Project Managers Rule Using Royal Institute of British Architects by gdg96317


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                           1                            2








                                           FUT1: Modelling Future
       11:20 LZC1: Zero Carbon Housing Energy Demand

       11:40                         510                            573

       12:00                         240                            334

       12:20                         487                            626

               LZC2: Low Carbon Heating,
               Cooling and Electricity     DEM2: Energy Demands

       14:00                         555                            635
14:20                        210                        174

14:40                        619                        434

15:00                        192                        180

15:20                        352                        134

        COC1: Modelling of
        Controllers                OPT1: Optimisation

16:20                        476                        329

16:40                        551                        380

17:00                        290                        314

17:20                        421                        637

17:40                        262                        264

             3                            4                            5

SOF1: Software Focusing                                 HTR1: Cooling and Phase
on the User                   DEM1: Residential Demands Change

                        340                         424                          170

                        267                         246                          398

                        516                         307                          592
                                                          HVAC1: Modelling
AIR1: Indoor Air Flow and     MST1: Heat and Moisture     Prerequisites and Simple
Natural Ventilation           Modelling                   Models

                        418                         292                          177
                        230                        343               381

                        484                        572               243

                        661                        276               356

                        175                        642               574

                              HVAC2: Performance
GLI1: Glazing and Lighting    Analysis                   AIR2: CFD

                        274                        457               125

                        480                        184               252

                        303                        183               504

                        357                        271               161

                        327                        624               163

                            1                            2
                                            SOF2: Software
               MIC1: Climate and            Environments and
Time           Microclimate                 Paradigms

       09:00                          263                             278

       09:20                          273                             265

       09:40                          606                             610

       10:00                          333                             304

               OCC1: Occupant Data
               Collection and Behavioural   DEM3: Demand Modelling
               Modelling                    and Optimisation

       11:00                          162                             140

       11:20                          598                             605

       11:40                          132                             477

       12:00                          597                             565


               COMP1: Issues in             HTR2: Modelling of Heat
               Compliance                   Transfer Processes

       14:00                          577                             211
14:20                          156                       632

14:40                          315                       316

15:00                          506                       503

15:20                          498                       253

        HTR3: Heat Pumps and         HVAC3: Advanced Systems
        Ground Heat Exchange         Modelling

16:20                          318                       157

16:40                          566                       322

17:00                          212                       542

17:20                          548                       627

17:40                          459                       266

            3                                4                            5
COC2: Simulation Assisted
Control and Control
Strategy Development            VAL1: Validation             AIR3: Modelling Air Flow

                          136                          440                              238

                          188                          130                              515

                          302                          172                              289

                          131                          607                              191

LZC3: Photovoltaics and         GLI2: Glazing, Solar
Solar Thermal                   Processes and Glare          URB1: Stock Modelling

                          428                          181                              160

                          500                          415                              601

                          569                          284                              260

                          464                          471                              602

MST2: Buffering and
Materials                       GLI3: Shading and Facades    VAL2: IEA Validation

                          409                          179                              521
                    564                          405                         282

                    584                          328                         493

                    367                          388                         499

                                                 658                         465

COMP2: Compliance         UNC1: Uncertainty … or is
Exemplars                 it?                          COMF1: Comfort and Health

                    320                          474                         423

                    147                          568                         168

                    321                          285                         427

                    412                          390                         526

                    234                          391                         528

                            1                              2



               APP1: Performance              APP2: Simulation within the
       09:20 Assessment Comparisons           Design Process

       09:40                            169                           359

       10:00                            641                           543


             APP5: Performance
             Assessment Tools and             APP6: CFD and Air Flow in
       11:00 Analysis                         Design Practice

       11:20                            460                           268

       11:40                            135                           261



                                              APP10: Design Process and
               APP9: Tool Calibration         Data Quality Assurance

       14:00                            317                           351
14:20   199   617









             3                            4                                  5

APP3: Lighting and           APP4: Simulation and the     SD1: Special Schools
Daylighting                  User                         Design Session 1
                                                          John Palmer (CIBSE) - The
                                                          Development of Regulatory
                                                          Compliance Tools for Ventilation and
                       214                          286   Overheating in Schools

                                                          Gordon Hudson (Mott MacDonald):
                                                          On use of building simulation tools in
                       396                          550   school design – Trying to have it all.

APP7: Dealing with Climate                                SD2: Special Schools
Change                       APP8: Design Case Sudies 1 Design Session 2

                                                          David Coley (Exeter University):
                                                          School Design and Climate Change -
                       452                          342   Designing for 2020 and Beyond

                                                          Wayne Aston (Passivent): Natural
                                                          Ventilation Strategies Simulated in
                       456                          585   Schools

APP11: Design Case           APP12: Environmental      SD3: Special Schools
Studies 2                    Impact and LZC Assessment Design Session 3

                                                          Renate Powell: School Design –
                                                          Holistic Low Carbon Design, the skills
                       313                          288   required
            Linda Sheridan (SBSA) - Scottish
            Government: Modelling cost impacts
            of changes to energy standards in
213   256   Scottish building regulations

                            1                           2

                                            URB2: Tools and
Time           COMF2: Modelling             Techniques

       09:00                          630                          279

       09:20                          644                          151

       09:40                          245                          225

       10:00                          165                          492


               SOF3: Tools, Databases and OCC2: Occupant Data
               Interfaces                 Collection and Modelling [2]

       11:00                          557                          275

       11:20                          141                          299

       11:40                          449                          570

       12:00                          553                          403











             3                            4                          5

INV1: Inverse Modelling and
Calibration                 VAL3: Validation in Action    COC2: Commissioning

                       345                          461                         408

                       300                          248                         413

                       470                          462                         366

                       491                          186                         659
keywords                        topics                     abstract
                                                           In order to design HVAC systems and to predict their performances in term of thermal
                                                           comfort and indoor air quality, the estimation of airflows details and heat transfers
                                                           within the buildings zones represents an important stake.

                                                           Zonal models are dedicated to the prevision of the heterogeneity of the thermal and
                                                           aerodynamic characteristics of an air space. They are based on dividing the
                                                           considered room into a small number of sub-zones so that they imply moderate
                                                           computing times. These models represent a good compromise between simplicity of
                                                           models and quantity of data useful in order to contribute to the qualification of
                                                           environments. If much progress have been made to automate the zonal models
                                                           construction knowing the air space partitioning and a choice of the models to be
                                                           used, these two tasks are still spring of the user whereas they require an important
                                                           modelling expertise and experimentation in the building. In order to minimize the
                                                           user‘s intervention, there remains an important work.

                                                           The aim of this paper is to present an automatic generator of zonal models that make
                                                           it possible to free the user from the choice of the specific flows models have to be
                                                           implemented in the zonal model and from the partitioning stage. The dynamic
                                                           simulation tool called ―O-Zone‖ is based on an advanced formulation of zonal
                                                           models. It uses on a new way of sub-dividing the room which allows us to obtain a
                                                           dynamic partitioning based on airflow patterns. The selected method for partitioning
                                                           is the Octree method. It is a hierarchical representation of the space which is based
                                                           on the successive and recursive subdivision of a cube in eight smaller cubes.

Simulation, Building, energy, airflow, zonal, octree, SPARK designed generator ―O-Zone‖ is constituted of five principal modules: an
                               Simulation in design practice
                                                          With popularity of air travel in modern society, more concerns have been raised on
                                                          the capability of current airplanes to provide healthy, comfort and safe cabin
                                                          environment. There have been long numerous complaints on cabin environment. The
                                                          spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on a flight from Hong Kong
                                                          to Beijing in 2003 and the arising panics of an American passenger traveling
                                                          continently while catching multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) virus in 2007,
                                                          have highlighted the necessity to improve aircraft cabin environment. Available
                                                          researches have revealed that air distribution systems contribute a significant role in
                                                          airborne disease transmission. However, current widely-used air systems promote air
                                                          mixing by supplying high momentum air at the ceiling level and exhausting
                                                          contaminated air at the floor level and thus impose risks of infectious airborne
                                                          disease transmission. In addition, low moisture of cabin air may aid airborne virus
                                                          transmission as well, since common viruses prefer low humidity condition. Further, air
                                                          dryness has also been criticized from the thermal comfort view for decades.

                                                            To restrict air mixing while improving air humidity level, this investigation uses a
                                                            validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program to design a new under-aisle
                               Simulation quality, practice displacement air distribution system for wide-body aircraft cabins. The new system
aircraft cabin, displacement ventilation, airin designhumidity, CFD
                                                            Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been introduced to the architectural
                                                            engineering and HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) industry for
                                                            decades. Its effectiveness in assisting the architects and engineers in the design
                                                            process has been well acknowledged. However, the mesh generation process is
                                                            complicated and time consuming, especially for modeling free form geometric
                                                            artifacts, e.g., buildings in complex terrains or human bodies in the room. This paper
                                                            presents the effort to apply quality mesh generation to CFD simulations in
                                                            architectural applications.

                                                             A prototype meshing tool is developed to construct adaptive quadrilateral meshes
                                                             from two-dimensional image data, e.g., architecture drawings. First the quad-tree
                                                             based isocontouring method is utilized to generate initial uniform quadrilateral
                                                             meshes in the immediate region surrounding the boundary of the objects. Boundary
                                                             vertices are recalculated to improve the geometry accuracy. Meshes are
                                                             decomposed into finer quads adaptively near the surface of the object without
                                                             introducing any hanging nodes. Boundary layers are generated using the pillowing
                                                             technique and the thickness of the boundary layer is controlled to achieve the
                                                             desired y+ values, according
Architecture, CFD, geometry, quadrilateral mesh, quad-tree, pillowing, boundary layer to various requirements of near wall turbulence models.
                                Advances in applications, Validation and calibration, Software issues, Simulation in design practice
                                                             We present recent results of a long term research effort toward the implementation of
                                                             a simulation-based approach for the operation of indoor environmental control
                                                             systems in buildings. Specifically, we address the potential of a simulation-assisted
                                                             operation of devices for natural ventilation. The control system in the respective
                                                             scenario possesses an internal digital representation consisting of room, weather,
                                                             and occupancy models. The room model entails information about building geometry
                                                             and components, as well as the position of virtual sensors that monitor pertinent
                                                             performance parameters such as room air temperature and relative humidity. The
                                                             weather model is fed with real-time weather station data. To maintain the desired
                                                             performance under dynamically changing internal and external conditions, simulation-
                                                             based control system operates as follows: i) At regular time intervals, the system
                                                             considers a set of candidate control states (i.e., a set of alternative combinations of
                                                             the states of control devices such as opening degree of windows) for the subsequent
                                                             time step; ii) These alternatives are then virtually enacted via numeric simulation,
                                                             resulting in values for corresponding performance indicators such as indoor air
                                                             temperature; iii) These results are compared and ranked according to the
                                                             preferences (objective function) specified by the occupants and/or facility manager to
                                                             identify the candidate control state with the most desirable performance; iv) The
                                                             system either autonomously instructs the pertinent control device-actuator(s) or
                                Advances in applications informs the user to adjust the control state.
natural ventilation, feed forward control, simulation, validation, passive cooling
                                                             Indoor climate has a three-dimensional spatial distribution caused by three-
                                                             dimensional airflow. To obtain the accurate knowledge of building performance, it is
                                                             demanded to integrate the spatial distribution into building simulations. In these
                                                             contexts, CFD analysis is necessarily in design process. However, usually only a few
                                                             case of CFD could be executable in real design process, because of the large
                                                             calculation cost. The main subject of this paper is the development of a method for
                                                             extracting heat transport phenomena in rooms from such limited CFD analyses and
                                                             integrating the data into a multi-zone model analysis. Using this method, we can
                                                             calculate indoor environment, including the spatial distribution, which we could not
                                                             consider using only a multi-zone model because of the perfect mixing assumption
                                                             employed in the model. The calculation method is based on the fact that we can
                                                             regard steady state flow field as a linear system, and the transient heat response on
                                                             steady state flow field can be calculated through computation of convolution by using
                                                             response factors. In this paper, we present the calculation steps: method obtaining
                                                             heat response factor on flow filed; and method calculating transient heat response
                                                             using those response factors, as well as examples of the simulation applied to air-
                                                             conditioning control problems.
                                Advances in applications, Simulation in design practice
Numerical Analysis, Simulation, Response Factor Method, Proportional Integral Control
                                                             Abstract: Climate change is one of the major concerns facing mankind. Increasing
                                                             evidence has shown that the accumulation of greenhouse gases such as CO2 in the
                                                             atmosphere is the key reason behind global warming. Improving energy conservation
                                                             in buildings has been the one of the priorities of policy makers to tackle climate
                                                             change because buildings are often regarded as one of the major contributors to
                                                             greenhouse emissions. Research in the UK has shown that natural ventilation, as an
                                                             alternative to air-conditioning, has great potential to reduce energy consumption for
                                                             space conditioning and thus the related CO2 emissions. This has led to a growing
                                                             interest in using natural ventilation as a low energy approach for building design.

                                                           Advanced natural ventilation, often characterised by the use dedicated ventilation
                                                           stacks/chimneys and other architecture features such as atria, light wells, has gained
                                                           popularity for natural ventilation design in recent decades. In this research, a
                                                           common prototype advanced natural ventilation design is described through which
                                                           the likely thermal performance of this design was evaluated using dynamic thermal
                                                           simulation tools.

                                                            Concerns are often raised against naturally ventilated building designs because they
                                                            may be prone to summer-time overheating in the warmer summers anticipated in the
                                                            future. In this work, both current and future projected weather conditions are used to
                                                            assess resilience to climate change for the advanced natural ventilation design.
Natural ventilation, dynamic thermal simulation, projected Various conditions are tested to optimize the design, such as ventilation opening
                                                             weather data, building practice
                                Advances in building physics, Simulation in designenergy conservation.
                                                            Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide detailed information of flow motion,
                                                            temperature distributions and species dispersion in buildings. However, it may take
                                                            hours or days, even weeks to simulate airflow in a building by using CFD on a single
                                                            central processing unit (CPU) computer. Parallel computing on a multi-CPU
                                                            supercomputer or computer cluster can reduce the computing time, but the cost for
                                                            such high performance computing is prohibitive for many designers. Our paper
                                                            introduces high performance parallel computing of the airflow simulations on a
                                                            graphics processing unit (GPU). The computing time can be reduced by 10 - 30
                                                            times using the GPU. Furthermore, the cost of purchasing such a GPU is only $500,
                                                            which is less than 2% of a multi-CPU supercomputer or a computer cluster for the
                                Advances                    same performance.
CFD, indoor air flow, parallel computing in applications, Software issues
                                                            The present study aims to validate several cross and single-sided natural ventilation
                                                            models implemented in the Building Hygrothermal and Energy Simulation program
                                                            PowerDomus (Mendes et al., 2003) i.e. the British Standard (1999) model for cross
                                                            ventilation and the de Gids and Phaff's (1982) and Larsen‘s (2006) models for single-
                                                            sided ventilation. Airflow rates obtained by those models are compared to the
                                                            measurements performed in two full-scale buildings: one single room house located
                                                            in a wind tunnel facility and one real three-storey building. Results show a large
                                                            variation of airflow rates provided by the different models. Larsen's model coupled to
                                                            the CPCALC algorithm has shown better results in comparison to both wind tunnel
                                                            and on-site experiments.
                                 ventilation, Wind Tunnel, Software issues, Simulation
Single-sided ventilation, Cross Validation and calibration, Building Simulation, Airflow in design practice
                                                            A jet of cold air is denser then ambient air but it adheres to the ceiling of the room
                                                            over the given distance when it is blown horizontally close to it. Such behavior of fluid
                                                            jets is well-known as Coanda effect and it is widely used in practice like in the case
                                                            of ventilation and air-conditioning of rooms. This phenomenon is not sufficiently
                                                            known both in terms of mechanism and quantitative effects. The complexity is arising
                                                            in the case of non adiabatic ceiling that is common practice in real building
                                                            structures, since the cold air jet attachment distance is strongly influenced by heat
                                                            flux thought the ceiling. The aim of this paper is to propose an algorithm of numerical
                                                            simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in the room and ceiling simultaneously,
                                                            knowing as conjugate heat transfer problem. Using proposed model, uncertainty of
                                                            heat transfer coefficient determination is avoided integrating the same general
                                                            transport equation for fluid flow and heat transfer over the whole computational
                                                            domain including both air movement in the room and ceiling solids. The results of
Coanda effect, Conjugate heatSimulation in design practice  performed parametric analysis are presented with possibility to formulate adherence
                                 transfer problem, CFD simulation
                                                            This study analyses vertical temperature profiles for displacement ventilation
                                                            depending on a ceiling height of an office room. This study purposes to investigate
                                                            the influence of the ceiling height on thermal comfort of the occupants. Numerical
                                                            simulations are carried out for a modeled room which dimensions 5.4m by 5.4m by
                                                            2.5m, 3m and 3.5m ceiling height. A finite volume method is used for solving the
                                                            governing equations and low Reynolds number k-e model is applied as a turbulent
                                                            model. A heat source is installed at the center of the modeled room and lighting load
                                                            is given on the ceiling. The heat source is a 1.25kW or 2.5kW capacity which
                                                            represents the average internal load of an office room. The surface temperature of
                                                            the ceiling-mounted lighting fixtures is given as a boundary condition by measuring
                                                            surface temperature of fluorescent lamps using a thermograph. Supply air velocity is
                                                            treated as a parameter for numerical calculations between 0.1 and 0.5m/s.
                                                            Dimensionless vertical temperature profiles are compared for each ceiling height
                                                            room. Numerical results are compared to experimental results for 2.5m ceiling height
Displacement Ventilation, Thermal Comfort, CFD, Verticalroom. As a result, thermal comfort is surveyed for different ceiling height room for
                                Simulation in design practiceTemperature Profile
                                                           Arid climates cover nearly third of the earth‘s land area and are characterized by high
                                                           drybulb temperatures, scarcity of rain and severity of insolation. As a result,
                                                           designers are inclined to adopt totally air-conditioned commercial building designs
                                                           that maintain high level of occupant satisfaction but have relatively high carbon
                                                           emissions. These totally mechanically cooled buildings face the challenge of
                                                           increasingly demanding energy conservation standards as well as increasing outdoor

                                                           Interest in energy efficiency and carbon emissions reduction has caused the revival
                                                           of interest in integrated passive cooling strategies such as thermal mass, natural
                                                           ventilation, evaporative cooling, radiant and earth cooling. Although these passive
                                                           strategies are very environmental friendly and provide wider range of occupant
                                                           satisfaction which increases productivity, designers are reluctant to adopt them in
                                                           arid climates. Mixed-Mode ventilation is an innovative approach that maximizes the
                                                           use of natural ventilation and uses supplementary mechanical cooling only when
                                                           strictly required. The application of Mixed-Mode ventilation in severe arid climates
                                                           and its integration with other passive cooling strategies is very challenging and has
                                                           not been systematically studied.

                             Advances in applications Savings, Arid present
Mixed-Mode, Cooling Strategies, Office Buildings, EnergyThis paper will Climatesan evaluation of the performance of different Mixed-Mode
                                                        The paper describes results from a reference study that focusses on the application
                                                        of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-) technique for heat and smoke transport
                                                        in practice. Goal of the study is to obtain insight into the amount and causes of the
                                                        spread of CFD-results when applied bij different users. In this study several CFD-
                                                        practitioners have solved the same relatively well described flow problem. The
                                                        obtained results have been compared. They show a clear spread which to some
                                                        extent can be explained by the assumptions made for the modelling and solving of
                                                        the problem. The conclusion is that a good overview of the model interpretations for
                                                        the flow problem adds to the value of the results. However, than it is also important
                                                        that those who need to assess the results can value this overview.

                                                         The paper will present the procedure that has been applied in this study and the
                                                         case that is used for the study. In total 12 datasets from different consultants have
                                                         been obtained. These results will be discussed based on the choices made in the
                                                         modelling. Selections of datasets are compared and difference visualised.
                                                         Explanations are discussed for the differences found. Finally, a best practice is
                                                         proposed for the problem and the available datasets are rated according to this
CFD, case study, use in practice, heat smoke transport proposal. The datasets that adhere best to the best practice then are compared to
                              Simulation in design practice, Application day - case studies
                                                         Developments in IT, since the mid 1960s, have led to opportunities to study thermal
                                                         processes in buildings dynamically. Until then only simple hand-calculation methods
                                                         were available. The ideal approach to predict the building performance in detail is to
                                                         solve the conservation equations for the temperature and the velocity fields for a
                                                         room under consideration. However, because of high computational costs of
                                                         computational fluid dynamics (CFD), multi-zone energy simulation (ES) is appraised
                                                         to predict the thermal comfort and the energy consumption. An important component
                                                         of building energy analysis is the prediction of interior convective heat transfer. The
                                                         convective heat transfer coefficients (CHTC‘s) are mostly derived from data based
                                                         on experiments with stand-alone horizontal and vertical surfaces under conditions of
                                                         natural convection. Recently there is a trend to develop new CHTC‘s for real building
                                                         surfaces according to the flow regime in the room. The reason for this trend is the
                                                         influence of the modelling of internal convection on the predicted building energy

                                                          As a cost-effective alternative to experimental determination, CFD can provide new
                                                          CHTC correlations. However, experience indicates the limitations of the current
                                                          available CFD methods, with respect to, e.g., the reliability and the sensitivity, and
                                                          the necessity to validate CFD results of typical indoor air flow patterns. Together with
                                                          the governing equations the description of the boundary conditions determines to a
                                                          greater part the Simulation in design practice
CFD, convective heat transfer,Validation and calibration, Software issues,reliability and accuracy of CFD simulations, as identified in the IEA
                              diffuser modelling
                                                          In the last years many building designers have turned their attention to natural
                                                          ventilation, due to the potential benefits in terms of energy consumption related to
                                                          ventilation and air-conditioning, especially in mild and moderate climates.
                                                          Consequently, several calculation techniques have been developed to design and
                                                          predict the performance of natural ventilation.

                                                           This article presents a review of the existing approaches to predict natural ventilation
                                                           performance, including simple empirical models, nodal models (mono-zone and multi-
                                                           zones), zonal models and CFD models. For each approach, we analyse the physical
                                                           basis, the main modelling assumptions, the necessary input data and the area of
                                                           applicability. Thus, the integration of these methodologies in the available simulation
                                                           programs is examined, with reference to the different phases of the natural ventilation
                                                           design process and some examples of application are given.

                                                           The aim of the review is to identify the main practical limits of existing programs in
                                                           designing natural ventilation and in predicting its performance and the consequent
                                                           need for further developments.

                                 Simulation in design practice
natural ventilation, building energy simulation, design
                                                            Today, a great deal of effort is ongoing all over the world to achieve sustainable
                                                            development in the construction industry with an aim of reducing energy use in both
                                                            construction and management of buildings and limiting its consequences on the
                                                            global and local environment. Such effort can be seen, at national and international
                                                            levels, in launching voluntary building environmental schemes to measure the
                                                            performance of buildings. The most representative and widely used schemes are
                                                            Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM),
                                                            Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) and Green Star. BREEAM
                                                            was launched by the U.K. Building Research Establishment (BRE) and is adopted by
                                                            the U.K. government as a measure of best practice in environmental design and
                                                            management. LEED was developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)
                                                            and is nationally accepted as benchmark for green building practices. Green Star
                                                            was launched by the Green Building Council of Australia (GBCA) and is established
                                                            as a national guide to evaluate the environmental design and achievements of
                                                            buildings. All three schemes are based on a rating system of collecting credits that
                                                            applies to a wide range of building types for both new buildings and existing
                                                            buildings, and covers considerable environmental issues as such materials, energy,
                                                            water, pollution, indoor environmental quality and building site. The most important
                                                            credit computational simulation
energy performance assessment; BREEAM; LEED; Green Star;throughout the three schemes which is also the essential factor in overall effort
                                 Regulation/code compliance

                                                           The drive to reduce UK Carbon Emissions directly associated with dwellings and to
                                                           achieve a zero carbon home dictates that Renewable Energy Technologies will have
                                                           an increasingly large role in the built environment. Created by the Building Research
                                                           Establishment (BRE), the Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) is the UK
                                                           Government‘s recommended method of assessing the energy ratings of dwellings.

                                                           This paper presents an evaluation of the advantage given to SAP ratings by the
                                                           domestic installation of typical Photovoltaic (PV) and Solar Domestic Hot Water
                                                           (SDHW) systems in the UK. Comparable PV and SDHW systems will also be
                                                           simulated with more detailed modelling packages. Results suggest that calculation
                                                           variances can exist between the SAP methodology and detailed simulation methods,
                                                           especially for higher performance systems that deviate from the default efficiency

SAP, Renewables, BRE, EPC,Validation and calibration, Simulation in design practice, Regulation/code compliance
                                                      Today, many building software tools for evaluating energy efficiency are available.
                                                      More than three hundred are listed by the US Department of Energy. Despite the
                                                      diversity of the tools and their users, they generally share the same goals: to reduce
                                                      the consumption of energy and even to produce surplus energy.

                                                           We were interested in comparing the information provided by five software
                                                           programmes that are widely used in France: EnergyPlus, TrnSys, CoDyBa, Pleiades
                                                           + Comfie and PHPP. We used these programmes to predict the energy performance
                                                           of an experimental low-energy building, currently under construction at Le Bourget-
                                                           du-Lac. This building is the first one on the experimental platform of the French
                                                           National Institute of Solar Energy.

                             Software issues, Simulation in design practice, Application day - case studies
inter-model comparison,simulation tools,case studies
                                                       It is already clear that buildings have a large impact on energy consumption and CO2
                                                       emissions. It is estimated that the energy consumption share of buildings in the U.K.
                                                       is about 46% of the total energy consumed, which results in the CO2 release of
                                                       approximately 66 million tonnes into the atmosphere [1]. Most of this energy use is
                                                       for the provision of heating, cooling, lighting and hot water supply. One way of
                                                       reducing the building energy consumption and thereby CO2 emission is to design
                                                       comfortable and energy efficient buildings. Decisions made during early stages of a
                                                       building design process would have substantial impact on the performance of the
                                                       resulting building. Building design should be no longer merely dominated by
                                                       aesthetic and functional considerations. Environmental performance based concern
                                                       needs to be considered at the planning stage, which can help to deliver valuable
                                                       information on the viability of a design approach. In this paper, a case study of a
                                                       planned office building is presented as an example to explore an approach, which
                                                       uses building simulation technology to evaluate a variety of envelope thermal
                                                       characteristics and low carbon technologies in an integrated manner at the early
                                                       design stage in order to assist the delivery of a sustainable green office building with
                                                       a high rating of energy performance.

                                                            The case study chosen is the proposed three-storey IES Venture Building at the
building simulation; energy efficient building; sustainable West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow which aims to be awarded an ―Excellent‖
                                                            building design
                                Application day - case studies

                                                           This paper outlines a novel methodology for calibrating BES models through the use
                                                           of an evidence-based approach and detailed simulation modelling. The proposed
                                                           calibration methodology is applied to a 30,000sqm office building. The case study
                                                           illustrates the results of calibrating the model to Energy Monitoring System (EMS)
                                                           and other readily accessible data. The paper concludes with a discussion on the
                                                           current state of calibrated BES modelling and building measurement frameworks.

                              Validation and calibration
Calibration methodology, Calibrated simulation, Energy Conservation Measure, Energy Monitoring System
                                                         Large modern sports stadia are often multifunctional buildings that are not only used
                                                         for sports purposes but also for other events such as concerts, conferences and
                                                         festivities. Some of the stadia that have been built in recent years in north-western
                                                         Europe are equipped with a (semi-)transparent roof that can be opened and closed,
                                                         depending on the weather conditions and on the type of event. Whereas the roof is
                                                         often open for sports events, it is often closed for concerts, conferences and
                                                         festivities. This allows sheltering the indoor stadium environment from wind, rain and
                                                         snow. A matter of concern related to such facilities is the natural ventilation, since
                                                         HVAC systems are often not incorporated.

                                                           This paper presents a numerical (CFD) and an experimental analysis of natural
                                                           ventilation in a large (semi)-indoor multifunctional stadium in the Netherlands. CFD
                                                           validation is performed based on full-scale wind speed measurements. Different
                                                           alternative ventilation configurations are studied, including widening the existing
                                                           openings and adding new openings at a few positions. It is shown that adding small
                                                           openings near roof-height can increase the natural ventilation rate by up to 43%. A
CFD, application, design, natural ventilation, overheating,particular feature of this study is the coupled simulation of the wind flow in the urban
                              Application day - case studiesindoor air quality
                                                           This paper presents the development of a novel school outline design, which can be
                                                           applied in the different climate zones of Turkiye, underpinned by building
                                                           performance simulation. The work builds on an earlier study, presented at the
                                                           Building Simulation 2007 conference, which analysed the sensitivity of an existing
                                                           scheme that had indeed been applied in all different climate zones, with different
                                                           degrees of success.

                                                           This follow-on project goes one step further and attempts to develop a new, more
                                                           thermally robust school outline design. The underlying research bases itself on
                                                           building performance simulation, using the ESP-r simulation engine and applying
                                                           global sensitivity analysis (Monte Carlo Method) to assess the robustness of different
                                                           design variants in a large, multidimensional option space of outline design

                                                           The outcome of the study is an outline design concept called Modulsco that is
                                                           significantly more robust than the current general scheme.

                                                           Overall, this paper demonstrates how building simulation can contribute to the pre-
                                                           design of better (school) buildings. It is hoped that the scheme will help make these
                                                           future buildings more comfortable and more energy efficient.

                              Simulation robust design
design decision support, school buildings,in design practice
                                                          The use of computer simulation has increased rapidly within the construction industry
                                                          in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. However, it is important not to
                                                          forget that existing testing methods still have their place and can play a vital role in
                                                          the validation and confidence of simulation modelling results.

                                                           This paper reports on the experience of modelling in excess of 10 large shopping
                                                           centres where natural ventilation and wind driven air movement was a principal
                                                           consideration as well as a potential means of ventilation and cooling. In all of these
                                                           assessments, measured mean wind pressure coefficients from physical wind tunnel
                                                           tests were used with an ESP-r simulation model to determine the feasibility of such
                                                           schemes as well as formulating design concepts and workable control strategies.

                                                           The assessments have also encompassed the understanding of the seasonal air
                                                           regime at entrances so that excessive draughts, local discomfort for retail kiosks and
                                                           energy consumption can be reduced at design stage.

                                                           This work clearly demonstrates the importance of physical testing and the increased
                                                           accuracy of simulation assessment as a result of this approach.

                                Validation and calibration, Simulation in design practice, Application day - case studies
natural ventilation, dynamic simulation, wind tunnel testing,
                                                            Building simulation supported projects are difficult to manage when there are many
                                                            different participants involved (e.g. simulation specialists, project managers, design
                                                            teams with engineers and/or architects and clients). These participants are often
                                                            dispersed and have a diverse knowledge level.

                                                           In addition, the goal of understanding how the building works and the impact of
                                                           design decisions is often hampered by limitations in the presentation of performance
                                                           data. Contemporary results display is constrained to what was considered good
                                                           practice some decades ago rather than in ways that preserve the richness of the
                                                           underlying data.

                                                          This paper discusses in detail the system connectivity of a framework from previous
                                                          works which improve collaborative simulation modelling. Widely available
                                                          communication protocols were used to allow concurrent information sharing between
                                                          all participants. A case study is also presented to reinforce the potential benefits of
                               Advances in applications, the framework. Simulation in design practice, Application day - case studies
                                                          System issues,
Collaborative simulation, Concurrent information sharing,Softwareconnectivity, Data management
                                                          Completed in 2007, the Aldo Leopold Foundation Legacy Center in Baraboo,
                                                          Wisconsin (USA) was at the time, the highest scoring USGBC-LEED® building ever
                                                          (awarded 61 points), remains the first building to have been awarded a LEED®
                                                          innovation credit for carbon neutral operation and it was selected as one of the 2008
                                                          American Institute of Architects COTE Top Ten Green Projects. Energy simulation
                                                          was critical to the successful design. The 822 square meter facility was designed to
                                                          be net zero in terms of site energy (the building would demand less energy annually
                                                          than is produced by its 39kW photovoltaic array). The goals of solar electric
                                                          production and low building energy demand were established during the
                                                          programming stage. Energy simulation was employed by the design team to develop
                                                          a building designed to require 66.0 kWh per square meter conditioned floor area per
                                                          year, less than the expected solar electric production of 74.5 kWh per square meter
                                                          conditioned floor area per year. This paper describes how the building design team
                                                          used simulation to evaluate performance of the building shell, mechanical system
                                                          (ground loop, water-to-water heat pumps, radiantly heated and cooled floor slabs,
                               Application day - carbon neutral, integration
building simulation, case study, net zero energy,case studies
                                                          Shopping centres, with various size, shape and geographical location, are becoming
                                                          a common phenomenon in many countries. The type of shopping centre studied in
                                                          this paper is an enclosed mall, a large type of shopping centre entirely inside a
                                                          roofed structure with several shops and other services situated within. Usually the
                                                          enclosed mall has a limited number of entrances and stores are accessible only via
                                                          interior corridors.

