   e. The Commander, 44th Medical Brigade, will ensure
personnel monitoring is performed, which may include bioassays to
determine the amount of internal radioactive contamination to
personnel.

SECTION II
DECONTAMINATION AFTER DEPLETED URANIUM AMMUNITION TANK FIRES
C-7. GENERAL. These procedures were developed by the Tank
Automotive Command (DRSTA-SP), Warren, Michigan, for use in case
of tank fires when depleted uranium (staballoy) ammunition is
involved and contamination is detected. These procedures will be
implemented by division or corps chemical units at the request of
the ONSITE RPO after the fire has been extinguished and the tank
interior has been declared safe by EOD personnel.
C-8. PROCEDURES. Nuclear, biological, and chemical response
teams (alpha teams) will)
   a. Survey the area as directed by the XVIII Airborne Corps
RPO. Identified contaminated areas should be roped off to
prevent unauthorized entry. If no contamination is identified,
place engineering tape 10 feet around the tank to control entry.
 Use of AN/PDR-60, AN/PDR-56F, or equivalent detectors is
acceptable in dry conditions; use AN/PDR-2 if surfaces are wet.
More sensitive detectors will be used on arrival at the scene.
   b. Survey the outside of the tank for contamination by
wiping surfaces with paper towels, cloth, or other available
material. Check for contamination above background level on the
paper towel with an AN/PDR-60 detector or equivalent. If
readings above background are present, clean as follows until
contamination is reduced to background levels: Survey after each
attempt by wiping with a paper towel and then taking meter
readings of the paper towel. Complete steps (1) through (3)
below repeatedly, if required.


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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
      (1) Damp-mop dry surfaces to remove dust and dry
particles.
      (2)   Damp-wipe nonporous surfaces (for example, metal,
plastic).
      (3)   Use water and detergent, saving the used liquid
residue.
      (4) Save all cleaning residue and dispose of it as
radioactive waste in metal containers. Consult the XVIII
Airborne Corps RPO for instructions on storing and stabilizing
liquid radioactive residues.
   c. After decontamination of the exterior of the tank, seal
openings to prevent escape of interior contamination to the
environment.
   d. Survey all personnel in the area with an instrument
recommended by the XVIII Airborne Corps RPO.
   e. Decontaminate the interior of the tank at the retrograde
facility.
   f. Check both the roped-off area and the area under the tank
for contamination.
   g. Dispose of explosive ammunition components through EOD or
ordnance channels. All other debris must be disposed of as
radioactive waste.
C-9. TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEPLETED URANIUM AMMUNITION
TANK FIRES
   a. During a fire, depleted uranium (staballoy) creates a
toxicological hazard by producing both insoluble and soluble
oxides. Failure to wear proper respiratory protection will
expose the lungs to these insoluble oxides. Handling bare
depleted uranium (staballoy) without gloves exposes the skin to
about 24 milligram per hour (beta/gamma). Low-level beta
exposure may occur to the eyes if glasses are not worn. In
practice, exposures are generally low.
   b. Inhalation of soluble oxides of uranium can injure the
kidneys if respiratory protection is not worn. Bioassay samples
must be taken within 3 to 4 days, or medical personnel may not
detect significant inhalation exposures. Lung scans will
continue to detect insoluble remaining in lungs.
   c. Oxides are readily spreadable and suspendable unless they
are moistened or other controls are used. Uranium oxides in the

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                              XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
range of 0.1 micron to 10 microns take 30 to 120 minutes to fall
1 meter in air.
   d. Less than 1 percent of the M774 rounds will oxidize in
fire. Resultant oxides will be detectable with alpha, beta, and
gamma instruments. Higher levels of oxidation may occur.
Depleted uranium (staballoy) rounds with combustible cartridge
cases such as the M829 produce 50 percent to 100 percent ashing.
Table C-1
Radiological Protection Points of Contact

1.    XVIII Airborne Corps and Fort Bragg
     a.    Command Center:
          (1)   Military           DSN 236-0371/0372
          (2)   Commercial         (919) 396-0371/0372
     b.    Safety Office
          (1)   Director           DSN 236-7233 ext 101
          (2)   RPO                DSN 236-7233 ext 105
          (3)    Commercial        (919) 396-7233 ext: 101/102/105/106
          (4)   After duty hours    Emergency    extension 611
2.    18th EOD                                                   396-5801
3.    Installation Hazardous Waste Manager         (DPWE)        396-2141




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XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4
                            GLOSSARY
SECTION I
ABBREVIATIONS
AR          Army regulation
ASG         Area support group
ATM         Aircrew Training Manual
B-LPS       Ballistic laser protective spectacle
BSB         Base support battalion
C           Celsius
CAIG        Centralized accident investigation, ground
cal         Caliber
CO2         Carbon dioxide
CPR         Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CS          CS Riot-control agent
DA          Department of the Army
DOD         Department of Defense
DPWE        Director Public Works, Environment
EOD         Explosive ordnance disposal
F           Fahrenheit
FM          Field manual
FTX         Field training exercise
GVW         Gross vehicle weight
HQDA        Headquarters, Department of the Army
HEMTT       Heavy expanded mobility tactical truck
HC          Hexachloroethane
HMMWV       High mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle
HN          Host nation
IMC         Instrument meteorological conditions
kg          kilogram
kph         kilometers per hour
MTA         Major Training Area
MEDEVAC     Medical evacuation
MTF         Medical Treatment Facility
MHz         Megahertz
MPH         Miles per hour
MOUT        Military operations on urbanized terrain
mm          millimeter
MOPP        Mission-oriented protective posture
NSN         National stock number
NOHD        Nominal hazardous distance
NCO         Noncommissioned officer
NCOIC       Noncommissioned officer in charge
NTV         NONTACTICAL vehicle
NBC         Nuclear, biological, and chemical
OSHA        Occupational Safety and Health Act
OIC         Officer in charge
POL         Petroleum, oils, and lubricants
PC          Pilot in command


                               104
                          XVIII Abn Corps and Fort Bragg Reg 385-4

RF           Radio frequency
RPO          Radiological protection officer
RAWL         Rotating amber warning light
SOP          Standing operating procedure
TDA          Tables of distribution and allowances
TB           Technical bulletin
TM           Technical manual
TMDE         Test, measurement, and diagnostic equipment
TEV          Trail escort vehicle
U.S.         United States
VFR          Visual flight rule
SECTION II
TERMS
convoy
A group of vehicles moving under a single commander from the same
point of origin.
lead vehicle
An Army motor wheeled vehicle used as a lead escort vehicle.
microwave and radio frequency radiation
Electromagnetic radiation within the frequency range of 10 to
300,000 megacycles per second or megahertz with the corresponding
wave lengths of 30 meters to 1 millimeter.
trail escort vehicle
An Army motor wheeled vehicle, 2      tons or larger.




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