PLANNING AND BUDGETING
5. KEY PARAMETERS FOR DESIGNING A CHILD DEVELOPMENT
The following key parameters should be taken into account in designing a CDP program:
Follow the VOC operational principles.
Listen and speak to God
Clear and compelling vision – for the children and their families
Identify needy and receptive community - level of interest of families and
community to take responsibility for further developing their children
Appropriate roles - building up church, leaders, family capacity to develop
Integration - with other FHI programs, staff, and funding sources
Collaboration/networking – working together with other groups to apply
resources to a common CDP goal.
5.1 Activities should strengthen the ability of the parent and community to
provide for the development needs of the child.
5.2 Do not apply resources to something the family or community is not also
willing to support or cannot eventually sustain.
5.3 Everything done in CDP should be carried out with the goals of impacting the
development of the child in all three areas.
A CDP assessment must be done early on to identify critical needs, shape planning, and
serve as a reference point for measuring programme impact.
5.4 A Life of the Center Plan must be done and approved by the NO and IO.
5.5 Field Offices and N.O.s will participate together to make major decisions such
as the decision to open or close centres or make significant changes in a CDP
5.6 On all major decisions, fields and N.O.s should seek first to glorify God, and
not to win with their viewpoints. Neither should try to dominate the other,
rather, work as partners under the Lordship of Christ.
5.7 Each CDP centre should be supported by one and only one N.O.
5.8 CDP Centres should aim to have no less than 100 sponsored children in order
to provide adequate personal and administrative support to the centre and no
more than 500 for the purposes of identifying children with a centre.
5.9 The role of the IO is to:
Guide overall CDP policy and programme development
Guard the trust between the IO, fields, and the N.O. that is implicit in the CDP
manual by holding N.O.s and fields accountable to follow the manual.
Clarify policy, provide strategic programme development input, and help solve
disagreements if they arise.
6. PROCESS FOR INITIATING A NEW CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTRE
- Pray before acting.
- Rate of growth should be determined by ability to maintain programme
- The key question to start-up and growth will be the availability of trained
staff. Therefore, fields should create a process of training staff so that at
least one staff person/volunteer is always ready and can be freed up to
start a new centre.
Size: It's important to find an optimum centre size and then group centres together to
develop cost efficiencies. On the other hand, it's important for centres to not become so
large it's difficult to determine when the CDP goal has been accomplished and all or part
of it should be closed. Therefore, individual CDP centres should aim to be no less than
100 and no more than 500.
Definition of a CDP Centre:
A CDP centre has 100 to 500 sponsored children. It has one N.O. sponsoring it
(exceptions can be made to this rule by agreement of the N.O.s, Field, and I.O). A CDP
centre may be one large community or it may be a cluster of similar but separate small
communities (or neighbourhoods) having similar needs and requiring a similar strategy.
Importance of Communication. CDP is a co-operative programme between N.O.s and
Field Offices. Its success hinges on good communication and understanding. Both
entities are responsible to provide clear timely communication to the other.
6.2 The process for initiating a new CDP centre will normally be:
- Field Office identifies a community that meets the need and receptive
criteria (see Corp Id Orientation for explanation)
- Field shares its ideas about a possible new centre start-up with the IO and
N.O. via a concept paper and/or field visit by N.O. representative.
- This preliminary discussion should take place well in advance – at least a
year. JIFH requests 2 years.
- If the field, IO, and N.O. agree to proceed with the start-up, the next step
is to do a Life of the Centre Plan. This plan includes a more detailed
assessment of the needs of the children in the community. The assessment
will help determine the best action plan and provide a reference point
(data) for evaluating progress against CDP objectives. The LOC should
be posted to the GMI and sent to the IO and NO for review and approval.
- The IO and NO review and make approval decision. All new centre start-
ups require approval by the International Office and a support
commitment from an N.O.
6.3 Hire and train personnel to staff the programme.
6.4 Select children and orient parents.
- These two activities go hand-in-hand as the objective is to identify and
enrol children who are among the most needy and have parent who
understand the programme and will commit to supporting it.