                                                           A comparison of 10 enclosed malls in Sweden shows that the energy use per square
                                                           metre is 50 percent higher in the least energy efficient mall compared to the most
                                                           energy efficient one. This indicates that the potential for improved energy efficiency
                                                           in these buildings is significant. Enclosed malls in general are characterised by a
                                                           large cooling demand. Despite the relatively cold climate of Sweden, space cooling is
                                                           required almost all year around. Also, most often there is a simultaneous need for
                                                           space cooling and space heating.

                                                           In Sweden the operation of space heating and cooling in enclosed malls is commonly
                                                           managed centrally for the whole building. There is a need for further research in
                                                           order to achieve improved energy performance in Swedish enclosed malls. As part of
                                                           this, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate and simulate the energy performance in
                                                           a case study of an enclosed mall.

                                                        A simulation model that calculates the energy use in an enclosed mall with the
                                                        possibility to simulate different system solutions for the HVAC system and the
                                                        building envelope has been developed in IDA Indoor Climate and Energy 3.0, a
                                Building services       whole-building simulator. This program allows simultaneous performance
simulation, lighting, energy performance, HVAC, shopping mall
                                                        This paper describes an attempt to model an existing building in DesignBuilder/
                                                        EnergyPlus and benchmark simulation results against measured daily energy use for
                                                        electricity, purchased steam, and chilled water. This work was carried out within the
                                                        context of a research seminar on building performance simulation at Harvard‘s
                                                        Graduate School of Design (GSD). The studied space was the school‘s own
                                                        building, Gund Hall, designed by John Andrews and first opened in 1972. The
                                                        building exhibits a number of features that make it an interesting modeling object for
                                                        architectural students: The building envelope is characterized by large glazings and
                                                        exposed concrete. Energy use is further strongly influenced by non-standard
                                                        occupant behavior as a significant portion of the floor plan is taken up by a large
                                                        open space (the design studios) that extends over several levels below a series of
                                                        partly glazed trusses. Given that the building is connected to the campus‘ district
                                                        heating and cooling system its onsite energy use is completely determined by key
                                                        architectural concerns such as massing, shape, orientation, material selection, and
                                                        space usage patterns.

                                                        The objectives of this modeling and benchmarking effort are to expose students to all
                              Commissioning occupant behavior, benchmarking energy
                                                        steps required in design
measurement & verification, energy simulation,and operation, Simulation to build anpractice model of a building for design and retrofitting
                                                        Overheating as a local impact of climate change is not well understood. Projections
                                                        suggest that by 2050, a hot summer - like that of 2003, when temperatures exceeded
                                                        38°C - will occur every other year. During prolonged periods of high temperatures,
                                                        heat stress becomes a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality of
                                                        vulnerable populations, especially the elderly, the very young and those in poor
                                                        health. In London, around 600 excess deaths were attributed to the 2003 heat wave,
                                                        with 2000 deaths across the UK.

                                                           This research study was undertaken for a consortium of Regional Climate Change
                                                           Partnerships in London and the South-East of England. It examined the effect of
                                                           three key Climate Change impacts – flooding, water stress and overheating - on
                                                           existing residential dwellings. Suitable adaptation measures to deal with these key
                                                           risks were proposed. Two prevalent types of existing dwellings were considered;
                                                           semi-detached owner-occupied houses and rented medium-rise flats.

                                                           Thermal dynamic modelling was used to compare the current overheating risk of
                                                           these properties with the future overheating risk for the middle decades of this
                                                           century, i.e. the period 2040-2069. The future simulation was carried out using a
                                                           ―climate change‖ weather year, constructed from the present London design summer
                                                           year combined with climate change factors extracted from UKCIP02 regional climate

                                                           Building overheating could be ameliorated by the widespread installation of air-
                                                           conditioning systems. This option was simulated for both the present and future
                                                           climate. However, this should be considered a mal-adaptation to climate change, as
                                                           the associated energy use will generate CO2 emissions which will further exacerbate
                                                           global warming.

                                                         The main focus of this study was to consider a wide range of passive and low-energy
                                                         climate change adaptation measures, as an alternative to air-conditioning. The
                                                         measures risk, case studies, exisiting residential buildings
dynamic thermal modelling, climate change adaptation, overheating considered included:
                              Application day - case studies

                                                          Extensive energy modeling was used during the design process of the Aldo Leopold
                                                          Foundation Legacy Center in Baraboo, Wisconsin (USA) both to minimize the
                                                          building‘s overall projected energy use and in a number of instances to determine
                                                          whether proposed subsystems were viable. This paper focuses on three such
                                                          simulations: a comparison of the thermal performance of earth ducts versus energy
                                                          recovery ventilators as outdoor-air pretreatment devices, the design of a heat pump /
                                                          radiator system to provide minimal heating in an infrequently used wing of the
                                                          building, and the use of a heat pipe between the photovoltaic array inverter room and
                                                          the air handler to provide ventilation air stream reheat in the cooling season. The
                                                          paper presents a critique of the three design decisions based on experiential
                                                          performance in the case of the heat pipe and heat pump/radiator systems, and based
                                                          on data monitoring and model
modeling, design, calibration Validation and calibration, Application day - case studies calibration in the case of the earth ducts.
                                                           IBPSA GLASGOW 2009

                                                           BUILDING SIMULATION 2009 CONFERENCE

                                                           APPLICATION DAY CASE STUDY

                                                           SIMULATION OF A MULTIFAMILY BUILDING IN MADRID – SPAIN

                                                           Francesc Bonvehí , Mónica Bobrovsky – Asolba SL

                                                           Sergi Cantos, Marco Massetti – Enginyeria i Arquitectura La Salle /

                                                           Universitat Ramon Llull

                                                           In our practice we are increasingly involved in assessing the energy performance of
                                                           buildings for the purpose of ecoeficiency certification either in a national or
                                                           international context. The need for building energy certification following the
                                                           European Directive 2002/91/EC usually requires that the energy performance of the
                                                           building must be evaluated. And dynamic simulation methods are the key tools for
                                                           that purpose.

                                                           Apart from the compulsory certification implemented by each state member of the
                                                           European Union there are more reasons to undertake energy performance
                                                           simulation. Usually they are derived from the willingness to get highly recognised
                                                           international ecocertificates such as LEED – Leadership for Energy and
                                                           Environmental Design - Certificate from the US Green Building Council. Two market
                                                           driving forces are pulling in that way : corporative sustainability responsiveness and
                                                           market position in the higher quality end.

                                                         In such projects we
Dynamic Simulation, LEED Certification, Spanish Building Code compliance have to comply with both the local codes and the ASHRAE
                              Application day - case studies
                                                         Based on six years of continuous measurements, we have analysed in detail the
                                                         influence of occupancy patterns, thermal and visual parameters influencing blind
                                                         usage behaviour. In this we have also considered the influence of actions on other
                                                         types of adaptive action as well as the variability of behaviours between individuals.
                                                         This paper begins by presenting some of the key findings from these analyses.
                                                         Informed by other developments in the literature, we go on to propose a
                                                         comprehensive stochastic model for simulating blind usage and results from
                                                         validation test of
stochastic modelling, behaviour uman aspects of the indoor environment this model.
                                                         Based on six years of continuous measurements, we have analysed in detail the
                                                         influence of occupancy patterns, indoor temperature, outdoor parameters
                                                         (temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, rainfall) on window usage
                                                         behaviour. In this we have also considered the influence of actions on other types of
                                                         adaptive action as well as the variability of behaviours between individuals. This
                                                         paper begins by presenting some of the key findings from these analyses. Informed
                                                         by other developments in the literature, we go on to propose a comprehensive
                                                         stochastic model for simulating window usage behaviour. We also present a detailed
                                                         validation of this model, together with results from its application in a dynamic thermal
                              H                          simulation environment.
stochastic modelling, behaviour uman aspects of the indoor environment
                                                         Developments of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) have created many
                                                         types of non-uniform indoor environments for better air quality while keeping low
                                                         energy consumptions. For example, personalized ventilation (PV) was proposed for
                                                         individual control of micro-environments and fresh inhalation in the breathing zone.
                                                         To evaluate thermal comfort levels in these asymmetric environments, the well-
                                                         known comfort model of Fanger is not appropriate since it inherently is one-node
                                                         steady-state model.

                                                            In this study, we developed a numerical thermal manikin (NTM) with inner-body
                                                            thermoregulation function to investigate the local and overall thermal comfort in non-
                                                            uniform systems. When the NTM placed in a virtual environment, the thermal
                                                            interactions with the environment are calculated using CFD (computational fluid
                                                            dynamics) technique. By iteration, the calculated air velocity and temperature near
                                                            the body surface are fed into a sophisticated thermoregulation model developed at
                                                            Berkeley University so that the local thermal comfort in non-uniform environment is
                                                            rigorously investigated. As a demonstration, the performances of three different PV
                                                            systems are studied, namely the desk-edge based PV, PV using movable panel
                                                            (MP), and chair-based PV. The results exhibit reasonable agreement with the
                                                            experimental measurements. The three types of PV are all able to lower human
                                 Human aspects of Coupling  exposure to ambient room pollutants and bring a ‗cool head‘ thermal condition which
Thermal Comfort, Thermoregulation model, CFD, the indoor environment
                                                            With the advent of the concepts of efficient energy use focus has shifted towards
                                                            buildings becoming more air tight and having lower levels of ventilation. This is due
                                                            to the fact that as buildings become better insulated and conduction heat loss is
                                                            reduced the proportion of heating and air conditioning load due to ventilation has
                                                            increased and may offer the largest scope for reducing energy demand. This may
                                                            have a detrimental effect on internal air quality (IAQ) and compounds existing
                                                            environmental issues such as out gassing from materials in new buildings. At the
                                                            same time environmental standards and expectations have risen as has the technical
                                                            capability to evaluate their effects through epidemiological studies. Good
                                                            environmental quality is a fundamental human need, absence of which affects health
                                                            and productivity. Many occupants express annoyance about modern buildings and
                                                            terms such as sick building syndrome are used to describe the problem.
                                                            Deterioration of IAQ has been evident from an increase in occupant complaints and
                                                            an increase in breathing related sicknesses in recent years. With predicted
                                                            substantial growth of the urban environment the problem will only be exacerbated.
                                 Human aspects
ventilation, health, IAQ, sick building syndrome of the indoor environment
                                                            The consideration of local comfort and discomfort in buildings becomes more
                                                            important with the increasing number of computer work places where office workers
                                                            remain in more or less the same position over the whole day. In order to provide a
                                                            thermally sound and comfortable environment it is necessary to consider non-uniform
                                                            characteristics of the environment. The Berkeley Comfort Model, which is based on
                                                            the Stolwijk model of human thermoregulation but includes several significant
                                                            changes, is a helpful simulation tool for the assessment of thermal comfort in non-
                                                            uniform environments. A major improvement is the implementation of a clothing node
                                                            to the model, which considers both heat and moisture capacitance of clothing. Heat
                                                            capacity of the clothing has been demonstrated to be important when considering
                                                            transient effects. Moisture capacitance is important to correctly model evaporative
                                                            heat loss from the body through clothing. The moisture model uses the regain
                                                            approach to calculate the amount of moisture that a specific fabric will absorb at a
                                                            given relative humidity. In the paper to be presented, the modelling of the heat and
                                                            moisture transfer through clothing will be dealt with.

thermal comfort, clothing model uman aspects of the indoor environment
                                                        In 2006, the Energy Performance Regulation came into force in Flanders, the
                                                        northern part of Belgium. The EPR demands an evaluation of the energy
                                                        performance of the building _as a whole_, as opposed to the former legislation,
                                                        which focused on partial performances (e.g. the thermal insulation level of the
                                                        building, the efficiency of boilers, luminous efficacy of lighting, …). Because of this,
                                                        the designer is obliged to consider the influences of decisions on other building
                                                        functions. This is particularly the case for office buildings, where, amongst others, an
                                                        equilibrium has to be found between energy needed for control of the thermal
                                                        environment and energy needed for lighting. Ideally, the complex system of shading,
                                                        glazing and lighting minimizes the consumption of (primary) energy. Though, the
                                                        impact of occupant behavior on the energy use for lighting, and thus indirect also for
                                                        heating and cooling, is large.

                                                           The purpose of this research is to evaluate this impact for a large number of
                                                           combinations of glazing, lighting system, lighting control and blind control. The widely
                                                           used and validated ray-tracing algorithm RADIANCE is used for the light calculations.
                                                           The DAYSIM program couples these light calculations with the stochastich
                                                           behavioral model LIGHTSWITCH. Furthermore, DAYSIM provides an algorithm to
                                                           extract daylight data up to a one minute timestep from hourly average weather data,
                                                           to take in account the fluctuating nature of daylight. These DAYSIM features are
                                                           tested extensively.
                                                           We address the
daylight, occupant behavior, energy, blind control the indoor environment model-adaptive coupling between computational codes for indoor
                              Human aspects of
                                                           thermal comfort analysis considering different levels of detail in space and time.
                                                           Starting with a whole-year simulation, significant periods are interactively identified in
                                                           terms of a coarse thermal comfort analysis. After refining these critical intervals with
                                                           respect to the spatial reso¬lution, a multi-segment manikin model interfacing with the
                                                           human thermoregulation model of Fiala (Int J Biometeorol, 45:143–159, 2001) is
                                                           applied for studying transient and local effects of thermal sensation. On a coarse
                                                           level (pre-calculated view factors and heat transfer coefficients), parameters like the
                                                           boundary conditions or the type of clothing can be modified online, results are
                                                           updated in real time (computational steering). On a fine level, the thermoregulation
                                                           model is linked with a geometry based zone model using a ray tracing method
                                                           capturing the short wave radiation incident to the manikin surface and a radiosity
                                                           solver for the longwave radiation. Ongoing developments concern a full coupling
                                                           between the radiation solver and an interactive lattice Boltzmann type CFD solver by
                                                           further enhancing the performance of the view factor computation.

                             Advances thermoregulation, Human aspects of the indoor environment, Validation and calibration, Software issues
Thermal comfort, thermal manikin, humanin building physics, multizone modelling, thermal radiation
                                                        Contemporary office buildings commonly experience changes in occupancy patterns
                                                        and needs due to changes in business practice and personal churns. Hence, it is
                                                        important to understand and accurately capture the information of such trends for
                                                        applications in building design and subsequent building operations. Detection of
                                                        occupant presence has been used extensively in built environments for applications
                                                        such as demand-controlled ventilation and security. However, the ability to discern
                                                        the actual number of people in a space is often beyond the scope of current sensing
                                                        techniques. This paper presents a study to develop algorithms for occupancy
                                                        number detection based on the analysis of environmental data captured from existing
                                                        sensors and ambient sensing networks. Both wireless and wired sensor networks
                                                        are deployed in the Robert L. Preger Intelligent Workplace (IW) at Carnegie Mellon
                                                        University, comprising six different types of sensors including lighting, acoustics,
                                                        CO2, temperature, relative humidity and motion. A wired camera network is also
                              Environmental Sensor Network, Hidden Markov Model, Open-plan Office, of occupants to
Occupancy Number Detection,Advances in applications implemented for establishing the precise numberHuman Behavior be used as ground
                                                           The indoor climate has a distinct influence on productivity and sick leave of
                                                           employees. Rehva guide book no 6 ―Indoor Climate and Productivity in Offices‖
                                                           shows these effects.

                                                           Information of this guidebook has been coupled to the building simulation program
                                                           VA114. Through this connection effects of indoor climate measures can be quantified
                                                           in productivity, decreased sick leave (both translated into costs) In this article details
                                                           about this coupling are given.

                                                           The main goal of this article is to show the possibilities of this extension and not the
                                                           derivation of guidelines.

                                                           The Rehva Guideline 6 shows that indoor air temperature, ventilation rate and indoor
                                                           air quality have a clear influence on the productivity and sick leave of employees. In
                                                           most cases the increased profits are large compared to the investments in the
                                                           equipment and possible raise in energy costs.

                                                           The guideline shows that there is a need for models and tools with which the
                                                           economical effects of health and productivity can be integrated into the building,
                                                           energy and exploitation costs for cost benefit calculations.

                                                           The guideline offers models and methods (available end 2005). Scientific data
                                                           regarding measured productivity can be used as a base for calculations.

                                                           Publications van Stoelinga and ‘t Hooft/Roelofsen [3] already show these effects.

                                                           Vabi Software BV has also integrated this guideline in there building simulation
                                                           software. The building simulation program VA114 produces data that can be used to
                                                           establish the productivity. A post processing program uses this data together with the
                                                           relations van the Rehva guideline to determine the productivity.

                                 Advances in               As an example a short example study has been performed.
productivity, sick leave,building simulation applications, Simulation in design practice
                                                           There has been extensive research focusing on developing smart environments by
                                                           integrating data mining techniques into environments that are equipped with sensors
                                                           and actuators. The ultimate goal is to reduce the energy consumption in buildings
                                                           while maintaining a maximum comfort level for occupants. However, there are few
                                                           studies successfully demonstrating energy savings from occupancy behavioral
                                                           patterns that have been learned in a smart environment because of a lack of a formal
                                                           connection to building energy systems. In this study, the objective is to develop and
                                                           implement algorithms for sensor-based modeling and prediction of user behavior in
                                                           intelligent buildings and connect the behavioral patterns to building energy and
                                                           comfort management.

                                                      Previous work on the generation of Hidden Markov Models of behavior from sensor
                                                      event data are extended to incorporate duration into the pattern model and explicitly
                                                      account for sensor events that have large energy impacts. A method of using the
                                                      model as an input to an HVAC controller are proposed. The results are tested on
                                                      data from a room equipped with a distributed set of sensors, and building simulations
                                                      through EnergyPlus suggest potential energy savings of 30% while maintaining an
                            Advances in applications indoor comfort,HVAC control
sensor network, occupancy patterns, Markov Model, energy andcomfort level when compared with other basic energy savings HVAC control
                                                      In an effort to reduce energy consumption and improve the quality of the indoor
                                                      environment, building designers often make use of natural ventilation to provide fresh
                                                      air and convective cooling. Whilst dynamic thermal simulation techniques can be
                                                      used to model the overall performance of a building, and Computational Fluid
                                                      Dynamics (CFD) be used to model complex temperature and airflow fields, these
                                                      techniques to not attempt to accurately predict what the indoor environment will be
                                                      like for the buildings‘ occupants

                                                           A multi-segmented human thermal comfort model (IESD-Fiala) has been developed
                                                           that can predict the response of the human body to varying environmental conditions
                                                           and can predict the resulting degree of comfort or discomfort a person experiences.
                                                           The IESD-Fiala model uses environmental parameters, such as the temperature,
                                                           humidity and velocity of air at the skin surface, to predict the response of the human
                                                           thermoregulatory system to these external stimuli over a period of time.

                                                           To date, the IESD-Fiala model has been used in isolation to predict human thermal
                                                           comfort under relatively simple environmental conditions. To extend its applicability,
                                                           an approach is sought to model more complex environments where various parts of
                                                           the body experience different environmental conditions, conditions common in
                                                           naturally ventilated buildings. Whilst CFD can be used to predict detailed airflow
                                                           around a human body there is currently no method available to couple this
                                                           dynamically with a thermal comfort model.

                                                           The techniques
CFD, thermal comfort, model coupling aspects of the indoor environment described in this paper form part of a research project which aims to
                                                           A brand-new methodology for considerably accurate time-series utility loads (energy,
                                                           power, city water, hot water etc) calculation in a dwelling is established. Calculation
                                                           that takes variation among dwelling-inhabitants‘ behaviors into consideration appears
                                                           to be important. The proposed method contains a crucial feature, which is a
                                                           procedure for cooling load calculation based on a series of Monte Carlo simulations
                                                           where HVAC on/ off state and indoor heat generation schedule are variable time-step
                                                           by time-step. A data set of myriad and time-varying inhabitant-behavior schedules
                                                           with a 15-minute time resolution, generated by the authors in a previous study,
                                                           validated through a comparison analysis to several filed measurement data sets, was
                                                           integrated into the model. The established model, which is called Total Utility
                                                           Demand Prediction System (TUD-PS) can be applicable to, for example, accurate
                                                           estimation for a space integrated maximum requirement such as a building total or an
                                                           urban area total load. In a series of numerical experiments, huge discrepancy
                                                           between results with and without consideration of time-varying inhabitant-behavior
Accurate time series of utility demand, Inhabitant‘s behavior schedule, HVAC On/ Off schedule by Markov Model, residential building
                                                           schedules was clarified. Especially, whether considering dynamical state change of
                                 Advances in building physics
                                                           It is common knowledge that the presence and actions of building occupants have a
                                                           significant impact on the performance of buildings (energy efficiency, indoor climate,
                                                           etc.). Current practices in modeling the presence and actions of people in buildings
                                                           do not display the necessary level of sophistication to reflect the complexity of
                                                           people's passive and active impact on building performance: general information
                                                           about building type (residential, commercial) and environmental systems (free-
                                                           running, air-conditioned) as well as organizational information (working hours) can
                                                           only provide rough directions regarding the far-reaching implications of user
                                                           presence and actions in buildings. More reliable people action models require
                                                           extensive observational data based on empirical studies of control-oriented user
                                                           behavior (as related to buildings' environmental systems) in a representative number
                                                           of buildings. Thereby, possible relationships between control actions and
                                                           environmental conditions inside and outside buildings can provide the underlying
                                                           basis for predictive functions of user behavior for incorporation in building simulation

                                                        In a recent study, we observed, over a period of 9 to 14 months, people's presence
                                                        and their interactions with the buildings' environmental systems (lighting, shading,
                                                        ventilation) in a number of buildings in Austria. The intention was to observe user
                                                        control actions
                              Human aspects of the indoor environmentpertaining to building systems while considering the indoor and
user behavior, user-system interactions, presence and action models
                                                        Globally buildings consume more than 40% of primary energy and are responsible
                                                        for in excess of 30% CO2 emissions. Performance based methodologies are being
                                                        promoted and developed worldwide in order to reduce energy consumption and
                                                        improve energy performance of buildings. This is reflected in international
                                                        performance rating methodologies that include LEED (US), BREEAM (UK) and
                                                        European Directives (e.g. EPBD [2002/91/EC], EEESD [2006/32/EC]).

                                                           A common weakness with these rating methodologies is that they do not support life
                                                           cycle performance assessment whereby the Asset Rating of a building could be
                                                           compared with the Performance Rating thereby establishing that the building is being
                                                           operated according to the building operation strategy as determined during the
                                                           design phase of the building. Also, these methodologies do not explicitly allow for the
                                                           holistic consideration of occupant comfort and the associated energy consumption

                                                        The _*Key factors (Kf) methodology*_ proposes to use calibrated energy simulation
                                                        models to optimise the operation strategy of a building and its related HVAC systems
                                                        thus ensuring a close comparison between the outputs from the Asset Rating and
                                 energy performance     Performance Rating. Key factors _*(Kf)*_ are those parameters of the operation
Operation strategy, calibration,Commissioning and operation
                                                        The purpose of this research is to optimizing a district heating and cooling (DHC)
                                                        system operation by retro-commissioning, which has been running for 14 years. The
                                                        optimal operation schemes are found through simulations based on mathematical
                                                        models. Due to the supply area extension in 2007 several new equipments (chillers,
                                                        pumps, cooling towers and a water thermal storage tank) were introduced and the
                                                        plant is operated through a trial and error process and operators are trying to build
                                                        new operation schemes.

                                                           The process of model-based commissioning is to carry out, 1) building mathematical
                                                           models of equipment and validating them, 2) building models of each sub-system and
                                                           validating them, 3) building the model of total heat source system and validating
                                                           them, and 4) exploring the possibility of optimal operations at each stage.

                                                           Investigation of the plant was conducted focusing on newly introduced heat pumps
                                                           with a screw-compressor which have high COP in part-load and the operation
                                                           schemes of the thermal storage system installed in a remote building. The period of
                                                           this study is a cooling season from May 1, 2007 to October 31, 2007. The results
                                                           obtained are as follows.

                                                           1) The performance of the entire heat source system, including the newly installed
                                                           heat source equipment was simulated. The average simulated error of the total
                                                           energy consumption of the plant was 4.1% of its measured value, and the RMSE
                                                           was 8.7%. This indicates that the simulation is sufficiently accurate to be used to
                                                           identify optimal operating methods.

                                                       2) A tool was developed that automatically determines the on/off status of heat
                                                       source equipment during both, thermal storage and discharge periods.
                              Commissioning and operation
Commissioning, District Heating and Cooling System, Simulation, Optimization, Energy consumption
                                                       Increasing attentions have been paid to low-energy building systems as a
                                                       consequence of the growing global concern about climate change and energy price.
                                                       The use of novel technologies, the system complexity and the intensive interaction
                                                       between the natural environment, the occupants and the building services make
                                                       proper control of such systems both difficult and important.

                                                           Here introduced is a fast model based predicative controller (MPC) that is capable of
                                                           optimising the operation of a typical low-energy building system online. The design,
                                                           validation and performance analysis of the proposed controller are implemented by
                                                           simulation in a Matlab/Simulink® environment. The low-energy building system is
                                                           based on a real system located in central England, which uses solar thermal
                                                           collector, photovoltaic panel, active thermal storage and heat recovery. Details of the
                                                           building simulation are given and the simulation is validated by the results from

                                                       As the control of low-energy building system is a complex, nonlinear, multi-step
                                                       decision making problem, the computational demand of MPC schemes is very high. A
                                                       two-stage approach to optimization is introduced to reduce the computing time. The
                                                       optimization includes a long-term supervisory command optimization and a short-term
                                                       equipment level control optimization. In the long-term optimization, a dynamic
Control, Low-energy, Building simulation, Optimization programming method is used to find the optimum set points for the air temperature in
                              Commissioning and operation
                                                          The microelectronic systems embedded in a silicon chip are highly complex. A typical
                                                          microcontroller chip has several hundred analogue and digital inputs and outputs and
                                                          many modules with specific functions such as processors, timers, communications,
                                                          signal processors, dedicated controllers, monitors, or alarms and may be used in
                                                          critical applications in dynamically variable environments such as automotive engine
                                                          control. Energy consumption of microcontrollers is often critical in battery sensitive
                                                          applications such as mobile computing and communications. The microprocessor
                                                          design process has evolved to meet these challenges in a highly dynamic and rapidly
                                                          evolving marketplace. Extreme competition, high cost of fabrication, long cycle time
                                                          of fabrication, high cost of redesign, initial high market prices, rapid market price
                                                          erosion, high cost of poor quality and rapid obsolescence have meant that short
                                                          design times, first time design success and high quality have been essentials for

                                                         Simulation has been a key enabler for success in the chip industry. Microcontroller
                                                         chips are highly simulated before the expensive mask-sets used to fabricate them are
                                                         ordered. The simulation includes the operational code, has a high level of fault
                                                         coverage and includes the likely variations in performance due to uncertainty in the
                                                         fabrication processes and likely ranges in operating and environmental conditions.
                                                         The robustness of the design is quantified using a capability index. Test code is
                                                         generated from simulation software with high fault coverage and used to evaluate the
                              Simulation in design practice once built. The operation control code
BIM, simulation, design process, design quality, commissioning, bems, building information modelling used in the simulation is embedded in the
                                                          The thermal storage system in a building‘s HVAC system theoretically exemplifies
                                                         the technological advances of energy conservation as well as reduction of CO2
                                                         emissions. It has been reported, however, that energy conservation is not achieved
                                                         in actual operation due to non-optimal system operation. In previous report, an
                                                         optimal operation scheme for the HVAC system with thermal storage tanks was
                                                         developed based on the information of thermal load prediction.

                                                   The optimum operation scheme consists of following four blocks. 1) The algorithm
                                                   block to predict cooling load: in this block, the thermal loads of next 24 hours are
                                                   predicted. 2) The algorithm block to determine required thermal storage: in this block,
                                                   the required thermal amount is determined considering predicted loads, heat
                                                   generated by chilled water pump, heat loss through the storage tank walls and
                                                   remained heat in tanks. 3) The algorithm block to simulate the HVAC system: In this
                                                   block, the total energy consumption of the HVAC system with thermal storage tanks
                                                   is estimated using simulation. 4) The algorithm block to control optimum system
                                                   operation: in this block, the optimum values of water temperature and operation time
                                                   of chillers are determined for the purpose of minimizing the total energy consumption
                                                   of the HVAC system.
                           Commissioning and operation
HVAC System, Thermal Storage Tank, Cooling Load Prediction, Optimum Operation, Cold Water Temperature
                                                   The use of energy simulation in design is typically seen as being a comparative
                                                   process, looking at design alternatives. In the Australian market, there has been a
                                                   strong drive to achieve absolute greenhouse emission performance in new
                                                   construction. This has created a new challenge for the use of simulation in the
                                                   building design process – the prediction of actual post-construction performance.

                                                          In this paper, methods for the use of simulation in projects targeting absolute
                                                          energy/greenhouse performance targets are discussed. These approaches are
                                                          focussed on optimum utilisation of simulation as a tool throughout the design and
                                                          construction process. Key components of this include:

                                                          • Development and documentation of models to enable collaboration and information
                                                          sharing across a design team. Adequate reporting of simulation inputs is required for
                                                          all parties to the design team to be able to understand and work with the simulator for
                                                          both design and quality assurance purposes;

                                                          • Identification of the coverage of targeted end-uses. Building performance is
                                                          generally a combination of technical and behavioural influences, which can often be
                                                          reasonably well separated. Targeting of controllable end-uses is key to the
                                                          successful use of simulation as an absolute predictor of performance;

                                                          • Identification and estimation of items not normally covered within simulation
                                                          packages. Real buildings have many loads that fall within the domain of the
                                                          building‘s energy meters that are generally not modelled. Examples include
                                                          supplementary tenant condenser water loops, external lighting, car park lighting, lifts,
                                                          emergency generators and electrical distribution losses. These items in aggregate
                                                          can often consititute a substantial component of total building energy use and so
                                                          must be estimated;

                                                         • Modelling of HVAC controls relative to common control algorithms. The HVAC
                                                         control algorithms represented in simulation packages are at best an approximation
                              Commissioning and operation, Simulation in design It is essential to obtain reasonable alignment of modelled
                                                         of those
Performance prediction, design, targeting, control, measurement used in the field.practice
                                                         In transposing Article 3 of the EPBD, the new Building and Approved Inspectors
                                                         (Amendment) Regulations 2006 (England and Wales), the ―National Calculation
                                                         Methodology‖ (NCM) was defined as the single simulation-based calculation route to
                                                         verifying compliance with energy performance criteria specified in Approved
                                                         Document Part L (Conservation of Fuel and Power). To address the functional
                                                         complexities and volumetric variability found in the UK non-domestic building stock
                                                         (Ortiz 2006, UKGBC 2007), the relevant Approved Document Part L2A (ADL2A)
                                                         allows the implementation of the NCM through the use of a variety of tool
                                                         configurations ranging from the simplified iSBEM calculation tool and its associated
                                                         interfaces to the complex dynamic thermal modelling programs (DTMs).

