PLANNING AND BUDGETING 5. KEY PARAMETERS FOR DESIGNING A CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME The following key parameters should be taken into account in designing a CDP program: Follow the VOC operational principles. Listen and speak to God Clear and compelling vision – for the children and their families Intentionally plan Identify needy and receptive community - level of interest of families and community to take responsibility for further developing their children Appropriate roles - building up church, leaders, family capacity to develop their children Integration - with other FHI programs, staff, and funding sources Collaboration/networking – working together with other groups to apply resources to a common CDP goal. 5.1 Activities should strengthen the ability of the parent and community to provide for the development needs of the child. 5.2 Do not apply resources to something the family or community is not also willing to support or cannot eventually sustain. 5.3 Everything done in CDP should be carried out with the goals of impacting the development of the child in all three areas. A CDP assessment must be done early on to identify critical needs, shape planning, and serve as a reference point for measuring programme impact. 5.4 A Life of the Center Plan must be done and approved by the NO and IO. 5.5 Field Offices and N.O.s will participate together to make major decisions such as the decision to open or close centres or make significant changes in a CDP centre strategy. 5.6 On all major decisions, fields and N.O.s should seek first to glorify God, and not to win with their viewpoints. Neither should try to dominate the other, rather, work as partners under the Lordship of Christ. 5.7 Each CDP centre should be supported by one and only one N.O. 5.8 CDP Centres should aim to have no less than 100 sponsored children in order to provide adequate personal and administrative support to the centre and no more than 500 for the purposes of identifying children with a centre. 5.9 The role of the IO is to: Guide overall CDP policy and programme development Guard the trust between the IO, fields, and the N.O. that is implicit in the CDP manual by holding N.O.s and fields accountable to follow the manual. Clarify policy, provide strategic programme development input, and help solve disagreements if they arise. 6. PROCESS FOR INITIATING A NEW CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTRE 6.1 Start-up - Pray before acting. - Rate of growth should be determined by ability to maintain programme quality. - The key question to start-up and growth will be the availability of trained staff. Therefore, fields should create a process of training staff so that at least one staff person/volunteer is always ready and can be freed up to start a new centre. Size: It's important to find an optimum centre size and then group centres together to develop cost efficiencies. On the other hand, it's important for centres to not become so large it's difficult to determine when the CDP goal has been accomplished and all or part of it should be closed. Therefore, individual CDP centres should aim to be no less than 100 and no more than 500. Definition of a CDP Centre: A CDP centre has 100 to 500 sponsored children. It has one N.O. sponsoring it (exceptions can be made to this rule by agreement of the N.O.s, Field, and I.O). A CDP centre may be one large community or it may be a cluster of similar but separate small communities (or neighbourhoods) having similar needs and requiring a similar strategy. Importance of Communication. CDP is a co-operative programme between N.O.s and Field Offices. Its success hinges on good communication and understanding. Both entities are responsible to provide clear timely communication to the other. 6.2 The process for initiating a new CDP centre will normally be: - Field Office identifies a community that meets the need and receptive criteria (see Corp Id Orientation for explanation) - Field shares its ideas about a possible new centre start-up with the IO and N.O. via a concept paper and/or field visit by N.O. representative. - This preliminary discussion should take place well in advance – at least a year. JIFH requests 2 years. - If the field, IO, and N.O. agree to proceed with the start-up, the next step is to do a Life of the Centre Plan. This plan includes a more detailed assessment of the needs of the children in the community. The assessment will help determine the best action plan and provide a reference point (data) for evaluating progress against CDP objectives. The LOC should be posted to the GMI and sent to the IO and NO for review and approval. - The IO and NO review and make approval decision. All new centre start- ups require approval by the International Office and a support commitment from an N.O. 6.3 Hire and train personnel to staff the programme. 6.4 Select children and orient parents. - These two activities go hand-in-hand as the objective is to identify and enrol children who are among the most needy and have parent who understand the programme and will commit to supporting it. - Orientation should include: Overview of the programme – how CDP staff intend to work with the community What the CDP staff expect of the child, parent, teachers, community leaders. When staff will begin working 22.1Collect case history information and send to N.O.s 22.2Wait for funding and begin as sufficient funds are available. 