- Orientation should include:
Overview of the programme – how CDP staff intend to work with
What the CDP staff expect of the child, parent, teachers,
When staff will begin working
22.1Collect case history information and send to N.O.s
22.2Wait for funding and begin as sufficient funds are available.
22.3Start-up funding: The Field Office incurs expense in starting a new program.
There is staff time, travel, photos, postage, and some office set-up expense.
The Field Offices can request start-up funds from the NOs to help cover
these costs. Field Offices can also cover some of these expenses with future
sponsorship income for this center, incurring a negative fund balance that
can be slowly paid back with sponsorship income during the first two years
of the program.
6.8 Time-line for initiating a new CDP centre
Time-line for initiating a new CDP centre
One year (12 4-11 months 3 months or 90 days prior New Centre
months) prior to prior to start-up starts when
opening new funding
prior for JIFH)
Preliminary Do assessment -- Recruit and train staff for the Start
discussion with and Life of the programme activities
N.O. and IO Centre plan and -- Orient parents and community about
Visit / concept budget. the development philosophy of FHI and
paper. Obtain Review with CDP program.
basic support N.O. -- Select children and collect case history
commitment Submit with information and send to N.O.s
7. SELECTION OF CHILDREN
VOC operational principle " Needy and Receptive Community"
The selection of children often is a difficult matter to avoid creating feelings of rejection
and envy. At the same time, if it is too casually done, the parents and children may not
understand and be committed to fulfilling their own responsibility in the programme.
The child must be between ages 5 and 15 (reason: must be able to go to school and
able to communicate with sponsor).
Any need for an exception to this age range can be discussed with the sponsoring
N.O. In a JIFH sponsored community, if staff want to operate an activity for children
under 5, they might appeal for funding from the JIFH Community Project Fund
The child will be eligible to participate in the programme for at least three years.
This allows time for a relationship between the sponsor and child to grow and
Child and family are among the poorest in the community. No rigid "poverty"
criteria are set, it being left to the country director and CDP staff to ensure that case
histories are submitted for needy children only. It should be noted that there are
differences in community characteristics. In urban slums, such as Manila, where
there is no tight community structure, it is right and possible to single out the most
needy children. However, many child development programmes are operated in rural
communities where you cannot single out the neediest children without being
disruptive and probably doing more harm than good.
In some contexts, the community can be asked to identify the neediest children and
families to participate in the program.
Handicapped children are eligible. They are usually the poorest of the poor and most
deserving of help. Make clear to parents and sponsors of handicapped children the
objectives and activities of CDP and what they can and cannot expect. Sometimes
parents of handicapped children or sponsors assume CDP will provide extra needed
assistance (surgery, braces, special training) for their child which is not affordable
under the CDP budget. Realise that problems may arise and will be dealt with
accordingly, but do not discriminate against handicapped children simply because
they are handicapped.
Child is willing and desires to attend school when the opportunity exists.
Parents will support the child going to school. Sometimes parents say they want their
child to go to school but then will not allow them the time. CDP staff should talk to
the parent and see how they can make it possible for the child to attend school every
day. Parental support should also include financial support such as books or part of
the school fee. Even in case of a family that is in dire financial situation, CDP
encourages them to contribute some way and not totally depend on CDP.
Parents and child understand and accept programme requirements and will participate
8. SELECTION OF A COMMUNITY
- In selecting a CDP community, staff should spend quality time with community
leaders and people to determine what they expect from a CDP programme. The
attitude FHI desires is a sincere interest in improving rather than simply "getting
- In an appropriate manner, community leaders and parents should be made aware of
FHI's development philosophy and the responsibilities of parents and communities.
The reaction of the community to these concepts will help determine their motivation
- In some cases, CDP staff may need to reject a community for CDP.
Community is very poor.
There must be a school or a location where the community or government plans to
put a school.
Community is stable – not much migration that would disrupt sponsor/child
CDP assistance will be necessary for at least five years.
No other agency is running a similar programme.
Community is motivated and receptive.
CDP operation is financially feasible. CDP staff, travel, and support costs will not be
so high that sponsorship funding will not be adequate. For cost efficiencies and
programme integration benefits, it is usually better to start CDP in areas where there
are other FHI programmes.
