2003 ASE Annual Report

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2003 ASE Annual Report Powered By Docstoc


                  MARCH 2004,
                 ADDIS ABABA

                  TABLE OF CONTENT

     3.1. AMARO IFSP
        4.3.1. FINANCE

Agri- Service Ethiopia (ASE) is a non-governmental development organization founded
in 1969 in Wolayita, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoplse State. The organization
has been working the last 34 years in different areas of Ethiopia for improvement of the
socio- economic life of rural communities. By enhancing the capacity of communities
through training ASE implemented food security, environmental rehabilitation, and
provision of social services activities.

During the year ASE was running three IFSPs, in Amaro, Bereh-Aleltu, and Enbsie- Sar
Midir woredas and one IRDP programme in Lalomama Mider woreda of three regions
SNNPRS, ONRS, and ANRS respectively. The two IFSP offices in Enbsie- Sar Midir
and Bereh-Aleltu were completing their three years first phase programme (2001-2003).
After evaluating the achievements of the first phase with the particpation of all
stakeholders including the community and local gevernment partners, ASE was decided
to continue the second phase for period 2004-2006. The document preparation was done
with the participation of all stakes. The programme documents were submitted to donors,
Novib and EED. The donors, after thourghly assess the document they approved it and
pledge the required budget for the second phase, three-year programmes (2004-2006).
The Amaro IFSP is the five-year programme implemented for the last three years with
the assistance of Trocaire and Ireland aid. For the remaining period the assistance for the
programme implementation of the IFSP will be obtained from European Union through
Trocaire. The Lalo Mama Midir IRDP starts the second phase of its programme
implemention in 2003 by evaluating the achievements of the first phase of the last five
years performance. For the IRDP this last phase of implementation will devoted to
facilitate phasing out.

During the reporting period, “one- person” phasing out offices of the two phased out
IRDPs in Bale and Semen Omo were also conducte the finalization of organization of

During the year a total of 38 KAs including 17 in Amhara, 12 in Oromiya and 9 in
SNNPRS were covered by this year‟s operation. A total of 30,381 households (23,960
male and 6,421 female) residing in these kebeles have been directly or indirectly
benefited from these programs. A total of 40 development centers have established to
serve the communities by deploying 30 male and 6 female DAs supported by 126
VLDPs. The average ratio of DAs to households was about 882. In addition, ASE has
been operational in the previous two programme areas where a phasing out officer was
deployed to facilitate the coordination of the organization of cooperatives in each of those

Agriculture is the exclusive source of livelihood for the greater majority of the rural
communities in Ethiopia. Its performance, however, heavily depends on the amount and
distribution pattern of the rainfall. At the beginning of the year drastic drought situation
were observed through out the country. About 14 million people were exposed for
famine. Among these about 44,000 people are living in ASE operational areas. The
emergency relief intervention in the three operational woredas of ASE has been dealt
with local government and other agencies. However, ASE with the assistance of its
donors had intervened in Enbsie Sar Midir woreda 4 kebeles and assist 15,988 relief
beneficiaries of which about 40% are female.

Each program office has its own distinct set of programme components to address
specific local problems in its respective operational area. The major components of the
four regular programmes of ASE can be summarized in to six major categories. These are
Knowledge Enhancement and Community Empowerment, Agricultural Productivity
Enhancement (Crop and Livestock), Social Services (Health, Education), Natural
Resource Management (Forestry, SWC, SLU and SWRD), and Income Diversification
and Capacity Building (Both Community and Counterpart Government Offices at
Woreda Level).

On the other hand, similar to past recent years the main objective of the phasing out
programmes in previous ASE operational areas is aiming at ensuring sustainability of the
programme interventions. The main activities include strengthening of community
organizations and facilitating for their legal registration and linking them with service and
input delivery agencies. It also provide equal emphasis to building capacity of
government counterpart office at Woreda level to enable them provide continued services
to communities in ASE operational areas.

The overall performance of ASE programmes are summarized as follows:

Community Training: A total of 11,932 community members of which 50% Female
are attaineded general awarness education through 2366 sessions in the four programme

Community Empowerment: Among 40 Organized adhoc committees of community
based institutions 28 are transformed to permanent institutions. While, the remaining 12
in Bereh Aleltu programme area are under process. 2 woreda level institutions are
established as local self-help organizations in Enbsie Sar Midir and Lalo Mama Midir
woredas. In addition to establishing community institutions various trainings were given
for community members and CBI leaders and CBI offices were constructed. Moreover,
community members were participating in planning sessions, review meetings, and
evaluation exercises.

Agricultural Production: The major activities performed are crop production and
livestock production.

Vegetable production: This activity was performed in all programme offices. All in all
4232 participants get skill training, of which 80% are females in 238 sessions. Besides,
demonstrations, field visits, input supplies, and tools provision was conducted.

Organic farming: This activity was conducted mainly in Amaro and Bereh Aleltu
programme areas by participating 486 participants and conduct skill training in 91
sessions. In addition to this, participatory research, logistics support, demonstrations, and
promotional activities are performed.

Local level seed production and Enset: 663 participants get skill training in 102 sessions.
Moreover, action research, seeds and other inputs supply, and tools provision are

Small-scale irregation development: During the year 2 kms irrigation canal, 8 roof
catchments, 4 small irrigation schemes, 2 irrigation shallow well, 4 triddle pumps, 3 run
off collection, and 1 farm pond constructed. Organizing water users, and give training for
users are also performed.

Dairy goat production: This activity is implemented in Amaro programme area. In the
reporting period, 135 participants are provided with skill training and get 27 bucks and
135 does from the programme office.

Tse tse fly control: This is an activity implemented in Amaro area. Accordingly, 69
farmers get training on tse tse and tryp.control, and 11 tse tse control sites established.

Forage production: Aiming at support of cattle productivity improvement in Enbsie and
Bereh, goat production in Amaro, and sheep production in Lalo Mama forage production
conducted through out all programme areas. 1261 particpants get skill training in 133
sessions. Besides, seeds, cuttings, and seedlings provided and demonstrations conducted.
Social Services:
Natural Resource Management:
Water Supply:
Diversification Of Income:
Capacity Building:
Planning, Monitoring, And Evaluation:

Other tasks performed during the year: various trainings on developed strategy
framework papers have been provided. Baseline survey data analysis conducted in
Amaro. Annual PRRP exercise has been conducted in Lalomama IRDP. ASE has been
proactive in strengthening existing networks with CRDA, SLUF, IFOAM, PACT
ETHIOPIA, IIRR, ERHA, PANOS, AAE and partners gender network, CORHA etc.

The overall staff of ASE during the year has reached to 141 (22 Female, 114 Male). A
total of 20 new staff was recruited and 15 left the organization due to own accord and
other reasons. Various training, seminars and workshops were organized internally and in
collaboration with CRDA and other partners in building internal staff capacity.

The overall budget performance showed that ASE was able to receive from its donors a
total of Birr 15155087. The major donors include Novib, EED, AAE, and Trocaire/EU.
Novib and EED supported the two IFSPs at Enbsie and Bereh. AAE continued supporting
the Lalomama IRDP while Trocaire/EU provided financial support for Amaro IFSP and
shared cost of the Head office. All donors contributed to the coordination cost of the head
office of ASE. The total expenditure made during the year amounts to birr 14,075,284
showing an over all financial performance of 93 %.