22.3Start-up funding: The Field Office incurs expense in starting a new program. There is staff time, travel, photos, postage, and some office set-up expense. The Field Offices can request start-up funds from the NOs to help cover these costs. Field Offices can also cover some of these expenses with future sponsorship income for this center, incurring a negative fund balance that can be slowly paid back with sponsorship income during the first two years of the program. 6.8 Time-line for initiating a new CDP centre Time-line for initiating a new CDP centre One year (12 4-11 months 3 months or 90 days prior New Centre months) prior to prior to start-up starts when opening new funding centre arrives (Two years prior for JIFH) Preliminary Do assessment -- Recruit and train staff for the Start discussion with and Life of the programme activities N.O. and IO Centre plan and -- Orient parents and community about Visit / concept budget. the development philosophy of FHI and paper. Obtain Review with CDP program. basic support N.O. -- Select children and collect case history commitment Submit with information and send to N.O.s next year’s budget plan. 7. SELECTION OF CHILDREN VOC operational principle " Needy and Receptive Community" The selection of children often is a difficult matter to avoid creating feelings of rejection and envy. At the same time, if it is too casually done, the parents and children may not understand and be committed to fulfilling their own responsibility in the programme. The child must be between ages 5 and 15 (reason: must be able to go to school and able to communicate with sponsor). Any need for an exception to this age range can be discussed with the sponsoring N.O. In a JIFH sponsored community, if staff want to operate an activity for children under 5, they might appeal for funding from the JIFH Community Project Fund The child will be eligible to participate in the programme for at least three years. This allows time for a relationship between the sponsor and child to grow and develop. Child and family are among the poorest in the community. No rigid "poverty" criteria are set, it being left to the country director and CDP staff to ensure that case histories are submitted for needy children only. It should be noted that there are differences in community characteristics. In urban slums, such as Manila, where there is no tight community structure, it is right and possible to single out the most needy children. However, many child development programmes are operated in rural communities where you cannot single out the neediest children without being disruptive and probably doing more harm than good. In some contexts, the community can be asked to identify the neediest children and families to participate in the program. Handicapped children are eligible. They are usually the poorest of the poor and most deserving of help. Make clear to parents and sponsors of handicapped children the objectives and activities of CDP and what they can and cannot expect. Sometimes parents of handicapped children or sponsors assume CDP will provide extra needed assistance (surgery, braces, special training) for their child which is not affordable under the CDP budget. Realise that problems may arise and will be dealt with accordingly, but do not discriminate against handicapped children simply because they are handicapped. Child is willing and desires to attend school when the opportunity exists. Parents will support the child going to school. Sometimes parents say they want their child to go to school but then will not allow them the time. CDP staff should talk to the parent and see how they can make it possible for the child to attend school every day. Parental support should also include financial support such as books or part of the school fee. Even in case of a family that is in dire financial situation, CDP encourages them to contribute some way and not totally depend on CDP. Parents and child understand and accept programme requirements and will participate in activities. 8. SELECTION OF A COMMUNITY - In selecting a CDP community, staff should spend quality time with community leaders and people to determine what they expect from a CDP programme. The attitude FHI desires is a sincere interest in improving rather than simply "getting things". - In an appropriate manner, community leaders and parents should be made aware of FHI's development philosophy and the responsibilities of parents and communities. The reaction of the community to these concepts will help determine their motivation and receptivity. - In some cases, CDP staff may need to reject a community for CDP. Criteria: Community is very poor. There must be a school or a location where the community or government plans to put a school. Community is stable – not much migration that would disrupt sponsor/child relationships. CDP assistance will be necessary for at least five years. No other agency is running a similar programme. Community is motivated and receptive. CDP operation is financially feasible. CDP staff, travel, and support costs will not be so high that sponsorship funding will not be adequate. For cost efficiencies and programme integration benefits, it is usually better to start CDP in areas where there are other FHI programmes. Staffing requirements can be met. Ideally, there are local churches present and receptive to the CDP aims as this will enhance accomplishing CDP goals. However, this should not and does not rule out working in very challenging situations where the church is not present. 