Staffing requirements can be met.
Ideally, there are local churches present and receptive to the CDP aims as this will
enhance accomplishing CDP goals. However, this should not and does not rule out
working in very challenging situations where the church is not present.
9. CLOSING A CDP CENTRE
The unique strength of a sponsorship based programme like CDP is the relationship it
brings about between the sponsor and the child/child's family. Through their financial
support, letters of encouragement, and prayers for the child and family, many sponsors
become very committed to the child and child's family and their wellbeing and success.
Closing a centre breaks this relationship. Therefore, closing a centre should be done very
carefully – not just in communicating to the community but also in communicating with
When a centre closes and the sponsor's relationship ends with the child and family, a
sponsor may drop.
It takes significant effort, time, energy, and expense on the part of NOs to recruit
sponsors. We do not want them to drop.
9.1 Rationale - Why Close?
The reason for closing a centre should normally be that the conditions for child
development in a community have improved and CDP assistance is no longer
merited. CDP resources should be moved to help more needy children and families
in other communities.
Some times the reason for closing may be lack of receptivity in the community to
take full advantage of the CDP staff assistance to develop itself. Or CDP may not be
able to staff it properly. In this case CDP management in country should work extra
hard to change this situation before making a decision to close.
Timing: Except for a disaster or war that totally disrupts sponsorship for an extended
period, there should never be sudden closure decisions
9.2 Closing decision: This decision must be made jointly by Field, IO and N.O.
When closing is contemplated, the country director should communicate the idea and
consult with the N.O. well in advance. One year as a rule. JIFH requests a two-year
Communication about a possible closure should include:
Name and number of centre
Number of children affected
Reasons for proposed closure
A preliminary report describing what has been achieved by CDP in
A specific closing date
Whether or not you hope to shift sponsors to a new centre in your
country or will they be shifted to another country.
Provide an opportunity for the N.O. to be involved in a participatory evaluation of the
9.5 Closure plan and final activities.
After the closure decision is made, the programme director must prepare a time chart
showing the steps and procedures in the closure of the centre. This chart should
1. Date and plan for alerting the community.
2. Date for a closing ceremony. The programme director should
prepare to have a community wide ceremony to publicly
acknowledge what the community and CDP have accomplished and
give thanks to God. The purpose of the ceremony is not to boast but
say thank you and good bye. The N.O. should be invited to join and
participate in this celebration.
3. Date for a final report to the N.O.
4. Plan for informing the sponsor.
9.6 Communicating a closure to the sponsor and community.
Again, this must be carefully handled. The notice should not be sudden or abrupt. An
opportunity should be provided for the sponsor to write the child/family one more time.
At least two months (preferably longer) in advance of the closure date, the N.O. needs
the following information on their desk.
9.6.1 A letter from programme director to sponsors that states the following:
announces the closure
highlights what's been accomplished
explains reason for closure, why it is right and timely for FHI to move on
provide opportunity for sponsor to write a final letter to the child
thanks the sponsor for their faithful support.
9.6.2. Include a final thank you letter from the child. This and the final sponsor
letter may be a little awkward to manage but it's very important we provide
this opportunity before all contact ends.
9.6.3. If the plan (between the N.O. and Field Office) is to ask the sponsor to
support another child in the same country, than add the following to the
1. A description of the new centre and its needs
2. A request to the sponsor to continue their sponsorship
3. A case history of the new child, photo (or negative), and
9.6.4. If the sponsor will be asked to sponsor a new child in a different country,
then the N.O. will arrange for the centre description and case history for the
9.7 What if a sponsor asks how they can stay in contact with the child and his/her family?
FHI's general policy is to not offer or encourage continued contact. The primary reason
is for the protection of the child and sponsor. The second reason is because it would
usually be difficult to facilitate. Often the sponsored child/family lives in a very remote
area with no local mail or postal address to which a sponsor could write them direct.
However, this does not rule out a possible exception especially when there is a local post
office box in the community. Should a faithful, long-term, known, and trusted sponsor
specifically ask about continued contact, the N.O.s are free to investigate this possibility
with the field offices on a case by case basis.