Major Challenges
Major Lessons Learned


Agri- Service Ethiopia (ASE) is an indigenous, non-governmental, non-religious and
non-profit making development organization established in December 1969. ASE is
registered under the ministry of justice (MOJ) and has signed operational agreement with
Fedral DPPC and project agreements with regional governments. ASE is a member of the
umbrella networks of Christian Relief and Development Association (CRDA),
Sustainable Land Use Forum (SLUF), IFOAM, and partner of Pact.

ASE aspires to see a rural Ethiopia where poverty is reduced and a favourable
environment is maintained to the satisfaction of the present and future generation. The
mission of ASE is to work with the poor communities in rural Ethiopia towards attaining
food security, protecting and rehabilitating the environment and provision of adequate
social services. Enhancing the capacity of the communities through training is a cross
cutting function of ASE.

ASE‟s strategic goal is aimed to contribute towards attainment of food security, adequate
access to basic social services with sustainable management of the environment. In
addition, ASE would like to develop its own organizational capacity for an effective and
efficient service delivery.

ASE is a membership association with a general assembly of 20 members (5 corporate
and 15 individuals). The highest organ of ASE is the general assembly. The next organ is
the board of management with five members elected from members of the general
assembly. The executive director of ASE is the chief executive and an ex-officio member
of the board of management with no voting right. ASE‟s organizational structure includes
the executive director‟s office, heading the overall organization with three departments
(i.e. programs, training and support services) at the head office in Addis Ababa and four
programme offices located in Amhara, Oromia, and SNNP regional states. At the end of
the 2003, ASE has a total of 141 permanent staff (114% male and 22% female).

The year 2003 was the third year since implementation of the six years strategic plan
document started in ASE.

During the year, ASE has been running its one IRDP, three IFSPs, and “one- person”
phasing out offices for two of the phased out IRDPs (Semen Omo, and Bale).
This short report is prepared for all partners of ASE to show the over all-annual
performance of the organization in 2003. It comprises objectives and strategies,
background situation, programme performance, organization and management of
programme offices, performance of head quarter, overall budget performance, and
problems and measures taken.



Objectives and Strategies

The major objective of the IFSP in Amaro is to improve the food security situation of the
community in the selected kebeles of the special Woreda. To fulfil this objective the PO
has the following major strategies: community participation, use of indigenous
knowledge and experience, promoting participatory action research, building community
based institutions, gender equity, conducting demonstrations of new technologies and
familiarization of production enhancing inputs, observance of optimum flexibility, use of
employment generation scheme, and targeting the resource poor.

3.1.1. Back ground Climate

The climatic condition of the year was very different from the previous five to six years.
There was adequate belg rain that helps the belg-cropping season to be better than any
other recent years. However, the decline of mehr rain has unexpectedly damage the
meher production. Agricultural Activity

The major activities accomplished at the belg season are plotting preparation, ploughing,
weeding, seed sowing, harvesting of dry coffee cherries, cultivation and irrigation of
plantation crop fields. The rain that appeared since mid-March has encouraged farmers to
sow barely, wheat, pulses and Enset seedlings. The promising rainy condition has
encouraged farmers and they were engaged in sowing crops like maize, teff, haricots and
sorghum. Sweet potatoes, vegetables and fruits were also sown.
In the 3rd quarter, Processes of harvesting, threshing and collecting of the Belg teff and
maize have been the wide spread activities. This year‟s Belg production was better than
any other recent past years.
The process of land preparation for Meher was accomplished extensively even by
ploughing plots that had been fallow expecting the suitable situation of the Belg would
continue. However, the expected rain didn‟t appear or it was very inadequate that farmers
were halted from sowing and those who sowed with the little rain were obliged to
repeatedly overturn their plots.

The scarcity of the rains has persisted to the fourth quarter and this has damaged quite a
greater size of the teff plots sown within the quarter. According to the WOA estimation
almost 85% of the mehr crops plots are damaged. Food security

The food shortage, which has been observed since last year, was aggravated with in the
first quarter of this year. The shortage of grains and soaring prices that followed have
made the problem worse. Moreover, the decrease in production and price of the cash crop
coffee has aggravated the situation. The food aid provided by the local administration has
at least minimized the food shortage problem. On the other hand, some successful
participants of the program who took part in sweet potato and vegetable production have
been able to some how manage the problem with their produce.

The good harvest of the belg production has helped farmers to cover the food shortage
problem that persisted till its harvest.
Since the Belg production can at least cover the consumption for some months the food
aid provision has to some extent decreased and focused on nutritious food distribution to
children for some times.

However, since Meher production was below the expectation due to in adequate rainfall
that damaged about 85% of the cultivated land, after consuming the Belge production the
community will face food shortage again. Human and livestock health Human health

There was occasional illness of children with diseases like TB, headache and body
swelling. Headache and flu affected adults too. During the dry spell, since the rivers and
springs volume of water dwindles, the community was obliged to drink water collected
from unsafe and unprotected areas. This has caused water born diseases. With regard to
malaria infestation, by the financial assistance of the PO spraying activity in areas known
to be endemic was accomplished by the WOH. During July and August there was wide
spreads malaria among the low land dwellers. Activities that need community
participation were also affected due to the encounter. The WOH distributed medicine and
has also carried out spraying of DDT on houses and areas assumed to harbor the
mosquito. Inaddition, cases of diarrhea, were also observed. Live-stock health

During the first quarter of the year, a number of diseases that affected mainly goats and
cattle have been identified. There was also infection of cattle by unknown disease that
causes death of animals. Farmers relate the disease with trypanosomiasis. Internal
parasites among a large number of livestock were also observed. Death of goats has also
persisted. The common diseases observed were FMD, lung, skin and liver cases and
internal and external parasites.

However, the adequate amount of rain that falls during the 2nd quarter resulted         in
abundant pasture and grazing feed source. Moreover, the PO‟s efforts in construction    of
crushes that could be used by the WOA, cattle troughs for clean and safe watering       of
livestock and the promotion of forage through participants have greatly helped          in
improving the livestock health.

Due to deployment of targets for control of tse fly and trypanosomiasis that was carried
out by the PO in collaboration with the woreda vet section and the southern Rift valley
tse tse control program, number of livestock affected by Gendi has decreased. Market prices of Agricultural products Crop market prices

Within the first two quarters of the year the price of crops has been increasing due to
shortage caused by the drought. However, during the third quarter due to the better
harvest of the Belg crops decrease in price of crops has been observed. In the fourth
quarter most of the crop items have shown increase in prices. Since the expected
production of Meher has failed due to shortage of rainfall. The period, which is coffee
picking and selling time has a significant effect on the market price increase.

Regarding coffee, which is mostly governed by export prices, has shown increase in
When the average market price of crops within the year is compared, with last year‟s
average price, this year‟s crop market price was found to be higher than the past year in
most of the major crops.