9. CLOSING A CDP CENTRE The unique strength of a sponsorship based programme like CDP is the relationship it brings about between the sponsor and the child/child's family. Through their financial support, letters of encouragement, and prayers for the child and family, many sponsors become very committed to the child and child's family and their wellbeing and success. Closing a centre breaks this relationship. Therefore, closing a centre should be done very carefully – not just in communicating to the community but also in communicating with the sponsor. When a centre closes and the sponsor's relationship ends with the child and family, a sponsor may drop. It takes significant effort, time, energy, and expense on the part of NOs to recruit sponsors. We do not want them to drop. 9.1 Rationale - Why Close? The reason for closing a centre should normally be that the conditions for child development in a community have improved and CDP assistance is no longer merited. CDP resources should be moved to help more needy children and families in other communities. Some times the reason for closing may be lack of receptivity in the community to take full advantage of the CDP staff assistance to develop itself. Or CDP may not be able to staff it properly. In this case CDP management in country should work extra hard to change this situation before making a decision to close. Timing: Except for a disaster or war that totally disrupts sponsorship for an extended period, there should never be sudden closure decisions 9.2 Closing decision: This decision must be made jointly by Field, IO and N.O. 9.3 Process: When closing is contemplated, the country director should communicate the idea and consult with the N.O. well in advance. One year as a rule. JIFH requests a two-year notice. Communication about a possible closure should include: Name and number of centre Number of children affected Reasons for proposed closure A preliminary report describing what has been achieved by CDP in that community A specific closing date Whether or not you hope to shift sponsors to a new centre in your country or will they be shifted to another country. 9.4 Evaluation Provide an opportunity for the N.O. to be involved in a participatory evaluation of the programme. 9.5 Closure plan and final activities. After the closure decision is made, the programme director must prepare a time chart showing the steps and procedures in the closure of the centre. This chart should include: 1. Date and plan for alerting the community. 2. Date for a closing ceremony. The programme director should prepare to have a community wide ceremony to publicly acknowledge what the community and CDP have accomplished and give thanks to God. The purpose of the ceremony is not to boast but say thank you and good bye. The N.O. should be invited to join and participate in this celebration. 3. Date for a final report to the N.O. 4. Plan for informing the sponsor. 9.6 Communicating a closure to the sponsor and community. Again, this must be carefully handled. The notice should not be sudden or abrupt. An opportunity should be provided for the sponsor to write the child/family one more time. At least two months (preferably longer) in advance of the closure date, the N.O. needs the following information on their desk. 9.6.1 A letter from programme director to sponsors that states the following: announces the closure highlights what's been accomplished explains reason for closure, why it is right and timely for FHI to move on provide opportunity for sponsor to write a final letter to the child thanks the sponsor for their faithful support. 9.6.2. Include a final thank you letter from the child. This and the final sponsor letter may be a little awkward to manage but it's very important we provide this opportunity before all contact ends. 9.6.3. If the plan (between the N.O. and Field Office) is to ask the sponsor to support another child in the same country, than add the following to the closing letter: 1. A description of the new centre and its needs 2. A request to the sponsor to continue their sponsorship 3. A case history of the new child, photo (or negative), and introductory letter. 9.6.4. If the sponsor will be asked to sponsor a new child in a different country, then the N.O. will arrange for the centre description and case history for the new child. 9.7 What if a sponsor asks how they can stay in contact with the child and his/her family? FHI's general policy is to not offer or encourage continued contact. The primary reason is for the protection of the child and sponsor. The second reason is because it would usually be difficult to facilitate. Often the sponsored child/family lives in a very remote area with no local mail or postal address to which a sponsor could write them direct. However, this does not rule out a possible exception especially when there is a local post office box in the community. Should a faithful, long-term, known, and trusted sponsor specifically ask about continued contact, the N.O.s are free to investigate this possibility with the field offices on a case by case basis. 