9.8 Transfer of funds
Income from sponsors must be applied to the existing centre up to the closure date
that is communicated to the sponsor. Any fund balance accrued to the centre upon
closing must be set aside and used per N.O. instructions. There should not be an
automatic transfer of the balance to a new centre, nor any other project.
If several adjoining centres are grouped under one accounting cost centre and only one
centre is closing , estimate what the fund balance for this centre is and discuss this with
10.1 Amount N.O.s will provide to field offices per child per month. This will range
between $11 and $15 and will be determined by the NO in agreement with the IO based
on the NO’s funding situation.
10.2. As a general rule, approximately 9% of CDP funding to FHI will be applied to help
cover international office administration.
10.3. NO’s are to transfer CDP funds to FHI fields on a regular basis – at least quarterly.
10.4. Sponsorship income for CDP is designated or allocated to the accounting Cost
Centre/Programme (CC/P) that covers the CDP centre where the child is sponsored. If the
CDP Centre is large it should have its own accounting cost centre/programme code. If
the CDP centre is small (100 – 200 sponsored children), close to another similar CDP
centre which has the same NO sponsor, and shares the same support team and strategy,
than the two should be covered by one accounting cost center cc/p. Similarly there could
be 3 small CDP centers sharing one accounting cost center. See the Regional Accountant
for guidance in establishing cost centre/programme codes for CDP centres.
10.5 Accounting: Accounting for CDP centres should comply with FHI accounting
guidelines. See the Regional Accountant for details.
10.6. Reporting: Financial reports are to be produced for each CDP Cost
Centre/Programme and sent to the sponsoring N.O.s or posted on the GMI at least once a
11. BUDGETING AND UTILIZATION OF CDP FUNDS
Budgeting for CDP follows the FHI annual budgeting process. See Regional Accountant
11.1 How are CDP funds used:
NO support. A percentage is used by the sponsoring NO to cover their sponsor
recruitment, communications, and administrative costs. If sponsors have questions about
this use of funds they should be directed to the NO.
IO support. A percentage (currently 9%) of the “program funds” provided by NOs for
CDP is applied to international office activity. The services provided by the IO to CDP
programs include international and regional accounting, human resource development
and training, regional director support, and CDP programming guidance and resource
Country Office support. A percentage is also applied to? the support provided
by the field country central office and includes accounting, training, staff
management, and program guidance support. The guideline is 25% or less for
this indirect cost level support. (Sentences not complete, I am not sure what you want to
How to lower indirect cost support percentage.
a) Verify that calculations of indirect cost rates are correct and representative
of the actual situation. See your regional accountant for advice.
b) Reduce expenses.
Maximise the use of local volunteers (e.g. parents, church members,
etc.) These local volunteers must be qualified and adequately
trained, otherwise, reducing expense in this way may sacrifice
meeting programme objectives.
Have one or two HC staff and operate all CDP activity through a
local church, which the HC staff or another local missionary can
start if necessary.
c) Increase number of sponsored children. Usually administrative costs
(office and staff) are about the same for a CDP program ministering to
3,000 children as they are for a program reaching out to 6,000 children.
d) Increase income. This can be through increased CDP funding or other
11.2 Sponsorship communications and admin processing (case histories, photos,
letters, postage, tracking, etc) A percentage of funds are needed to cover this expense –
usually incurred or charged at the country office.
11.3 Staff. The staff working in the CDP program are the most important resource as
children and families change through relationship with them. A percentage of CDP
funding is applied to providing quality staff and their function as trainers, motivators,
Note: Where staff split their time or responsibilities with other FHI programs, their
time should be accurately allocated to the various programme budgets i.e. CDP income
should only cover CDP programme activity.