Such an increase in price is related to the drought that still prevails in the area. The
production expected of Meher has declined sharply. Livestock market prices

When major livestock price of the current year is observed quarter by quarter, the trend
observed is a continuous increase as it goes from 1st to 4th quarter. The current year‟s
price compared with last year‟s has also shown the same increment except for oxen.

3.1.2. Program Performance Area Coverage

The entire nine program KAs and the rural town of Kelle were operational sites for the all
development program planned in the year 2003. The 2 supervisors and the 26 VLDPs and
9 VLHPs supported 9 DAs. The ratio of DA to households was 1:750 while that of
VLDPs was 1:260 and VLHPs 1:750 households. The Program

To improve the lively hood of the target community and to attain its objectives the PO
had been engaged in implementing about 8 program components. Community knowledge enhancement and Empowerment Community knowledge Enhancement

Before starting the annual community-training program, mobilization and sensitization
forums were organized in the entire program KAs and community sensitization meetings
were held at each KA, agreement was reached among the registered trainees on the
duration, training dates and venues of the annual training program. Training needs
assessments were conducted at the end of the 4th quarter of the year 2002. Accordingly
the identification and selection of trainees conducted, 2400 trainees have been registered
at the nine KAs, and 50% of them are female. All the 2400 PPs were to attend mass
education and at least 50% of them were voluntarily selected to attend regular group
training organized in 25 groups. During the knowledge gap assessment nine main training
subjects were identified. They are NRM, methods of crop production, techniques of
organic farming and horticultural crop production, livestock disease and veterinary
services, animal husbandry and forage production, community health services, gender
and harmful traditional practices and family planning.
Community training program was carried out through mass education and regular group
During the year 1200 (600 Male, and 600Female) participants were registered and
957(473 Male, and 484 Female) are attended. So, about 80% of those enrolled have
successfully attended the regular group training sessions.

It was planed to present the nine selected training topics through 350 sessions to 25
groups of attendants; however, the actual performance is 304 sessions, which is 86.9%.

To carry out the regular group training, the following teaching methods and aids were
used: -
Modules prepared by officers of the PO, notes organized previously, deep discussions
during training sessions, questions and answers, and posters and booklets.

Mass education

This method of training was planned to be carried out through role-plays and film shows.
During the year, HIV school clubs carried out role-play show, which dealt on HIV/AIDS
to about 3200 people of whom 40% were female. During the role-plays, versus, articles,
questions and answers regarding HIV/AIDS were also presented. Moreover, the school
clubs also organized marches in between villages and KAs to raise awareness. The health
professional of the health posts are assisted the program.

Film shows were started lately. Up to the reporting period, four times conducted that
deals with HIV/AIDS prepared in a drama form were presented to the community. It is
quite interesting to note that the interest of the community was very high and people of
different age adult to children and both sexes watched the show being very enthusiastic.

On the other hand, mass education intended to be carried out through role plays were
interrupted for long since incentives for role play actors were not considered in the EU
year 1 budget. Role-plays that deal with family planning were presented to the
community where 1881 people of whom 34% were females. The role actors were farmers
recruited from the community members. Community Empowerment

Community based institutions

The following activities were taken care of before transferring the existing ad-hoc to

Reshuffling of the existing ad-hoc members by replacing weak ones with strong members
in consultation with ad-hoc it self and the community.

Build their capacity by providing training on planning, monitoring and evaluation and
finance and property management and management as a whole for the 63 executive
members of whom 25 of them (39.7%) were women.
Conduct discussion with officials of the woreda that deal with people‟s organization to
make them aware of establishment of CBIs and get any assistance they could provide in
the process. So far, their attitude is positive and a letter written from the woreda peoples
organizing section confirmed recognition of CBIs as official organizations.

Therefore, at the moment the process of CBIs establishment is completed 9 CBIs

Further more training on the Ethiopian constitution and rights was provided to all
executive members of CBI using resource persons from the woreda‟s bureau of Justice
and other personnel from the administration office.

About 5 CBIs have opened account books at the CBE of Yirgachefe branch with in the

Organizing women

 With the objective of enhancing women‟s participation, and encouraging women‟s
economic and social empowerment, in addition to involving them in the CBIs formed,
women associations were established at each program KAs with the collaboration of the
women‟s affair of the woreda. Each association has its own executive committee selected
by the women community of each KA. Membership registration will continue
voluntarily, which will be strengthened by the by-laws to be drafted.

The women‟s association formation is not to stop within the program KAs only, it will be
established across all the KAs of the woreda. Then a general assembly formed by
representatives of all the KA associations will form a woreda level women‟s

Program review meetings

Review meetings were held at each KA ones within each quarter. Participants of such
meetings were each KA‟s CBI, DA, KA leaders, DA‟s of the WOA, women
representatives, VLDPs, VLHPs, influential individuals and the community. The
respective DA and CBI committee presented reports to the gathering. Discussions
regarding performance like whether activities were going on as planned and the stage
they have reached, whether inputs have been distributed according to the objectives,
weakness and strengths observed and problems encountered and solutions provided were
carried out during the meetings. Moreover, the action plans for the next quarter were
presented and agreed upon after discussions.

A woreda level review meeting was held at the woreda town of Kelle where the woreda
administration, all sector offices, KA representatives, CBOs and invited farmers
Activities of VLDPs and VLHPs

Conduct meetings twice weekly with the respective DA regarding activities planned and
performed. As required, they also conduct daily meetings on daily activities and the
problems encountered in implementing their assignments.
Coordinate, mobilize and follow up activities of the different components.
Carry out farm demonstrations on their farm plots and DAs compound.
Have played great role in mobilizing the community for the various developmental
activities in collaboration with CBIs and KA leaders.
To build their capacity and improve their efficiency the need to provide the VLDPs and
VLHPs with the essential trainings has been recognized.

Community participation

Provide local material and free labor for construction activities that are being carried out
within their KAs. Have dug kms of canals, which could be used for irrigation purpose. Agricultural productivity enhancement Crop productivity enhancement

Study on enset varieties and select the best performing one

The area has the potential of diversified enset varieties. There are about 45 local enset
varieties that are cultivated in the area. Based on the following criteria's.
- Drought resistance, disease resistance, early maturity, productivity, and gastronomic
The varieties locally known as 'shana', 'bazazae', 'gajie', 'kafle', 'zinka', 'nifo', 'Zilola' were
identified. In the selection processes, 80 key informants were (10PPs/KAx8KAs) were
involved. In doing that, PRA tools like proportional pilling and pair wise ranking were

On- farm demonstrations.


The study on each of the selected enset varieties has been going on the innovative poor
farmers field. During the implementation of the study, almost all agronomic practices
such as spacing, seeding rate and date of planting were solely decided by the participants
For the purpose of the study, the PO provided the suckers through procurement from the
areas where the selected varieties have been found. As a whole, the study has been
conducted in an area of 1.465ha on the total number of 7 varieties in 8 KAs with 71
participants (16 female and 55 male).
Though the final result (ranking) of these varieties will be known just after the yield is
completely gathered by the farmers, in some areas, still relative ranking was given by
farmers depending up on their own simple observation.