                                                          To establish the suitability of the software tools in each of these configurations, an
                                                          accreditation procedure defined in the technical document TM-33:2006 (CIBSE
                                                          2006) for commercial software and interfaces was used. However, previous research
                                                          (Judkoff & Neymark, 2006, 2002) has indicated that for most advanced whole-
                                                          building energy modelling tools, due to a significant range of disagreement in the
                                                          calculation of basic building physics, a significant predictive difference between their
                                                          results is found (Rittelmann & Ahmed 1985, Judkoff & Neymark 1995a, 1995b).
                                                          Additionally, results from a wide-scale industry survey assessing the applicability of
                                                          ADL2A found that in the majority of cases where multiple tools were used,
                                                          differences and frequent inconsistencies in results were reported (Raslan & Davies
Simulation Tools, Building Regulations, Comparative Analysis 2008), which raises the issue of quality assurance concerning the validity of
                              Validation and calibration, Software issues, Regulation/code compliance
                                                          The general practice for establishing the consumption in asset ratings of a building
                                                          consists of entrusting the energy analysis of the shell of a building to calculating

                                                          The building is the subject of an extremely complicated analysis, and there are many
                                                          variables at stake, is it more correct to aim for a simplification of the problem, in the
                                                          knowledge that behind every analytical formula there is the possibility of an
                                                          evaluation error, or is it better to aim for calculation models that are more and more
                                                          detailed in an attempt to succeed in predicting the real energy behaviour of the

                                                          Depending on the objective that has been set, it is a good idea to identify the tool
                                                          best adapted to reaching it: it is not correct to use simplified calculation methods for
                                                          every analysis, but not correct to apply dynamic simulation models unconditionally

                                                           This article shows the different predictive results of energy performance implemented
                                                           on a sample building and obtained using different software and methods of
                                Validation and calibration calculation.
Asset rating, energy cerification, energy performance, energy consumption

                                                       This paper describes the development of a web-based, code-compliant 2001 IECC
                                                       residential simulation for Texas. Includee in the paper is a description of the software
                                                       and database platform used in the web application and how this software is attached
                                                       to the DOE-2 legacy software running on a cluster of servers. Additional information
                                                       is included about how a residence is dynamically updated by the web-page, using
                                                       macro commands and a flexible yet fixed-schematic input file. This tool is currently in
                              Regulation/code compliance by builders in Texas to check code compliance of new residential construction.
residential code compliance Texas web application
                                                       This paper describes the development of a web-based, code-compliant ASHRAE
                                                       Standard 90.1-1999 commercial simulation for Texas. Included in the paper is a
                                                       description of the software and database platform used in the web application and
                                                       how this software is attached to the DOE-2 legacy software running on a cluster of
                                                       servers. Additional information is included about how a building is dynamically
                                                       updated by the web-page, using macro commands and a flexible yet fixed-schematic
                                                       input file. This tool will be used by commercial builders in Texas to check code
                                                       compliance of new commercial construction.

commercial code compliance web based Texas compliance
                                                    The Belgian residential ventilation standard proposes a fixed flow rate per room,
                                                    depending on the use of the space. To achieve these flow rates, the standard
                                                    proposes 4 systems. These range from natural ventilation (A), over mechanical
                                                    supply (B) and mechanical exhaust (C), to a fully mechanical system (D). These
                                                    systems are put forward in a descriptive manner, rather than an Indoor Air Quality
                                                    (IAQ) performance based one.

                                                          In response to this, the performance of the systems proposed in the current standard
                                                          is compared. This is done with a series of TRNflow simulations. A number of
                                                          reference dwellings, representative for the majority of the Belgian dwellings, are
                                                          modelled in 4 different scenarios, each scenario modeling the implementation of one
                                                          of the 4 systems proposed in the standard. The typologies of the reference dwellings
                                                          include a bungalow, a detached, a semi-detached, a terraced house and a flat.

                                                          The performance of the systems is evaluated on 4 different IAQ criteria: their ability
                                                          to effectively control humidity and CO2 levels, the effectiveness of pollutant removal
                                                          in extraction zones and their effectiveness to control non-occupant related pollutant
                                                          levels (eg VOC‘s). The models have been constructed parametrically to enable easy
                                                          sensitivity analysis. Since no boundary conditions are included in the standard, the
                                                          influence of variance in airtightness, design airflows, building type and occupation on
                                                          the performance of the systems is investigated more in detail.

                                                          The predicted performance is compared to existing standardized performance levels
                                                          and used to evaluate the current dimensioning rules for the 4 systems. The
                                                          comparison to existing standards allows to assess the position of the current
                                                          standard in a broader international context. The results of the analysis demonstrate
                                                          large variation in Indoor Air Quality for the different systems and significant influence
                                                          of the mentioned parameters.

Ventilation, Standard, Performance                     However, the correlation of IAQ and health, mental performance and comfort has
                              Regulation/code compliance

                                                        The study is placed within the context of local building regulations in India. Building
                                                        regulations, for fenestration in general and window openings in particular, are, to a
                                                        large extent, ambiguous in nature. In the context of India, observations show that the
                                                        regulations specify window size for the sole purpose of ventilation whereas windows
                                                        are major role-players in the thermal and daylighting performance of buildings. In this
                                                        paper, parametric simulation is used to generate data for cooling and lighting loads
                                                        for typical commercial office spaces in the hot-dry climate of Ahmedabad, India. This
                                                        data is then analysed using Multiple Regression techniques to express loads as a
                                                        function of floor area, aspect ratio, wall-to-window ratio and orientation of windows.
                                                        The equations derived from regression help compare the energy implications of
                                                        varying window sizes and their orientations. The observations and results stress the
                                                        need to re-analyse local building regulations that fail to indicate the maximum
                                                        allowable limit of window size leading to highly inefficient building design.
                             Simulation in design practice,
Building regulations, WWR, Thermal, Daylight, Simulation Regulation/code compliance
                                                            Implementation of EU Directive on Energy Performance of Building (EPBD) requires
                                                            that each EU member state has to develop methodology for assessment of energy
                                                            performance of different types of buildings, including those equipped with advanced
                                                            systems of control of both thermal comfort and indoor air quality. These
                                                            methodologies have to pay special attention to ventilation and air conditioning
                                                            systems. First reason is due to the fact that they deal not only with control of
                                                            temperature but also control of humidity. Although CEN standards related to Energy
                                                            Performance of Buildings calculations suggest to avoid control of humidity, in Polish
                                                            climate with variation of humidity ratio from 0.6 g/kg in winter time to 12 g/kg in
                                                            summer some control of humidity is necessary. Otherwise relative humidity can vary
                                                            from 15 % to 85 % (exceeding acceptable 30-70% range). Second reason is
                                                            because air systems in comparison with some other building systems has low inertia
                                                            and fast respond to disturbances. Moreover in some cases (eg. variable air volume
                                                            systems - VAV and demand controlled ventilation -DCV) performance of these
                                                            systems is closely related to behaviour of building.

                                                            Taking all this into consideration authors are convinced that not monthly but at least
                                                            hourly simulation of both building behaviour and system performance can properly
                                                            assess energy use in complex buildings with advanced air systems.

                                                            The paper presents the concept of integration of buildings simulations (based on
                                                            simplified hourly method described in EN ISO 13790:2007 Energy performance of
                                                            buildings - Calculation of energy use for space heating and cooling) and behaviour of
                                                            ventilation and air-conditioning systems (based on EN 15241 Ventilation for buildings
                                                            – Calculation methods for energy losses due to ventilation and infiltration in
                                                            commercial buildings).

                                                       Integration resulted in changes in 5R1C schema (described in EN ISO 13790:2007)
                             performance, ISO 13790, and 15241 practice, Regulation/code compliance
EPBD, AHU simulation, energyBuilding services, Simulation inin introduction of optional equations for assessment of indoor temperature
                                                       EN design
                                                       The Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and Council on energy
                                                       efficiency of buildings (Energy Performance of Buildings Directive or EPBD in short)
                                                       came into effect on 4th January 2003. This directive is considered a crucial
                                                       component of energy efficiency legislation of the European Union in efforts to meet
                                                       the Kyoto commitment as well as respond to issues highlighted in the Green Paper
                                                       on energy supply security. One of the key roles of the EPBD is to realise the savings
                                                       potential in the building sector, estimated at approximately 28%, which could in turn
                                                       reduce the total EU energy consumption by up to 11%. There are several main
                                                       components that constitute the directive, three of which require the use of software
                                                       tools for implementing building energy performance methodologies and calculation.
                                                       For this the government needs to ensure that the tools are regulated and

                                                        Therefore, as part of the UK government EPBD commitment it has now become a
                                                        requirement for all commercially available software for calculating building energy in
                                                        both the domestic and non-domestic case studies
                              Software issues, Regulation/code compliance, Application day -sectors to be validated for compliance with
EPBD, software, validation, approval, Asset Rating, Operational Rating
                                                        The UK Government launched the Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) in 2006 to act
                                                        as the vehicle to facilitate the government‘s goal of ensuring that every new house
                                                        built in England is ‗zero-carbon‘ by 2016. The CSH defines six levels of sustainable
                                                        development assigned through a detailed review at design and post-construction
                                                        stages. This paper describes the development, application and analysis of an
                                                        interactive user-friendly CSH-based toolkit called Sustainability Appraisal Toolkit
                                                        (SAT) commissioned by a leading UK social housing provider. The SAT software
                                                        runs on MS Excel and is used to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of
                                                        achieving Code levels 3, 4, 5 and 6 for a representative sample of new-build
                                                        dwellings in the UK for different scales of development (single-home, 25-home and
                                                        250-home development). The scenarios are modelled using three standard UK
                                                        housing types: a detached house (104m2), a mid-terraced house (79m2) and a low-
                                                        rise flat (61m2).

                                                            A range of strategies are evaluated both on the demand and supply sides of energy
                                                            to meet different CSH levels (discussed in detail in the paper). The demand side of
                                                            measures such as increased insulation and higher air tightness levels, are
                                                            progressively increased and made more stringent to achieve higher code levels,
                                                            followed by low and zero carbon technologies to achieve the target code levels.

                                                       The analysis reveals that there is a considerable reduction in additional costs per
                                                       dwelling (over
                             Simulation housing, low carbon systems current building regulations) to meet code level 3 (25% reduction)
Code for Sustainable Homes, zero carbonin design practice, Regulation/code compliance
                                                       With the entrance into force of the 2002/91/EC Directive of the European Parliament
                                                       and of the Council, of 16th December 2002, on the energy performance of buildings -
                                                       EPBD, with the objective of harmonizing all thermal regulations in the EU and
                                                       optimize the buildings energy performance, all European countries are working hard
                                                       to transpose this Directive into National laws.

                                                            From 1st of January 2009, the new Portuguese thermal regulation will be fully
                                                            implemented and thus it will be introduced the new energy certification methodology
                                                            for existing buildings. This means that the existing buildings must also meet the new
                                                            energy requirements, although only in some specific cases.

                                                            In fact, this could mean a great improvement on the Portuguese building stock
                                                            energy efficiency, as, besides the localization, area, design, neighborhood, etc., this
                                                            will also become an important parameter to take into consideration when buying or
                                                            renting a dwelling. However, this new methodology, introduced by the technical note
                                                            NT-SCE-01 from 3rd of September 2008, is a simplification of the methodology used
                                                            for new buildings, and thus, it should be tested in real case studies in order to
                                                            guarantee its effectiveness and be a real contribution to the energy performance
                                                            enhancement of the Portuguese building stock.

                                                        The goal of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of this simplified methodology and
                                                        to assess the influence of some parameters on the building final energy performance
                              Regulation/code compliance, Application day - be performed
energy, performance, estimation, existing buildings, EPBD, RCCTE This will case studies by simple ―in-situ‖ measurement techniques, in
                                                        Artificial-Neural-Networks have been increasingly applied for advanced thermal
                                                        control of buildings. Conceived from the analogy of human brain and its learning
                                                        process, ANN utilizes connectivity and transfer functions between input, hidden, and
                                                        output neurons, and has been applied to non-linear systems or systems with unclear
                                                        dynamics. In building control, ANN-based predictive thermal control methods have a
                                                        potential for providing comfort while enhancing energy efficiency better than
                                                        conventional thermostat-based controls.

                                                            This paper presents ANN-based residential thermal control strategies that were
                                                            designed to achieve both comfort and energy efficiency simultaneously. We
                                                            developed ANN control algorithms incorporating the International Building Physics
                                                            Toolbox (IBPT) of MATLAB. Our control methods controls utilize air temperature,
                                                            humidity and PMV as control variable. By manipulating humidity and PMV, it was
                                                            hypothesized that comfort conditions could be created with higher energy efficiency.
                                                            We also employed a predictive control method in our ANN control logics with a
                                                            hypothesis that the number of hours with comfort conditions could be increased
                                                            through the reduction of over- and undershoots of control variables.

                                                       Parametric simulations were conducted to comparatively analyze the performances
Thermal Control, ANN, Thermal comfort, Energy Efficiency 4-thermal control strategies for heating and cooling seasons: 1) temperature and
                            Advances in building physics, Advances in applications
                                                       It is widely admitted that intense human activity causes climate change. Hence, the
                                                       present work is focus on investigating ways to improve the energetic performance of
                                                       buildings. Control algorithms have already been tested using a 1-D thermal model
                                                       (based on conduction and convection equations) and proved to be effective for
                                                       improving renewable energy consumption while reducing fossil energy dependence.

                                                            For real-time testing of various control algorithms, a prototype has been designed. It
                                                            is composed of a building mock-up, a monitoring system and a data post-treatment
                                                            software. A real one floor house of approximately 120 m2 has been used as
                                                            reference for designing the mock-up. The scale is 1:27 and materials remain the
                                                            same as for the real house: polystyrene for insulation and tiling for the floor. Polyane
                                                            is used for glasses and losses are about 13 W/m2K.

                                                            The data acquisition system allows measuring and recording both mock-up indoor
                                                            and outdoor temperatures and energy consumption. Two resistors serves as energy
                                                            sources: the first one as renewable energy source, used for main heating, and the
                                                            second one as fossil fuel energy source, used for additional heating. The aim of the
                                                            present work is controlling the mock-up indoor temperature subject to outdoor
                                                            disturbances by means of the power supply applied to the two resistors, while
                                                            minimizing fossil energy consumption. The work consisted of two parts:

                                                             First part: estimating the parameters of a grey-box state-space thermal model of the
                                                             mock-up using a classical iterative prediction-error minimization method and multiple
                                                             temperature sensors.
                                 Building services, Validation and calibration, Regulation/code compliance
building mock-up, hybrid system, modeling, control strategies, energy savings
                                                             As plant modelling becomes capable of more complexity and detailed resolution, new
                                                             opportunities arise for the virtual evaluation of discrete plant components such as
                                                             flow control and energy conversion devices, and controllers. Such objects are
                                                             conventionally developed and tested at the prototype stage in a laboratory
                                                             environment. Designers now seek to use modelling technology to extend their
                                                             understanding from limited laboratory test results to full building and plant system
                                                             analysis. The paper describes the development of a modelling system, using ESP-r,
                                                             for typical United Kingdom domestic house types with hydronic gas or oil fired central
                                                             heating including radiator and underfloor systems, and with a variety of conventional
                                                             or advanced control types. It demonstrates the ability of detailed building and plant
                                                             modelling to reveal surprising insights into how real control systems perform in
                                                             combination with other plant items and in different building types, including estimation
                                                             of their influence on annual energy consumption. Comparisons with measurements
control, validation, ESP-r, plant, hydronic in applications taken in test rooms confirm that the observed behaviour of controls is realised in
                                                             For the purpose of reducing the room air-conditioners‘ energy consumption, an
                                                             energy saving control method is proposed formerly. In this paper its energy saving
                                                             effect is confirmed through experiments conducted in six office rooms in actual use.
                                                             The experiment results show that the air-conditioners controlled by the present
                                                             energy saving control logic and parameter settings can save electric power up to
                                                             3.0% compared to ordinary control. Further, if the energy saving control parameters
                                                             of room temperature set points are fixed at 27oC for cooling operation in summer and
                                                             at 23oC for heating operation in winter, in average 18.7% and 23.8% electric power
                                                             can be saved. At the same time, in order to check whether the indoor air temperature
                                                             of 27oC in summer and 23oC in winter will cause uncomfortable complaints or not,
                                                             questionnaires on indoor thermal comfort and sensation are conducted. The results
                                                             show that these indoor temperatures are acceptable for the occupants. Finally a
                                                             room model and the air-conditioner control model are developed to simulate the
                                                             performance Thermal Energy
                                 Commissioning and operation, Building of one-minute interval room air temperature, which is used to determine
Air-conditioner control, Evaluation, Optimization, Energy conservation, services, Comfort capture and conversion
                                                             Study of complex control strategies plays an increas-ing role in building design.
                                                             Discrepancy between the intentions of the designer, often expressed as non-
                                                             formalized control laws, and the as-built implementation is a frequent source of
                                                             malfunction and energy waste. Two approaches to remedy this problem in the
                                                             context of equation-based, full-building, whole-year simulation are treated: (1) The
                                                             availability of Modelica based libraries of functional blocks for typical objects such as
                                                             integrator, gain, PID-controller and time-delay in a general system simulator enables
                                                             off-line testing and tuning of realistic control systems. (2) Efficient implementation of
                                                             algorithmic discrete-time controllers enables direct simulation of complex control
                                                             algorithms described with the same source code in the simulator as in the real
                                                             controller. The first approach is discussed and illustrated briefly. While not available
                                                             in traditional building simulation environments, such block libraries have been availa-
                                                             ble in other simulation domains for several years already. The second approach is
Control strategies, multi-rate simulation, adaptive time steptreated more tho-roughly, since special methods are needed for build-ings, where
                                 Advances in applications, Software issues
                                                            In a simulation-powered building control approach, control decisions are made as
                                                            follows: First, presently available control options are virtually projected onto a future
                                                            time step via numeric simulation. Subsequently, the respective consequences
                                                            (computed values of pertinent performance indicators) are predicted, compared, and
                                                            ranked. Our past research has provided a preliminary proof of concept for this
                                                            approach, mostly in terms of demonstrative implementations in lighting and shading
                                                            domains. However, to arrive at truly scalable solutions, sustained multi-domain
                                                            implementations are necessary. Towards this end, we recently established a building
                                                            automation test-bed for simulation-powered systems control. It consists of a modular
                                                            structure, which can be divided into two rooms. Each room is equipped with two
                                                            ceiling mounted luminaries, a motorized window with blind, dampers for air volume
                                                            flow control, a radiant heater, and a desktop humidifier. Sensors for environmental
                                                            conditions measure duct air temperature and airflow, as well as indoor air
                                                            temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, illuminance, and air speed. A mobile
                                                            daylight emulator placed in front of the windows can provide a range of light
                                                            quantities. The field devices communicate on LON protocol. Control loops for
                                                            equipment have been programmed into a low-level controller. Using BACnet protocol,
                                                            the controller‘s variables can be accessed through a custom-built gateway by our
                                                            simulation-powered control software.

                                                       The control services, composed applications
                               Commissioning and operation, Buildingsoftware isAdvances inof a controller, a building model service and a
Building systems control, simulation
                                                       Windows provide occupants with daylight, direct sunlight, visual contact with the
                                                       outside and a feeling of openness. Windows enable the use of daylighting rather
                                                       than artificial lighting and offer occupants a pleasant outside view. Glazing may also
                                                       cause a number of problems: excessive undesired heat gain in the cooling season
                                                       and heat loss in winter due to its high U-value. An over-lit window surface can cause
                                                       glare, which is another major complaint by occupants. Furthermore, cold or hot
                                                       window surfaces induce asymmetric thermal radiation which can result in thermal

                                                           To reduce the potential problems of window systems double skin façades and airflow
                                                           window systems have been introduced in the 1970s. They typically contain interstitial
                                                           louvers and ventilation openings that enforce different airflow regimes through the
                                                           glass enclosed cavity in summer and winter. The current problem with double skin
                                                           systems is that their operation requires an adequate simulation model to realize
                                                           optimal control of the system. Many studies have recognized that only an optimal
                                                           control of the louver angle and airflow regime enables these systems to truly act as
                                                           active energy savers and indoor environmental controllers. However, an adequate
                                                           control strategy for this dynamic optimization problem has thus far not been
                                                           developed. Lack of such a dynamic control is due to the following reason: An
                                Validation and calibration adequate control needs an underlying mathematical model to predict the response of
self-calibration, parameter estimation, simulation model, optimization
                                                           The Time of Use (TOU) electricity metering involves dividing the day, month and
                                                           year in to ‗tariff slots‘ or ‗bands‘, with generally higher rates at the peak load periods
                                                           and low tariff rates at off-peak load periods. Most users pay a flat rate for the electric
                                                           power they consume. These rates are generally same for the entire year. The idea of
                                                           time of use is to get the people to shift or reduce electricity consumption at the peak
                                                           load time slots. Intelligent load management of moving the maximum possible power
                                                           consumption (like laundry, dish washing, shower etc) to the off-peak hours can win
                                                           immediate economic benefits to the consumer without any considerable
                                                           inconvenience. The time of use package is equally beneficial for the power company.
                                                           Power companies are designed to be capable of meeting the peak demands (for
                                                           example in hot summer days, the huge air-conditioning load), but generally they
                                                           cannot store power. For all off-peak periods, the surplus capacity costs a lot of
                                                           money for maintenance without generating lot of income. So, if the peak load
                                                           magnitudes can be reduced, the company can save money to build extra power
                                                           plants and can offer discounted rates. The importance of such efforts also increases
                                                           in face of the upcoming energy management challenges and GHG reduction targets
                                                           that Canada is bound to achieve under its commitment to Kyoto Protocol.
                                Energy (TOU), Load Profiles
GHG, Load Management, Time of Usecapture and conversion, Advances in applications

                                                            In a metropolis such as Seoul which has high density of population and complex
                                                            buildings, district heating/cooling systems are popular community energy systems in
                                                            terms of energy efficiency and carbon reduction. In order to optimise energy
                                                            generation and distribution of district heating/cooling systems, it is required to predict
                                                            energy demand profiles with appropriate accuracy. In the case of a residential
                                                            complex, identifying hourly demand profiles is a challenge for the energy managers
                                                            to face since there are numerous buildings with different orientations and they affect
                                                            each other. in the complex. Although detailed simulation techniques can be adopted
                                                            for the prediction for individual building, there is a practical issue in compromising
                                                            between accuracy and resources available. This paper presents a preliminary study
                                                            on simulation modelling strategy examining the effect of different model resolution,
                                                            orientation of the building, and shading caused by adjacent buildings in an effort to
                                Simulation simulation, modelling demand profiles of residential complex with limited resources.
residential complex, load profiles, detailedin design practice
                                                            This paper presents computer simulation results of hypothetic models representing
                                                            administrative buildings at UFRN. The simulations procedures were made with the
                                                            DesignBuilder software, which is a graphic interface of EnergyPlus software. The
                                                            analysis aims to emphasize the influence of envelope architectural decisions on air
                                                            conditioning energy consumption and the improvement of buildings thermal
                                                            performance. The modeling process was endorsed by a field survey and by energy
                                                            monitoring procedures. Three models were proposed to represent different design
                                                            decisions concerning different phases of design process. In the first model, different
                                                            settings of geometry and envelope were permuted in order to identify the influence of
                                                            different geometries combined with different levels of envelope efficiency. The results
                                                            of this model show that a building with low performance geometry can achieve high
                                                            thermal performance levels with an efficient envelope. The second model analyses
                                                            the thermal balance of conditioned rooms and unconditioned circulation halls –
                                                            central or lateral. According to the results, the thermal changes between these rooms
                                                            can decisions;
Simulation; energy consumption; thermal performance; designinfluence thermal performance of conditioned rooms and increase the
                                Simulation in design practice, Application day - case studies
                                                            This paper first discusses the features of whole energy simulation tool—EnergyPlus,
                                                            demonstrating its advantage on simulating large commercial buildings. By comparing
                                                            EnergyPlus with other energy simulation tools, it explores how to use EnergyPlus to
                                                            construct models to acurately simulate complex building systems as well as the
                                                            interrelationships among sub-systems such as HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air
                                                            Conditioning)、lighting and domestic hot water systems. Then energy
                                                            consumption and cost of a large public building is simulated and calculated for LEED
                                                            certification using EnergyPlus. ASHRAE baseline model is constructed according to
                                                            ASHRAE 90.1 standard and the comparison of annual energy consumption between
                                                            ASHRAE baseline model and proposed model is carried out. Moreover, an energy
                                                            saving model is built based on the proposed model. In this model, shading
                                                            performance of the transparent envelopes and operating performance of the building
                                                            system components are improved, meanwhile, other ECMs (energy saving
                                                            measures) such as daylighting dimming and occupant sensor are considered. The
                                Advances in applications simulation results show EnergyPlus
whole building energy simulation, large public building, ASHRAE baseline model, 4.7% electricity consumption decrease but 6.9% gas

                                                         The rapid growth in residential air conditioning (cooling) in many parts of the world is
                                                         resulting in increased energy consumption, significantly affecting central electricity
                                                         systems, and having adverse environmental consequences. Alternatives to
                                                         conventional electrically powered vapour-compression air conditioning are emerging.
                                                         Building performance simulation can be used to assess their feasibility and guide
                                                         their development, but only if it can accurately characterize the magnitude and
                                                         temporal variation of cooling loads, including the impact of architectural and site
                                                         variables (e.g. annual weather changes) as well as the impact of occupant behaviour
                                                         and interventions (e.g. setpoint temperatures, window shading, window openings).
                                                         This paper demonstrates how building performance simulation can be employed to
solar, cooling, air-conditioning Energy capture and conversion the impact of these factors upon seasonal as well as peak daily cooling loads.
                                                         ' In this paper, total energy consumption in Japanese residential sector is evaluated
                                                         by using bottom-up model that is developed by authors. Nation level effect of
                                                         introducing various kinds of energy saving measures are evaluated, including
                                                         introducing heat pump water heater, cogeneration and other systems that are being
                                                         remarkable these days.

                                                            ' Energy consumption in Japanese residential sector is increasing continuously
                                                            according to the increase of single households, change of life-style and increase of
                                                            home electric appliances. As a result of it, energy consumption in this sector in 2005
                                                            has approximately 30 % larger than that in 1990 (Agency for natural resources and
                                                            energy in 2006). For this reason, introducing some effective energy saving measures
                                                            are urgently needed.

                                                       ' Energy consumption in households are of great variety depending on household
                                                       type, building type, climate condition and other factors. So reliable result is not
                                                       provided only by multiplying the simulated energy consumption of ‗standard type of
                                                       household‘ by the number of households. Because of this, the authors have
                                                       developed a bottom-up model which simulates total energy consumption in the
                                                       residential sector in Japan. In this model, all of the households are classified into 228
                                                       categories by household and building type, heat and cooling demand are calculated
                                                       in detail considering heat generation by humans and electric appliances, occupant‘s
                             Building services, Advances Distributed power generations systems, high efficient water heaters systems, selection of the best system
Residential energy consumption, Energy saving measures, in applications
                                                       The user‘s action is a decisive factor in the energy performance of a building. In this
                                                       paper, the need for using more specific user‘s profiles (UP) in simulations of
                                                       building‘s energy performance (EP) is demonstrated.

                                                            From a start we began simulating the EP of a social housing building in Tossa,
                                                            Spain. This EP evaluated the heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and
                                                            demands as well as lighting loads and comfort bands. These simulations need some
                                                            inputs like weather data files, the description of the building‘s geometry and materials
                                                            but also the UP (occupancy, setpoint temperatures, etc.). Many times these inputs
                                                            are not available and must be supposed, most of the times being not accurate.

                                                            Oftentimes in building simulation a superposition principle is being applied, meaning
                                                            that the resulting effect in energy demand is a linear superposition of the effects of
                                                            each input. This is an oversimplification as, when different improvements are added,
                                                            the resulting efficiency gain is not the sum of the efficiency gain of each of the
                                                            separate improvements. With regards to the influence of UP and, specifically, to the
                                                            indoor setpoint temperature, it is clear that if the winter set point temperature is
                                                            higher, the transmission losses through the skin (connected to the surface of the
                                                            outer skin) will vary in a different proportion to the ventilation losses (linked to the
                                                            occupancy). Another example is the effect of using a free-run temperature schedule
                                                            for a residential building during the daytime, as it is partly used in the Spanish
                                                            building codes; with this UP, the influence of solar shading will be very low.

                                                           The Spanish Technical Code for Buildings (CTE) offers a unique generic residential
                               Simulation building practice, for every site in compliance
building user‘s behaviour, energy profiles,in design simulationRegulation/codethe country. This profile represents the normal energy behaviour
                                                             The deterioration of thermal environment in urban outdoor living space has became
                                                            serious problem in Japan. In order to create comfortable living space in urban
                                                            outdoor, solar shading by tree, eaves, membrane architecture and so on is very
                                                            effective. On the other hand, the solar shading is possible to cause darkish living

                                                            The purpose of this study is to develop a design support tool by combining a heat
                                                            balance simulation for urban surface with luminous environment simulation in urban
                                                            outdoor and semi-outdoor living space, in order to evaluate thermal environment and
                                                            luminous environment in parallel.

                                                            The newly simulation tool allow to calculate mean radiant temperature taking account
                                                            into solar radiation and compute daylight illuminance in outdoor and semi-outdoor
                                                            living space.

                                                            The tool is constructed by improving the previous simulation model, which predicts
                                                            surface temperature distribution in outdoor space. This tool is able to predict the
                                                            influence of spatial form and material on thermal environment and luminous
                                                            environment because of using a high-resolution voxel mesh model.

                                                          In order to compute the mean radiant temperature taking account into solar radiation,
                                                          the simulation algorithm is constructed calculating the budget of incident radiation,
                                                          such solar radiation, sky radiation, atmospheric radiation and multi-reflected solar
                                                          radiation, into human body in outdoor space. When the budget of incident radiation
                                                          into human body is calculated, the following two features are considered.(1) Direct
                                                          solar radiation is parallel beam.(2) Sky solar radiation, reflected solar radiation,
                                                          atmospheric radiation and long wave radiation are in a radial pattern.
                               Simulation luminous environment, numerical analysis, outdoor and semi-outdoor lving space
design support tool, thermal environment, in design practice
                                                          Buildings generate significant impacts on the environment during their lifespan.
                                                          These impacts come from the energy consumed while the building is in use and from
                                                          the materials used for the construction. It is possible to quantify these impacts in
                                                          order to help optimize choices made during the planning phase.

                                                            Until now, new buildings in Switzerland had to be certified according to the SIA 380/1
                                                            standard, which only takes into account the energetic performances of the building.
                                                            In the context of a project financed by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy and local
                                                            authorities, the Laboratory of Solar Energy and Building Physics (LESBAT) at the
                                                            University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HES-SO) has been working
                                                            on adding an ecobalance module to a popular thermal balance tool named Lesosai,
                                                            which provides the simultaneous assessment of the energy balance and the
                                                            environmental impacts of the building.

                                                           This paper focuses on the environmental impacts assessment module. It describes
                                                           the data and the methodology used to evaluate these impacts. It is based on a life
                                                           cycle approach and involves the most important phases of the building life; from
                                                           materials manufacturing to waste disposal after the building has been dismantled. In
LCA, ecobalance                                            order
                                Application day - case studies to validate the results, the calculation has been applied to 15 different buildings
                                                           Building performance simulation (BPS) programs make use of hourly weather data
                                                           sets for the prediction of e.g. energy use, overheating hours and heating and cooling
                                                           capacity. These weather files are typically based on recorded historical data. When
                                                           designing building systems, practitioners expect HVAC components to function
                                                           successfully for up to 30 years. There is a risk that HVAC systems will fail to meet
                                                           their performance requirements before the end of their expected lifetime, when the
                                                           operational conditions are different from the design conditions. A building system‘s
                                                           robustness describes the ability to maintain predefined performance requirements
                                                           under conditions deviating from the design conditions. It is questionable whether
                                                           historical data sets are suitable to assess a building system‘s robust-ness to climate
                                                           variations over the life time of the installed systems.

                                                           Until now, the recorded data of the weather station ‗De Bilt‘ from the period April
                                                           1964 – March 1965 have been used as a reference climate file for performance
                                                           simulation. At the beginning of 2008 the new Dutch standard NEN 5060:2008 was
                                                           published. NEN5060:2008 provides four data sets based on more recent weather
                                                           data, one to be used for energy calcu-lations and three data sets for overheating risk
                                                           assessment. In a cooperative effort of the Eindhoven University of Technology
                                                           (TU/e) and Vabi Software BV the data sets were com-bined with climate change
                                                           scenarios for The Netherlands published by the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute
                                                           (KNMI). The results of the work are weather data sets containing one year of hourly
                                                           values that represent the projected future climate. Here the
                                Advances in applications, Simulation in design practice, Regulation/code compliance periods of over 15 and
Climate change scenario's performance simulation
                                                           The integration of techniques for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in building
                                                           performance simulation (BPS) has a number of potential benefits related to design. It
                                                           allows assessing the accuracy of performance predictions; it can be used to provide
                                                           concept specific design guidance, and it enables a robustness assessment of the
                                                           design proposal to different future climate scenarios. The later is considered here.
                                                           The problems associated with using climate data sets as input to sampling based
                                                           uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques are; (1) these represent time series
                                                           data with history, and (2) when used as reference data sets, are purpose bound. To
                                                           address the problems a typical office room is exposed to measured historic weather
                                                           files, projected future weather data and a derived artificial reference weather data set
                                                           representative for the period and location. Its response is compared using peak
                                                           cooling load as criterion for the buildings robustness. It is found that the individual
                                                           artificial reference data sets are not suited to predict the peak cooling load and its
                                                           uncertainty band, as they were created for the prediction of a specific performance
                                                           metrics and for specific building types. However scenario based multi-year future
                                Advances in applications, Software data sets show the in robustness successfully
                                                           weather issues, Simulation potential practice
uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, sampling, historic weather data sets, building types,design to be assessment used with sampling based
                                                           This paper proposes a radical new approach to the real information needs of
                                                           designers in the early stages of design. The approach is designed to make the
                                                           power of full simulation engines available at the very first stages of design
                                                           conceptualisation. Simplified design tools are typically too limited in their solution
                                                           space to be of much use in early design. Rather, this approach proposes to provide
                                                           access to the power of full, detailed energy, lighting, air flow and acoustic simulation
                                                           at a stage in the design when little is known about the final building, but at a stage
                                                           when the freedom to explore options is greatest.