9.8 Transfer of funds Income from sponsors must be applied to the existing centre up to the closure date that is communicated to the sponsor. Any fund balance accrued to the centre upon closing must be set aside and used per N.O. instructions. There should not be an automatic transfer of the balance to a new centre, nor any other project. If several adjoining centres are grouped under one accounting cost centre and only one centre is closing , estimate what the fund balance for this centre is and discuss this with the N.O. 10. ACCOUNTING 10.1 Amount N.O.s will provide to field offices per child per month. This will range between $11 and $15 and will be determined by the NO in agreement with the IO based on the NO’s funding situation. 10.2. As a general rule, approximately 9% of CDP funding to FHI will be applied to help cover international office administration. 10.3. NO’s are to transfer CDP funds to FHI fields on a regular basis – at least quarterly. 10.4. Sponsorship income for CDP is designated or allocated to the accounting Cost Centre/Programme (CC/P) that covers the CDP centre where the child is sponsored. If the CDP Centre is large it should have its own accounting cost centre/programme code. If the CDP centre is small (100 – 200 sponsored children), close to another similar CDP centre which has the same NO sponsor, and shares the same support team and strategy, than the two should be covered by one accounting cost center cc/p. Similarly there could be 3 small CDP centers sharing one accounting cost center. See the Regional Accountant for guidance in establishing cost centre/programme codes for CDP centres. 10.5 Accounting: Accounting for CDP centres should comply with FHI accounting guidelines. See the Regional Accountant for details. 10.6. Reporting: Financial reports are to be produced for each CDP Cost Centre/Programme and sent to the sponsoring N.O.s or posted on the GMI at least once a year. 11. BUDGETING AND UTILIZATION OF CDP FUNDS Budgeting for CDP follows the FHI annual budgeting process. See Regional Accountant for details. 11.1 How are CDP funds used: NO support. A percentage is used by the sponsoring NO to cover their sponsor recruitment, communications, and administrative costs. If sponsors have questions about this use of funds they should be directed to the NO. IO support. A percentage (currently 9%) of the “program funds” provided by NOs for CDP is applied to international office activity. The services provided by the IO to CDP programs include international and regional accounting, human resource development and training, regional director support, and CDP programming guidance and resource support. Country Office support. A percentage is also applied to? the support provided by the field country central office and includes accounting, training, staff management, and program guidance support. The guideline is 25% or less for this indirect cost level support. (Sentences not complete, I am not sure what you want to say) How to lower indirect cost support percentage. a) Verify that calculations of indirect cost rates are correct and representative of the actual situation. See your regional accountant for advice. b) Reduce expenses. Maximise the use of local volunteers (e.g. parents, church members, etc.) These local volunteers must be qualified and adequately trained, otherwise, reducing expense in this way may sacrifice meeting programme objectives. Have one or two HC staff and operate all CDP activity through a local church, which the HC staff or another local missionary can start if necessary. c) Increase number of sponsored children. Usually administrative costs (office and staff) are about the same for a CDP program ministering to 3,000 children as they are for a program reaching out to 6,000 children. d) Increase income. This can be through increased CDP funding or other funds. 11.2 Sponsorship communications and admin processing (case histories, photos, letters, postage, tracking, etc) A percentage of funds are needed to cover this expense – usually incurred or charged at the country office. 11.3 Staff. The staff working in the CDP program are the most important resource as children and families change through relationship with them. A percentage of CDP funding is applied to providing quality staff and their function as trainers, motivators, facilitators, etc. Note: Where staff split their time or responsibilities with other FHI programs, their time should be accurately allocated to the various programme budgets i.e. CDP income should only cover CDP programme activity. 