-Sweet potato (Ogan saga variety)

This variety is mainly known for its capacity to resist drought. The planting materials of
the variety were brought from Semen-omo (Boreda), the previous ASE program area.
Basically the variety has dual purposes serving as feeding materials for livestock and
food for human beings. The PO purchased the cutting materials. The participants were
fully selected on voluntary basis. The study has been conducted in an area of 0.93 ha in 6
KAs with53 participants (4 female and 48 male). As far as this variety is considered, a
kind of evaluation was carried out in different areas. As the over all result of the
evaluation clearly shown, except in some areas that had shortage of water, the variety has
been found in good condition. According to the evaluation of farmers, the variety was
better than the local variety in many aspects like size of the tuber, taste and short duration
of maturity (80-100 days). Now a days, the potato has been widely used for consumption
purposes by most of the farmers .In some areas, it is also reported that the variety is
serving as the main source of income. Generally, the variety has been widely accepted to
have better performance than the local one.

Verification trials

-Cereals/field crops

In response to the need of the community and recommendations given by the technical
team of the head office, the PO has conducted trials on four kinds of field crops. These
are maize, teff, haricot bean and sorghum. Before conducting the trials, preparatory
works like selection of sites and participants, and collection of improved seeds from
Research centers and Ethiopian seed enterprise were completed. In relation to this,
Debrezeit and Melkassa agricultural research centers have shown better collaboration to
provide improved seed of teff and sorghum respectively. The remaining maize and
haricot bean varieties were bought from Ethiopian seed Enterprise. Since some of the
varieties of teff and sorghum are basic seeds, they are not yet distributed to farmers. The
trials have been conducted in all KAs across the program areas on innovative poor
farmers field, DAs and PO compounds. In PO compounds, the trials include 13varieties
of teff, 6varieties of sorghum, 3varieties of haricot bean and 4varieties of maize. Where
as on farmers field and development agents compounds, the trials covered only 3
varieties from each of the crops depending up on the adaptability of the variety to the
areas. 86 participants try in 1.71 ha of land in nine KAs

An evaluation was carried out on the overall condition of various cereal or field crops by
the farmers themselves. In different field days, the following main criteria were used for
the comparison purposes. These are: yield, disease tolerance, drought tolerance, maturity
period, and quality. The information collected from different field days clearly indicate
that farmers have shown strong interest to widely disseminating those varieties that stand
first in their rank

-S/potato varieties (6 varieties)

The verification trial on sweet potato (6 varieties) has been going on both farmers' fields
and DAs compounds. Due to favorable climatic condition of the year, the trial was
successfully preceded. In the trial, a total of 31 participants have participated in 7 KAs on
the total area 0.2214 ha. The varieties used in the trial include 5 introduced and 1local
varieties. The introduced five varieties are Feleha, Guntiti, Bereda, Belella, and Awassa-
83. Farmers evaluated the performance of these s/potato varieties (6 varieties) using
different criteria‟s.

Now days, very amazingly, majorities of the fields of the farmers have been covered by
the various varieties of S/potato. Since these varieties have the potential of resisting the
problem of water deficiency, they are really solving the problem of food shortage during
drought times. As the report in the kereda supervision areas indicate, in comparison to
other varieties, Awassa-83 has been widely disseminated in many areas. The preferences
of the farmers as well as high adaptability of the variety mentioned are the main factors
for its wide distribution as compared to other varieties.

Promotional activities

-Vegetable production
Due to intensive awareness raising training and repeated demonstrations, large numbers
of the community members are encouraged to participate in vegetable production. About
478 participants have produced vegetables in an area of 2.52 hectare using seeds like
pepper, carrot, tomato, cabbage, onion and Swiss chard which was provided by the PO
.In addition to that, 106 farmers have organized and formed groups near to the Gelana
river. The distribution of the already provided vegetable seeds for the poor farmers was
carried out through CBIs of each KA on credit basis. In this case, each participant is
expected to pay back the money at the end of the production period. The CBIs have
responsibility of controlling and utilizing the money as revolving fund.

From the sale of vegetables, 62 farmers (32 male and 30 female) in 6 KAs have gained
birr 1794.6 as additional income. Some farmers bought basic materials for their houses.
Others also were able to buy goats, hens, cockers and educational materials for their

  -Sweet potato production

In the year, 197 participants (10F+187M) were selected to promote s/potato production
on an area of 3.39ha across the program areas. The varieties that have been used for
promotional purposes are Bellela, Bereda, Guntiti; Aawssa-83, Feleha and Gadissa.
33900m2 area covered in all nine KAs by 197 participants (10 female and 187 male).
Skill enhancement training on

-Vegetable production

Unlike the previous years, the skill enhancement training given for vegetable producers
was completely supported by the newly prepared modules. The modules were developed
depending up on the training need assessment of the community. A total of 505
participants (189 males&316females) have attended the skill enhancement training across
the program areas. As the reports from the two supervisory areas indicate, the training
was covered by about 99sessions (60 sessions in kereda supervisory areas and 39 sessions
in Golbe supervisory areas).

- Organic farming

Concerning the training on organic farming, a total of 246 participants (146 males and
100 females) have attended the skill enhancement training on the preparation of organic
fertilizers such as vegetation compost, liquid manure. the training was covered by about
30 sessions.

Training of program staff on PTD

The PO has organized 3 days training on PTD and IK. Officers, supervisors and
development agents were participants of the training. The senior staffs of the head office
and other external resource persons handled the training.

Supported by the training, researchable issues were identified in crop protection
particularly on Enset plant disease. Further more, identification and collection of IK was
also gathered and characterized from which researchable issues will be screened out later.

Training of program staff on Enset production

In the year, training was given on enset production for the field staffs of the program
office. All the DAs, supervisors‟ and agricultural development officer of the program
office were the participants of the training. The trainers came from Awassa agricultural
research center. The training was given for the total of two days.

 Training of program staff on organic farming

Theoretical as well as practical training was also organized for four newly employed
development agents of the program office. The training was completely handled by
agricultural development officer and two supervisors of the program office

Organizing field days
Various field days were organized on cereal crops, vegetables, forages and others.
Generally, a total of 1022 farmers (489 females & 533 males) were able to attend the
field days organized in the two supervision areas.

During the field days, farmers were invited to evaluate performance of the introduced
cereals using their own criteria. According to their own evaluation, they suggested that
crop types that mature early to be strongly promoted. In addition to that they also
commented the trials to be repeated for better evaluation of the performance of each

Small-scale irrigation development

Earthwork (soil excavation) of three reservoirs/ponds completed in the year. The canal
maintenance has been also going on well. Until the reporting period, a total distance of
1.5km of the canal maintenance work was completed. As far as roof catchments
construction is considered, one DA compound and the other in the PO compound were
completed and have started giving service. Until now, though the excavation work of the
reservoirs/ponds fully completed, it could not be possible to make it ready to deliver
services for the community. The major problem was some issues related to plastic lining.