                                                            The goal is to make detailed digital models of flows of heat, light, air and sound
                                                            available to the design team. The nature of this approach has been derived from
                                                            consultation with design analysts and from the lessons learned from Post Occupancy
                                                            Evaluation (POE) of advanced buildings.

                                                         Too often the feedback from POE is telling us that the performance of these
                                                         advanced design buildings is not as expected even when simulation has been an
                                                         integral part of the design process. A building where the occupancy rates are twice
                                                         those that were used in the simulation; a building where the complex HVAC system
                                                         needs regular attention beyond the expertise normally employed for maintenance
                                                         which is too hot/cold whenever this complex system runs less than optimally; a
                                                         building where value engineering has compromised the operation of the natural
                                                         ventilation system; the list is apparently as long as the number of people one talks to
                              Simulation in design practice the industry. Initial design tools do not address this solution space. Analysis of the
Quality Assurance, early design,
                                                         With sustainability becoming a key issue in building construction industry, architects
                                                         are faced with the challenge to design energy efficient buildings. This can be
                                                         achieved by adopting an ‗integrated design process‘ in which engineers and energy
                                                         specialist regularly performing energy simulations are involved, particularly in the
                                                         early design stage, as the key building design decisions that have maximum impact
                                                         on improving the energy performance are made in this stage. However, considering
                                                         the budgetary and time constraints, such involvement is rarely achieved. This leads
                                                         to the early design stage decisions based on rule of thumb and guidelines typically
                                                         illustrated through passive design guides or on prior experience of architects, rather
                                                         than the valuable objective energy performance feedback from energy specialists. An
                                                         alternative approach to this is that Architects perform and use energy simulation as a
                                                         design tool in the early design stages.

                                                             Recently, energy simulation programs (ESP-s) have evolved considerably from
                                                             research domains to become more user-friendly and accessible by Architects. The
                                                             developments in data interoperability, graphical user interfaces and easy to use front
                                                             ends for complex simulation engines have made these ESP-s suitable for use by
                                                             simulation non-experts in early design stages. However, user surveys have indicated
                                Software issues, design tool uptake of simulation by architects in practice is fairly low, predominantly due to
early design stage, architect, energy simulation, Simulation in design practice
                                                             Data centres housing the IT infrastructure of large organisations constitute a
                                                             considerable technical challenge to ensure 100% operational availability for mission
                                                             critical IT systems. Specifying plant cooling systems to maintain suitable temperature
                                                             levels and dissipate the heat generated can be carried out using industry standard
                                                             design methods. However, accounting for perturbations in cooling due to failure of
                                                             plant and restart of backup systems requires for faster thermal transients to be
                                                             addressed than would normally be encountered in building system analysis. It is in
                                                             this context that this paper describes the modelling and analysis of a 5 MW chilled
                                                             water cooling system used for the cooling of a recently constructed UK data centre.
                                                             The model has been developed using the TRNSYS software and includes a full
                                                             model of the energy transfers for the data centre including chillers, hydraulic network,
                                                             valve models and each of the 70 Room Air Conditioning Units. The coupling between
                                                             the data centre air temperature levels and the cooler system has enabled a full
datacentre, cooling system, plant simulation,                assessment of the cooling system design in response to system perturbations. A
                                Building services, Simulation in design practice
                                                             Guidelines for isolation rooms in hospitals require keeping these rooms at negative
                                                             pressure differential, but the guidelines do not impose a particular ventilation strategy
                                                             how to achieve this. In principle, one could use variable ventilation regimes
                                                             responding to interventions that cause a potential contamination risk such as the
                                                             opening of doors. The variable ventilation regime would temporarily increase the
                                                             volume offset and hence induce a higher negative pressure differential, whereas
                                                             during other times the negative pressure differential would be kept at an acceptable
                                                             minimum. In practice, however, VAV boxes (i.e. damper) are often set to deliver
                                                             constant air volume. In this paper an adaptive VAV operation is introduced in
                                                             response to the complaint that current operation is not adequate as it leads to
                                                             excessive fan energy consumption. The paper evaluates the current practice while
                                                             demonstrating efficiencies of the adaptive VAV operation, and supporting a rational
                                                             selection of ventilation operation through a set of objective performance criteria. The
                                Commissioning and operation, Building services, Advances exposure of contamination, energy consumption
multi criteria, performance, ventilation, isolation room, healthcare criteria relate to potential in applications, Application day - case studies
                                                             This paper presents the results of implementing 14 high-performance measures in a
                                                             prototypical office building in a hot and humid climate using the DOE-2 simulation
                                                             program. The objectives of this research were to discover high-performance
                                                             measures applicable to office buildings in hot and humid climates and to develop
                                                             maximum energy-efficient building model, which only uses technologies readily
                                                             available in the contemporary market. The results showed that substantial energy
                                                             savings can be achieved only by using common technologies.

                                                            There were three steps to develop the high-performance building model. The first
                                                            step was a calibrated simulation, which results were presented in the SimBuild2008
                                                            Conference (Cho and Haberl, 2008a), and the second step was to develop a
                                                            simplified geometry model to compare the results between as-is geometry simulation
                                                            and simplified geometry simulation, which will also be presented in the Sixteenth
                                                            Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates (Cho and
                                                            Haberl, 2008b). As the third step, 14 high-performance measures were selected and
                                                            implemented into the simplified geometry simulation model. Before applying the
                                                            individual high-performance measures, a code-compliant simulation model (ASHRAE
                                                            90.1-1999) was created as the base-case.

                                                        Authors report individual energy savings results from implementing each high-
                                                        performance measure into the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 code compliant model. Also,
                                                        reported are cumulative energy savings from all 14 high-performance measures.
                                                        Moreover, authors compare energy uses between as-is building, ASHRAE 90.1-1999
                                                        code-compliant building model, and high-performance building model. It is indicated
                                                        that the high-performance model, which includes 14 high-performance measures,
                                                        achieved hot and humid
high-performance systems, high-performance buildings, simulation,energy savings of 48% compared to that of the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 code-
                             Simulation in design practice
                                                            In recent years, high-glazed atriums are favorable to architectural aesthetics and to
                                                           taking advantage of daylighting and solar heating. However, the estimation of the
                                                           building load and energy consumption of an atrium building is difficult because of the
                                                           complex thermal phenomena occurred at the atrium space due to its large size and
                                                           high solar gains through the fenestration.

                                                        The study aims to find out the methods of conducting accurate simulations for the
                                                        energy consumption of buildings with various types of atriums, using whole building
                                                        energy simulation tool – EnergyPlus. Cases of atrium buildings are collected through
                                                        literature review and site surveying and a characteristic variable is defined to
                                                        represent the geometry shapes of the atriums. This characteristic variable is used to
                                                        classify the atriums into varous categories. For every type of atrium building, four
                                                        models are developed with EnergyPlus, which are respectively corresponding to
                                                        different room air temperature patterns of the atrium: constant temperature, constant
                                                        gradient, two gradient interpolation, surface mapping. As input data of EnergyPlus,
                                                        these room air temperature patterns are obtained from simulation results with
                                                        Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of air temperature stratification in the atriums.
                                                        From the results of models, the most accurate model for every type atrium office
                               Advances in applications building can be found.
energy modeling, atrium building, EnergyPlus, CFD

                                Building services, Energy capture and conversion
Solar gain, shading, control, energy use                  The windows of a building are generally known to increase the use of energy. Usually, it is not, and the window acts as a piece of wall with lack of insulation most of the year and as a heat gain part of the year, usually increasing both annual heating and cooling energy use. If it is assumed that a certain window area is the case, due to architectural reasons or other, it is not an option to change the window area. Solar shading can be used to decrease the cooling power demand and cooling energy use but that also reduces the possible benefit for heating with the solar gain when there is a heating need. The apparent solution is to shade when there is a cooling need and allow solar gains when there is a heating ne
                                                          The paper deals with the calibration of models capable of simulating the performance
                                                          of MicroShades. The function of MicroShades are similar to Venetian blinds,
                                                          however, MicroShades are a microstructure embedded in a metal foil with a
                                                          thickness of less than one mm. This means that MicroShades cannot be treated the
                                                          same way as traditional windows as the transmission, absorption and reflection
                                                          changes with the combinations of the two components of the incidence angle for the
                                                          sun: horizontal and vertical incidence angle.

                                                           Windows with and without MicroShades have bee tested in two dedicated test
                                                           rooms. Models of the test rooms have been developed using the simulation program
                                                           ESP-r. MicroShades have been modelled using a novel module in ESP-r for
                                                           modelling bidirectional transmission through transparent multilayered constructions.
                                                           The module contains a matrix where the direct transmission, the absorption in each
                                                           layer of the window and the enhancement in incoming diffuse radiation due to the
                                                           scattering of direct radiation in the MicroShade are listed for combinations of the
                                                           horizontal and vertical incidence angle at steps of 5o.

                                                          The paper deals with the calibration of the ESP-r models and especially the data
                                                          model of the PowerShades in the bidirectional transmission module using measured
bidirectional transmission, solar shading and calibration data from the test rooms.
                                                          During the past few decades, double-skin systems have been widely introduced.
                                                          They typically contain interstitial louvers and ventilation openings that enforce
                                                          different airflow regimes through the glass enclosed cavity. The current problem with
                                                          double skin façades is that their operation requires adequate dynamic operation to
                                                          reach their expected performance. Many studies have recognized that only an
                                                          optimal control of the louver angle and airflow regime enables these systems to truly
                                                          act as active energy savers and indoor environmental controllers. However, an
                                                          adequate control strategy for this dynamic optimization problem has thus far not been

                                                           The primary objective of the study is to compare different optimal control methods:
                                                           (1) rule-based approach (CIBSE 1996), (2) exhaustive search, (3) gradient method.
                                                           The fundamental principle of the rule-based approach is ―if this, do that‖ under
                                                           certain circumstances, and the rules are generally based on expert knowledge. The
                                                           disadvantage of this approach is that it does not reflect the transient behavior of the
                                                           system. The exhaustive search or ―brute force‖ search tests all possibilities for the
                                                           solution. The gradient method uses the derivative of the criterion function.

                                                           For this study, a space-averaged lumped physical model published in (Park et al
                                                           2004) was used to describe the dynamics of the double skin system. The daylighting
                                                           model is based on pre-simulations with RADIANCE for a typical, rectangular, office
                                                           space that has a south facing façade. The model can provide indoor daylight
                                                           distribution such as uniformity, task illuminance and luminance of window surface.
                                Advances in applications
double-skin, optimal control, performance, optimization, rule-based, exhaust search, gradient
                                                           Fenestration and its design have a significant impact on the energy performance of
                                                           buildings; it impacts on daylight penetration, artificial lighting energy use, and heating
                                                           and cooling energy use. To date, optimization methods have been used to minimize
                                                           building energy use by optimizing window and shading device dimensions, but with
                                                           the window shape always being rectangular and the position of the windows on the
                                                           facade being fixed. Although this approach can result in reduced building energy use
                                                           (and carbon emissions), the fact that the shape and positions of the windows on the
                                                           façade are fixed, necessarily limits the extent to which energy use can be reduced;
                                                           restricting the shape of the windows to be rectangular also inhibits the Architectural
                                                           form of the fenestration. The objective of the research presented in this paper is to
                                                           investigate an approach to fenestration optimization in which the shape, number, and
                                                           position of windows can be optimized for minimum building energy use.

                                                           The optimization is implemented by dividing a given façade into a number of small
                                                           rectangular cells. Each cell can be defined to be either a solid construction or glazed.
                                                           A single window on the façade is defined as being a set of adjacent (connecting)
                                                           glazed cells. Although constructed from rectangular cells, the resultant windows can
                                                           have an irregular overall shape. Each cell is represented by a separate binary
                                                           optimization variable having one of two values, 0 or 1 (a value of 0 resulting in solid
                                                           construction, and a value of 1 glazing).

                              Advances in applications Since the Architect may wish to maintain some control over the general size, shape,
Fenestration, Optimization, Evolutionary Algroithms, Energy Minimization
                                                         This paper provides an overview of a new method for calculating the _total solar
                                                         energy transmittance_. It is implemented in the _ESP-r_ building simulation program
                                                         to model complex façades such as double glazed façades with external, internal or
                                                         integrated shading devices.

                                                           Because architects frequently plan large window areas or more complex glazing
                                                           façades (especially in office buildings), for which inappropriately simplified calculation
                                                           methods delivering incorrect results are often used for lack of better models, a new,
                                                           detailed approach is needed for the design stage to simulate and control the energy
                                                           impact of such constructions. This new model, which will be described in detail in [2],
                                                           has the objective of creating an interface for building simulation programs (in
                                                           particular _ESP-r_) which allows the properties of complex facades to be integrated
                                                           into the building simulation program without modelling any details within the program

                                                           This new model, called the ―Black Box Model‖, has already been validated and
                                                           tested for several cases in [1].

                                                          The new model, which is implemented in _ESP-r_, requires changes to the _solar
                                                          control_ simulation algorithm and the _User Interface_, so a new ―_Advanced optics
                                                          menu_‖ was also introduced into _ESP-r_. The model includes the following features:
                                                          - calculation of the absorptances of the two virtual glazing layers (which represent
                                                          the complex façade);
                                                          - calculation and use of the diffuse transmittances and layer absorptances, with
                                                          separate treatment for diffuse sky and ground-reflected components of the solar
                                                          - a number of control options to switch between data sets (the users have the option
                                                          to select the current zone dry bulb temperature, outdoor dry bulb temperature,
                                                          incident radiation on an external surface or dry bulb temperature of any specific
                                                          - a facility to read in multiple bi-directional data sets and to allow the user to specify
                                                          which glazing layer in the model is associated Simulation in
Solar control, ESP-r, building simulation, shading systems. Validation and calibration, Software issues,with this data. design practice
                                Advances in building physics,

                               shading, in applications
complex fenestration, operableAdvances ESP-r simulationThe use of operable shading devices impacts building loads significantly. The need exists for an explicit treatment of window shading devices in the design of energy efficient buildings through simulation. A general framework for modeling complex fenestration systems has recently been implemented in ESP-r, an open source building energy simulation program. The underlying models have been developed with emphasis on computational efficiency, straightforward input requirements and shading control on a time-step basis. The capabilities, which currently include modeling of slat-type blinds in any arrangement within a glazing system, are summarized and an overview of the solar optical and heat transfer model
                                                        With the growing interest in renewable energy applications in modern cities, the
                                                        investigations into the potential use of photovoltaic products in buildings become
                                                        popular. In the warm and hot climate regions, significant reductions in the cooling
                                                        energy demand of buildings are achievable through minimization of the thermal
                                                        transmittance of glazing. When the glazing is integrated with solar cells, an additional
                                                        asset is the electricity generation from a renewable energy source. The majority of
                                                        building integrated photovoltaics consists of mono-crystalline silicon wafer solar cells
                                                        connected in series to produce glass panels of the appropriate power rating. In future
                                                        thin film solar cells (a series of active layers deposited onto glass or other
                                                        appropriate substrates) will become a common facade element. The better cell
                                                        efficiency not only reduces the heat gain transmitted to the building but also lowers
                                                        the cell working temperature. This is important because the electrical output of a
                                                        solar cell drops with temperature rise. In a previous study, experimental tests were
                                                        performed to evaluate the energy performance of the PV glazing systems, with the
                                                        widely used single absorptive glazing provision taken as the base case for ready
                                                        comparison. Our investigations included the following three glazing systems:

                                                           i. single pane absorptive glazing,

                                                           ii. single pane solar cell encapsulated glazing, and

                                                           iii. natural-ventilated PV double glazing.

photovoltaic; glazing performance; renewable energy; building paper reports the simulation approach and numerical prediction of the energy
                               Energy capture and conversion sustainability
                                                        The numerical accuracy of lighting simulation depends on the physical based
                                                        modeling of the building and site properties as well as the algorithmic reliability of the
                                                        computational tools. Despite many developments in lighting simulation in the past
                                                        decades, faithful representation of the sky luminance distributions at a specific
                                                        location and time continues to be a challenge.

                                                           Daylight availability and sky luminance distributions vary spatially and temporally
                                                           depending on geography, weather, climate, and other local conditions. Substantial
                                                           amount of data is accumulated from long term measurements in various parts of the
                                                           world through sky scanners. These devices typically measure luminance at 145
                                                           points. The accumulated data is used to establish generic predictive sky models in
                                                           the form of mathematical formulae. Currently, International Commission on
                                                           Illumination (CIE) has identified 15 generic sky models that cover conditions varying
                                                           from overcast to cloudless skies. Lighting simulation software utilize these standard
                                                           CIE models. However, these models do not represent actual sky conditions specific
                                                           for any location. Moreover, due to the limited number of measurements, the generic
                                                           models do not have enough resolutions to adequately represent discontinuities in an
                                                           actual sky (such as the large luminance variations around the boundaries of clouds).
                                                           The CIE sky models also do not include spectral properties of the sky dome.

                                                        This paper describes the development and validation of image based sky models
                                                        that provide site specific luminance and spectral information. Previously, a number of
                                                        researchers have utilized
daylighting, sky models, imageAdvances in applications, Validation and calibration photography to derive empirical sky models. The common
                              based rendering, high dynamic range imagery
                                                            The atrium has become a significant architectural form over the past 30 years in that
                                                            it can help resolve many environmental issues. Daylight use in an atrium is
                                                            particularly beneficial as the atrium well can allow natural light to reach potentially
                                                            dark core areas and decrease energy consumption by reducing artificial lighting use.
                                                            Much of the research investigating daylight in atria has tended to focus upon
                                                            illuminance levels on horizontal surfaces such as the atrium well floor and working
                                                            planes. However, vertical surface daylight levels in atria are probably more important
                                                            in terms of indicating the feasibility of spaces adjoining the atrium well being
                                                            adequately daylit. Two key parameters influencing vertical daylight levels in atria are
                                                            the well geometry and surface reflectance. This paper investigates the impact of well
                                                            geometry and surface reflectance on vertical daylight levels in atria with square forms
                                                            under a CIE standard overcast sky. By reviewing some previous investigations and
                                                            comparing with scale model measurements the vertical daylight factor calculated
                                 Simulation in design Validation, Radiance are validated. More simulated vertical daylight factors for a very wide
Atrium, Vertical daylight level, Radiance simulation, practice Theoretical analysis
                                                            In non-residential buildings, comfort and energy demand for heating, cooling and
                                                            lighting are significantly influenced by the façade. The behaviour of the building‘s
                                                            façade follows dynamically the ambient weather conditions and the hourly and
                                                            seasonal differences of sun position. Many façade constructions also have a strong
                                                            dependency on the angle of incidence – especially concerning the transmittance. In
                                                            addition to this movable shading devices like Venetian blinds are often used in Mid-
                                                            European countries to enable user interaction, glare protection, view contact and to
                                                            protect the building from massive solar loads in the summer.

                                                           For an overall evaluation of façade constructions and/or the comfort in an office
                                                           space it is therefore necessary to evaluate the behaviour throughout a year and not
                                                           only statically for selected situations.

                                                           Up to now, there exists no commonly accepted method to calculate and evaluate
                                                           daylight glare dynamically. Within this paper different methods for a dynamic
                                                           calculation of glare are discussed and evaluated. All methods are based on
                                                           RADIANCE daylight simulations and the glare evaluation metrics "daylight glare
                                                           probability" DGP.

                                                           1. Timestep by timestep calculation – RADIANCE reference method

                                                           2. Simplified daylight glare probability DGPs – dgp based only on vertical eye

                                                           3. Enhanced simplified DGP calculation - DGP based on vertical eye illuminance and
                                                           simplified pictures

                                                            The DGPs (published at the Building Simulation 2007) shows weaknesses dealing
                                                            with spot glare sources as they could occur on fabric roller blinds. The new method –
                                                            the enhanced simplified DGP calculation– can deal spot glare sources and shows
                                                            very high correlation with the reference method.
daylight, glare, visual comfort Validation and calibration, Simulation in design practice
                                                            Successful daylighting schemes may enhance architectural design, provide health
                                                            benefits to occupants, and reduce energy consumption for electric lighting. Because
                                                            designing with daylight is not always intuitive, daylighting simulation tools are gaining
                                                            popularity among architects to aid in analysis of their designs. However, the currently
                                                            available approaches represent imperfect solutions to the problem of designing with
                                                            daylight. It is difficult for many designers to integrate simulation tools into the early
                                                            design stages due to the complexity of modeling and the amount of time necessary to
                                                            run detailed simulations. Additionally, the results of such simulations are typically not
                                                            intuitive to a non-expert user. Finally, these tools generally do not offer any feedback
                                                            to the designer about how he might change his design to meet performance goals.

                                                           In this paper, we propose an interactive goal-based design method which will allow
                                                           simulation tools to be more fully integrated into the design process while also
                                                           supplying useful feedback to the designer. As with the actual design process, an
                                                           original design will be iteratively modified and improved until performance goals are
                                                           reached. The user is involved at each stage of the process, inputting a set of
                                                           performance goals and a 3D model of an initial design, and then considering each
                                                           potential modification as one would consider suggestions from a daylighting
                                                           consultant. By involving the designer and utilizing his knowledge, the process is
                                                           made more efficient while the exploration space is expanded.

                                                          The lighting simulation tool used to support this process is an interactive and
                                                          physically-accurate hybrid global illumination rendering method. This system allows
                                                          efficient computation of
Daylighting, Design Support, Interactive Optimization, Knowledge-Based System images and annual daylighting metrics for custom geometries
                               Simulation in design practice

                                                         The ability to simulate the effect of trees on natural light performance in buildings is
                                                         contingent upon accurate simulation of light passing through the canopy. Accurate
                                                         simulations require some assumption of leaf angle distribution to compute canopy
                                                         gap fractions. The ellipsoidal leaf angle distribution can very closely approximate real
                                                         plant canopies. The method requires calculation of leaf area density from observed
                                                         distribution of gap fraction as a function of zenith angle. Hemispherical image
                                                         acquisition and analysis is used to measure gap fractions. Based on the results, the
                                                         gap fractions of a theoretical tree are predicted. The results will guide to develop a
daylighting, trees, shading, Radiance                    3D tree model that can be used in lighting analysis software such as Radiance.
                               Advances in applications, Simulation in design practice
                                                         ETFE (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene) is a lightweight material increasingly used in
                                                         building applications. It has gained popularity mainly due to its daylight transmittance
                                                         and the potential for energy savings. When used as cladding, ETFE sheets are
                                                         usually assembled into cushions which are inflated for structural reasons. ETFE
                                                         cushions can provide thermal insulation with reduced initial costs and less structural
                                                         supports as compared with a conventional glazed roof. Limited research regarding
                                                         the modelling of ETFE in building applications and limited availability of information
                                                         on material properties led to the present study. Designers are currently facing
                                                         difficulties when carrying out energy optimisation studies as part of the design
                                                         process. For example, since ETFE is not entirely opaque to longwave radiation,
                                                         merely treating the material as a standard glass layer can lead to errors when
                                                         evaluating its thermal performance. In order to enable building designers to assess
                                                         the performance of these systems, maximising performance and managing risk, it is
ETFE, translucent materials, fabric, longwave radiation essential to gain knowledge and develop methods to model this novel material. This
                               Advances in building physics, Simulation in design practice
                                                         Insulation of building envelopes, both opaque and transparent, is the most basic
                                                         strategy for building energy conservation. Insulation of walls, roofs, attic, basement
                                                         walls and even foundations is one of the most essential features of energy-efficient
                                                         homes. As the weakest insulators of building envelopes, insulating transparent
                                                         envelopes can most effectively reduce heat gain and loss. There is no scientific
                                                         disagreement that more insulation is better for keeping heat in indoors or preventing
                                                         heat gain from outdoors. Based on this thermodynamic principle, higher level of
                                                         insulation is promoted. Many studies have been conducted to investigate thermal
                                                         performance of insulation materials. However, how much insulation of various parts
                                                         of building envelopes affects energy performance for typical single family homes in
                                                         different climates has not been fully addressed.

                                                           The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of insulation of various parts of
                                                           building envelopes on building energy consumption. Specifically, this study is to
                                                           examine 1) how much the insulation of walls, roof and windows individually
                                                           contributes to energy savings of a typical single family home and 2) compare how
                                                           much the effects of insulation on energy savings differ in a cold climate from a hot-

                                                         A two-story residential building was modeled with typical physical characteristics
Insulation, Building Envelope, Energy Saving, Climate    obtained from the American Housing Survey [U.S. Census Bureau (2005)]. The test
                               Advances in building physics

                                                           Spaces with an under floor air distribution system (UFADS) or a stratified atria
                                                           involve special thermal exchange processes that require special load calculation
                                                           procedures. This paper introduces an infrared transparent (IRT) surface that enables
                                                           adjacent zones to exchange thermal radiation while maintaining separate air
                                                           temperatures. This paper will also present an example analysis of a UFADS using
                                                           the IRT, and compare it with more conventional room air flow configurations. The
                                                           fundamental principles such as infrared radiation from the zone surfaces to the cool
                                                           floor, and air preheating within the under floor supply plenum are calculated with a
                                                           simulation approach using EnergyPlus.

                               Simulation in design
design, loads, simulation, fundamentals,underfloor practice
                                                         Schumann solution for the one-dimensional problem of heat transfer in packed beds
                                                         for solar energy storage under the assumption of negligible thermal conductivity is
                                                         widely used in current building simulators. However, information in this problem is
                                                         only carried downstream from the inlet by the flow, but physical information can also
                                                         travel upstream even for small thermal conductivity. Exact analytical approaches
                                                         cannot be applied in order to cope with these phenomena, hence either numerical or
                                                         perturbation methods are required. The first ones have been widely applied in
                                                         theoretical analysis but its largest cost may preclude its use in some applications
                                                         such as in hardware control systems. The second ones are scarce in the scientific
                                                         literature and, up to the authors knowledge, the only application of perturbation
                                                         methods in this context is the work of Kuznetsov where a perturbation method based
                                                         on Fourier series is applied to the heating of a two-dimensional rectangular packed
                                                         beds using a two equation model for the fluid temperature and the difference
                                                         between temperatures
                               Energy solution, Perturbation methods, Thermal of the fluid and the solid phases. The inverse of the product of
Heat transfer, Packed beds, Analytical capture and conversion, Software issues storage
                                                         The transfer of energy from buildings to the ground through slabs and

                                                           basements has long been a concern for energy modelers as simplified

                                                           approaches and work-arounds are commonly used to estimate the energy

                                                           loss/gain. IEA Task 34/43 attempted to reconcile some of the differences

                                                           between simulation programs for a series of slab-on-grade configurations.

                                                           Detailed models of the ground heat transfer process were developed in the

                                                           TRNSYS simulation program and tested under the IEA annex; resulting in

                                                           TRNSYS being identified as one of three reference standards for

                                                           slab-on-grade heat transfer. The TRNSYS approach for ground coupling has

                                                           then been revised and expanded in scope in order to model multi-zone

                                                           buildings, basements, radiant systems, and below-grade thermal storage.

                                                           The detail slab and basement models created for TRNSYS will be discussed

                                                           in the context of the IEA work as well as compared to simplified methods

                                                           used in mainstream energy modeling.

                                TRNSYS, IEA
ground-coupling, heat transfer,Advances in building physics
                                                          The simulation of water based radiant systems implies complex calculations, since
                                                          the thermal behavior is strongly multidimensional. In fact, the thermal profile in the
                                                          slab varies within the floor section, due to the pipe embedded in the slab, and along
                                                          the water circuit, because of the water temperature variation along the pipe.

                                                          In the present paper the development and validation of a method for the calculation
                                                          of the thermal behavior of water radiant systems are shown. This method revises and
                                                          extends the calculation procedure used in the new Standard EN 15377. The present
                                                          work starts from the numerical demonstration of the possible extension of the
                                                          resistance method contained in EN 15377. Then, the related calculation module is

                                                          The new model is integrated into an ISO STEP based, integrated building simulation
                                                          tool, BSim, which apart from a model for dynamic hygrothermal analysis of buildings
                                                          also includes tools for building code compliance check and daylight analysis. The
                                                          building design system has a tool for editing and viewing the layout of the building
                                                          and it links with a database for building materials and structures.

                                                          At the end of the paper, the calculation method is contrasted with laboratory tests,
                                                          performed at Technical University of Denmark (DTU, Copenhagen).

                                                         The method is able to simulate the hygrothermal behavior of radiant systems
                                                         characterized by almost any section geometry. Moreover, the method may be
                             Advances in simulation coupled both with energy simulation programs based on finite differences and with
water-based radiant systems, heat transfer,building physics
                                                         Design cooling load determines the design and distribution of HVAC system.
                                                         Traditional simplified cooling load calculation methods such as Radiant Time Series
                                                         (RTS) method and the cooling load temperature difference/solar cooling load/cooling
                                                         load factor (CLTD/SCL/CLF) method are incapable of calculating design cooling load
                                                         for intermittent operation in the majority of commercial buildings. Due to the thermal
                                                         storage effect of the building, the design cooling loads calculated by such simplified
                                                         methods tend to be underestimated for intermittent cooling.

                                                          This paper describes a revised RTS method for the design cooling load calculation
                                                          of non-continuous cooling. The room temperature increase and heat storage in both
                                                          the building external and internal envelope at off-work hours is considered and
                                                          computed according to energy conservation equation. The release of those stored
                                                          heat at the subsequent working hours is regarded as additional cooling load to rectify
                                                          the cooling load calculated by RTS method. This revised method enables engineers
                                                          to get the intermittent cooling load quickly according to the results of RTS method.

                                                          The design cooling loads for a typical office room with different building envelopes,
                                                          window orientations, and operation periods of a day are calculated with this new
                                                          method. Results indicate that the difference of peak cooling loads for continuous and
                                                          intermittent cooling increase with the building thermal mass (for a west-facing room
                               Simulation in (RTS); Intermittent cooling
Cooling load calculation, Radiant time seriesdesign practice
                                                          In Denmark, cooling of especially office buildings during summer contributes
                                                          significantly to electrical consumption. The use of phase change materials (PCM)
                                                          can help to reduce overtemperatures during summer and even out temperature
                                                          fluctuations over the day, hereby reducing both heating and cooling demands in

                                                          PCM is characterised by a large thermal capacity and by an almost isothermal
                                                          discharge of stored energy. Furthermore, PCM's can be devised to operate at
                                                          temperature levels close to those associated with human comfort. This means that
                                                          the use of PCM in components such as wallboards, floors and ceilings can
                                                          accommodate both the storage of surplus heat gains during winter days, releasing
                                                          the energy during night (i.e. reducing the heating demand) and the reduction of
                                                          overheating risks in summer (i.e. reducing the cooling demand).

                                                     This paper describes a numerical method for calculating the latent storage
                                                     performance of building components containing PCM in order to evaluate the impact
                                                     on heating and cooling demands. The developed method has been implemented in
                                                     the whole building hygrothermal
Phase change material, Numerical method, BSim, Simulations, Measurementscalibration simulation software package BSIM. In addition, the
                            Energy capture and conversion, Validation and
                                                     In the framework of the renovation of low inertia buildings, the use of phase change
                                                     materials (PCM) is an interesting alternative. By their ability to store a large amount
                                                     of heat, they could present a solution to the problems of summer comfort while
                                                     allowing energy savings in winter. This work deals with, at the base, the evaluation
                                                     of the performance of phase change material taking the form of a panel of 5 mm
                                                     thick. It consists of 60% paraffin encapsulated in a matrix of copolymer (a mixture of
                                                     polymer-based ethylene). The role of the matrix polymer is to retain the paraffin when
                                                     it is in its liquid state. The compound has a melting point at 21.7 ° C, temperature at
                                                     which it liquefies, and thus absorbs heat from the room. Then, when room
                                                     temperature falls to 18 ° C, it solidifies, and removes the heat.

                                                          The modelling was conducted under CoDyBa, thermal simulation software adapted
                                                          to consider this kind of materials. The results of operative temperature, and so
                                                          thermal comfort, and energy consumptions can be analysed and the gains given
                                                          using phase change materials applied at the internal part of the walls or ceiling can
                                                          be calculated.

