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Resource Scheduling Template Xls - PowerPoint

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					Time Management
 5-Apr-2011



                  1
Recap: Going further into
Planning
   Planning is about answering some
    questions like:
     “Whatmust be done?”
     “When will it be done?”
     “Who will build it?”
     “How much will it cost?”




                                       2
Recap: Planning the “WHAT”
 Planning the “what” is crucial
 One frequent reason projects fail is that a
  significant part of the work is forgotten!




                                                3
Recap: Project Scope
Management
 Scope Planning
 Scope Definition
 Create WBS
 Scope Verification
 Scope Control




                       4
Recap: WBS




             5
Recap: WBS




             6
Recap:WBS RACI
                  Responsible   Accountable   Consulted   Informed
Project Manager   X             X
Project Team      X
Project Review                                            X
Authority
Project                                       X           X
Stakeholders




                                                                     7
Recap:WBS Structure by Phase




                           8
Recap:WBS By Discipline




                          9
Topic –Time management
   Time Management
     Estimation
     Scheduling


   References
     Software  Project Management: A Unified Framework,
      Walker Royce, Addison Wesley
     Fundamentals of Project Management, James P.
      Lewis, AMACOM Books
     Software Project Management, Bob Huges, Mike
      Cotterrel
     PMBOK


                                                       10
Planning the “WHEN”
   The distinction between project
    management and general management
    stays in scheduling

   … but PM is not all about scheduling 




                                             11
Time Management Process
[PMBOK]
 Activity Definition
 Activity Sequencing
 Activity Resource Estimating
 Activity Duration Estimating
 Schedule Development
 Schedule Control


                                 12
Estimations
 Once tasks have been identified, the time
  and resources necessary to accomplish
  them must be determined.
 This process is called estimating.




                                              13
Work vs. Duration
 Work - person/days, person/hours,
  person/months etc.
 Duration – hours, days, months, etc.


=> Estimate work first



                                         14
Estimation approaches
   To achieve credible results cost and
    schedule budgets should be done in two
    ways
     Estimating   top-down, starting from project
      level
     Estimating bottom-up starting from task micro-
      analysis
     Parametric estimating – use historical data
      adjusted to current project
                                                     15
Best practices
   Estimate based on the required level of
    accuracy
     Rough estimation first (+/- 50-75%)
     Second-round refinements (+/- 25%)

   Estimate more accurately as you progress




                                              16
Activity sequencing
 Finish-to-start (FS) – the start of a task
  can be only after the finish of another
 Start-toStart (SS) - start of one task
  triggers the start of another
 Finish-to-finish (FF) – finishing a task
  triggers the finish of another
 Start-to-Finish (SF)


                                               17
Activity sequencing




                      18
Constraints
 As Soon As Possible
 As Late As Possible
 Start No Earlier Than
 Finish No Earlier Than
 Start No Later Than
 Finish No Later Than
 Must Start On
 Must Finish On
                           19
Schedule estimating
   Project Manager (and the management team)
    develop a characterization of overall size,
    process, environment, people and quality for the
    overall project
   A macro-level estimation of the total effort and
    schedule is developed
   A high-level WBS is developed
   Team leaders and developers estimate
    individual tasks

                                                   20
Schedule consolidation
 The lowest level WBS elements are
  defined into detailed tasks and schedule
  and budget is estimated by their
  responsible
 Estimates are consolidated and
  homogenized
 Comparison and validations are made


                                             21
GANTT (Visio)




                22
GANTT (MS Project)




                     23
Padding estimates
 Bloated estimates – everyone adds some
  padding=> totally inaccurate estimates
 Padding games - managers trim every
  estimate => more padding next time
 Lack of feedback – with no feedback no
  estimator can improve


                                           24
Safety margins
   Contingency funds and hours – depends
    on the risks list
     50-75%  if high-risk project
     5-10% if low-risk project

   Management reserve




                                            25
Network Diagram Details




                          26
Estimation methods
 Expert Estimation
 Historical Data
     ExistingProject
     Past Company Projects
     Past Industry Projects




                               27
Estimation techniques
 One-point estimation – one
  estimation/activity based on
  expert/historical data
 Analogous estimation – for project /
  activity based on expert/historical data




                                             28
Estimation techniques
   Parametrics
     Regression
     Learning   curve




                         29
Estimation techniques
   Heuristics
     “Design   is always 15% of the project length”
   3 point estimation (PERT)
     Expected   duration = (P+4M+O)/6




                                                       30
Program Evaluation and Review
Technique (PERT)
a statistical approach that uses Monte
 Carlo simulations to show possible project
 outcomes.
=> a probability of a project finishing on time
 given combinations of optimistic,
 pessimistic, and expected values



                                              31
Parametrics example
 Number how much effort takes something
  you know and apply rules to it
 Example: estimate how much effort the
  requirements take in Inception and
  extrapolate to the whole project




                                       32
Planning guidelines




                      33
Effort Distribution per Phase




                                34
Budgeting defaults example (no
actual numbers)
 WBS Discipline       Budget(%)




 Management                       10

 Environment                      10

 Requirements                     10

 Design                           15

 Implementation                   25

 Assessment                       25

 Deployment                        5




 Total                            100
                                        35
Estimation Analysis
 Critical Path
 Schedule compression
 What-if scenarios
 Resource leveling




                         36
Critical Path
the sequence of project network activities
 which add up to the longest overall
 duration.
=> the shortest time possible to complete
 the project




                                              37
PERT Diagrams
 Sequence Diagrams
 Diagram Elements




                      38
PERT Element
 Early Start/Early Finish
 Duration
 Late Start/Late Finish
 Slack




                             39
Schedule compression
   Fast-tracking
     Do critical-path activities in parallel
    => rework, increase risks, needs
     communication
   Crash
     Cost-schedule  trade-off (decrease in schedule
      => increase in cost)


                                                  40
What-if scenario analysis
   What-if scenario analysis
     Monte-Carlo   Analysis
   Resource leveling
     Resource-limited   schedule




                                    41
Generic WBS (RUP - example)
   Use Case points estimations
       UC Points Template.xls




                                  42

				
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