Logistic support for vegetable groups

To minimize the effect of soil erosion that happens as the consequence of flood irrigation,
provision of watering cans is mandatory. Taking that fact in to account, the PO purchased
60 watering cans and distributed them for vegetable producer groups as well as PTD

Capacity upgrading of the WOA

To enhance the capacity of the WOA, the PO‟s support has been continuing both in terms
of materials as well as manpower. In the year, 15 field staffs of the WOA were trained on
enset production together with the field staffs of the program office. In addition to that,
the PO also trained 11 field staffs and 5 experts of WOA on PTD and IK Livestock Productivity Enhancement Dairy goat production

The study about the potential of the local goat, which was started in collaboration with
Awassa agricultural college goat research unit, was finalized at last after a long delay and
a compiled report of the study was submitted to the PO during the last month of the year.
However the PO did the selection activities together with the community in a
participatory manner. As a result of that, two types of goats were identified among those
that are currently reared across the program areas. According to the result of the
preliminary survey and the communities‟ performance evaluation, a local breed known as
„Amato‟ was found to be the best performing one.
The PO purchased 135 does and 27 bucks and distributed them for a total of poor 135
female-headed households. In the process of purchase at the local market, the
beneficiaries and CBIs committees had fully involved. The goats were distributed to the
participants on credit basis through the CBIs. The repayments for the credit provided
would also be collected by the CBIs to be used as revolving fund in which other
participants will have the chance also.

 Many of the does have given birth to kids and the rest are pregnant. However some
deaths were also observed. The cause for the death was disease. Cattle productivity enhancement

   Launching tryp.and tse tse fly control

Tse-tse fly and trypanosomiasis remained a leading problem in livestock production and
productivity for the past decades in the area. The PO in collaboration with the southern
rift valley tse tse fly controlling programme (SRTTEP) conducts survey on apparent
density and infestation rate of the fly and the disease.

Depending up on the survey result and recommendation drawn from the study, the PO
organized a 7 days experience exchange visit (traveling work shop) to the southern rift
valley of tse tse fly controlling operation areas and Ghibe low lands. The team that
participated in the visit consists of 5 community representatives, 4 veterinarians at
different level of qualification, WOA head and PO agricultural development officer.
During the visit, the team gained notable knowledge and experience that has been used
for the proper implementation of the suppression program in the woreda.

By strengthening the net working with development partners, suppression programme on
tse-tse fly and trypanosomiasis disease was started after receiving 1000 targets and 60-
litres of chemicals which are to be used as attraction to flies during target deployments.
After receiving the material for suppression program, a technical person from Dilla
SRTTEP office gave practical training on target deployment to woreda animal health
technicians. Following the training and fulfillment of all the necessary arrangements,
suppression program had begun in collaboration with WOA.

The suppression activity was started in all KAs at the same time. By assigning all animal
health technicians found in the woreda, 1000 targets were deployed across the program
KAs with at least 100 targets per KA. During target deployment, there was high
participation of community in assisting technicians by transporting targets, chemicals,
contributing local poles on which the targets are to be posted. In each KAs 20 farmers
were assigned to work daily with the animal health technicians. For effective controlling
of the disease and the fly, the PO has planned to use spot on application. Establishment of
tse-tse and tryps plat form committee members both at KAs and woreda level was also
another activity implemented in the year. The committee members were selected from
stakeholders and community throughout the controlling period. The committee
established at woreda level started its duty by preparing by laws, revolving fund
management manual and lobbying regional bureau of finance to get legal entity in
printing receipt for revolving fund. At KA level, the committee members played a great
role in organizing the community members to contribute labor and local materials during
target deployment.

Generally, to bring an immediate result in the controlling program, the program office
has continued to supply equipments and chemicals that are to be used for spot on
application and monitoring activities of the tse tse fly. In addition to that, for the
sustainability of the suppression program, the community members convinced and agreed
to pay for chemicals during spraying at field level. Therefore, the money will revolve till
the flies‟ density remained low or declined in the area.

Farmers training on Tse Tse control

 A total of 69 farmers selected from across the entire program KAs were provided with
two days training on Tse Tse control by vet. technicians of the WOA. The objective of
the training was to enhance the communities‟ role on the Tse Tse control and monitoring

According to farmers‟ observation, the number of the Tse Tse fly has declined to some
degree after the deployment of the targets across the program KAs. However, problems
of targets being stolen and targets being burned and torn have been reported in some of
the KAs. Forage production

 To exploit genetic potential and come up with successful result in production and
productivity of dairy goats that were distributed to poor female-headed households,
forage development is vital. Accordingly, the PO had distributed different types of
forage species to be developed in the garden of PPs or else where. Forage species
distributed and planted were lablab, desmodium, siratro, elephant grass and oats. Among
the introduced forage species, elephant grass has thrived well and was found to have high
biomass to feed animals.

To familiarize farmers with production methods & there by start the promotion activities
at the area, skill enhancement training was given to 75 females & 14 males participants.
The training was supported with the newly prepared modules as a training guide.
Training topics focused on site selection, development strategies, feeding system and
management. Based up on a given training, 128 farmers were able to sow and plant

In the year, there was a plan to expand the forage seeds production activities on the plots
of goat participants as well as cattle owner groups in a larger scale. However, due to the
delay of the rain, it was not possible to do that with in the planned period. But, some
cattle owner groups in Dano and in the Jello- DA compound, elephant grasses have been
planted. In addition to that, 10kg of lab lab seeds were collected from Dano –DA
compound. On the other hand, for forage seeds multiplication purposes, lab lab and and
cowpea have been planted in Kelle with DA compound in an area of 300m2.

To disseminate the forage development technology, various field days were organized.
During the field days, depending up on their drought tolerance and high biomass
capacity, species like elephant grass and lab lab identified as better performing ones.

Staff training on goat production

In assisting goat participants, a 3-day training program organized on goat production for
the field staffs of the PO. That is, 9 DAs and 2 Supervisors participated. The agricultural
development officer of the PO gave the training.

For a better skill, the training was supported with practices on breed identification of
dairy type and growth measurement techniques.

Staff training on tse- tse control

For better planning, implementation and monitoring of the tse-tse control, a 3-day
training program was organized for the field staffs of the PO. The resource persons that
came from the SRVTTEP gave the training. Participants were, 9DAs and 2 supervisors.

Capacity upgrading

To up grade the service delivery capacity of WOA, particularly on animal health, the PO
has provided logistic (fuel and field work) and human (training) supports. The training
was given on tse tse control for 9 vet. Technicians. With the logistic support provided to
the WOA vet section the following treatments and vaccination were provided for 27,725
heads livestock. House holds income diversification

Improved Beekeeping

A total of 90 resource poor voluntary participants were selected across the entire program
KAs (10 PPs/KA). These PPs were grouped in to 10 groups and provided with
introductory training on improved beekeeping.

To build the capacity of the local beekeepers, two participants who could be taken as role
models were given a chance to attend a meeting held at national level.

Bee colonies abandoning their hives after consuming what ever they have produced was
the problem encountered by some of the beekeepers. Small ants were also cause for some
colonies to abandon their hives.
Off farm activities

The three trainers that were sent to Awassa to attend bamboo handicrafts training at the
4th quarter of the previous year had completed the training that was organized for 3
successive months and have already returned to the area. In addition to the basic bamboo
training, the trainees have also received a five-day training on marketing and creation of
self-employment techniques.

The plan to train three trainers in sewing technology at the same place where the bamboo
trainers were trained was cancelled based on the suggestion provided by the woreda adult
skill training center officials that they can carryout the training by themselves. Hence,
training of participants selected from across the program KAs was postponed to the last
quarter of the year.