                                                          The secretary building of the secondary school, built in 1961, ie before the first
                                                          French thermal regulation, has a very low thermal inertia in addition to thermal
                                                          insulation of very poor quality. The renovation of the building in terms of thermal
                                                          insulation will improve the level of energy consumption in winter. To improve the
                                                          summer comfort, the establishment of PCM cited previously has been simulated.

                                                        A preliminary study was to fit some unknown thermo physical parameters: a
Phase change material, simulation                       monitoring of the on-site temperatures has made. The weather data of the station
                             Application day - case studies
                                                        Seasonal storage of solar energy in geothermal boreholes has resurfaced as a
                                                        means of heating housing communities. Typically, these systems operate at relatively
                                                        high temperatures leading to high heat losses from the ground storage volume and to
                                                        low solar collector efficiencies.

                                                          In this paper, a new seasonal storage strategy is proposed. First, the storage
                                                          temperature is kept relatively low in order to limit heat losses and improve solar
                                                          collector efficiencies. Secondly, the seasonal borehole storage is designed in such a
                                                          way as to enable simultaneous charging and discharging of the ground using four
                                                          pipe boreholes with two independent counter-current circuits. Finally, the
                                                          temperature level is raised using heat pumps to supply heat at an acceptable
                                                          temperature for space heating.

                                                      The proposed configuration is simulated with TRNSYS using a modified version of
                                                      the DST model. Simulation results indicate that it is possible to keep the seasonal
                                                      storage temperature at an annual average slightly above the annual mean ambient
                                                      temperature using a relatively small solar collector area (about 11 m2 per house)
                                                      leading to relatively high solar collector efficiencies. Combined with a heat pump, it is
                              Energy capture and conversion that this system can reach a solar fraction of 78 %.
boreholes, seasonal storage, heat pumps
                                                      Common approaches to the simulation of Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHEs) assume
                                                      heat transfer in circulating fluid and grout to be in a quasi-steady state and ignore
                                                      fluctuations in fluid temperature due to transport of the fluid around the loop.
                                                      However, in domestic Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) systems, the heat pump
                                                      and circulating pumps switch on and off during a given hour; therefore the effect of
                                                      the thermal mass of the circulating fluid and the dynamics of fluid transport through
                                                      the loop has important implications for system design. This may also be important in
                                                      commercial systems that are used intermittently.

                                                          A dynamic three-dimensional numerical model for BHEs has been developed that is
                                                          built upon a finite volume solver known as GEMS3D (General Elliptical Multi-block
                                                          Solver). This has been developed to simulate the dynamic response of the circulating
                                                          fluid and transient heat transfer in and around BHEs. The GEMS3D model applies
                                                          the finite volume method to solve the general advection-diffusion equation on three-
                                                          dimensional boundary fitted grids. Besides, the model has been validated by
                                                          reference to analytical models of borehole thermal resistance and also fluid transport
                                                          inside the pipe.

                                                       This paper presents transient simulation of a domestic GSHP system with a single
                                                       BHE using the GEMS3D model. The
Three-dimensional Numerical Model, Borehole Heat Exchangers, Ground Source Heat Pump results show that delayed response associated
                            Building services, Simulation in design practice
                                                       This paper shows a numerical model of earth-to-air heat exchanger. The system is
                                                       discretized into ―n‖ layers perpendicular to the exchanger pipe. In each layer,
                                                       conduction is solved using response factor method in order to reduce computational
                                                       time. Each response factor is calculated using a finite element program that solves
                                                       2D conduction problem. The particularity of this problem is that time constants are
                                                       very high making it impossible to use classical properties of response factors to
                                                       reduce the number of calculations. We will expose a new approach to solve this
                                                       particular problem. Besides, heat flux entering the pipe is expressed as a function of
                                                       the temperature of the air crossing the pipe and the external solicitations. Then, a
                                                       heat balance is applied for each layer to find the resulting outlet air temperature. The
                                                       model will be validated using results from finite element model (Hollmuller 2002) as
                                                       well as experimental results.

                                                         Finally, the model is integrated into a dynamic building simulation in order to assess
                                                         the effect of this type of earth-to-air heat exchanger on the overall thermal behaviour
                                                         of low energy dwellings. We will also try to see what could be the effect of coupling a
                                                         classical heat with building
Earth-to-air exchanger, modelisation, response factor method, coupling recovery ventilation system and an earth-to-air heat exchanger.
                              Advances in building physics
                                                         The Swiss standard on energy calculation for non residential buildings is currently
                                                         being revised on the basis of the CEN-EPBD standards. For this type of buildings, an
                                                         hourly time step approach is chosen, using the simplified dynamic room model from
                                                         EN ISO 13790.

                                                          For the system calculation, some HVAC component models were needed, which fulfil
                                                          the two – to some extent contradictory – requirements of

                                                          a) a minimum need of input data

                                                          b) a sufficiently good representation of the part load behaviour in an hourly time step

                                                          A good example for this is the chiller model. The models found in international
                                                          literature turned out to be either too complicated, with the need of information which
                                                          most of the time is not available, or too simple, not sufficiently representing the
                                                          reaction of the component changing operational conditions.

                                                          A semi-physical approach with some empirical additions was used to develop a new
                                                          model. The goal was to rely only on the data defined in ARI or ESEER standards for
                                                          the characterisation of the component. These are essentially the nominal power and
                                                          COP values for four different operation conditions, described by the part load ratio
                                                          and the associated pair of temperature boundary conditions. This information can be
                                                          expected to be provided by all manufacturers.

                                                          The model uses a Carnot factor approach for the temperature dependency, with
                                                          some correction for non ideal behaviour. The part load behaviour is represented by a
                                                          third order polynom.

Chiller, Part load behaviour, air conditioning, refrigerationA set of different machines, for which a full performance map was available, was
                                Building services
                                                           Integrated performance simulation of buildings and heating, ventilation and air-
                                                           conditioning (HVAC) systems can help in reducing energy consumption and
                                                           increasing level of occupant comfort. However, no singe BPS tool offers sufficient
                                                           capabilities and flexibilities to accommodate the ever increasing complexity and rapid
                                                           innovations in building and system technologies. One way to alleviate this problem is
                                                           to use co-simulation, as an integrated approach to simulation.

                                                           Co-simulation approach represents a particular case of simulation scenario where at
                                                           least two simulators solve coupled differential-algebraic systems of equations and
                                                           exchange data that couples these equations during run-time.

                                                           This paper elaborates on issues important for co-simulation realization and discusses
                                                           multiple possibilities to justify the particular approach implemented in a co-simulation
                                                           prototype. The co-simulation prototype is verified and validated against the results
                                                           obtained from the traditional simulation approach. It is further used in several case
                                                           studies for the proof-of-concept, to demonstrate the applicability of the method, and
                                                           to highlight its benefits. Stability and accuracy of different coupling strategies are
                                                           analyzed to give
                                 Advances prediction, Integrated building a guideline for the required coupling frequency. The paper
co-simulation, HVAC system performancein applications, Software issuesperformance simulation
                                                           Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) systems use 254 nm UVC electromagnetic
                                                           radiation produced by low pressure mercury vapor lamps to control microbial
                                                           contaminant levels in indoor air. The UVC output of lamps depends on both their
                                                           immediate operating environment, i.e., air temperature and velocity, and their
                                                           operating history, i.e., cumulative operating time, switching frequency, and other
                                                           factors. ―In-duct‖ systems treat moving air streams in heating, ventilation, and air-
                                                           conditioning (HVAC) systems and may be exposed to wide ranges of air temperature
                                                           and velocity. Current design practices for in-duct UVGI systems are not standardized
                                                           and typically employ on rules of thumb that give little or no consideration to the
                                                           impact of variable lamp output on performance. Consequently, systems may perform
                                                           significantly below desired levels for many hours per year. Recent research has
                                                           focused on the development of models of lamp performance that can be embedded
                                                           in system models for use in simulation based design that will support more reliable
                                                           system selection and
                                 Building services, Disinfection, Indoor practice optimal operation. To demonstrate this approach, an air quality
Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation, UVC Lamps, AirSimulation in design Air Quality
                                                           In this article a new multi-level modelling approach will be presented to obtain a
                                                           higher precision of HVAC plant simulation models. For this purpose, two different
                                                           levels of detail in modelling, the coarse component based 1D-approach of Modelica
                                                           (http:/ and the detailed physical based 3D-approach of CFD
                                                           (Computational Fluid Dynamics) were combined and applied for the thermal hydraulic
                                                           simulation of HVAC systems.

                                                           The basic idea of this approach is to use the detailed results of physical based, but
                                                           slow CFD-analyses (e.g. local distributions of velocity, pressure, temperatures) for
                                                           improving the quality of the simplified (concentrated parameters), but fast Modelica
                                                           models. For example, the calculation of the flow induced pressure loss of several
                                                           serial connected Modelica components like an elbow, a pipe and a branch as the
                                                           sum of the single pressure losses can be acceptable or also highly defective - it
                                                           depends strongly on the parameter values of the combined components. In contrast
                                                           to this component modelling approach, in the CFD approach the fluid volume within a
                                                           thermal hydraulic network is modelled as a continuous volume, whereby all
                                                           interactions between the single hydraulic components can be considered.

                                                        In a first use case we modelled a simple thermal hydraulic network with one pump,
                                                        two hydraulic loops, an ideal thermal source (e.g. a boiler) and an ideal thermal sink
                                                        (e.g. a radiator) as a CFD-model (modelled with ANSYS CFX) and as a Modelica-
                                                        model (based on the Modelica-FluidFlow-Library). Then we compared comparable
                                                        state variables of both simulation approaches (e.g. the mean flow velocity or mean
                                                        pressure on the same position)
HVAC plant simulation, Multi-level modelling approach, Modelica, CFD, model precision in several simulation experiments.
                               Building services
                                                        A detailed model for the simulation of boilers using oil, gas-, pellets or wood chips
                                                        has been developed and compared with measurements. Approaches of different
                                                        complexity for the simulation of steady state flue gas losses were tested. The more
                                                        physical approaches are able to reproduce measured data better than the simpler
                                                        empirical models, but they also require more model parameters to be determined and
                                                        a higher simulation effort.

                                                           Cycling behaviour of the simple one-node thermal mass approach of the model was
                                                           compared with measured cycling behaviour of a pellet boiler. With the proper values
                                                           for the relevant boiler parameters, cycling behaviour is reproduced well.

                                                           With the implementation in a FORTRAN-dll that can be called from TRNSYS, a tool
                                                           is now available that suits the needs of scientists as well as planners and product
                                                           developers that use energy systems simulation tools.

                                  Energy capture and conversion, Validation and calibration
boiler simulation, validation, oil, gas, wood
                                                          The paper deals with the use of computer simulations both for the

                                                           design support of a new buildings and HVAC system development and for the

                                                           optimization of the system control strategy in the building. This is presented on the
                                                           real office building in Prague.

                                                           For a new large bank head office in Prague, computer simulations were carried out to
                                                           find solutions for reducing the required cooling capacity, verify the fan-coil capacity
                                                           design, and optimize the external gassing for atriums.

                                                           Because the design included exposed concrete ceilings, the idea was to apply
                                                           building thermal mass and find out a way to operate the building. The cooling
                                                           capacity was initially estimated at 3 MW and simulations proved possibility of
                                                           decreasing it to 81 % for the whole building.

                                                           Other simulation helped designers to optimize, roof glassing and shading for atria,
                                                           with stress on thermal comfort in open corridors. The future simulations combined
                                                           with building and HVAC system monitoring are planed after building construction.

                                 Commissioning and operation, Simulation in design practice
Simulation, office building, air-conditioning

                                                           Dynamic thermal simulation is a powerful tool for appraisal of building environments
                                                           and their various mechanical and electrical systems. This approach can be extended
                                                           to energy systems on board ships and other vessels. While this presents obvious
                                                           advantages in investigation and optimisation of the thermal performance of enclosed
                                                           areas on board water craft, it presents challenges as well. The simulated space can
                                                           potentially change orientation. Non-terrestrial climate files are required. Climate wind
                                                           speed may need modifications because of vessel speed and heat transfer
                                                           relationships with water need to be integrated into building simulation software. Here,
                                                           we present a typical model of a ship environment and use ESP-r to investigate the
                                                           effects of various design modifications on the operating costs of the heating and
ship, climate, orientation, marine                         ventilation system of one public area of the ship.
                                 Advances in applications, Simulation in design practice
                                                           More and more innovations appear on the market to provide multi-energy systems for
                                                           space heating, cooling and domestic hot water supply. These systems can be based
                                                           on solar thermal, heat pumps, biomass boilers etc. or any combination of the

                                                           The necessity of innovation on this field imposes on the industry to develop faster
                                                           and faster new products or product assemblies while managing perfectly the quality
                                                           of the products. Prototypes and later the finalized product have to be developed and
                                                           tested. Once the product on the market, standard tests exist in some cases of
                                                           systems, but in most cases annual performances of the systems have to be
                                                           estimated from simplified standardized test results.

                                                           In order to accelerate this process, a dynamic emulation test method has been
                                                           developed and is presented in this paper on the example of a geothermal heat pump

                                                       Since the test bench emulates the building that is connected to the system being
                                                       tested, the test can be carried out under ―quasi‖-realistic, dynamic conditions:
                                                       dynamic weather conditions and occupancy profiles are used as well as a simulated
                                                       building and heating/cooling system. This approach opens a large variety of possible
                                                       test schedules since the simulated building, the heating system, weather conditions
                                                       and occupancy can be changed freely.
                                                        pumps, building simulation, (GWHE) are used to recuperate part of the energy
Product testing, annual performance, ground source heatGrey water heat exchangersreal time, emulation, heating, cooling domestic hot water
                               Commissioning and operation
                                                       contained in grey waters. The configuration used in this study recuperates part of the
                                                       energy contained in the grey water from showers. This energy is used to pre-heat
                                                       domestic hot water. Previous simulations studies have shown that this configuration
                                                       can recuperate part of the energy that would otherwise be lost and allow the use of
                                                       smaller electric DHW tanks. This paper focuses on the impact that GWHE have on
                                                       peak electrical demand from electric DHW tanks. Simulations are performed using
                                                       TRNSYS with a standard DHW tank model and a special GWHE model.

                                                           A total of ten different yearly water draw profiles are statistically generated at 1
                                                           minute intervals. This small time step is required in order to capture the transient
                                                           effects in the GWHE. It is shown that the aggregated effect of these profiles
                                                           corresponds to the electrical consumption measurements performed on 600
                                                           residential electric DHW tanks.

                                                           Simulation results show that GWHE have an impact on the peak electrical demand
                                                           with reductions of 119.4 Watts (10.4% reduction) at 8:00 and 184.0 Watts (21.5%
                                                           reduction) at 22:00. On an annual basis, the energy required for DHW heating is
                                                           4501 and 5299 kW-hr with and without a GWHE, respectively.

                             Energy capture
grey water heat recovery, domestic hot water and conversion
                                                        In museum buildings, air conditioning systems with precise thermal-hygrometric
                                                        control of indoor environment are necessary for preventing degradation of artworks
                                                        and providing a pleasant thermal environment for visitors. In traditional constant air
                                                        volume (CAV) systems widely used in museums, the supply air is often cooled and
                                                        then reheated for dehumidification without over-cooling conditioned spaces during
                                                        warm and humid seasons. The cooling and reheating processes are energy-
                                                        intensive. This paper presents a new air conditioning scheme for indoor thermal
                                                        environment control in museums. The scheme integrates a dedicated outdoor air
                                                        system (DOAS) with a CAV system. Control strategies are also developed for
                                                        independent indoor temperature and humidity control. Simulation tests are conducted
                                                        to compare performances of two CAV systems with different control strategies and
                                                        the integrated system on the platform of TRNSYS. These schemes are: (1) single-
                                                        loop CAV system with conventional indoor temperature and humidity control; (2)
                                                        improved CAV system with cascade control which optimizes off-coil air states; (3) the
                             Building services, Advances in applications CAV system with
Air-conditioning, Museum, Humidity control, Temperature DOAS-integratedenergy efficiency independent indoor temperature and humidity
                                                         control, Building
                                                            Heat pump systems need a lower energy source to operate. The higher the
                                                            temperature of the lower energy source the better the efficiency of the heat pump

                                                            The lower energy source may be constituted by outside air, water or ground. Air is
                                                            the coldest when the heating demand is the biggest and water reservoir is not always
                                                            available so we concentrate on the ground as the most universal source. Heat can
                                                            be extracted from it by means of a collector or a vertical borehole. This paper
                                                            discusses the modelling of a vertical double U-tube ground heat exchanger (GHE)
                                                            which is the most popular solution.

                                                            The temperature of the brine leaving the GHE is decisive for the efficiency of the
                                                            heat pump. This temperature depends on the temperature of brine which enters
                                                            GHE, length of GHE, the properties of the ground surrounding it and the presence
                                                            and strength of sources or sinks of heat (other GHE‘s) in the proximity of GHE.

                                                            There is an ample number of models describing the different heat transfer
                                                            phenomena in and around the GHE. They can be divided into three groups:

                                                            1. heat transfer in the ground – which can be modelled in a great number of ways

                                                            2. heat exchange between the brine, the grout and the ground in the immediate
                                                            contact with the GHE – which is either assumed to be quasi-steady-state
                                                            phenomenon or solved by means of different configurations of thermal RC-networks.

                                                            3. heat transport in the brine – which may or may not account for the temperature
                                                            variation along the direction of the flow

                                                      Little has been done in the way of reviewing those models. The influence they have
                             Energy capture and conversion, efficiency of the heat pump system is almost never reported.
ground heat exchanger, heat pump system efficiency, model theAdvances in applications, Software issues

                                                             Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) systems use 254 nm UVC radiation to
                                                             inactivate microorganisms in the air and on surfaces. In-duct UVGI systems are
                                                             installed in air-handling units or air distribution systems to inactivate microorganisms
                                                             ―on the fly‖ and on surfaces. The literature contains few investigations of the
                                                             economic performance of UVGI. This study presents a simulation-based life-cycle
                                                             cost analysis of in-duct UVGI in a hypothetical office building served by VAV systems.
                                                             Three scenarios are considered: UVGI in the mixed air stream upstream of the
                                                             cooling coil, UVGI downstream of the coil, and equivalent enhanced filtration without
                                                             UVGI. The upstream location results in lower first and operating cost for UVGI due to
                                                             a more favorable thermal environment for UV lamps. UVGI in either location is much
                                                             lower in annualized cost than equivalent enhanced filtration. The methodology
                                                             presented Economic
Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation, Indoorservices, Simulation in Cost, could serve as a model for an improved design process.
                                 Building Air Quality, Life Cycle design practice Analysis
                                                             A component-based gray-box model for variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air-
                                                             conditioning systems was developed in this study to simulate and predict the
                                                             performance and energy consumption of VRF system in cooling condition. This
                                                             model was integrated in the building energy simulation software DeST to help with
                                                             the VRF system design and retrofit in buildings.

                                                            In this model, each component of VRF system, the compressor, the outdoor heat
                                                            exchanger and fan, the indoor heat exchanger and fan and the throttle valve is
                                                            modeled with gray-box method. A static simulation is applied, in which the
                                                            components‘ models are solved simultaneously with a single-phase flow model for
                                                            the refrigerant pipe network. Due to the limit of performance data from
                                                            manufacturers, key parameters for each component model were identified by using
                                                            the manufacturer's data, which only presents the cooling capacity and total energy
                                                            consumption of the whole VRF systems in different outdoor and indoor conditions.
                                                            This model is suitable for hourly simulation of VRF system and can present the
                                                            performance of each component, which is quite helpful for system design and retrofit.
                                                            It is the first gray-box model for VRF system integrated with building energy
                                                            simulation software.

                              Simulation in design practice order to validate the simulation results of VRF model and carry out further analysis
VRF, gray-box model, simulation, experiment
                                                         The increase in the energy prices especially for oil and gas in the last years has
                                                         resulted in the renaissance of heat pump systems. Because of their rising importance
                                                         in the heating appliances market the question of the choice of the heating system
                                                         (boiler vs. heat pump), the comparison of the different heat pump systems, their
                                                         interaction with the building, best circuit configuration and optimal control strategies
                                                         are also gaining in importance. General questions are best investigated by means of
                                                         the computer building simulation coupled with the heating surfaces, heat pump
                                                         system and relevant outside components such as ground heat exchanger or weather
                                                         conditions. The modelling of the heat pump system is a prominent issue of its own
                                                         that greatly influenced the obtained results.

                                                            This paper discusses some modelling approaches and presents preliminary results
                                                            of the investigations arising from the above questions. In the first part the modelling
                                                            of the heat pump systems is discussed. Two most usual approaches are the
                                                            equation-fit model and the detailed component simulation. The former is a simple but
                                                            robust and easily parameterized model, well suited for the simulation of long balance
                                                            periods. The latter is most appropriate for the optimization of the particular heat pump
                                                            system where detailed outputs of all components parameters are required. The high
                                Commissioning and operation, of sophistication results in long Simulation in design practice
hydraulic circuits, heat pump system, buffer, control strategy Energy capture and conversion, calculation times which makes this model ill
                                                            A mathematical model is presented to predict the behavior of the condensing and
                                                            frost formation on the heat transfer surfaces by simultaneously considering the
                                                            condensing and frost layer. The model employs one-dimensional transient
                                                            formulation based upon the local averaging technique, taking into account the
                                                            variation of the frost density and thickness. The presented model is validated by
                                                            comparing with the experimental data provided the dry cooler manufacturer. It is
                                                            found the model can predict the heat transfer performance of the dry cooler with
                                                            accuracy within 2.19%. Dry cooler heat transfer performance at different air and
                                                            water flow rates are predicted when it operates with water as heat transfer fluid
                                                            during the winter period. The model and discuss are helpful to the operation of such
finned-tube dry cooler, frozen-free, free cooling, data centre of the dry cooler with water during the winter period.
                                Simulation in design practice
                                                            The use of building performance simulation in design practice is the main pathway
                                                            for this technology to actually improve the quality of buildings, impacting on their
                                                            occupant comfort, energy efficiency and emissions. There are regular reports on the
                                                            succesful use of simulation in the design process. However, the actual cases for
                                                            which these successes are being reported are often high-profile buildings, which are
                                                            not representative of the average building design project. Many mid-size, regular
                                                            industrial projects still fail to enjoy the support of simulation, and simulation is almost
                                                            never used in the design of regular housing projects.

                                                            This paper presents a review of the current situation in M&E (services) engineering
                                                            in the United Kingdom. The authors, an academic and a professional consultant with
                                                            extensive experience in the industry, map out the different forces that currently act on
                                                            building services design and optimisation. Case studies that either did, or did not,
                                                            include the use of building performance simulation have been used to investigate the
                                                            factors (key value drivers) that influence the application of simulation technology.
                                                            The results have been used to develop a deployment/non-deployment flowchart for
                                                            the use of simulation tools in the building design and engineering process.

simulation deployment, practice, constraints,design practice flowchart developed in this paper identifies a set of barriers to the use of
                              Simulation in
                                                          The performance of hot water space heating systems for mild to warm temperate
                                                          climates is dominated by the efficiency of boiler loop operation at low load. This
                                                          efficiency is dominated by a number of effects that are poorly represented in common
                                                          modelling approaches, such as static thermal losses from the boiler and distribution
                                                          system, changes in burner efficiency at different firing rates and the effects of cyclic
                                                          operation. Common representations of boilers in simulation generally assume fixed
                                                          efficiency or a generic declining efficiency curve. This situation is further complicated
                                                          by the shortage of good quality information from boiler manufacturers in this respect.

                                                            In this paper, a simple model capturing the major effects of boiler operation is
                                                            presented covering the following key areas of boiler operation:

                                                            • Static losses; comprising the standing losses from the boiler itself;

                                                            • Combustion efficiency; including the modelling of variable combustion efficiency
                                                            across the range of firing rates;

                                                            • Purge losses, comprising the losses that occur as the boiler purges at the
                                                            commencement of a firing cycle;

                                                            • Distribution losses; being the thermal losses for the hot water distribution network;

                                                            • Thermal mass effects in the boiler loop; comprising the extra energy required to
                                                            heat the thermal mass of water in the boiler loop after it has cooled between
                                                            operating periods.

                                                            • Control lockouts; being the use of external lockouts (typically based on outside air
                                                            temperature as is commonly practiced).

Boiler, hot water systems, simulation services
                               Building                     An example from an actual project is used to demonstrate the impact that full
                                                            Passive evaporative cooling technology is generally considered to be suited to hot
                                                            and arid climates in that it can provide cooling without significant energy use and
                                                            also produce a better indoor environment by providing fresh, cool air into a space.
                                                            With the benefits of energy efficiency, cost effectiveness and sustainability, the
                                                            demand for passive evaporative cooling systems has been grown in hot climates,
                                                            often competing with or complementing conventional air conditioning systems. A
                                                            passive down-draught evaporative cooling (PDEC) system, or cooltower, is a passive
                                                            evaporative cooling technology that is designed to capture the wind at the top of a
                                                            tower and cool the outside air using water evaporation before delivering the cooled
                                                            and humidified outside air to a space. The system is able to provide cooling as the
                                                            conditions of air delivered to the space are cooler than the interior conditions. Models
                                                            exist for determining the impact of this technology, but in the past, these have not
                                                            been linked with a whole building energy simulation such as EnergyPlus. As a result,
                                                            this technology may not be applied correctly in certain situations or may not be
                                                            considered as a potential design solution when it could be successful.

                                                           This paper presents the work that was done to remedy this gap in building energy
Passive Evaporative Cooling, Cooltower, Hot Climate, EnergyPlus A semi-empirical model developed by Givoni was implemented in
                               Simulation in design practice
                                                           Several studies of energy performance of ground coupled heat pump HVAC systems
                                                           have pointed out that a proper management of its elements can produce significant
                                                           savings on its electrical consumptions. In this work, we simulate an HVAC system
                                                           composed by a ground coupled heat pump and a fan-coil for an office area. Climate
                                                           database employed in our simulations corresponds to the area of the Mediterranean
                                                           Coast. The idea behind this improvement is to allow varying some parameters of the
                                                           system, in our simulation, the air flow in the fan, the water flow in the internal and
                                                           external hydraulic systems, and the set point temperature in the heat pump, to
                                                           disminish the electrical consumption while keeping the comfort requirements. A
                                                           suitable choice to implement the new strategy which allows managing the several set
                                                           points of the previous elements is a cascade control structure. The electric
                                                           consumption of the HVAC system is calculated for this new strategy and compared
                                                           with the results obtained for a on/off strategy. In our simulation, the annual electrical
                                                           energy savings systems (BEMS), Ground coupled the pump, Comfort (PMV)
Heating cooling and ventilationAdvances in building physics, managementof the HVAC system are bigger than heat24% when it is managed by
                                in buildings, Building energy Advances in applications, Simulation in design practice
                                                            Recently, high-rise apartment houses that have narrow void space (inner court yard)
                                                           equipped with gas-fired boilers and shared corridors have been built in Japan.
                                                           Appropriate installing air-intakes that connect void and outside is necessary to
                                                           maintain inside air quality, typically represented by CO2 concentration, and
                                                           ventilation rates between void and outside air, for both residents and gas furnaces.
                                                           The ventilation rates depend on various factors such as void geometry, ambient
                                                           temperature variance, gas combustion rate, etc. Long-term simulation is necessary
                                                           for evaluating safety of the void under design, because extremely high concentration
                                                           of CO2 results from probabilistic combination of those factors.

                                                         This paper proposes a heat and mass transfer network model simple enough for long-
                                                         term simulation of a void space of high-rise apartment house. First, we compare 1-
                                                         node and 2-node model. 1-node model assumes uniform temperature distribution in
                                                         the void, and test results show that surface temperatures of corridor do not coincide
                                                         with experiments. The main reason for the discrepancy is estimated to be air
                                                         temperature differences between corridors areas and void, thus 2-node model is
                                                         introduced. In 2-node model, corridors areas and void are separated and connected
                                                         with constant air exchange rate. The calculated temperature variances of void and
                                                         corridors void
network model, heat and massSimulation inquality, gas-fired boiler,areas relatively coincide with experimental results.
                            transfer, air design practice
                                                         Building simulation is often used as a mean to evaluate the impact of energy saving
                                                         measures on energy bill. This requires an adequate prediction of the building‘s
                                                         monthly consumptions and peak demands. However, due to various factors, the
                                                         calculation might not be accurate. The simulation must therefore be calibrated to fit
                                                         the customer‘s bill before applying the energy saving measures. However, existing
                                                         calibration methods are time-consuming, intended for very experienced users and/or
                                                         are too customized. Consequently, they can hardly be implemented in complex

                                                           The author has developed a calibration method which assists the software user in
                                                           the calibration process using built-in engineering rules as well as optimization
                                                           algorithms based on Marquardt-Levenberg non linear least square method. The
                                                           objective is to reduce calculation time while reducing the risk of error. The
                                                           engineering rules will assist inexperienced users in choosing the parameters to
                                                           adjust as well as limit the number of simulations to be executed. The elimination of
                                                           non influent parameters accelerates calculation time and ensures the optimization
                                                           algorithms‘ stability.

                                                            This calibration method has been implemented in a building simulation software
Calibration, optimization, building simulation, case studiesusing DOE2.1E. The article presents an overview of the calibration module
                                 Advances in applications, Validation and calibration, Software issues
                                                            Each new year a series of computer programmes arises to assist in the analysis of
                                                            thermal-energetic behaviour of buildings. Nevertheless, the simulation results do not
                                                            always correspond to what would be found in a real setting. Such mismatches can be
                                                            explained either by the difficulties in defining some of the input data,
                                                            oversimplification of the models used, or by inexperience on the part of those
                                                            performing the simulations. In order to obtain reliable results from a computer
                                                            programme, it is essential that the model be calibrated. Therefore, the main objective
                                                            of this article is to present the calibration process of a computer model of a naturally-
                                                            ventilated house built in the city of Florianópolis in southern Brazil. The house was
                                                            monitored over two seven-day periods in the summer, one in December 2007 and
                                                            the other in January 2008. Interior air temperature data were measured by using
                                                            HOBO data loggers inside three rooms of the house. Climatic data such as solar
                                                            radiation, wind speed and direction, external air temperature and humidity were
                                 Validation and calibration obtained from a
computer simulation, calibration, natural ventilation, thermal performance mini weather station located near the house. For the first period, in
                                                            Energy management, or improvement of the energy performance, has become more
                                                            and more important in the building sector. In order to improve the energy
                                                            performance, understanding of the energy usage is a crucial process. Benchmarks
                                                            for non-residential buildings have been established in several sectors as reference
                                                            energy consumption per unit floor area to be compared with those of buildings with
                                                            the aim of evaluating the energy performance. However, this method cannot provide
                                                            a sufficient understanding on whether or not the energy performance of a building is
                                                            high or low and, more importantly, how the energy performance can be improved.
                                                            This is because the energy consumption of buildings varies significantly due to a
                                                            variety of factors. For example, the size and configuration of buildings determine the
                                                            extent to which climate conditions influence the unit energy consumption, as small or
                                                            long and thin buildings reveal a strong influence by climate in the demand for heating
                                                            and cooling due to an increased ratio of perimeter areas. The influence of climate
                                                            can be managed by improving the insulation performance and air-tightness of
                                                            building envelopes. The configuration of energy generation and distribution systems
                                                            and the specification of its components largely determine the energy efficiency at
                                                            which energy resources are converted to a useful form of energy for cooling, heating,
                                 Advances in applications hot water and electricity. Occupant behavior and operation of a space and
Parameter Screening, Non-residential Building, Energy Management, Quality Assurance
                                                            The objective of this work is to present an inverse method solving the transient heat-
                                                            transfer problem in walls aiming to estimate its thermal properties. The procedure
                                                            uses a finite difference numerical scheme, simulated in the environment SIMSPARK
                                                            that is non object oriented and allows solving highly non linear problems. A method
                                                            aiming to estimate building envelope thermal characteristics is elaborated knowing
                                                            experimental in situ measurements. The results present a good agreement between
                                                            the forward and the inverse method respectively on a high-weight concrete and then
                                                            on a Phase Change Material wall. Extrapolation of the method on a building model is
                                                            realized to find the required air ventilation rate for a summer and a winter climate.
                                                            Finally, the procedure is applied on a multilayered wall to estimate the U-value using
                                                            real experimental data. The study shows clearly the possibility to identify a
                                                            modification occurred on the wall composition and the moment at which this
                                                            modification happens. The method can be used for different applications and
                                                            provides a good accuracy on the results.
                                 Advances in properties;Phase
building simulation; inverse method; thermalbuilding physics Change Material; U-value estimation
                                                            During most hot period it is possible to obtain passive cooling by decrease of surface
                                                            temperatures with airflow velocities caused by wind entering interior by the effect of
                                                            pressure difference through the openings during the time intervals when the outside
                                                            air is cooler than interior. This effect turns inverse when the outside air temperature
                                                            is more than interiors through specific time intervals. Shading devices used as barrier
                                                            in order to protect from unwanted solar radiation acting on interior surfaces will
                                                            change the velocities and volume flow rates according to their geometry and position
                                                            on facade. The changes in volume flow rates, interior velocities and solar radiation
                                                            amount can be advantegous or disadvantageous for total cooling loads according to
                                                            the time interval as the interior and outside temperatures changes through the day.
                                                            Determining the combined effect of shading device efficiency through solar radiation
                                                            protection strategy and natural ventilation according to time intervals during the day,
                                                            will give opportunity of designing optimum shading device. In determination of
                                                            shading device efficiency with different types of shading device alternatives, zone
                                                            gains and losses with convection, zone sensible gain and losses with ventilation,
                                                            zone gains from windows and total cooling loads which change by the effect of
                                                            shading devices through specific time intervals obtained by Energyplus simulation
                                                            programme are compared.