11.4. Materials/Equipment CDP funding is applied to materials and equipment and carrying out the CDP events and activities 11.5. Community projects/programmes CDP funding from the N.O.s (with the exception of JIFH) can be applied to community projects that address the needs of the sponsored child and fulfil the objectives and requirements of the CDP programme as outlined in this manual. JIFH stipulates that its CDP funding not be used for community-wide development projects. Instead it has a separate fund for this purpose called the Community Project Fund. a. This fund is only available for a development project in the community in which JIFH sponsors children. b. To receive funding from this fund, the field office must provide a written proposal of the project activity, including background, objectives, justifications, timetable, degree of participation, budget, and itemised expense sheet. etc.. c. Preference will be given to projects that directly meet the development need of the child and are training in nature. For example, projects as mother- health training, food preparation training, training for and conservation of clean drinking water. etc. d. Submit the proposal to JIFH. Each proposal must receive the approval of the JIFH Board of Trustees. e. If you have questions about the community project fund and what it will cover, contact JIFH. If NO personnel or sponsor visitors to CDP program sites have finance questions refer them to the CD. 12. WHAT BENEFITS WILL THE SPONSORED CHILD RECEIVE: 1. Incarnational staff who proclaim Jesus and share and model Biblical worldview. 2. Two or more home visits, each year, from CDP staff who share love and concern for the welfare of the child and his or her family. 3. The opportunity to gain a Biblical worldview and how to apply Biblical truth in all areas of their lives. a. Included in each country's strategy to meet this goal is "the Day of the Child Celebration and the Christmas Party." See following section for details. 4. The opportunity to hear and see a Biblical worldview modeled by their parents, teachers, and/or leaders. (Parents, teachers, and leaders will be given the opportunity to learn about Biblical worldview and be discipled in their faith in CDP communities.) 5. Children who desire to follow Christ will be discipled by community believers / the local church. 6. Improved environmental sanitation (i.e. cleanliness) in his/her home and community. 7. Medical Care when their lives are threatened by illness.1 8. An annual health assessment or when ill, prompt and appropriate care from their parents and/or teacher's who will have been taught to detect signs and symptom of the child's illness and respond quickly and appropriately to protect the child's life. 1 See health strategy. 9. Improved educational opportunities (benefits will de dependent on the need. Examples include: improved school infrastructure, materials, curriculum, and/or teaching quality.) 10. Prayer from sponsors. 12.1 The Day of the Child Celebration (formerly CDP Day) Day of the Child is an annual event held during the first 6 months of the year. The Day of the Child program or activity can be for all the children in the community. It is a day to honor the children, give them special recognition, and affirm their value, share a special message of hope and truth relevant to the child, and encourage their parents. As possible, the celebration should be given BY the CDP community TO their children. FHI should guide and assist as needed. The Day of the Child activities, the messages presented, should all contribute to the accomplishment of one of the CDP goal areas (wisdom, health, education) There should be food or treats provided as part of the program/activity, but do not necessarily have to be provided by FHI. Unless it is inappropriate, the children should receive some small gift or practical item to remember the event and as an expression of appreciation for them (book mark, picture, book, school supplies, Bible, clothing item, etc. or something). If it is inappropriate to provide a small gift in your context, please communicate this with the NO. NOs provide additional funds for this day: 1. CFHI encourages sponsors to contribute to a birthday/Christmas fund that is to be used for these events. 2. FH/US asks the sponsors to give an extra donation to help fund this activity. This is credited to each CDP cc/p. 12.2. Christmas Celebration The Christmas Celebration is an annual event held during the last 6 months of the year. The Christmas Celebration program or activity can be for all the children in the community. It is a day to share the message of Christ's birth and celebrate the salvation and new life he offers to all men. Children should be given a chance to accept Christ as their savior. Follow-up discipleship should be coordinated with local believers for children who decide to follow Christ during the event. Involvement of the local church or local believers is encouraged. As much as possible, the community or church should plan and execute the celebration, with FHI helping. Sponsors normally give extra funds for gifts. We combine these for use on the Day of the Child or Christmas - gift giving times. If gifts are appropriate in your context, use this opportunity to provide a useful gift to the sponsored child or family that would help them grow as God intends. E.g. this would be a good time to provide a Bible if appropriate and one has never been given, a blanket, a mosquito net, something the whole family might use and enjoy, etc.
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