Training of selected community members using the trained trainees and experts of the
woreda adult skill training center was delayed awaiting for reply to amendment requests
and the training center to adjust its inflated training to what is affordable. However, since
there was no reply for long, the PO decided to carry out the training with what is
available by decreasing the number of trainees. Hence, starting from the 4th quarter of the
year a total of 12 selected community member of whom 3 (25%) are women have started
training on bamboo handicraft while another group that consists 6 women and 4 men is
attending a training on sewing technology. Both trainings are three-month courses. The
training is being carried out in the woreda adult skill-training center. Resource persons
are previous trainee trainer for bamboo while the sewing trainer is recruited.

Improved poultry production

95 poor women household heads were selected from across the entire program KAs and
provided with awareness raising and skill enhancement training on improved poultry
production. The training consisted topics like poultry feed preparation and how to feed
and water, modern poultry shelter construction, care needed and advantage of poultry
production, rearing improved poultry breeds etc. furthermore 100 exotic poultry breeds
were procured from Debub University to be distributed to the selected participants. Each
participant received one exotic breed cockerel and three local pullets purchased from
local market. Unfortunate enough, out of the distributed exotic breeds 25 were later dead
due to various poultry diseases and attack from snakebites.

The total numbers of chickens be it exotic or local that were distributed at the beginning
were 386 heads while at this reporting period the total size that exist number 810 which is
a little greater than double the previous amount. Natural Resource Management

Nursery management
The PO has two project nurseries managed to produce coffee and fruit seedlings
primarily and included some coffee shade tree seedlings later on. The operation of coffee
has began in May 2003 with site clearing, seed bed preparation and sowing seeds on pre-
germination seedbeds. The germinating seedlings appeared after two months and the
process had been continued up to the end of September. The germination percent was not
more than 50% as the seeds had been stored for more than seven months. Soil mixing and
filling the poly bags and stacking was done in the third quarter and along with this,
transplanting in to poly bags have been conducted efficiently.
The operation of fruit and other tree seedlings production was carried out beginning from
mid of fourth quarter along with coffee seedling production.
The operational activities of the two capacity building nurseries have also been managed
in similar seasons like that of project nurseries‟ shade tree seedling production schedule.
The out planting program of all seedlings of the year 2003 will be carried out in April

Seed collection and processing

For the year 2004, coffee seeds are collected from locally selected varieties of mother
trees and processed at the PO compound while forest tree seeds are purchased from local
seed collectors.

Seedling production

For the year 2004, a total of 377031 different types of coffee, fruit and shade tree
seedlings were produced at the two project nurseries while a total of 280529
multipurpose and other forest seedlings were produced at the two capacity building WoA

On-farm nurseries

The PO has been encouraging farmers to produce seedlings by themselves, instead of
being entirely dependent on the supply of GOs and NGOs. Innovative poor farmers were
selected and trained on the topics required and provided coffee poly bags and seeds with
technical back ups from the PO side. Some of them were grouped in to small working
groups. On-farm nurseries have been designed in such a way that coffee seedlings would
be produced primarily and forest tree seedlings secondly.
As a result, 218 small on farm nurseries, 191 of individuals and the rest of group-owned,
were established in the program area. The PO provided some 60kg of coffee poly bags
and 89kg of coffee seeds in the beginning of third quarter. The seeds were sown in more
than 49,770 poly pots, though the germination rate of the seeds had been observed to be
as low as 50%.

Skill development training
On farm nursery participants were provided with skill enhancement trainings (by
development agents) that focused on coffee seedling production. 377 PPs in 9KAs and 42
sessions participate in the training.
School nurseries
Six school nurseries had been managed since the first quarter of the year, however, a
continuous dry climatic condition affected the operation and as a result the out come was
found unsatisfactory.

Apple fruit promotion
Some 700 apple seedlings had been brought from a renowned area and replanted at the
selected three highland villages where new seedling beds were prepared for it, which
would serve as nursery sites until they are out planted.
Out of the seedlings replanted, some were unable to resist the new environment and died
while the remaining established well. As the seedlings grow in the nurseries, they need to
be frequently pruned and grafted when the stems reach pencil size. Therefore,
experienced technicians should be invited and grafting had to be done.
The total of 381 seedlings were grafted in two rounds and will be out planted in April
2004, when they are still at the state of dormancy. Some 122 seedlings were found below
the graft- able size and left at the seedbeds to be used as rootstocks. These rootstocks will
yield suckers or coppices for the next generation to continue, with out introduction of
additional new rootstocks from out side. When the new suckers, obtained from the
original rootstocks, will be grafted as it reaches graft-able size and the production cycle
will repeat it self as far as it doesn‟t bring genetic and variety degradation.

Banana fruit promotion
Introduction and promotion of productive banana suckers to the program area has been an
important task. The operation was conducted two times since the start of the project and
once in the year. The suckers were brought from Arbaminch-Lante. In the beginning of
the second quarter of the year, some 605 suckers were procured from the same area and
distributed among the selected and trained participants at five KAs and the out planting
was performed successfully.

Out planting
This program is always carried out in April when the longest rainy season begins. Almost
all farmers prefer to plant seedlings in this season even though still there is the second
rainy season that begins in August. The survival rate of the seedlings in the former case is
much better than the later one, as the amount of rainfall is greater.
Out planting of coffee and fruit seedlings has been handled by the PO where as that of the
forest is by the WOA.
With regard to the PO‟s planting program, participants of coffee, fruit and forest trees
were selected and trained on techniques of planting and plantation management prior to
the implementation program.
The total of 4019 participants were able to plant 318,454 coffee, 9,377 fruit and 24,563
shade trees in the program area under the coordination and supervision of the PO.
The transportation facilities were made possible by truck rental provision. As a result, the
WoA was able to transport more than 228,050 forest tree seedlings to 13 KAs including
four adjacent KAs of the program area, however, some 20% of the seedlings reportedly
were lost during transportation.
Performance assessment was conducted after a few months following the out planting
program. The survival of tree seedlings was found to be about 45%. Due to the fact that
the achievement was some how below the average or the target desired, the PO held a
discussion on the issue with WoA and reached to a consensus that underlines the need of
some adjustments on the strategies of forest trees out planting program in the future.
Regarding coffee and fruit seedlings‟ out planting, it was handled by the PO and the
survival was found 72% and 68% respectively. As coffee is the major cash crop in the
area, it‟s management has been better than other seedlings particularly that of trees.