                                                           Cooling load calculations are run through energy analysis simulation program
                               Advances in total cooling load
Shading device efficiency, cross ventilation,building physics
                                                           This paper provides a brief, non-exhaustive overview of the status of the application
                                                           of CFD in building performance simulation for the outdoor environment. It focuses on
                                                           four topics: (1) pedestrian wind environment around buildings; (2) wind-driven rain on
                                                           building facades; (3) convective heat and mass transfer coefficients at building
                                                           surfaces; and (4) air pollutant dispersion around buildings. For each topic, some
                               Advances in building physics, Advances in applications, Simulation in design of CFD
CFD, outdoor environment, wind flow, application, designspecific difficulties, advantages and disadvantagespractice are addressed.
                                                           Knowledge of site-specific conditions is essential for the development of an
                                                           architectural design that responds to the local environment and for accurate design
                                                           of HVAC systems. Many building simulation software packages come with inbuilt
                                                           climate data files compiled from stations such as airports, which are assumed to be
                                                           representative of the surrounding area. However, evidence of urban modification to
                                                           weather indicates that the differences between city-centre locations and the typical
                                                           rural reference sites used by meteorological services are often quite substantial
                                                           (Oke, 1973).

                                                           What are the implications of using inaccurate input data? Failing to account for urban
                                                           modifications to air temperature may lead to errors in the design process, so HVAC
                                                           plant may be either over–sized or too small. Optimisation of life cycle costs of the
                                                           equipment can only be done if the capital cost is realistic and if running costs are
                                                           estimated accurately. Further, certification of the performance of the building using a
                                                           building energy-rating scheme might be affected if local climate modifications are not
                                                           accounted for correctly.

                                                          This paper will begin by presenting a brief overview of the Canyon Air Temperature
                                                          (CAT) model that is capable of predicting air temperatures in an urban street canyon
                                                          for extended periods in a variety of weather conditions on the basis of meteorological
                                                          time series recorded at an open site exposed to the same meso-scale conditions.
                                                          Next, the paper investigates the importance of using site-specific data by means of a
                                                          case studies conducted on a hypothetical office building in three locations and
                               simulation                 climates: Glasgow-Scotland, Sde Boqer- Israel and Adelaide-Australia. The energy
urban climate; building energy Simulation in design practice
                                                          Buildings are responsible for about 40% of carbon dioxide emissions, and recognition
                                                          of that fact has prompted several major studies of reduction methods. The great
                                                          majority of existing buildings will still be in place in 2030, by which time major
                                                          emissions reductions will need to have been made. It follows that methods of
                                                          reducing emissions from existing buildings are urgently needed. The TARBASE
                                                          project is studying ways in which significant carbon dioxide emission reductions can
                                                          be achieved in existing buildings. A range of building types have been addressed by
                                                          the project in both domestic and non-domestic sectors. The work described deals
                                                          with hotels since the hotel and catering sector is one of the highest non-domestic

                                                           Two exemplar hotel types have been modelled using ESP-r. One is purpose-built, of
                                                           relatively modern construction, and situated in a business park. The other is a
                                                           converted pre-1900 building in a city centre.

                                                           The hotels offer similar facilities, with each having a bar, restaurant and laundry and
                                                           with en suite guest rooms containing the usual facilities offered in mid-price hotels
                                                           such as minibars and hairdryers. In addition, the modern hotel has a conference
                                                           room. Advice was obtained from an engineering consultancy on the types of HVAC
                                                           equipment expected in the buildings of interest.

                                                           Detailed modelling of thermal behaviour was carried out at hourly timesteps for the
                                                           base year of 2005 and for the target year 2030. A series of interventions was applied
                                                           to the hotels against a 2030 climate with the intention of assessing whether a 50%
                                                           reduction in emissions is possible compared with the baseline 2005 value.

                                                           The interventions considered were ventilation heat recovery, wall insulation and
                                                           triple glazing (considered as a single package), converting from electric heating to a
                                                           condensing services, Advances in applications
Hotels, emissions, energy, efficiency, interventions operation, Buildingboiler, efficiency improvements in lighting and equipment, and solar
                               Commissioning and
                                                           This paper presents a method for the estimation of potential impact of climate change
                                                           on the heating energy use of existing houses. The proposed method is based on the
                                                           house energy signature; develop from the current climatic conditions (e.g., year
                                                           2007) and corresponding heating energy use. The energy signature, which is a
                                                           thermal characteristic of the house, is then used along with the frequency of
                                                           occurrence of outdoor air temperature predicted for 2040-2069 to estimate the
                                                           heating energy use. The potential impact of climate change is estimated as the
                                                           percentage of variation of heating energy use in the future compared with the current

                                                         The method is developed using synthetic energy use data, obtained from detailed
                                                         computer simulation of TRNSYS program. The first case study covers the heating
                                                         energy use of a house in a cold climate (Montreal, Canada) that complies with the
                                                         Quebec energy-related regulations. The monthly average variation of outdoor air
                                                         temperature and solar radiation are obtained from the Canadian Centre for Climate
                                                         Modelling and Analysis. The generation of hourly values is done by the TYPE 54 of
                                                         TRNSYS. The difference between the predictions of the proposed method and those
                                                         from detailed modelling with TRNSYS is less than 1% regardless of the duration of
                                                         sampling period (hourly, daily or monthly). It is expected that the annual energy use
                                                         for heating
                             Advances in houses, Montreal, Lyon the case study house would be reduced by 2040-2069 by 11% to 13.1%
Climate change, heating, energy signature, applications, Simulation in design practice
                                                         This study is a part of the research project MEIGEVILLE driven by IRSTV (Research
                                                         Institute on Cities) in which our laboratories are partners. The general objective of
                                                         the project is to take into consideration local climatic data of cities in building thermal
                                                         behaviour simulation and to set up a coupling between these two kinds of simulation.
                                                         At first, climatic data will be processed in order to obtain the input data at a city scale.
                                                         Our project will focus then on the urban microclimate, to predict overheating periods
                                                         within the studied location, in two cities. This part will involves a G.I.S. method to
                                                         convert geographical maps into digital database.

                                                            In this study, the morphological analysis approach is depicted to clarify different
                                                            district areas in one city from G.I.S. data. This investigation takes into account the
                                                            buildings architecture by the calculation of different morphological parameters. In a
                                                            second part, the methodology for the urban microclimate simulation is exposed,
                                                            based on the first par results. Finally, the global warming data, obtain from a specific
                                                            meteorological model is used for the building simulation. The obtain results for
                                                            different years until the year 2100 highlight a regular increase of assessed building
urban microclimate, heatwave, Advances in building physics
                                building simulation         energy consumption and indoor air temperature peaks. At last, the coupling of the
                                                            An onset is given to whole building modelling for investigating the impact of wind-
                                                            driven rain (WDR) on the hygrothermal response, indoor climate and mould growth at
                                                            interior wall surfaces of historical brick wall buildings. First the WDR load on the
                                                            facades of a tower is numerically determined. Then the hygrothermal behaviour of
                                                            the brick wall is numerically analysed on a horizontal slice through the tower. The
                                                            simulations demonstrate that the impact of WDR loads on the moisture contents in
                                                            the walls is much larger near the edges of the walls than at the centre. For the case
                                                            analysed, the absorption and transmission of WDR forms an important moisture
                                                            source for the indoor environment, and may cause increases of indoor relative
                                                            humidity in summer and winter, which can reach up to 55 % in winter. The increased
                                                            thermal conductivity and latent heat effects due to WDR loads yield an increase of
                                                            18.7 % in total heating energy consumption in winter; while a much smaller impact on
                                                            indoor humidity and a very small impact on energy consumption are seen in spring
wind-driven rain, durability, mould growth, indoor climate, and autumn. Finally, the obtained relative humidity and temperature at the interior
                                Advances in building physics energy consumption
                                                            The high importance of indoor environment performance aspects such as surface
                                                            condensation, mold growth, and thermal comfort is widely recognized. High-
                                                            resolution simulation of heat, air and moisture (HAM) transfer can be used to
                                                            enhance the prediction and analysis of these aspects. Several Building Performance
                                                            Simulation (BPS) tools exist to study HAM transfer in the indoor environment. They
                                                            are characterized by a large variation in modeling level, spatial and temporal
                                                            resolution. Building Energy Simulation (BES) tools can be used for simulation of HAM
                                                            transfer during the entire year. These are powerful tools, but generally include
                                                            simplified air flow, heat and moisture transfer modeling. For example transfer
                                                            coefficients are often incorporated in a simplified way by fixed values, or empirical
                                                            correlations and heat and mass transfer analogies. Detailed HAM modeling of the
                                                            building interior is possible with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). However, the
                                                            implementation of meteorological boundary conditions and the capabilities for
                                                            efficient transient modeling are significantly less advanced than in BES tools.

                                                         Developing a single tool which includes all physical domains (heat, air and moisture)
                                                         is a demanding task with quite some limitations involved. In the past, efforts have
                                                         been made to perform high resolution HAM simulation for the indoor environment via
External coupling, Building energy simulation (BES),physics run-time external coupling of BES (ESP-r) and CFD (FLUENT). Previous work on
                               Advances in building computational fluid dynamic (CFD), heat air and moisture (HAM) performance engineering
                                                         Simulation of heat, air and moisture (HAM) transfer for whole buildings is important
                                                         for a detailed analysis of performance aspects such as condensation and mould
                                                         growth risk, indoor air quality, thermal comfort and energy consumption. Example of
                                                         buildings that might benefit from this approach are historical buildings, in which the
                                                         physical domains (heat – air – moisture) and the geometrical domains (outdoor –
                                                         envelope – indoor) are closely linked.

                                                           Building Performance Simulation (BPS) programs are often focused on a specific
                                                           geometrical domain in combination with one or more physical domains. Furthermore,
                                                           they have strong capabilities but also some particular deficiencies in terms of
                                                           boundary conditions, physical models and resolution in space and time.

                                                          Building Energy Simulation (BES; such as ESP-r and EnergyPlus) programs are
                                                          intended to study whole building energy performance and thermal comfort issues.
                                                          These analyses are mainly focused on heat transfer, therefore simplified models for
                                                          moisture and air transfer in the building envelope are adopted. Contrary to this,
                               Advances in building heat building envelope HAM transfer programs (such as
external coupling, building energy simulation (BES), physics, and moisture applications building simulation HAMFEM, WUFI, MATCH and
                                                          air Advances in (HAM), whole
                                                          Indoor relative humidity (RH) variations in buildings have been investigated for a long
                                                          time. Previous studies mainly attempted to classify buildings with respect to indoor
                                                          RH, in a way that e.g. reliable inside boundary conditions could be defined for HAM-
                                                          analysis of building envelopes, for mould risk assessment, etc. More recently,
                                                          researchers tried to come to an integrated approach. One of the active topics of
                                                          research in this integrated approach is the passive control of indoor RH-variations by
                                                          use of the moisture buffering capacities of interior finishes and objects (furniture,
                                                          carpets, books,…). Several authors stress the importance of the latter in the global
                                                          indoor RH-course. The moisture exchange between indoor air and interior
                                                          hygroscopic materials is however a very complicated problem and until now, a
                                                          comprehensive simulation of moisture transport and storage in interior elements
                                                          remains unrealistic. As an alternative, several proposals have been put forward for
                                                          the characterisation of the moisture buffer potential of interior finishes. Recently,
                                                          Janssen and Roels [1] introduced a production-adapted moisture buffer potential and
                                                          demonstrated that the hygric inertia of an entire building zone can be determined
                                                          from its different contributing components, independent of the boundary conditions
                                                          considered. Furthermore, Roels and Janssen [2] showed that the determined hygric
                                                          inertia of a building enclosure can not only be used for a qualitative comparison, but
                                                          also as quantitative design value, because it is easily implementable in existing
                                                          building energy simulation tools by means of an effective capacitance model or a
                                                          buffer storage model.

                                                           Starting from the methodology developed in [2], the current paper presents a tool for
                               Human aspects of energy the in situ determination of the calibration, Simulation in design enclosures. For this,
moisture buffering, moisture buffer value, buildingthe indoor environment, Validation and moisture buffer potential of room practice
                                                            simulation, effective capacitance model, hygric buffering
                                                           The moisture balance of a room is affected by ventilation, infiltration, moisture gains
                                                           and moisture buffering in porous surfaces. Hygroscopic materials such as wood and
                                                           textiles are able to damp relative humidity variations and therefore create a more
                                                           stable indoor climate. The indoor comfort and perceived air quality is, apart from the
                                                           temperature, also affected by the relative humidity in the building. Moreover, the
                                                           presence of possible condensation and mould growth, and the deterioration of
                                                           building materials are determined by the indoor humidity.

                                                           Most multizone building simulation models e.g. TRNSYS focus on the thermal
                                                           response of the building, while the relative humidity is calculated in a simplified way.
                                                           Typically a lumped capacitance model or a penetration depth model is used to
                                                           account for moisture buffering in porous materials. One of the main drawbacks of
                                                           these models is the difficulty of considering various hygroscopic materials which
                                                           requires the use of area-weighted average material properties. Apart from this, their
                                                           isothermal calculation and the use of constant material properties (e.g. vapour
                                                           permeability and moisture capacity) make them have a limited applicability. Therefore
                                                           use of these models is only justified in cases where the relative humidity does not
                                                           play a major role or as a first estimation of the moisture buffering capacity of a room.

                                                      In contrast with the above mentioned models, HAM-models (Heat Air Moisture) which
                                                      describe combined heat and moisture transfer in porous materials are available if a
                                                      more accurate prediction of the indoor relative humidity is desirable. In this paper, a
                                                      one-dimensional HAM model
                            Advances in building physics, Validation and calibration is presented which calculates vapour diffusion through
Moisture buffering, HAM modelling
                                                      Building Physics processes in some parts and elements of revitalized historical
                                                      buildings plays the significant role in their future energy-efficiency and maintenance.
                                                      The unique character of 100 years old post industrial buildings results from masonry
                                                      bricks elevations with precise ornamentation and sophisticated details. The proper
                                                      revitalisation should retain and reconstruct the original structure of the walls. Any
                                                      changes of wall properties such as adding of new layers (insulations or plasters) is at
                                                      variance with cultural heritage protection. Therefore the wall structures as well as
                                                      geometry of external surface have to remain unchangeable from structural and
                                                      material point of view.

                                                             The paper presents and discusses the heat and moisture transfer across single
                                                             layer, masonry wall. On the beginning the mathematical model, numerical solution as
                                                             well as climatic, boundary and initial conditions was described. Simulation results of
                                                             coupled heat, air and moisture in building envelope systems shows the effect of
                                                             material properties and boundary conditions on water content in analysed wall.
                                   Advances in building transport, drivingcases differs in the type of the binder filling studies
                                                             Finally, two rain
revitalisation, historical buildings, heat and moisture physics, Simulation in design practice, Application day - casewere considered. First done
                                                             The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and
                                                             comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Ideally thus management of interior
                                                             humidities forms an integrated aspect of the building design. Interior humidity is
                                                             strongly influenced though by interior moisture buffering by the room enclosure: both
                                                             experimental and numerical studies have comprehensively revealed that application
                                                             of hygroscopic interior elements substantially tempers the peaks in interior humidity
                                                             variations. An appraisal of interior humidities thus needs a qualitative and/or
                                                             quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering.

                                                           While the effective moisture penetration depth and effective capacitance models
                                                           allow simplified quantification, their reliance on the ‗moisture penetration depth‘
                                                           concept necessitates comprehensive material properties and hampers their
                                                           application to multidimensional interior objects, often the primary share of a room
                                                           enclosure‘s hygric inertia. Moreover, while enabling quantification, the parameters
                                                           required by the models do not support qualitative assessment of interior moisture
                                                           buffering by enclosures.

                                                           On the other hand, while recently many protocols for the simple and fast
                                                           measurement of the moistu¬re buffer potential of interior elements have been
                                                           proposed, supporting the qualitative assessment of interior moisture buffering, none
                                                           of these are dependable for a wide range of moisture production regimes. Moreover,
                                                           their superposition to a room-enclosure moisture buffer potential has been suggested
                                                           in literature, but has not been corroborated yet.

                               Advances in building physics, Software issues, the
                                                           This paper presents Simulation link between the
moisture buffering, moisture buffer potential, moisture buffer value, hygric inertia missingin design practice currently available approaches for
                                                          Subtask 1 of the IEA ECBCS Annex 41 project had the purpose to advance the
                                                          development in modelling the integral heat, air and moisture transfer processes that
                                                          take place in ―whole buildings‖. Such modelling comprises all relevant elements of
                                                          buildings: The indoor air, the building envelope, inside constructions, furnishing,
                                                          systems and users. The building elements interact with each other and with the
                                                          outside climate. The Annex 41 project and its Subtask 1 has not aimed to produce
                                                          one state-of–the-art hygrothermal simulation model for whole buildings but rather to
                                                          stimulate the participants‘ own development of such models, or advanced use of
                                                          related existing models.

                                                          Subtask 1 dealt with modelling principles and the arrangement and execution of so-
                                                          called common exercises with the purpose to gauge how well we can succeed in the
                                                          modelling. The paper gives an overview of the Common Exercises which have been
                                                          carried out in the Subtask. Based on this activity, some general experiences are
                                                          reported about how well we are able today to carry out such advanced modelling,
                               Advances in building physics some recommendations for future developments are indicated.
Heat, Air, Moisture, Whole buildings, Simulation exercises

                                                       Hemp concrete is more and more recommended by the eco-builders because hemp
                                                       is a renewable plant, recyclable and does not degrade within time. It corresponds
                                                       perfectly to the requirements of High Environmental Quality buildings. To integrate
                                                       this material into buildings, it is important to study its hygrothermal behaviour. In this
                                                       paper, we study the transient hygrothermal behaviour of a hemp concrete wall and
                                                       we compare it with other materials used in the construction. The simulation
                                                       environment SPARK was used. Moisture transport is made through liquid or vapour
                                                       phases. The liquid phase is supposed to move by capillarity whereas the vapour
                                                       phase diffuses under vapour partial pressure gradient. Our results suggest that hemp
                                                       concrete reduces winter thermal heat losses and protects from summer heat waves.
                                                       Besides its high vapour diffusivity allows buildings to breathe.
                             Advances in building SPARK.
Hemp concrete, modelling, hygrothermal behaviour, physics
                                                       The aim of this paper is to describe the features of a Genetic Algorithm (GA)
                                                       developed to solve simulation-based optimisation problems for the optimal design of
                                                       building envelope and HVAC system parameters.

                                                          This GA has been developed using guidelines from top researchers in the field of
                                                          evolutionary computation. It is mostly based on NSGA-II and Omni-Optimizer. It can
                                                          be used for single and multi-objective optimisation problems with and without
                                                          constrains. Discrete and continuous variables can be handled.

                                                          This GA can work as a stand- alone optimisation algorithm or be added to existing
                                                          optimisation programs. For the latter case, this GA has been added to the library of
                                                          GenOpt and it is made to run combined with IDA-ICE 3.0 (building performance
                                                          simulation program). GenOpt (Generic optimisation program) is an optimisation
                                                          program for the minimisation of objective function that is evaluated by an external
                                                          simulation program. Available algorithms in GenOpt are single-objective ones. So,
                                                          there is a clear demand for a multi-objective algorithm in the GenOpt library.

                                                          In this paper, the way how to use this GA as an initial point generator for single-
                                                          objective solvers is presented. Guidelines are given to construct hybrid solvers within
                                                          the framework of optimisation environments. Besides, the effect of implementing
                                                          binary, gray and real coding is compared to show in which applications each could
                                                          be used.

                                                        Real-world optimisation problems
Simulation, Constrained Optimisation, Genetic algorithms, Single-Objective, Multi-objective in the field of building performance simulation and
                             Software issues
                                                        Distributed energy system is expected to enlarge usage of renewable energy or
                                                        unused energy effectively, or to raise energy efficiency higher working as local
                                                        energy network. Distributed energy system based on cogeneration system has high
                                                        potential of energy saving due to utilizing waste heat from power generator
                                                        effectively. However, unless the appropriate combination of machinery and operation
                                                        are conducted, the expected performance is not achieved. Thus, it is quite difficult to
                                                        determine the optimal combination of machinery and operation. To promote planning
                                                        distributed energy system widely, optimal design method for it is needed.

                                                          In practical design process of energy systems, there are many draft plans that may
                                                          be candidate of optimal plan. But it is hard to evaluate it as exclusive optimal plan,
                                                          because there are various kinds of aspects among stakeholders (such as building
                                                          designers, building owners, energy providers, and energy system engineers), for
                                                          example, minimization of cost, energy consumption, number of machineries, and so
                                                          on. To be able to adapt the model for practical use, It is necessary that the method is
                                                          able to search optimal energy systems with various kinds of objectives, such as
                                                          environmental impact factors, economical factors, building structural factors, and so

                                                      Authors had already developed and proposed new optimal design method for
                                                      building energy systems or distributed energy systems using Genetic Algorithm (GA)
                                                      in some previous studies. This method designs the most efficient energy system by
                                                      optimizing operation of available systems with consideration of optimal capacity size
                                                      of machinery in the systems.
Optimal Design Method, Distributed Energy System, Multi-Objective Genetic AlgorithmGA could deal with nonlinear optimization problems.
                              Energy capture and conversion
                                                      The purpose of this study is to evaluate how combination of optimisation algorithms
                                                      could achieve better solutions for building design problems. In order to apply this
                                                      study, first a combination between simulation and optimisation is created by
                                                      combining IDA ICE 3.0 (Building performance simulation program) with MATLAB
                                                      R2008a. Then combinations between MATLAB optimisation algorithms are
                                                      investigated for the quality of the results or the required execution time.

                                                          A multi-objective optimisation problem is considered where the aim is minimisation of
                                                          energy consumption and investment cost of a single family detached house. Five
                                                          design variables are selected: three continuous variables (insulation thickness in
                                                          external walls, ceiling and floor) and two discrete variables (efficiency of heat
                                                          recovery and U-value of windows).

                                                          FGOALATTAIN or FMINIMAX, from MATLAB Optimisation Toolbox as separate multi-
                                                          objective solvers, give one optimal solution that attempts to attain minimum values for
                                                          each of the two objective functions. Moreover, FGOALATTAIN requires a specified
                                                          goal as an additional input. Pareto solution can be obtained by using the genetic
                                                          algorithm GAMULTIOBJ from MATLAB Genetic and Direct Search Toolbox.

                                                        Combinations between two or more of those optimisation algorithms (FMINIMAX,
                                                        GAMULTIOBJ and FGOALATTAIN) are proposed and tested in this paper.
                                                        GAMULTIOBJ is the main algorithm in these combinations. FMINIMAX is used to
Simulation, Optimisation, Genetic algorithms, MATLAB, IDA ICE an initial population to help GAMULTIOBJ making a good start. By using
                              Software issues
                                                        Half of the global population now lives in urban settlements which collectively
                                                        consume three quarters of global resources. With forecasts that this urban
                                                        population will increase to three quarters by 2050 it is imperative that we understand
                                                        how to minimise urban resource consumption and its negative environmental
                                                        consequences whilst maintaining good quality of life standards for inhabitants. For
                                                        this computer modelling of resource flows can be an invaluable decision support tool
                                                        for urban planners and designers. But the parameters space is infinitely large, so that
                                                        the probability of identifying an optimal configuration of urban design variables with
                                                        resource minimisation (and perhaps some indicator of inhabitant satisfaction) as a
                                                        goal function is highly unlikely. To resolve this problem we have coupled a detailed
                                                        microsimulation model of urban resource flows with a new hybrid evolutionary
                                                        algorithm (a hybrid of the CMA-ES and HDE algorithms), initially using only energy
                                                        demand as the fitness function.

                                                       In this paper we present the means of coupling the EA and CitySim along with the
urban, energy, modelling, optimisation in applications urban variables that have been parameterised. We then present results from the
                                                       GENETIC OPTIMIZATION OF EXTERNAL SHADING DEVICES

                                                          Manzan Marco, Pinto Francesco

                                                          University of Trieste, DINMA sez. Fisica Tecnica, via A. Valerio 10, 34127 Trieste,


                                                          The constant increase in summer energy consumptions due to building climatization
                                                          is becoming a major concern for industrialized countries. Therefore energy saving
                                                          strategies must be sought in order to guarantee both healthy conditions and low
                                                          environmental impact. This is true especially for countries in Mediterranean area
                                                          where high cooling loads are due because of solar irradiance, this is true especially
                                                          for buildings with extensive glazed areas. In this case high solar loads should be
                                                          avoided by designing suitable shading devices.

                                                          This is true for Italy, were recent introduced national codes require the compulsory
                                                          installation of external shading devices for buildings with total surface area greater
                                                          than one thousand square meters.

                                                          External devices can be fixed or moveable, and their impact in building must be
                                                          effective. For instance external shading devices impact not only the summer energy
                                                          consumption due to building climatization, but also the internal light transmittance
                                                          and external visual impact.

                                                           An oversized external shading device can represent a problem for a correct
                                                           distribution of natural light, especially in office buildings, leading to an increase in
                                                           energy costs due to artificial lighting. Moreover a fixed device can also impact the
                                                           winter energy consumptions, in this case solar radiation become a positive energy
                                                           flux that can be effective in lowering heating costs.
                              Human aspects of the indoor environment,
energy savings, building simulation, optimization, design, solar process Advances in applications, Software issues, Simulation in design practice
                                                           In the current context of energy crisis and with the debate on climate change, low
                                                           energy buildings are required. The designers have to deal with heating but also air
                                                           conditioning and specific uses of electricity because the weight of these spending
                                                           categories increases strongly. But design of low energy buildings is not enough: it is
                                                           also necessary to take into account the economic and environmental aspects of
                                                           building without forgetting the thermal and visual comfort.

                                                          In our works, we choose this global approach of the building. This paper presents the
                                                          development of a method of multicriteria optimization for tertiary building. We use
                                                          genetic algorithms to reach an optimized choice for building refurbishment.

                                                          Genetic algorithms (GA) are based on principles of natural selection and modern
                                                          genetics. This tool was already used in building sector. In literature, genetic
                                                          algorithms are used to optimize the sizing of HVAC systems (heat pump or absorption
                                                          chiller) or to improve the building envelope. But these studies are often monocriteria
                                                          optimizations. The method we develop optimizes several aspects of the building
                                                          (systems, envelope, management) according to several criteria (energy, economy,
                                                          environment, comfort).

                                                           In our method, we also wanted to preserve an important role for the simulation. The
                                                           use of GA implies the assessment of several building refurbishment proposals from
building design, refurbishment,Simulation in design practice point of view of energy consumptions and thermal comfort. In the literature,
                               genetic algorithm, multicriteria optimization
                                                           The growing interest in solar thermal collectors for domestic hot water production
                                                           and space heating increases the demand for further research and development in
                                                           the building sector. To cover a high portion of energy demand, large collector areas
                                                           are needed. Collector integration into the building envelope can provide the available
                                                           area and offers new aesthetical and architectural possibilities. Direct integration
                                                           (without air gap, thermally coupled) of solar collectors into the building envelope
                                                           offers several advantages, such as lower heat loss of collectors or passive heat
                                                           gains in winter [1,2,3]. However, direct integration is not always desired or possible
                                                           (e.g. special conditions concerning structural fire protection) and indirect collector
                                                           integration (with air gap) provides another opportunity for façade-collector

                                                           In previous work [2,3], solar thermal systems for domestic hot water production and
                                                           space heating with different types of solar-flat plate collectors that are separately
                                                           installed and directly integrated into the building envelope have been investigated
                                                           through simulations with TRNSYS (transient simulation program) [4]. Based on these
                                                           simulations, the building model has been extended to collect information on flat-plate
                                                           collectors integrated into the building envelope with an air gap between the collector
                                                           and building envelope (indirectly integrated). The air flow in the gap between
                                                           collector and façade has been simulated with TRNFLOW [5], which is an integration
                                                           of the multizone air flow model COMIS (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration
                                                           Specialists) into the thermal building module of TRNSYS (Type 56). In the model
                                                           driving forces such as wind pressure and buoyancy are taken into account.

                                                           Detailed parametric studies have been performed to compare the solar collector
                                                           performance characteristics (solar fraction, stagnation behaviour) and the influence
                                                           on the building performance (winter heat gains, summer cooling loads), due to
                                                           different types of collector integration.

                                                              The following parametric studies have been carried out:
                                                              - Different types of solar flat-plate collectors
                                                              - combisystem
Solar thermal flat-plate collector, building integration, solar Variation of solar collector area Ac to building envelope area Ae (coverage factor)
                                 Simulation in design practice
                                                              This paper presents a simple model of photovoltaic (PV) system electricity generation
                                                              and investigates the match between PV generation and electricity consumption in UK
                                                              domestic buildings. The work is based on a comprehensive monitoring study of
                                                              domestic PV systems in which five minutely average climatic and performance data
                                                              was recorded for over two years for 72 PV systems installed on domestic buildings
                                                              situated at five sites across the UK. Import and export of electricity between the
                                                              buildings and the mains grid was also recorded. The monitoring results are used to
                                                              develop a model for PV electricity generation based on the use of ‗efficiency curves‘
                                                              which describe the performance of PV systems when operating normally and no
                                                              faults are occurring. The model results are then used to compare PV generation to
                                                              the measured electricity consumption loads from the monitored households to
                                                              investigate the impact of PV systems on the local mains grid and the householders
                                                              electricity bills. The research objectives are: to develop a simple modelling
                                                              methodology to predict electricity generation for different types and sizes of PV
                                                              systems; to generate typical PV system generation profiles for well performing PV
                                                              systems; to compare PV generation to the measured household electricity
                                                              consumption loads; and to investigate the potential benefits of using PV systems to
                                                              supply electricity to UK domestic buildings.

                                Energy capture and conversionsolar irradiance to system efficiency relationship for each PV system is analysed
Photovoltaic, PV, model, loads, domestic
                                                          The advent of environmentally-driven building regulations, escalating energy costs
                                                          and heightened client awareness of energy-related issues is placing new demands
                                                          upon the building design team. Designers are now expected to demonstrate
                                                          compliance with mandatory energy and emissions targets, often requiring the
                                                          integration low or zero-carbon (LZC) energy systems into their designs. To support
                                                          this challenging design environment many software tools have emerged or evolved
                                                          ranging from optimisation tools relying on simple device models through to integrated
                                                          simulation tools for the detailed analysis of building-integrated technologies.
                                                          However, a single software tool is seldom sufficient to provide all of the data needed
                                                          within the design process. Very often, a range of tools is required at different points
                                                          in time and for different technology options. Therefore, there is a clear need for an
                                                          effective methodology for the use of multiple software tools in LZC technology
                                                          selection and the integration of that methodology within a wider low-carbon modelling
                                                          and design process. This paper describes a - case studies
                                Advances in applications, Simulation in design practice, Application daypractitioner-driven project within which
simulation, design practice, renewable energy, low carbon, methodology
                                                          Semi-transparent photovoltaic panels are a little researched technology with a large
                                                          potential for multiple utility in buildings. Integrated within a fenestration system, they
                                                          allow daylight to enter a room while concurrently providing electricity, a view to the
                                                          outdoors, and shading. There has been limited research on the combined
                                                          performance of this technology, examining both ideal daylighting and maximum
                                                          electricity generation, while taking into consideration the optimal distribution, or
                                                          transparency, of the cells.

