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The Biblical Covenants

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The Biblical Covenants Powered By Docstoc
					OT Survey I

  Leviticus
                        Setting
   The book of Leviticus
    takes place over a period
    of about one month at
    Mount Sinai. According
    to Exodus 40:17, the
    tabernacle was erected
    exactly 1 year after the
    first Passover. Numbers
    1:1 begins on the first
    day of the second month.
              Purpose Statement

   Yahweh gave instruction that enabled Him
    as a holy God to live among His people
    and enabled His people to have fellowship
    with Him.
       Note: The book had special relevance for the
        priests as a manual on guiding Israel in their
        worship.
                       Major Themes
       The Presence of the Lord
         “before the Lord” (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 16, 17)
         “I am the Lord your God” (18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26)
       Holiness
         The Holy
             Yahweh (11:44, 45; 19:2; 20:6)
             Israel (11:44, 45; 19:2; 20:6)
             Things (2:3, 10)
             Times (23:2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 21, 24, 27, 35, 36, 37)
         The Common, Profane (19:8, 12, 29; 20:3; 21:6, 9, 12, 15,
          23; 22:2)
         The Clean and the Unclean (11 – 15) – This is not the same as
          holy versus common. These are stipulations for what is
          allowed to come into contact with what is holy.
                    Major Themes
   The Sacrificial System
       The Offerings (1-7; 16)
       The Priests (8-10)


Key Verses:
       “For I am the LORD your God. Consecrate yourselves
        therefore, and be holy; for I am holy” (11:44).
       “For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have
        given it to you on the altar to make atonement for
        your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that
        makes atonement” (17:11).
                  Structure
   Israel’s Acceptable Approach to God
    Through Sacrifice (chaps. 1 – 10)
   Israel’s Walk with God in Fellowship
    (chaps. 11 – 27)
                              Structure
   Israel’s Acceptable Approach to God Through Sacrifice
    (chaps. 1 – 10)
       The Offerings and Their Regulations (1-7)
            The Burnt Offering – Purpose was the acceptance of the worshipper
             by atoning for his sin in general; substitutionary. Required
             unblemished male animal; animal could vary depending on the
             financial condition of the one who offered.
            The Meal or Grain Offering – burnt grain offering memorialized
             worshipper before the Lord. Significance uncertain; perhaps to
             express thankfulness and dedication to God.
            The Peace Offering – Certain animal parts were consumed on the
             altar, others were eaten by priests. Expressed joy of fellowship
             with the Lord.
            The Sin Offering – Made on behalf of individuals or for the assembly
             as a whole (Day of Atonement). Required animal without defect.
             Blood sprinkled on altar, part of the sacrifice offered on the altar,
             part burned outside the camp.
            The Trespass or Guilt Offering – Similar to sin offering; primary
             difference is requirement to make restitution, either to the Lord or
             fellow man, for something that has been taken or withheld.
                            Structure
   Israel’s Acceptable Approach to God Through
    Sacrifice (chaps. 1 – 10)
       The Offerings and Their Regulations (1-7)
       The Consecration and Duties of the Priests (8-10)
            After the completion of the Tabernacle Aaron and his sons
             are set apart as priests (8).
            This consecration process took one week and included a
             special designation of Aaron as High Priest (9).
            The seriousness of obedience for the priesthood is illustrated
             by the incident with Nadab and Abihu (10).
                              Structure
   Israel’s Walk with God in Fellowship (chaps. 11 – 27)
       Instruction on clean versus unclean (11-15)
            Animals (11, esp. vv. 46 and 47)
            Uncleanness of child-bearing and instructions on circumcision (12)
            Instructions for priests to deal with various skin diseases and bodily
             discharges (13 – 15)
       Instruction for the Day of Atonement (16)
       Emphasis on the proper procedure for offering sacrifices (17)
       Instruction on prohibited sexual practices (18)
       Instruction on dealing with neighbors and strangers within the
        land (19)
       Penalties for breaking various laws (20; 20:22-26 is a key
        passage)
       Emphasis on the priests’ necessity to be holy (21-22)
                                 Structure
   Israel’s Walk with God in Fellowship (chaps. 11 – 27)
       The Festivals of God’s People (23 – 25)
            Sabbath Day
            Spring Festivals (First and Third Months)
                  Passover – to commemorate Israel’s deliverance from Egypt.
                      Unleavened Bread – to commemorate the hardships of the hurried
                        flight to Egypt.
                      Firstfruits – wave offering of barley sheaf and an unblemished
                        lamb offered to the Lord in thanksgiving.
                  Pentecost – wave offering of two loaves of bread; sacrifices of 7 lambs,
                   one bull, and two rams in celebration of the wheat harvest.
            Fall Festivals (Seventh Month)
                  Feast of Trumpets – day of rest
                  Day of Atonement – for national cleansing
                  Feast of Booths – to commemorate the wilderness wandering and
                   rejoice in the competed harvest (including grapes and olives).
            The Sabbath Year and Year of Jubilee – In the latter, debts were
             forgiven, servants released, and land returned to original owners.
       Promises of Blessing for Obedience and Curses for Disobedience,
        Vows and Valuations (26 – 27)
Next Week: Numbers

Israel’s Wilderness Wanderings

				
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