Sustainable land use/watershed management

Initially, the program was practiced at one of the KAs as a pilot mini- project and
replicated to the adjacent KAs. General awareness raising training has been given to the
communities on the topics required. Some of the objectives to be realized in SLUM
Introduce proper land use system into catchment areas through implementation of both
biological and physical soil and water conservation measures, agro-forestry systems and
improved farming practices.
Enhance the productivity of woody homesteads and forage development through different
Maintain food security through integrative approach.
In order to gain successful achievements, the following strategies/methodologies are
being made practical in the implementation process of the project.
Local community participatory approach has been applied in planning, implementation,
monitoring and evaluation of the activities.
Skill development training has been regularly given to the selected farmers at the
catchment areas.
Farming tools have been provided to the target groups to make the work easier.
The target areas are categorized in to dry to moist kola agro climatic zones. It is highly
susceptible to drought and land degradation caused by soil erosion and deforestation. All
relevant data of each catchment‟s is collected using participatory land use planning
(PRA) tools/methods. Then the implementation program was conducted based on free
community labor with extension approach. During the year 10.9 km soil bund, 1.6 km
stone bund, 260 mt check dam, 1178 mt cutoff drain, 1.75 ha alley, 300 mt line, 25.5
grasses and legumes, 6.5 ha area closure, by 1005 project participants performend.

Natural woodland conservation

A TOR was formulated among stakeholders and a task force is established to take the
required measures to enclose the Amaro mountain chain against human or animal

Staff training

The PO was able to arrange an eight-day training for both ASE and WoA staffs on
highland/apple fruit trees production and management. A total number of 21 trainees
have attended the training; of which 11 from ASE, 4 from WoA and 6 participant farmers
who have planted the seedlings. Social Services   Community Health Service

Community health education was given across the programe KAs through mass
education and group training methods. The anti- HIV/AIDS clubs organized in 2002 and
strengthened in this year have greatly contributed for the mass education given regarding
HVI/AIDS. The education has been given in different means, such as role-plays. Drama
show, dissemination of information for students by using mini-media, and lectures for
students during morning and afternoon queues.

With reference to group training methods, 190 male and 350 female trainees were trained
at 106 training sessions at the entire programme kebeles. Major topics covered at the
training programe are family planning, communicable disease, environmental health,
gender and harmful traditional practice, immunization, control of malaria, HIV/AIDS and
nutrition. More over the training was supported with various types of educational
materials; lists of training materials distributed at the programe KA include 200 posters,
500 leaflets, 59 Booklets.

Training of VLHPs

A seven days intensive training was given to VLHPs. The objective of the training was to
strengthen the capacity of the VLHPs, in certain health issues so that they could
disseminate information to the community in the best way possible. Trainers were gender
and social service officer of the PO and experts from WoH. Topics that were covered
during the training sessions were among others, about common types of communicable
diseases such as malaria, Typhoid, Typhus, Relapsing fever, intestinal parasites, EPI,
prevention of diarrhea, personal hygiene and clarifications about the current health
extension package formulated by government.
The trained VLHPs in collaboration with WOH and development agent were actively
involved in several preventive activities, including community mobilization for
immunization, health education in selected topics and the likes.

Performance of VLHPs

Have assisted in mobilizing the community for requital vaccination activities carried by
the WOH.
Have reported the epidemic situation of malaria to woreda officials and have assisted the
chemical spraying activity.
Provide training to the community about the importance pit latrines and demonstrate how
they are dug.
Assist the DAs in providing health education.
Raise health issues like protection from malaria, vaccination, pure water utilization, and
how to prepare pit latrines at village level and KA level any community gatherings.

Capacity upgrading

Standard medical equipments & furniture‟s and drugs were procured and provided for the
health post constructed in Shero KA and Dano. The Dano health post, which is planned
to be rehabilitated, is constructed new because the rehabilitation cost was found to be
equal to the construction.
Malaria has been rampant in the area since olden times. However, the current efforts to
dig as many reservoirs as possible that could be used in harvesting rainwater will create
favorable condition for multiplication of mosquito there by increasing the chance of
attack with malaria. Considering the issue, the PO consulted with the WOH to launch
control activities in collaboration. The PO provide the money required for spraye, the
WOH in its part sprayed all malaria endemic programe KAs and neighboring extra KAs
of the woreda. This activity has saved about 28689 of people from being affected by
malaria, including KAs out of program KAs.
For selection and training of junior nurse, PHW, and PMW the PO has transferred the
budgeted amount for training to the WOH account so that training of the expected health
personnel will be processed by the WOH itself.

HIV/AIDS activities

It is to be recalled that a project prepared by the PO regarding HVI/AIDS prevention and
submitted to CRDA in 2002 had won fund. Using the provided fund different activities
have been accomplished.

To raise their awareness on HIV/AIDS, an awareness raising seminars was organized for
identified community members, leaders of KAs, ad hoc committees, religious institutions
and school directors. The total participants were 62 of whom 22 (35.5%) were women.
A two-day intensive training on HIV/AIDS was given for the PO‟s field staff, VLHPs
and HIV/AIDS. From the total of 32 participants (6.3%) were females.
Using the fund obtained from CRDA, the some educational and recreational materials
provided to school HIV/AIDS clubs and youth centers.

36 sign boards were prepared by a private artist, which dealt on three main issues of
HIV/AIDS i.e. transmission ways and prevention methods, the incurability of AIDS and
that advise the youth and the community to take care of themselves.

Production and multiplication of posters and leaflets has been completed and distributed
at the programe KAs, youth centers and school anti-HIV/AIDS clubs.

The school clubs and youth centers have organized themselves in a way where there is an
executive committee and regular members.
In addition to the activities performed by the CRDA fund, the PO has prepared and
submitted a project on HIV/AIDS to regional HIV/AIDS secretariat. The secretariat
permitted 158,223 Birr to be used in one-year period starting from 2003, 4th quarter up to
the year 2004.

Activities performed by the fund given from the secretariat with in the 4th quarter of 2003
were the following.

Training of trainers for members of Anti-AIDS school clubs, youth center, village level
health promoters and religious leaders has been given to 43 people (5 female & 38 male)
for 3 intensive days. A training aimed at giving orientation to participants on condom
promotion and prevention of STD that targeted commercial sex workers and youth center
pear groups has been given for 15 male & 39 female participant for one day. Moreover,
to strengthen the youth center and ANTI-HIV/AIDS school clubs recreation materials,
have been purchased to be distributed to youth centers and school clubs.

Gender mainstreaming workshop: - Was organized at the woreda capital for heads and
relevant personnel of the woreda GO staffs, DAs and supervisors of the PO and GO staff.
The objective of the training was to increase the acquaintance of the participants with
gender issues. The gender officer of ASE H.Q and a consultant provided the training for
five days.

LOWO Project LOWO which means Learning Our Way Out is a project that was
started with ASE‟s agreement with IIRR(International Institute of Rural Reconstruction
Ethiopia). The project has a goal of creating an environment in a rural setting, which
generates and supports demands for contraceptive services as an integral part of
community health and well being.
The LOWO project has been started at the three program KAs of the PO, which were
selected using criteria like population size among others. And take one KA, which is out
of the program KAs of the PO as control KA.