                                                           This paper will present a numerical simulation study of the performance of both semi-
                                                           transparent thin-film photovoltaics, and opaque photovoltaic cells distributed in
                                                           fenestration, taking into consideration both the power produced by the cells, the
                                                           daylight transmitted, and the lighting loads required to achieve a desired workplane
                                                           illuminance. As the cells are distributed further apart, or the effective transmittance is
                                                           increased, the power both produced by the PV and the power required for the
                                                           lighting loads decreases. This paper will address the issue of optimizing the
                                                           transparency, or distribution of these cells, for a three-section façade model
                                                           incorporating a PV section, a viewing section and a spandrel section. A
                                                           straightforward design method will be proposed for designing façades which include
                                                           semi-transparent photovoltaics for different orientations (south, south-east, and
                                                           south-west), manufacturers‘ cell efficiencies (6%, 11%, and 16%) and photovoltaic
                                                           technologies (thin-film, polycrystalline).

                                                        The base case model for which simulations will be performed is a small office in
                                                        Montreal. The principal metric for our study is the net electricity generation, which is
                                                        equal to the power produced by the PV less the lighting load required to supplement
                                                        the daylight to maintain the minimum desired workplane illuminance.
                              Energy capture and design
Semi-transparent photovoltaics, daylighting, facadeconversion, Advances in applications
                                                        Building-Integrated Photovoltaic/Thermal (BIPV/T) systems produce both electricity
                                                        and heat, thus usually having a higher efficiency per unit area compared to individual
                                                        PV systems and solar air collectors. For air-based systems, the hot air multiple
                                                        potential uses such as space heating, DHW and clothes drying (Chen et al., 2007).
                                                        These systems consist of standard PV panels forming an air duct with the most
                                                        external roofing material. Between the PV and the roof material there is metal or
                                                        wood framing to support the PV modules creating the air gap for the air duct. For
                                                        silicon-based PV cells, electrical efficiency is inversely proportional to their
                                                        temperature, thus a lower temperature leads to higher electricity production.

                                                           The system described is open loop, meaning that cool incoming air is sourced from
                                                           the exterior and is dumped after use. One of the advantages of using open loop air
                                                           BIPV/T system is that lower temperatures of the PV modules can often be achieved
                                                           compared to closed loop air systems. Compared to liquid-based systems, small leaks
                                                           are inconsequential.

                                                           A literature review (Tonui & Tripanagnostopoulos, 2008) has shown that the existing
                                                           models usually assume the following simplifications.

                                                           a) Convective heat transfer correlations that were developed for ducts or pipes are
                                                           used, which inherently assumes constant heat flux across the boundaries, constant
                                                           temperature, heating symmetry and constant cross sections;

                                                           b) Steady state conditions are assumed, meaning that short-term effects such as
                                                           temporary cloud cover are not properly modeled.

                                                           c) The effect of moisture content in the air is neglected; and,

                                                           d) The effect of turbulence (e.g. generated by the framing) is neglected.

                                                           An improved model will be presented that discretizes the collector into control
                                                           volumes and allows the employment of local heat design coefficients to be applied.
Building integrated photovoltaics thermal in building physics, Energy capture and conversion, Simulation in transferpractice
                               Advances simulation
                                                           To minimize environmental impact and CO2 production associated with air-
                                                           conditioning system operation, it is reasonable to evaluate the prospects of a clean
                                                           energy source. Solar energy can drive absorption chiller in order to satisfy the
                                                           cooling needs of buildings. The objective of the work is to build a simulation
                                                           environment that can evaluate accurately the energy consumption of an air
                                                           conditioning system including a solar driven absorption chiller. The complete
                                                           simulation environment includes the absorption chiller itself, the rejection circuit
                                                           (cooling tower), solar panels field, heater, storage devices, pumps, heating-cooling
                                                           networks, emission system and building. TRNSYS software modular approach
                                                           provides the possibility to model and simulate this complete system.

                                                           Heating and cooling are included in the simulation as they are closely linked because
                                                           of the use of solar panels field as an energy source for both heating and cooling. It
                                                           increases the complexity of the developed application but assesses the energy
                                                           savings for heating as well.

                                                           Key parameters for running different equipment models are to be found. A
                                                           compromise must be found between the equipment manufacturer available data and
                                                           the required values for existing models. The simulation environment is developed
                                                           based on market available equipments.

                                                           The analyzed building is chosen as a typical European office building [1]. Generally,
                                                           interaction between building and heating-cooling system is done in a very simple
                                                           way, heating-cooling loads are computed separately, so it is assumed that they can
                                                           be completely met by chiller and heater. In this work the building totally interacts with
                                                           the heating and cooling systems.

                                                    Existing models in TRNSYS libraries have to be connected together to build the
                                                    complete environment. Some of the models, in particular the absorption chiller, are
                                                    modified to cope with manufacturer data. Creation of new models which parameters
                                                    can be fixed directly by manufacturer
                            Energy capture and conversion, Simulation in design practice data is also a point developed in this work. A
TRNSYS, solar cooling, absorption chiller

                                                     Combined generation of thermal and electrical energy in units with electrical power
                                                     less than 10 kW provides an attractive option for the energy supply of residential
                                                     buildings due to their potential to high overall efficiency and thus capability of
                                                     reducing emissions. Dynamic simulations of such systems are required to
                                                     performance assessments that aim at finding the most energy efficient system
                                                     topologies. This paper presents the implementation of a combustion engine-based
                                                     micro-cogeneration routine into IDA-ICE, which is a widely used building simulation
                                                     program in the Nordic Countries. The routine utilizes specifications defined in the IEA
                                                     Annex 42 and the implementation is validated by Simulation in design practice
                            Energy capture and conversion, Validation and calibration, Software issues,way of inter-program testing.
micro-CHP, combustion engines, residential buildings
                                                           Recent year‘s extensive power failures have put focus on the importance of secure
                                                           local production and distribution of energy. Since district heating (DH) is the
                                                           dominating heating system in Scandinavia and quite common in large parts of
                                                           Europe it is of great importance to investigate the possibility for buildings connected
                                                           to DH to receive heat during an electric power failure. Our studies have proved it
                                                           possible to achieve natural circulation in space heating systems connected to DH if
                                                           the DH grid operation can be maintained.

                                                            A complete model of a building with a hydronic space heating system connected to
                                                            DH has been built up. Parts of the model have been improved and developed to
                                                            make it possible to simulate not only normal operation using a pump but also natural
                                                            circulation during a power failure. The model shows good resemblance with the field
                                                            study. By using a model the influence of different parameters can be studied, e.g., a
                                                            changed DH supply temperature and different outdoor conditions. The model will
                                                            constitute an important tool in our further studies regarding secure heat distribution
                                                            during power failure.
                                 Computer modelling, Space in design practice
Power failure, District heating, Building services, Simulationheating system
                                                            Geothermal energy is a reliable and stable source which can provide space heating
                                                            and cooling in a more efficient and environmental friendly way. Previous studies have
                                                            addressed a number of approaches to exploit the heat from the earth. The most
                                                            common methods are the horizontal or vertical closed loop and open loop system. In
                                                            the UK, the former method is most commonly employed due risk and uncertainty with
                                                            the latter in spite of strong evidence that open loop systems have considerable
                                                            potential in the UK. A hybrid system which delivers some of the advantages of open
                                                            loop technology with the certainty of closed loop systems would be a considerable
                                                            advantage. Studies in north America have revealed the potential of one such hybrid
                                                            method; the standing column well (SCW), which permits open loop recirculation of
                                                            water often with groundwater ‗bleed‘ abstraction resulting in improved rates of
                                                            geothermal heat transfer when compared with closed loop methods in situations
                                                            where full open loop operation is impracticable due to low groundwater yields.
                                                            However, little attention has been paid to the development of design tools and
                                                            simulation models based on SCW design for UK applications. The relatively few
Standing column well, Geothermal, modelling                 previous studies have mainly focused on heating or cooling applications in based on
                                 Simulation in design practice
                                                            This study aims to clarify the advantages of district heating and cooling system
                                                            (DHC) in energy efficiency as an urban energy system in the near future. In Japan,
                                                            District Heating and Cooling system (DHC) has approximately 40-years history and
                                                            more than 150 plants are constructed as high efficiency heat supply systems at
                                                            central business districts. DHC plants are classified into three categories: electric
                                                            heat pump driven type; absorption chiller and boiler type; and combined system of
                                                            these two types. Even in the same category, measured results show that energy
                                                            efficiencies of DHC plants vary widely. This is because there are differences in the
                                                            design, heat demand profile, efficiency of the equipments and operation of each plant.

                                                           In recent years, energy efficiency of chillers, electricity generators and pumps related
                                                           to DHC system have made a remarkable progress. This means that the potential of
                                                           improvement in the total energy efficiency of DHC by plant renovation has increased.

                                                          An Absorption chiller and boiler type DHC plant, which utilizes combined heat and
                                                          power (CHP), is chosen for a case study. This plant has replaced electricity
                                                          generators and chillers with the latest high-efficiency models. Variable speed turbo
                                                          chiller which is droved by electricity from CHP is also being installed. The simulation
                                                          models for the former plant and the renovated plant are developed based on
                                Building services, Energy capture andspecifications and actual
                                                          equipment conversion
District heating and cooling, Energy efficiency, Cogeneration, New technology, Renovation operating conditions of the former plant. The
                                                          Heating and cooling systems in buildings are typically designed based on extreme
                                                          conditions with an occurrence of 1% or less per year. Current practice tends to
                                                          oversize the mechanical system components to ensure a comfortable living
                                                          environment at all times. Research has shown that right-sizing is essential to achieve
                                                          a more efficient system with reduced energy consumption. Sound, responsible
                                                          system sizing can only happen when liability issue become part of the design
                                                          methodology, i.e. actively communicating with prospective owners/occupants
                                                          regarding the risk that the thermal comfort, and full time use of appliances cannot be
                                                          fully guaranteed. This risk is related to extraordinary environmental conditions for a
                                                          certain amount of time of the year, the chance that certain components will fail for
                                                          some reason, and the fact that predictions of the operation of houses are based on
                                                          design idealizations, and thus uncertain. Huge savings in first cost and operating
                                                          cost may be achieved by right sizing all equipments and allowing moderate
                                                          deviations from desired indoor temperatures for certain time periods.

                                                            This off-grid solar house design study addresses a new right-sizing approach by
                                                            investigating the two main liability issues that are at stake: power reliability and
                                                            thermal comfort. Both are directly related to the mechanical system efficiencies, the
                                                            capacity of solar power generation system, capacity of energy storage system, and
                                                            the house load profile. None of these system parts can be sized in isolation, as their
                                 Commissioning and liabilityperformance is highly interrelated and can only be studied through holistic studies
Right-sizing, off-grid, solar house, risk assessment,operation
                                                            As part of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development‘s energy
                                                            efficiency in building project, the authors have been involved in modelling various
                                                            technology options for different building market segments so as to reach net-zero
                                                            energy goal. This paper describes the modelling of muti-family residence in China
                                                            and large office in USA as a case-in-point to illustrate the most common strategies
                                                            that are considered during NZEB design stage, ease of modelling these strategies,
                                                            and issues of input/output quality control. It will conclude by suggesting critical
                                                            concepts that need to be added to the simulation tools in general, for them to be
                                                            useful for concept - case studies
                                 Simulation in design practice, Application daydesign of net-zero energy buildings.
Net-zero buildings, Concept design
                                                            This paper describes an open-source library with component models for building
                                                            energy and control systems that is based on Modelica, an equation-based object-
                                                            oriented language that is well positioned to become the standard for modeling of
                                                            dynamic systems in various industrial sectors. The library is currently developed to
                                                            support computational science and engineering for innovative building mechanical
                                                            and control systems. Early applications will include controls design and analysis,
                                                            rapid prototyping to support innovation of new building systems and the use of
                                                            models during operation for controls, fault detection and diagnostics. The paper
                                                            discusses the architecture of the library. It also discusses advantages that result from
                                                            the separation of concerns when developing an application framework, such as
                                                            formulating model equations, generating programs for simulations and linking
                                                            equations systems to numerical solvers. Such a separation, which is not common in
                                                            today's traditional building simulation programs, allows for better adaptation as
equation-based modeling, Modelica, model applications software stacks and hardware environments evolve, and it facilitates model use in
                                 Advances in library
                                                            Over the past 30 years numerous Building Simulation Codes (BSC) have been
                                                            developed. Nevertheless none of them has yet become a ―standard‖, nor a standard
                                                            language describing services or tool‘s components has been commonly adopted.
                                                            Focusing the attention on the use of advanced Object-Oriented Programming, a
                                                            review of the most used BSC is here carried out. A first purpose of this work is to
                                                            look mainly at the basic differences among these tools and to identify the reason for
                                                            this lack of uniformity, such as, different addressed goals, problems in practical
                                                            implementation or shortage of theoretical bases. In fact, the differences detected
                                                            range from implemented physical models and methods used for their coupling and
                                                            resolution, to internal software‘s structure and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI). This
                                                            spread has been promoted also by the advent of Object-Oriented Modelling
                                                            Languages, by the diffusion of tolls like Dymola and Simulink and by the
                                                            developments reached in the field of Data Base, Web Services, soft computing and
                                                            The paperanalysis. Meanwhile, the ongoing work in theperformance
                                                            numerical is concerned Distributed evolution, building world of Computer Aided
Object-Oriented Programming (OOP), Building Performance Simulation, Usability, with the integration of Standards‘ definition. simulation within
                                 Software issues
                                                            a collaborative/ multidisciplinary higher-education environment. The paper presents a
                                                            semester-long setup in which a course attended by both architecture and
                                                            engineering students and jointly taught by an architect and an engineer ultimately
                                                            collaborate with an undergraduate architecture design studio on proposing upgrades
                                                            to an existing building.

                                                           As an introductory-level course with building performance simulation (BPS) content, it
                                                           strives to incorporate other components in addition to the collaborative design one.
                                                           These other components aimed at grounding the BPS into physical reality are: back-
                                                           of-the-envelope hand calculations, physical modelling, and data acquisition

                                                           The authors find that leaving aside the goal of achieving refined analytical methods
                                                           of BPS to instead endeavour to establish a proper collaborative framework between
                                                           BPS consultant and designer (here represented by the course attendee and the
                                                           studio attendee, respectively) early in the design process delivers interesting results
                                                           in terms of student understanding of how buildings work.

Undergraduate Education, collaboration in design practice
                                                            The equation-based modeling language Modelica is used to create a computational
                                                            fluid dynamics package for application to buildings. This work does not seek to
                                                            displace stand-alone CFD software, for its ultimate reason for being is the integration
                                                            of CFD with other analysis domains such as energy and controls, as well as for the
                                                            coupling to other airflow analyses such as multizone. These separate domains are
                                                            divided according to the fault lines dividing the different analysis tools, and past work
                                                            to unify the resulting fractured state of building performance simulation has focused
                                                            on linking existing tools. The approach taken here is different in that it employs a
                                                            common platform for linked models rather than linking separate platforms. It is
                                                            claimed that Modelica provides an excellent common platform, offering inherent multi-
                                                            domain capability; the potential for greater code reuse; and allowing the modeler to
                                                            quickly describe and simulate unique systems at the appropriate level of detail due to
                                                            the adaptability, extensibility, and model-centric rather than programming-centric
CFD, Equation-based, Modelica   Software issues             characteristic of equation based modeling. A key aspect of the paper will be the
                                                            The daylight factor is usually one of the first daylight performance measures that
                                                            simulation newcomers calculate. Apart from the intrinsic limitations of the daylight
                                                            factor as a meaningful daylighting performance metric, little work has been done in
                                                            the past as to how accurately one can actually expect simulation novices to simulate
                                                            the daylight factor compared to an expert modeler. This paper compares the daylight
                                                            factor predictions from a ―best practice‖ model of an ―L-shaped‖ perimeter classroom
                                                            to a total of 69 novice/student models. In all cases the models were prepared in
                                                            ECOTECT and simulated in RADIANCE. The paper discusses common mistakes
                                                            that simulation beginners make when carrying out a daylight simulation, how close
                                                            their simulation results were compared to the ―best practice‖ model, and how
                                                            software developers and educators could potentially guide users to avoid making
                                                            such mistakes. In addition, a comparison of simulation results obtained with
                                                            ECOTECT‘s built-in split flux method as opposed to RADIANCE is carried out for the
                                                            69 models in order to quantify on to what extent using a less reliable simulation
                                                            engine compromises the accuracy of a simulation.
                                Simulation in design practice
Daylight factor, simulation errors, design practice, education
                                                            Knowing the presence or the actual number of occupants in a space at any given
                                                            time is essential for the effective management of various building operation functions
                                                            such as security and environmental control (e.g., lighting, HVAC). In the past, motion
                                                            detection using Passive Infrared (PIR) sensors has been widely deployed in
                                                            commercial buildings and can provide data on ``presence" status. However, there
                                                            are known limitations with PIR sensors, even for occupant presence detection, in that
                                                            detection error can occur when the occupant is stationary or performing common
                                                            tasks in the office space involving small movement such as typing or reading.
                                                            Moreever, PIR can not detect the number of the occupants in the space.

                                                         As occupants "interact" with the indoor environment, they will affect environmental
                                                         conditions through the emission of CO2, heat and sound, and relatively little effort
                                                         has been reported in the literature on utilizing this environmental sensing data for
                                                         occupancy detection. This paper presents the findings of a study conducted at the
                                                         Intelligent Workplace (IW) at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) to address this
                                                         question by exploring the most effective environmental features for occupancy level
                                                         detection. A sensor network with robust, inexpensive, non-intrusive sensors such as
                             Advances in applications CO2, temperature, relative humidity, and acoustics is deployed in an open-plan office
occupancy sensing, information theory, open plan office, sensor network, feature selection
                                                           With the current focus on energy performance certification, factors such as increased
                                                           and unstable fuel prices and consequent heating and electrical costs as well as the
                                                           large number of buildings that are going to require energy analysis, a real need has
                                                           surfaced for powerful, fast, and easy to use energy analysis solutions that will not be
                                                           limited to energy experts.

                                                           Live Energy (formerly called Demeter) [Finlayson et al, 2008], an energy analysis
                                                           plug-in for Google's SketchUp utilises the SketchUp application programming
                                                           interface and rich internet technologies to integrate into the SketchUp environment
                                                           and make the process of building energy analysis as simple as possible. Live Energy
                                                           builds a rich energy framework around the SketchUp building model, which can be
                                                           sent to an accompanying energy analysis engine or can be exported for use with
                                                           other tools.

                                                     TRNSYS is a powerful transient systems simulation environment that allows for the
                                                     creation of component-based models to represent energy systems (including
                                                     localised weather, equipment, building structure etc.) based on real life scenarios
                                                     and then to calculate various outputs based on the user's requirements. Due to a
                                                     steep learning curve and a complex - case studies
                           Software issues, Simulation in design practice, Application day user interface for inputting building data,
                                                           The aim of this study is to accelerate developments of building simulation programs
                                                           by using Object-Oriented programming.

                                                           A reusable generalised scheduler interfaces and classes for defining schedules in
                                                           simulation programs were developed.

                                                           _ITermStructure_, the *interface* for a time period was developed to make complex
                                                           term structure general. By using *Composite-Pattern*, all the concrete term classes
                                                           which implement the _ITermStructure_ can be integrated into complex tree structure.

                                                           By using *Generics*, specifications of schedules class shall not be specified until
                                                           scheduler classes is declared and instantiated by a client code. Since the program
                                                           code developed in this research and a code made by a client were separated clearly,
                                                           developed scheduler classes is generally applicable for long term simulation

                                                      A concrete example of program, which uses the developed scheduler classes to
                                                      control cooling tower‘s operating schedules, was given. It demonstrates that the
Scheduler, OOP, long term simulation, Generics, Composite Pattern scheduler classes worked fine without any modifications by clients.
                             Software issues

                                                           Provenance is defined in the dictionary as: (1) Source OR origin. In the context of it
                                                           use in this paper, the secondary definition is of greater explanatory power: (2) the
                                                           history of ownership of a valued object or work of art or literature

                                                           This paper develops describes a web-based Quality Assurance system that makes
                                                           building data and its associated provenance available for use in building
                                                           performance simulation. In this case provenance is taken to mean the history of the
                                                           testing process that developed the data reported. It proposes a means of scoring the
                                                           trust level of simulations based upon the provenance of the data used.

                                                           ―what is the light reflectivity of that acoustic tile?‖; ―what are the heat storage
                                                           properties and light reflectivity of that brick?‖; ―what are the bsdf properties of that
                                                           blind system?‖. These and many other questions are already commonplace amongst
                                                           designers working within a BIM-based design environment. General values for these
                                                           properties published in text books as examples are often used in simulation as ‗the
                                                           best available‘. In a market where the move to BIM is increasing the pressures on
                                                           designers to use complex simulation tools early in the design process, and where the
                                                           BIM Model is making this feasible, these text values are no longer sufficient. Clients
                                                           are seeking firm answers early on to investment decisions that do not open them to
                                                           risk of litigation. The present practice of using text book standard values whose
                                                           provenance is unknown is unlikely to ‗stand up in court‘.

                                                           This paper reports the process of attaching provenance attributes to an online
                                                           database of building product information. The International Glazing DataBase (IGDB)
                                                           is an excellent example of an offline database containing high quality data where the
Provenance, Quality Assurance, materialsin design practice provenance is well-known. The IGDB is maintained through a stringent process
                                                           A wide range of scientifically validated Building Performance Simulation tools BPS is
                                                           available internationally. The users of those tools are mainly researchers, physicists
                                                           and experts who value empirical validation, analytical verification and calibration of
                                                           uncertainty as defined by e.g. BESTEST. However, literature and comparative
                                                           surveys indicate that most architects who use BPS tools in design practice are much
                                                           more concerned with the (1) Usability and Information Management (UIM) of interface
                                                           and (2) the Integration of Intelligent design Knowledge-Base (IIKB). Those two issues
                                                           are the main factors for identifying a building simulation program as ―Architect
                                                           Friendly‖. Now, with the advancement of BPS tools and the recent announcements
                                                           of direct links between BIM or non-BIM modeling tools and BPS tools it is important
                                                           to compare the existing programs. Based on an online survey, this paper presents
                                                           the results of comparing ten major BPS tools. The paper summarizes the key findings
                                                           and underlines the major requirements for future improvement and development of
                                Simulation in design practice tools,
usability, interface, knowledge-base, building simulation, architects mainly from an architectural perspective. The following programs are
                                                           Parametric analysis is a powerful method for exploring alternative design options and
                                                           establishing variable dependency therefore design guide. The text-based user
                                                           interface of EnergyPlus makes it a perfect simulation tool for automated (or scripted)
                                                           parametric analysis. Since the number of simulations required for parametric analysis
                                                           tend to be large, a software utility that may take advantage of the ever-increasing
                                                           desktop computing power is desirable. ―Parallelism‖, in its broad sense of running
                                                           more calculations simultaneously, comes naturally into our view. Two
                                                           implementations have been tested on a single-box dual-core PC and a 256-core
                                                           Beowulf Cluster. This paper presents the development of the Java tool that prepares
                                                           the parametric runs, as well as the performance enhancement achieved on different
                                Advances java              platforms.
EnergyPlus, parallel, parametric analysis,in applications, Software issues
                                                           There is a need for an integrated solar house design tool that allows the efficient
                                                           design of solar houses. Designers currently lack tools to explore the implications of
                                                           parameters that are key to successful low-energy architecture, such as house
                                                           orientation, fenestration, construction materials, and aspect ratio (Hong et al., 2000).
                                                           The proposed design tool is intended to be used by architects and engineers at the
                                                           beginning of the design process before major design-limiting choices are made. It will
                                                           not only provide energy modeling capabilities, but also guidance towards an optimal
                                                           solution while ensuring that all practical constraints are obeyed.

                                                            Detailed simulation tools can be very accurate, but require both significant
                                                            experience and a considerable number of redundant inputs. Furthermore, an iterative
                                                            design approach requires the tedious tasks of inputting new values and maintaining
                                                            a database of designs. Also, existing software typically does not allow practical
                                                            considerations, such as limitations of property boundaries. Finally, most software
                                                            does not provide any guidance for improvement. In contrast, the proposed design
                                                            tool will provide real-time feedback, allowing the user to quickly explore many design
                                                            options. A number of features are intended to guide the user towards the optimal
                                                            solution. For passive solar design, it has been shown that designing the house
                                                            based on three solar design days corresponds to good whole-year performance
                                                            (O'Brien et al., 2008). Two methods for pointing the user in the direction of the
                                                            optimal region will be used. The first, lines of influence, represent the sensitivity of
                                                            performance relative to the value of the design parameter of interest. For example, a
                                                            flat line of influence for window size indicates that no gain in performance can be
                                                            achieved by changing window size; while a steep line of influence indicates great
                                                            opportunity. This is suitable for continuous variables, such as the insulation level.
solar energy, design tool, passive, active, in design practice second method is to reduce the design space to a small list of the most suitable
                               Simulation house, simulation
                                                            In building energy performance assessment it is obviously important to be able to
                                                            determine the correct annual energy consumption. However, in practise many
                                                            buildings show significant deviation between the predicted annual energy
                                                            consumption and the actual energy consumption. One of the main reasons for the
                                                            discrepancy is the difference between the assumptions made during the calculations
                                                            and the actual conditions concerning for instance properties of the building materials,
                                                            building airtightness, construction details, handling of potential thermal bridges,
                                                            occupant behaviour, etc. Design methods quite often assume that building materials,
                                                            construction, etc. works almost optimally leading to a rather optimistic assessment of
                                                            the energy consumption.

                                                           To improve the energy performance assessment the actual distribution of input
                                                           properties must be considered in stead of an optimum value. Consideration of the
                                                           distributions may provide useful information of the average energy consumption and
                                                           ranges of variation (like worst case scenarios) and thus the building robustness.

                                                           In order to facilitate efficient energy calculation available in practise without a
                                                           demand for excessive and time consuming calculations, a simple application of
                                                           partial safety factors is suggested. Here, the safety factors are applied together with
                                                           the ―ordinary‖ energy calculations to determine a corrected value providing a ―real‖
                                                           average value and also an extreme value (e.g. the 95 percentile).

                                                           The paper presents a pilot study of the applicability of partial safety factors. The
                                 Advances in building physics, Advances in the safety factors is performed using distributions of relevant input
                                                           determination building simulation, energy consumption,
Partial safety factors, building energy performance assessment, thermalof applications, Validation and calibration monte carlo simulation
                                                           Reliable input data is generally perceived as necessary for meaningful results in
                                                           simulation studies. However, it is the effect of uncertainties in the data on the
                                                           predictions that is important: some data can be virtually unknown but the model may
                                                           be insensitive to this parameter and therefore the lack of certainty in that parameter
                                                           has little effect on the robustness of the predictions.

                                                           Recent studies have examined the effect of uncertainties on predictions and the
                                                           various statistical methods required to assess these impacts. There remains little
                                                           knowledge on the actual variations in input parameters.

                                                           This paper will examine the sources of uncertainty related to air flow modelling and
                                                           apply this knowledge to existing uncertainty assessment methods. The resulting
                                                           predictions will be compared to experimental data.

                                 Advances in
uncertainty, monte-carlo, air flow modelling applications, Validation and calibration
                                                            During last decades, a large research activity has been performed on the
                                                            architectural design choices during the preliminary conceptual design stage for code
                                                            compliance, energy saving, environmental impacts purposes. Traditionally, the
                                                            approach used is based on a discrete number of alternative solutions - orientation,
                                                            building envelope transmittance, window size and transmittance and so on variables-
                                                            with a base case which plays the role of a reference against which the different
                                                            solutions are compared.

                                                            In this paper, we follow another approach based on continuous alternative solutions
                                                            of design choices, applying uncertainty and sensitivity techniques, to analyze some
                                                            indicators of building energy performance. The first part of the work is related to the
                                                            identification and description of the design variables then a simple basic intermediate
                                                            floor of a typical multistory office is used as a generic case study for office buildings.
                                                            Uniform density probability (assessing upper and lower bounds) are assigned for the
                                                            different design variables.

                                                            Two simplified methods, easy to be implemented and to be used by architects, are
                                                            used to assess energy performance indicators:
                                                            - the quasi-steady simplified monthly method, presented in the ISO 13790:2008, to
                                                            calculate energy needs for heating and cooling.
                                                            - the simplified methods of internal temperatures of a room in summer without
                                                            mechanical cooling, presented in the ISO 13792:2005, to calculate load peak load
                                                            and performance index time.

                                                           Monte Carlo technique and the analysis techniques-
architectural design choices - building energy performance indicators - uncertainty and sensitivity of variance method Fourier Amplitude
                                Simulation in design practice
                                                           As a part of decreasing the energy use, and thus carbon dioxide emissions within the
                                                           European Union, focus has increased on both low energy buildings and the ability to
                                                           simulate the energy use of buildings properly. In multi family dwellings, the use of
                                                           electricity is usually split into common electricity used for operating the building, stair
                                                           cases, wash rooms and common and outdoor lighting, and household electricity,
                                                           which is paid by the apartment inhabitants and used for the equipment inside the
                                                           apartments. In detached houses, all electricity can be referred to as household
                                                           electricity since the owner pays it. Even if the use of household electricity can be a
                                                           subject for energy related measures, it will depend on the users and their behaviour
                                                           and equipment. If the focus of measures is on the buildings, with its envelope and
                                                           indoor climate systems, it is reasonable to believe that the household electricity will
                                                           not decrease much. This means that in a low energy dwelling, the heat gain from the
                                                           household electricity is a large part of the energy in the heat balance of the building.
                                                           Studies have shown that the household electricity use varies both design practice
                                Advances in building physics, Energy capture and conversion, Software issues, Simulation induring the day and
energy use, heat loads, electricity, dwellings
                                                           Most building simulation programs are deterministic models used in a deterministic
                                                           way: (1) for a given input the program always calculates the same output, and (2) the
                                                           user provides single values for each input (best estimates) and the program
                                                           calculates single values for each output (energy consumption, comfort metrics, etc.).
                                                           Although fully operative, this scheme does not consider the fact that many inputs are
                                                           affected by uncertainty: some variables are partially random (weather, occupancy,
                                                           etc.), while others are not well known due to our lack of knowledge (incomplete
                                                           specifications, need for further experimental work, etc.). Including these
                                                           considerations into building models is the subject of a new branch of building
                                                           simulation: building simulation under uncertainty. Pioneer works in this direction were
                                                           [Lomas1992] or [McDonald2002], for example.

                                                            The easiest approach to include uncertainty in a large building simulation code is to
                                                            keep the model deterministic (do not include noise terms into its formulation), and to
                                                            describe its inputs by means of probability distributions. The mathematics to deal
                                                            with this problem is well developed and it can be easily implemented in building
                                                            simulation programs which use text files for input/output purposes. In our opinion, the
                                                            main difficulty the practitioner finds when he or she attempts to undertake a
                                                            stochastic simulation is to properly define the uncertainties themselves.

                                                In this paper we advance in the quantification of the uncertainty that affects to the
                                                thermal conductivity of common insulation materials. In a previous project by BRE
                                                and other laboratories [BRE1999], several hundreds of conductivity versus density
                                                measurements were compiled for typical insulating and other building materials. In
                                                this paper, this set of high quality data has been reprocessed in order to obtain mean
                                                values and standard deviations for the conductivity. To illustrate how these results
                                                can be used in practice, an example is discussed on the validation of the
                                                mathematical model of a solar thermal collector.
                      Advances in building physics, Validation and calibration, Simulation in design practice
                                                It is important to be able to assess the energy consumption of buildings to a certain
                                                level of accuracy. In order to assess the influence of energy reduction initiatives, to
                                                determine the expected annual cost, to calculate life cycle cost, emission impact, etc.
                                                it is crucial to assess the energy consumption reasonably accurate. As buildings
                                                account for a substantial part of the overall energy consumption, as the energy
                                                prices increase due to lack of resources, and climate change considerations forces
                                                governments to control energy consumption more tightly it is increasingly important to
                                                be able to determine the actual energy consumption.

                                                            However, several investigations reveal significant uncertainties in the estimation of
                                                            energy consumptions in buildings. Deviation between the calculated energy
                                                            consumption and the actual energy consumption may exceed 100 % in extreme
                                                            cases. This raises an important question as to the expected level of uncertainty in
                                                            energy consumption assessment of buildings.