CDP funding is applied to materials and equipment and carrying out the CDP events
11.5. Community projects/programmes
CDP funding from the N.O.s (with the exception of JIFH) can be applied to
community projects that address the needs of the sponsored child and fulfil the
objectives and requirements of the CDP programme as outlined in this
JIFH stipulates that its CDP funding not be used for community-wide
development projects. Instead it has a separate fund for this purpose called
the Community Project Fund.
a. This fund is only available for a development project in the community in
which JIFH sponsors children.
b. To receive funding from this fund, the field office must provide a written
proposal of the project activity, including background, objectives,
justifications, timetable, degree of participation, budget, and itemised
expense sheet. etc..
c. Preference will be given to projects that directly meet the development
need of the child and are training in nature. For example, projects as
mother- health training, food preparation training, training for and
conservation of clean drinking water. etc.
d. Submit the proposal to JIFH. Each proposal must receive the approval of
the JIFH Board of Trustees.
e. If you have questions about the community project fund and what it will
cover, contact JIFH.
If NO personnel or sponsor visitors to CDP program sites have finance questions refer
them to the CD.
12. WHAT BENEFITS WILL THE SPONSORED CHILD RECEIVE:
1. Incarnational staff who proclaim Jesus and share and model Biblical worldview.
2. Two or more home visits, each year, from CDP staff who share love and concern
for the welfare of the child and his or her family.
3. The opportunity to gain a Biblical worldview and how to apply Biblical truth in
all areas of their lives.
a. Included in each country's strategy to meet this goal is "the Day of the Child
Celebration and the Christmas Party." See following section for details.
4. The opportunity to hear and see a Biblical worldview modeled by their parents,
teachers, and/or leaders. (Parents, teachers, and leaders will be given the
opportunity to learn about Biblical worldview and be discipled in their faith in
5. Children who desire to follow Christ will be discipled by community believers /
the local church.
6. Improved environmental sanitation (i.e. cleanliness) in his/her home and
7. Medical Care when their lives are threatened by illness.1
8. An annual health assessment or when ill, prompt and appropriate care from their
parents and/or teacher's who will have been taught to detect signs and symptom of
the child's illness and respond quickly and appropriately to protect the child's life.
See health strategy.
9. Improved educational opportunities (benefits will de dependent on the need.
Examples include: improved school infrastructure, materials, curriculum, and/or
10. Prayer from sponsors.
12.1 The Day of the Child Celebration (formerly CDP Day)
Day of the Child is an annual event held during the first 6 months of the year.
The Day of the Child program or activity can be for all the children in the
It is a day to honor the children, give them special recognition, and affirm
their value, share a special message of hope and truth relevant to the child, and
encourage their parents.
As possible, the celebration should be given BY the CDP community TO their
children. FHI should guide and assist as needed.
The Day of the Child activities, the messages presented, should all contribute
to the accomplishment of one of the CDP goal areas (wisdom, health,
There should be food or treats provided as part of the program/activity, but do
not necessarily have to be provided by FHI.
Unless it is inappropriate, the children should receive some small gift or
practical item to remember the event and as an expression of appreciation for
them (book mark, picture, book, school supplies, Bible, clothing item, etc. or
something). If it is inappropriate to provide a small gift in your context,
please communicate this with the NO.
NOs provide additional funds for this day:
1. CFHI encourages sponsors to contribute to a birthday/Christmas fund
that is to be used for these events.
2. FH/US asks the sponsors to give an extra donation to help fund this
activity. This is credited to each CDP cc/p.
12.2. Christmas Celebration
The Christmas Celebration is an annual event held during the last 6 months of
The Christmas Celebration program or activity can be for all the children in
It is a day to share the message of Christ's birth and celebrate the salvation and
new life he offers to all men. Children should be given a chance to accept
Christ as their savior. Follow-up discipleship should be coordinated with
local believers for children who decide to follow Christ during the event.
Involvement of the local church or local believers is encouraged. As much as
possible, the community or church should plan and execute the celebration,
with FHI helping.
Sponsors normally give extra funds for gifts. We combine these for use on the
Day of the Child or Christmas - gift giving times. If gifts are appropriate in
your context, use this opportunity to provide a useful gift to the sponsored
child or family that would help them grow as God intends. E.g. this would be
a good time to provide a Bible if appropriate and one has never been given, a
blanket, a mosquito net, something the whole family might use and enjoy, etc.