                                                            The present work undertakes a theoretical and empirical study of the uncertainty of
                                                            energy consumption assessment of domestic buildings. The calculated energy
                                                            consumption of a number of almost identical domestic buildings in Denmark is
                                                            compared with the measured energy consumption. Furthermore, the uncertainty is
                                                            determined by means of stochastic modelling based on input distributions found by
                                                            literature study, industry guidelines, measurements and – when necessary – simple

                               Advances in building physics, found that significant differences may occur buildings
                                                          It is assessment, stochastic modelling, and calibration
Energy consumption, thermal building simulation, uncertaintyAdvances in applications, Validationdomestic between calculated and measured
                                                          Approximately 33% of total annual energy consumption and carbon emission in
                                                          Belgrade (Serbia) are related to the housing sector. As such, the housing sector
                                                          represents a key determinant in the development of an overall national carbon
                                                          reduction strategy. The development of an effective carbon reduction strategy
                                                          increasingly requires use and development of detailed predictive tools. The aims of
                                                          this paper are twofold: (a) to briefly comment on the use of various building
                                                          simulation tools in building stock modelling focusing on the housing sector, (b) to
                                                          provide details of an algorithm for the disaggregated physically based bottom-up
                                                          energy and carbon emission modelling of the housing stock in Belgrade. The
                                                          suggested algorithm has been constructed around three separate components which
                                                          will be created and analysed during the course of this project: a) a data module
                                                          which contains information on various energy related characteristics of Belgrade‘s
                                                          housing stock, such as urban layout, building envelope and building services; b) a
                               Energy capture and conversion module based on a comprehensive monitoring campaign of selected dwellings
carbon reduction strategies, building stock modelling, bottom-up carbon emission models
                                                          This paper discusses the methodology underlying the development of a 'bottom-up'
                                                          GIS-based urban scale domestic energy use and CO2 emissions model of the
                                                          Greater London Authority (GLA). A systematic approach towards exploring the
                                                          relationship between built form, energy consumption and the combined effect of
                                                          climate change and the urban heat island phenomenon is demonstrated. The
                                                          objectives of the study are twofold: (a) to develop a profiling tool of domestic energy
                                                          consumption for different levels of the urban hierarchy system by making use of
                                                          reduced datasets and (b) to investigate the effect of increased local urban
                                                          temperatures on domestic energy use. Predicting domestic energy demand on an
                                                          urban scale forms a significant part of the CO2 emissions reduction strategies in the
                                                          UK. In this context, there is a significant need for domestic energy models able to test
                                                          different urban scale policies relevant to meeting the target of stabilising London‘s
                                                          emissions at 60% below 1990 levels by 2025 as set out in the 2007 Mayor‘s Climate
                               stock, urban design, urban in applications, Validationpast, calibration, Software issues, Simulation in design
                                                          Change Action Plan. In the and Geographic
energy consumption, domestic Building services, Advancesheat island, geographic information systemsInformation Systems (GIS) tools havepractice

                                                         With very low rates of replacement of the existing somewhat dated housing stock a
                                                         key challenge for nations to meet their emissions reduction targets during the coming
                                                         years will be to improve the energy performance of existing housing within their
                                                         cities. In this paper we describe the preliminary form of a system dynamics model of
                                                         the housing stock of the city of Basel in Switzerland and how this stock may evolve
                                                         up to the year 2050. In particular we model the aging of the stock, stimuli influencing
                                                         renovation investment decisions and the consequences of such decisions for the
                                                         energy performance of the stock. In this way we are able to focus on specific
                                                         strategies (e.g. taxation, subsidy, education and statutory) for accelerating the
                                                         renovation process. We close the paper by presenting some scenarios and the
urban, energy, modelling        Advances in applications associated results from application of the model to the city of Basel.
                                                         In the frame of the European Energy Performance Building Directive (EPBD), an
                                                         energy performance regulation was introduced by the Regional government of
                                                         Flanders (Belgium) on January 1st 2006. After two years of implementation the
                                                         Flemish government reconsiders the opportunities to achieve the minimal energy
                                                         performance requirements. In the frame of this evaluation, a technical-economical
                                                         study on the cost-effectiveness of different energy-saving measures is executed for
                                                         the residential sector, considering the current technologies and their costs.

                                                            In this study referential residence buildings are created, both for single- and
                                                            multifamily houses, based on a statistical analysis of the Flemish residential sector.
                                                            The energy-saving measures are investigated both on the building envelope and
                                                            system-related measures. Measures on the building envelope can be installation of
                                                            extra insulation, better glazing, solar shading and improved air tightness. System-
                                                            related measures are different types of systems for space heating, domestic hot
                                                            water production, ventilation and solar energy systems.

                                                         The characteristic parameters, the investment costs and the grey energy content are
                                                         defined for each measure. Given the high correlation between the different
                                                         measures, a simulation matrix of all possible and meaningful combinations is created.
                                                         In the first step, only the measures on the building envelop are considered. In the
                                                         second step, the most relevant combinations from the first step are combined with
                                                         the system-related measures and a new simulation matrix is created. In total, more
                                                         than 20 000 combinations of
energy-saving measures, simulation matrix, applications, Regulation/code compliance measures are evaluated for each referential building.
                            Advances in multi-objective optimization, economic trade-off
                                                         Half of the global population now lives in urban settlements which collectively
                                                         consume three quarters of global resources. With forecasts that this urban
                                                         population will increase to three quarters by 2050 it is imperative that we understand
                                                         how to minimise urban resource consumption. In this paper we describe a new model
                                                         ―City-Sim‖ that has been conceived to support the more sustainable planning of
                                                         urban settlements by simulating the key building-related resource flows (i.e. for
                                                         space conditioning and to sustain the activities accommodated) and how this may be
                                                         used at different spatial scales. But it is also important to take into consideration the
                                                         transportation of goods and people between buildings. To this end we also discuss
                                                         how City-Sim may be coupled with micro-simulation models of urban transportation.
                                                         In this way we may capture all key urban resource flows for a snapshot in time (we
                                                         may perform (sub)hourly simulations for a year but we assume the fabric of the city to
                                                         be unchanging, so that we have a stationary model), a potentially powerful resource
                                                         for urban planners.

                                                         We close this paper by speculating how the underlying mechanisms influencing
urban, energy, modelling        Advances in applications individual actors‘ (individuals and firms) decisions might be incorporated to enable us
                                                           This study presents the results of a series of virtual experiments deriving U.S.
                                                           household energy consumption profiles from randomly sampled American Time Use
                                                           Survey (ATUS) data.

                                                           In statistics, there are mainly two approaches to generate large sets of data from
                                                           limited samples of a population – Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and bootstrap.

                                                           Past efforts on integrating Time Use Survey (TUS) to residential building energy
                                                           simulation have focused on using MCMC technique to generate various types of
                                                           schedules for simulation. While the simulated occupant schedule in average agrees
                                                           to the occupant schedule created directly from entire Time Use Survey data, it
                                                           suffers from two shortcomings. First is that in order to make MCMC model
                                                           manageable, the feasibility of deriving sub-house spatial distribution of occupants
                                                           from TUS data cannot be explored. Second is the lack of examination of the
                                                           robustness of MCMC model. It brings no surprise that MCMC simulated data fits well
                                                           with the data set it models upon. However, if the simulated data is derived from only
                                                           part of TUS data, will it still fit well with the rest of TUS data? Or if different sub-sets
                                                           of TUS data are sampled through random processes, will they generate MCMC
                                                           models with similar transitional probability matrix along the time line?

                                                           Aiming to address these two shortcomings, this study starts from examining an
                                                           unstated assumption all researches of TUS anchored upon - the TUS data are
                                                           adequate to represent the behaviors of the true population (the society) - from
                                                           household energy consumption point of view. If this assumption is true, different
                                                           batches of randomly sampled TUS should result in similar energy consumption
                                                           distribution profile and MCMC simulated data can be replaced by bootstrap sampled

                                                     Households comprised of 2 married couples with 3, 2, 1, and no children are
                           Human aspects of the indoor environment, Validationrespectively. Each
                                                     selected from ATUS data Load Profile
Time Use Survey, Occupant Schedule, Bootstrap, Residential Energy Consumption,and calibration type of household demography has 10
                                                     Hydro-Québec, a public utility located in Québec (Canada), has established in the
                                                     last few years energy efficiency programs for buildings in order to meet high
                                                     objectives regarding energy savings. To support these programs, energy simulation
                                                     tools for commercial and institutional (CI) buildings have been developed.

                                                           This article describes the development of a functionality generating simulations of CI
                                                           buildings having representative characteristics of a real estate stock in Québec. It
                                                           requires very few information such as the type of building, its total area and its
                                                           construction year. With these data, the physical characteristics (R-value of the
                                                           envelope, type of windows, type of HVAC, system controls, etc.) and the operational
                                                           characteristics (schedule, type of activities, etc.) are statistically extracted from a
                                                           database and transmitted to the input fields of an hourly building energy simulation
                                                           software using DOE2.1E engine. It is then possible, needing very few information, to
                                                           simulate energetic performance of a group of buildings as seen in Québec‘s real
                                                           estate stock and evaluate the impact of energy saving measures.

                                                           The physical and the operational characteristics filling the database come from
                                                           various major studies carried out in Québec, including a detailed energy analysis of
                                                           more than 14 000 buildings. Using this important amount of data it was possible to
                                                           establish a distribution of values for several key characteristics, allowing Monte Carlo
                                 database, Monte Carlo analysis
building simulation, real estate Advances in applications, Validation and calibration, Software issues
                                                           Recently, it is demanded to capture environmental load caused by buildings and
                                                           study energy conservation measure based on estimation of its amount of emission in
                                                           the future. There are many studies forecasting the future LCE and LCCO2 of
                                                           buildings with statistical and mathematical methods. However, it is difficult to forecast
                                                           the possibilities of structural transition with these methods which target only buildings
                                                           as the city environment become much more complex and diverse. Therefore it is
                                                           necessary to study the method which considers of mutual relation between city and
                                                           buildings based on total system including not only buildings but entire city.

                                                           The purpose of our research is developing an urban simulator which can estimate
                                                           sustainability of the habitat system around buildings by modeling interrelationship of
                                                           activities in a city and its building. And we supply the platform which integrates
                                                           impacts of measures and widespread study results.

                                                      Various activities of a city and buildings are interconnected. And those relations of
                                                      cause-and-effect feature very complex and extensive. Therefore we made the model
                                                      with the method of the system dynamics that can treat various elements made up the
                                                      system comprehensively and can express nonlinear relationships easily. And we
                                                      modeled sectors, for example the population, the communication, industrials and the
                                                      land utilization, made up various urban systems around buildings. In concrete terms
                                                      we modeled feedback structures from possession of land and occupancy rate to the
                                                      constructing building and increase and decrease of the population from attract of
                                                      dwelling environment. And we calculated the quantitative forecast of the dynamics
                                                      incorporated structural changes of various parameter, such as the number of
                                                      buildings and the amount of CO2 emission,.
                             Energy capture and Simulation
Future forecast, CO2 emissions, System Dinamics, conversion
                                                      The ongoing development of technologies for the efficient capture, conversion,
                                                      and/or utilization of energy within buildings would benefit from a model that
                                                      accurately estimates their impact upon the building stock. Estimates such as these
                                                      are often used to establish policy to support technologies‘ entrance into markets and
                                                      increase their penetration level. This paper describes the techniques used in such an
                                                      end-use energy model for the Canadian housing stock.

                                                           A recent evaluation of the present residential energy models identified that different
                                                           modeling techniques have significantly different capabilities. The bottom-up
                                                           engineering technique can model new technologies, whereas the bottom-up
                                                           statistical technique can account for occupant behaviour. To take advantage of both
                                                           the engineering and statistical techniques, a ―hybrid‖ modeling methodology was
                                                           devised. As its source data, the model relies on the 17,000 detailed house records of
                                                           a representative Canadian housing stock database. This database contains
                                                           sufficient detail for three-dimensional building performance simulation.

                                                         The statistical half of the model utilizes a calibrated neural network to estimate the
                                                         annual energy consumption of each dwelling of the database for appliance & lighting
                                                         and domestic hot water loads; loads that are strongly influenced by occupant
                                                         behaviour. The annual energy consumption values are then distributed onto
                                                         representative sub-hourly load profiles for each house, to be included with the
                                                         engineering half of the model as both an internal heat gain and energy load that must
                                                         be stock energy
energy model, residential model, residential energy, housing satisfied by an energy source and conversion equipment.
                             Energy capture and conversion, Simulation in design practice, Regulation/code compliance
                                                         Due to differences in radiation exchanges, thermophysical properties of the surfaces,
                                                         anthropogenic gains and evaporative sinks as well as reduced mean air velocity the
                                                         mean air temperature in cities are higher than in the immediate rural surrounding. But
                                                         due to the inertial differences the magnitude of this heat island effect (which may also
                                                         be negative) varies with the time of day. Accounting for this complexity requires a
                                                         detailed numerical model. Another problem arises because of the diverse time and
                                                         length scales involved in atmospheric flow. The length scale for example can vary
                                                         from a few meters (buildings) to a few kilometers (mountains) and therefore it is
                                                         almost impossible to resolve all the scales in a single model with the present
                                                         computational power we have. A way to overcome this problem is to couple different
                                                         models capable of resolving different scales. In our study we use a global numerical
                                                         model having a resolution of a few hundred kilometers to provide boundary
                                                         conditions to a mesoscale model having a resolution of a few hundred meters. The
                                                         exchange of mass, momentum and energy with the urban texture are implicitly
                                                         represented by an urban canopy model. Such a nested (global to urban meso scale)
urban, climate, modelling    Advances in applications model would improve the accuracy of energy predictions from both building and
                                                         In recent years, several methods have been developed to simulate the environmental
                                                         and energy performance of large-scale built areas. Such systems have the potential
                                                         to provide government and planners with the information and tools necessary to
                                                         develop in a sustainable manner.

                                                           Experience gained in using such tools has identified that the main barrier to uptake
                                                           lies in the resources required to collect built environment data at a sufficient level of
                                                           detail to enable these simulations. For example, within an existing methodology
                                                           developed by us, a ‗rapid‘ survey method for the categorisation of housing utilised
                                                           drive-by data collection. This required each dwelling to be viewed and recorded from
                                                           the road and, for a region containing 55,000 homes, required an investment of some
                                                           18 person-months.

                                                           The work presented in this paper describes the development of techniques for the
                                                           modelling of the built environment through the automatic analysis of readily available
                                                           map data via Geographic Information System methods. By comparing the information
                                                           generated to that known as a result of the intensive survey methods, it is shown that
                                                           significant improvements in the efficiency of building stock surveys and regional
                                                           energy use simulation methods can be achieved. The system developed uses
                                                           pattern and shape recognition methods applied to the analysis of digital maps. This
                                                           approach can provide a characterisation of building stock to levels of accuracy
                                                           sufficient to allow the calculation of regional energy requirement or Carbon emissions.
regional energy GIS survey     Advances in applications
                                                           Recently, successive reductions in building fabric and infiltration heat losses have
                                                           increased the relative importance of heat loss to ground. However, because of the
                                                           complexity of the problem, model predictions for uninsulated slab-on-grade heat
                                                           transfer, for example, can differ by between 25% and 60%. This discrepancy has
                                                           motivated further validation efforts in an extension to IEA BESTEST of which the
                                                           work described here forms part. The novel validation methodology prescribed in the
                                                           extended BESTEST calls for putative reference models/programs to be gauged first
                                                           against a known exact solution to a ground coupled heat transfer problem, and then
                                                           to agree closely with the predictions of other proposed reference models when all are
                                                           applied to progressively more complex and realistic test problems for which analytical
                                                           solutions do not exist. The closely agreeing reference solutions produced in this
                                                           manner can then be used to test the performance of more general whole-building
                                                           models in this demanding aspect.

                                                          The reference model described here was programmed specifically for this task within
                                                          a general purpose mathematical package, MATLAB, which includes an extensive
                                                          catalogue of algebraic and differential equation solvers. A three-dimensional finite
                                                          difference approximation to the Heat Diffusion Equation was prepared and applied to
                                                          ground coupled heat transfer in the environs of a building for a range of geometries
                               Validation and calibration and boundary conditions. The problem is challenging in three ways: (i) it is large –
ground, heat transfer, model, building, BESTEST
                                                          Double-skin facade (DSF) buildings are being built as an attractive, innovative and
                                                          energy efficient solution. Nowadays, several design tools are used for assessment of
                                                          thermal and energy performance of DSF buildings. Results of these simulations are
                                                          used for further argumentation for or against DSF application. Existing design tools
                                                          are well-suited for performance assessment of conventional buildings, but their
                                                          accuracy might be limited in cases of DSFs.

                                                           At present, there is a lack of knowledge, systematic literature and guidelines within
                                                           the DSF modelling. A big part of this problem is due to the lack of empirical validation
                                                           and reliable experimental data. To address this problem, an empirical validation of
                                                           building models with DSFs, performed with various building simulation tools (ESP-r,
                                                           IDA ICE, VA114, TRNSYS-TUD and BSim) was carried out in the framework of IEA
                                                           SHC Task 34 /ECBCS Annex 43 ―Testing and Validation of Building Energy
                                                           Simulation Tools‖.

                                                           The experimental data for the validation was gathered in a full-scale outdoor test
                                                           facility. The empirical data sets are composed for the key-functioning modes of DSF:
                                                           1. External air curtain mode (naturally ventilated DSF cavity with the top and bottom
                                                           openings open to outdoors) and 2. Thermal insulation mode (closed DSF cavity).
                                                           These data sets include measurements of weather conditions at the site, vertical
Full-scale experiments, naturalValidation and calibration wind profile, outdoor concentration of carbon dioxide, temperature gradients in the
                               ventilation, air flow, temperature gradient
                                                            Existing building simulation tools permit qualitative comparisons between design
                                                            alternatives. These tools often fail to provide accurate quantitative predictions of real-
                                                            world energy performance. Incomplete or inaccurate climate, occupancy and
                                                            behavioral data, as well as operational and maintenance constraints are typical
                                                            causes of this problem. Improved calibration can mitigate some errors for existing
                                                            instrumented buildings, but it is often not feasible to install instruments, perform
                                                            proper calibration and verify results for the thousands of buildings found in large

                                                            We are developing a building simulator that produces accurate energy usage
                                                            estimates without the need for individual building calibration, even for buildings that
                                                            have not been built or where no energy use data exist. Further, we improve upon
                                                            existing calibration procedures by including more detailed energy, climate and
                                                            occupancy data for a subset of typical building types and by integrating a
                                                            probabilistic occupancy model, which includes overall park operation, into our
                                                            building physics model. This approach eliminates the need to calibrate each building
                                                            independently, since the data typically used for calibration of these buildings is
                                                            transformed into a probabilistic representation, which is used during the overall
                                                            building simulation routine run for all buildings.

                                                           Using a structured probabilistic representation known as a Bayesian network, we first
                                                           specify manually which variables interact with each other. Because real-world data is
                                                           subject to random variations, we model interactions between variables in our model
                                simulation, data-driven as conditional probability distributions. Second, we set the parameter values for
Bayesian, probabilistic, energyValidation and calibration, Simulation in design practice
                                                           This paper compares daylight simulation results generated with two simulation
                                                           programs, 3ds Max® Design 2009 and Daysim 3.0, to indoor illuminance
                                                           measurements in a sidelit space. The sidelit space was in a single location, but was
                                                           configured with five fenestration and glazing options, and operated under a variety of
                                                           sky conditions. Both programs were given external direct and diffuse irradiances as
                                                           simulation input, from which they had to predict indoor illuminances on a grid of
                                                           upward facing work plane sensors and downward facing ceiling sensors. The
                                                           comparison of both programs with measurements demonstrated that 3ds Max Design
                                                           simulated indoor illuminances for the daylighting test cases with reliability
                                                           comparable to Daysim. Most mean bias errors and root mean square errors were in
                                                           the range of those reported in earlier validation studies: both programs succeeded in
                                                           reproducing measurements for a sidelit space with and without a lightshelf. While 3ds
                                                           Max Design consistently underestimated the incoming light flux going through a
                                                           translucent panel, Daysim results were lower than measurements for the internal
daylight simulation, program validation and calibration venetian blind test case. The results suggest that the accuracy of both programs is
                                                           A set of idealized in-depth diagnostic test cases for use in validating ground-coupled
                                                           floor slab heat transfer models are presented. These test cases represent an
                                                           extension to IEA BESTEST, which originally focused on testing and validation of
                                                           building thermal fabric models, but addressed only cursorily the modeling of heat
                                                           transfer between the building and the ground. This new work was conducted in
                                                           collaboration with a working group of international experts under International Energy
                                                           Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 34 and IEA Energy
                                                           Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme Annex 43 (IEA-34/43).

                                                            For the test cases, parametric variations versus a steady-state base case include
                                                            periodic ground surface temperature variation, floor slab aspect ratio, slab area,
                                                            deep ground temperature depth (water table depth), slab and ground thermal
                                                            conductivity, and slab-interior and ground-exterior surface heat transfer coefficients.
                                                            The cases use both steady-state and harmonic boundary conditions applied with
                                                            artificially constructed annual weather data, along with an adiabatic above-grade
                                                            building envelope to isolate the effects of ground-coupled heat transfer. Various
                                                            output values – including steady-state, annual total steady-periodic, and annual peak
                                                            hour steady-periodic results for floor conduction and zone heating load, along with
                                                            time of occurrence of peak-hour loads and other supporting output – are compared
                                                            and used in conjunction with a formal diagnostic method to determine algorithms
                                                            responsible for predictive differences.
                            Validation and calibration
Validation, Testing, BESTEST, Slab-on-Grade
                                                            This paper presents detailed information about testing and validation of cooling and
                                                            heating coil models. The work has been carried out under Subtask D of the
                                                            International Energy Agency‘s SHC Task 34/ECBCS Annex 43 (Testing and
                                                            Validation of Building Energy Simulation Tools). The goal of this Subtask
                                                            (Mechanical Equipment and Control Strategies) was to develop and test methods
                                                            that would help evaluating, diagnosing and correcting HVAC mechanical equipment
                                                            simulation software.

                                                            As a basis for all studies in the context of this project cooling and heating coils in an
                                                            air conditioning system serving several test rooms in a laboratory building have been
                                                            used. The air conditioning system as well as the two hydronic systems (heating and
                                                            cooling) supplying the coils is equipped with a lot of sensors that allow collecting
                                                            minute-by-minute data of all relevant parameters. Finally three sets of data have
                                                            been collected: one for the heating coil and two for the cooling coil covering a total
                                                            time period of 30 days.

                                                            The procedure of developing a test method for validation was the same for heating
                                                            and cooling coil. In a first step information from the manufacture submittal has been
                                                            assorted and preprocessed allowing a user to generally set up a coil model. The
                                                            information is related to geometry and materials the coils consist of as well as
                                                            nominal coil performances. Unfortunately nominal coil performance provide by the
cooling coil, heating coil, control, validation calibration manufacturer does not allow to satisfactory calibrate coil models because part load
                                 Validation and
                                                            Published manufacturer data is often the only information available for modeling
                                                            HVAC components. Some information is usually lacking to accurately validate the
                                                            components models. As a consequence, idealizations and rational assumptions must
                                                            be proposed. This is illustrated in this paper in the case of an air-cooled liquid chiller.

                                                            The first part of the paper briefly describes the proposed steady state air-cooled
                                                            liquid chiller model. This model associates a scroll compressor and two heat
                                                            exchanger sub-models. The modeling of the chiller control is also described.

                                                            The second part of the paper presents the parameters identification process based
                                                            on manufacturer data. First the compressor model parameters are identified, using
                                                            compressor‘s performance. Then the heat exchangers model parameters are
                                                            identified, using the chiller‘s performance. The only encountered difficulty is the
                                                            characterization of the fan control model, since information is lacking to identify its

                                                            The third part of the paper presents results of an experimental investigation carried
                                                            out on the same chiller integrated into an existing cooling plant. Its instrumentation is
                                                            mainly limited to simple measurements such as the secondary fluids temperatures,
                                                            the glycol water flow rate, the compressor suction and discharge pressures and the
                                                            chiller electrical consumption (with distinction between fan and compressors

                                                          Comparison between simulation and experimental data revealed that the chiller
                                                          model with its and calibration
chiller, manufacturer data, experimental validation operation, Validation parameters identified based on manufacturer data was not able to
                               Commissioning and
                                                          This paper aims to quantify the differences between the energy performance of
                                                          Australian office buildings as modeled by building simulation software and the actual
                                                          performance of these buildings in use. The study also aims to identify the sources of
                                                          these differences.

                                                            The findings from three buildings will be discussed in this paper.

                                                            The buildings were chosen from recently constructed offices that anticipate a good
                                                            level of energy performance. Owners and tenants had to be willing to supply both
                                                            plans and mechanical details of the building in addition to gas and electricity
                                                            consumption data. Many owners and tenants approached were understandably
                                                            unwilling to subject their buildings energy performance to scrutiny so the sample
                                                            presented here was not randomly selected.

                                                            The buildings were modeled using EnergyPlus, the US Department of Energy‘s
                                                            building simulation package. The modeling was done in accordance with Australian
                                                            Building Greenhouse Rating Validation Protocol for Computer Simulations, providing
                                                            default values for occupancy, lighting, equipment and air conditioning operation for
                                                            design evaluation of buildings.

                                                          Possible sources of disparity between simulated and actual building energy
                                                          performance investigated in this study were tenant behaviour, equipment loads,
simulation, case studies                                  occupancy patterns and inconsistency between the building design and construction
                               Simulation in design practice
                                                          Human health damage due to exposure to contaminants emitted to indoor air is
                                                          poorly addressed in life cycle assessment tools for dwellings. A new model is
                                                          available to calculate damages to human health caused by contaminants emitted
                                                          from building materials, using a multizone indoor airflow and exposure model.
                                                          Ventilation rates and radon concentrations have been simulated for the Dutch
                                                          reference dwelling and are compared with measurement data from the Dutch
                                                          Ecobuild houses and from average ventilation rates and radon concentrations in
                                                          dwellings in the Netherlands. The ventilation rates and radon concentrations as
                                                          simulated with the indoor exposure model have the same order of magnitude as the
                                                          ventilation rates and radon concentrations measured in the Ecobuild dwellings and in
                                                          both radon surveys, except for the crawl space, where the modelled ventilation rates
                                                          are overestimated and the radon concentrations are underestimated. Overall, the
                                                          indoor airflow and exposure model gives a good reflection of actual ventilation rates
                                                          and radon concentrations, but for the crawl space, the model needs to be adjusted,
indoor exposure, life cycle assessment, validation, radon,and the effects of mechanical ventilation on the model results need to be tuned to
                                                           ventilation rates
                               Human aspects of the indoor environment, Validation and calibration
                                                          The heterogeneous behavior of enclosed environments can be predicted by the
                                                          zonal method. This methodology is an intermediate approach between the global
                                                          modeling, which does not consider any heterogeneity in the environment, and the
                                                          Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The zonal model uses a coarse spatial
                                                          discretisation, in which the psychrometric conditions of the air in each control volume
                                                          are considered uniform, except for pression that varies hydrostatically. In this
                                                          methodology only the mass and energy balance equations are solved for each
                                                          control volume of the domain. The Navier-Stokes equations are replaced by a
                                                          simplified version of the momentum equation and, hence, do not allow the description
                                                          of the flow pattern promoted by mechanical ventilation. Empirical and semi-empirical
                                                          equations are then added to the basic formulation in order to make it possible to
                                                          predict the indoor air behavior in conditioned spaces. The objective of this work is to
                                                          evaluate the quality of the predictions of the indoor airflow behavior by the zonal
                               Validation and calibration method in comparison to the CFD results. The isothermal airflow concerning the
Numerical Simulation, zonal method, forced convection, horizontal jet
                                                            VELUX Daylight Visualizer 2 is a software tool dedicated to daylighting design and
                                                            analysis. It is intended to simulate daylight transport in buildings and to aid
                                                            professionals by predicting and documenting daylight levels and appearance of a
                                                            space prior to realization of the building design. The software permit generation of
                                                            3D models in which roof and facade windows are freely inserted. Other settings
                                                            include the location and orientation of the models, the date and time of the
                                                            simulation, as well as the sky type (from clear to overcast). In addition to
                                                            photorealistic rendering, the simulation output includes luminance, illuminance and
                                                            daylight factor maps.

                                                            Like any light transport software, the critical question is whether VELUX Daylight
                                                            Visualizer 2 produces trustable simulations the user can be confident in. A key point
                                                            to answer this question is to assess the software capability to simulate the light
                                                            transport in a physically correct way.

                                                            In this paper, we assess the accuracy of VELUX Daylight Visualizer 2 against CIE
                                                            171:2006 test cases (Test Cases to Assess the Accuracy of Lighting Computer
                                                            Programs). The test methodology is based on the comparison of simulation results to
                                                            analytical reference, for different aspects of the light propagation.

                                                             Internally, various light transport algorithms are involved in VELUX Daylight Visualizer
                                                             2: photon mapping, bidirectional path tracing, irradiance caching. The settings of
                                                             each algorithm impact on the simulation accuracy and rendering time. The final user
                                                             can set only a single parameter that rules the global rendering quality, and that is
                                                             mapped issues
Daylighting, Validation, Simulation of lightand calibration, Softwareto internal settings.
                               Validation transport
                                                             Note: This abstract is submitted in response to an invitation from the conference
                                                             organizers to assemble a session on the results of the recently completed IEA 34/43
                                                             Task on Testing and Validation of Building Energy Simulation Tools. This paper
                                                             would be an overview of the Task including technical and historical context,
                                                             methodology, organization, accomplishments, and adoption of the test methods by
                                                             standards organizations and other regulatory entities. Other papers in the session
                                                             will report in greater detail on the individual projects that comprised the overall Task.

                                                            The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the IEA have maintained a
                                                            validation effort related to building energy simulation software since the early 1980s.
                                                            The most recent work was conducted under a combined effort of IEA SHC Task 34
                                                            and ECBCS Annex 43. The work began in June of 2002 and was formally completed
                                                            in Dec of 2007, although some of the technical reports are in the final stages of the
                                                            IEA peer review process, and have not yet been posted on the IEA web site (they will
                                                            probably all be posted by the time of the Glasgow Conference). In all, 53 experts
                                                            from 32 organizations and 13 countries contributed significantly to the Task in 6
                                                            project areas. These included A) Building to ground heat transfer B1) Multi-zone
validation, verification, software, diagnostics, de-bugging effects not including airflow B2) Multi-zone airflow effects C) Shading, daylighting,
                                 Validation and calibration
                                                            Seasonal thermal energy storage is an effective way to reduce the energy
                                                            consumption for heating and cooling of buildings. Aquifer systems as well as
                                                            underground heat exchangers are often used for cooling of buildings and as a
                                                            energy source for heat pumps.

                                                            However, seasonal thermal energy storage systems strongly depend on the resulting
                                                            underground thermal energy balance. For aquifer systems, a zero energy balance
                                                            over a number of years is necessary to prevent a short circuit between the hot and
                                                            the cold well. For underground heat exchangers with a deviating balance, freezing of
                                                            the heat exchanger system is possible. Energy capture using urban surface water
                                                            can be used restore the underground energy balance. Using urban surface water
                                                            also addresses the revival of interest in building on the water.

                                                            This paper concerns the modelling of urban surface water as well as validation using
                                                            in-situ measurements. In-situ measurements have been performed in the pond near
                                                            to the aquifer system of Paleiskwartier in ‗s Hertogenbosch (The Netherlands). This
                                                            aquifer system delivers energy for heating and cooling of office buildings and
                                                            appartments. During summer, the pond enables energy delivery to the hot well in
                                                            case of a shortage of heat in the aquifer system.

                              storage, Urban surface water, In-situ measurements, Modellingof 2008, an extensive measurement campaign
                                                       During a period and days in spring
Aquifer system, Seasonal heat Energy capture and conversion, Validation of 12calibration

                                                        Energy-efficiency seems to be one key-driver for whole building and construction
                                                        industry in the future. Therefore, new construction and building service concepts are
                                                        obviously needed. Most likely better thermal insulation levels and at least partly new
                                                        heating and cooling solutions will be adopted. To avoid unpleasant indoor
                                                        environment outcomes in future buildings, a holistic approach focusing on occupant
                                                        aspects is recommended. Since thermal issues seem to be dominant cause of indoor
                                                        environment complaints also in the future, it is very important to really understand
                                                        true nature of complex physical and physiological phenomena influencing thermal
                                                        sensation and comfort of a human. This paper aims to evaluate magnitudes and
human thermal comfort                                   typical variations
                            Human aspects of the indoor environment – as well as importance and dominance – of such phenomena.
                                                        This paper presents results of a study to investigate the thermal performance of two
                                                        existing houses that use rammed earth as the sole wall material and compare it with
                                                        the performance of a house using insulated rammed earth walls. Indoor temperatures
Rammed earth, indoor performance, calibration,          of
                            Validation and calibration, Simulation in design practice, Application day - case studies

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