Achievements up to now
- Recruitment of a supervisor who can handle, coordinate and facilitate the project.
- A consultative meeting was held for GO officials and the CBOs of the project KAs to
   familiarize and sensitize them with about the project.
- To qualitatively and quantitavely evaluate the projects impact upon phasing out,
   baseline data was collected from the three project KAs and the control KA.
- To enhance participatory dialogue as the project strategy states, facilitators that could
   handle and coordinate the dialogue were selected from the community by the
- To familiarize the supervisor and facilitators with the dialogue manual different
   trainings have been conducted. At the moment COFs have started conducting
   dialogues. Education
Formal education

One new school at Golbe KA constructed.
Non – formal education

- Adult literacy programme

Prior to the commencement of Adult literacy, a seven days intensive training was given
to 21 newly elected trainers and the existing 25 trainers received two-day refreshment
workshops. For these training the WOE assigned 4 resources persons.
A total of 1600 adult literacy trainees have been registered voluntarily that is 871 at first,
544 at second and 185 at third. The registration of adult participants and selection of
instructors was performed jointly with the involvement of CBO, school directors, and
Adults trainees that successfully attended and completed the programe for the year are
693 from the first round, 417 from second and 118 from the third while dropouts were
176 from first round, 67 from the second and 60 from the third and also there are trainees
who didn‟t pass the examination.

- Day-care center (K.G)

Construction of a KG in the rural town Kelle started at late 2002 has been completed with
in the year 2003. The constructed KG has 2 classrooms that have a capacity of
accommodating a minimum of 40 children in one class, 2 offices and a storeroom.
Moreover, the PO procured and supplied 80 desks, 20 tables, and office furniture and
entertainment materials for the children, like slides, swing merry go round, balance
see/saws and others. The PO has handed over the over all management of the KG to

At the moment more than 160 children have been registered and 80 children at one shift
are attending in the KG.

- Construction of tube culvert

One tub culvert/Box culvert has been constructed in the year at one of the program
kebeles called kereda the constructed culverts has 10ms x 4.6 ms width and height of 3

- ACCESS Program

Assuming that the programe will be started in this year, 5 KAs were identified and the
communities in these KAs have collected locally available materials considering as their
contribution in the process of constructing the shelter. But all activities planned in the
year connected to ACCESS programme have been suspended due to delay in response for
the budget amendment requested since July 2003. Rural Water Supply

Formation of community organizations:
 User groups were organized in 5 different kebeles, in which water schemes are
constructed. They are responsible for the proper planning, execution and management of
the schemes. To perform the task properly and efficiently, intensive training was
provided on „ water management and administration ' with collaboration of the woreda
water desk office.

Caretaker groups, which are organized in implementing areas, are responsible for
maintenance of the water schemes. Skill training on pipe cutting, threading, bending
fittings and water treatment was provided. To make them more efficient, they also
participated on- the- job training when the distribution system (pipe) was laid. Caretakers
are provided with maintenance tools and spare parts to perform any of the maintenance
works they might encounter.

In some kebeles the member of the user groups have been holding discussions and
convincing the community to provide water service with affordable price so that the
money collected could be used to cover costs for maintenance works, salary payment and
related activities.

Identification of water sources:
Four spring sites in four different kebeles were identified with the community. But, in
one of the intervention kebele an absence of spring water around the area obliged the PO
to look for deep ground water sources.

Study, design and construction

During the year 4 springs capped, 3 reserviors constructed, 9 water points constructed,
10.6 km pipe lining constructed, and 2 cattle troughs constructed.

3.1.3.ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Human resource development


The total project staff of Amaro programme office is 29 (4F & 25 M) within the reporting
period. Among the total number of the staffs, 18 are technical & the rest 10 are support
staff. All vacant posts have been filled with permanent and contractual recruitments.

During the period, two staffs left the organization and six new staffs have been recruited.
In terms of educational status, the programme staffs comprise 1 MSc, 4 BSc, 15 Diploma,
four 12th grades complete and the rest 5 are below 12th grade.
Staff Development

According to the policy of the organization, the program director of the PO got the
chance to continue his further education; hence he is abroad for his M.Sc program in the
In reference to human resource development, various trainings & workshops were given
to many of the PO staffs to build their capacity in various activities.


The facilities that the PO used to accomplish its tasks during the period included two
4WD vehicles & 3 motor bikes, 4 desk top computers, one laptop, on printer, one
photocopier, two generators etc. and it has made use of all these facilities.

The POs staff residences; guesthouses & the canteen have been giving the intended
service to the PO staff & to the guests coming from HO & other organizations.

The PO has also finalized the construction of a garage to be used for maintaining &
servicing the POs vehicles. In addition to this, sports facilities (a table tennis with its
accessories & other indoor game materials) have been procured so that an opportunity
has been created to the PO staff to pass their leisure time in playing these games.

The PO has made several local purchasing activities to its various units & some of major
purchasing has been also made through HO on behalf of the PO. The auxiliary services
such as cleaning, guarding & telephone communication and the store management
activity have been performed well. Transport

   Transport & maintenance

Necessary services were given to all the PO‟s vehicles and minor repairs were carried out
on these vehicles.

During the period the HO trucks were used for transporting construction materials in
addition to rental trucks that have been used when needed. Financial/budget Performance

Trocaire covered the 1st half expenses of the PO while the European Union or
commission covers the 2nd half expense.
The total budget allocated for the six months period was Birr 2,253,354 and the actual
expenditure for the period was a total of Birr 2,070,595, which amounts to 91.9% of the
budget. The budget utilization percentage varies among program components from 29.3%
for household income diversification to 133.2% for coordination (including HO).
In most budget headings the utilization percentage is above 60% and the expenditure to
each program component is comparable with its physical achievement.

In July 2003 the PO presented an amendment which requests permission for reallocation
of budget from some of the budget headings and to put in use the extra advantage that
assume to be found from exchange rates increase. Assuming these requests would receive
immediate response the PO planned different extra activities to be implemented.
However, due to the delay, it was not possible to proceed as assumed. The delay has
affected the PO‟s performance greatly.

The second half of the implementation period considered here starts from July1, 2003 and
goes up to end of Dec 2003. The financial budget considered here is part of the total
budget approved by the commission for the year 2003. Birr 2,292,829 was the planned
budget for the second half year.

3.1.4. Problems encountered

           -   Erratic nature of the rain fall which complicated the cropping season, food
               for work programs carried out by the KAs, occasions like continuous
               meetings, worshiping days, mourning ceremonies have clashed with the
               training program affecting its smooth flow.
           -   Lack of small sized portable generator to conduct regular film shows.
           -   Lack of incentive to be paid to role-play actors.
           -   Delay in approving the request for budget amendment
           -   A clash that is created between KA leaders and CBI leaders at some of the
               program KAs.
           -   Diseases aphids and „wag‟ attacked some vegetables like cabbage and
           -   Germination failure of some vegetable seeds.
           -   Bee colonies abandoning hives
           -   Susceptibility of the exotic poulty breed to disease and wild animals
           -   Lack of vaccine and medicine within the woreda vet section to treat
               affected stock.
           -   Food for work approach VS ASE strategy to implement SWC activities
               with out grain or oil but by extension approach through awareness raising,
               skill development trainings, sensitization and mobilization of the
               communities as well as practical demonstrations at field level.
           -   Clash of development programs
           -   Lack of truck
           -   Delay on the part of the WHO in assigning health personnel.
           -   Limited knowledge of DAs on health issue.
           -   Delay in making a motorbike available has affected the facilitation and
               implementation of the LOWO project.
           -   Absence of geological test and professional knowledge for borehole study
               and construction
Solutions attempted

           -   If film shows have to continue, a small sized portable generator is
           -   Role-plays cannot be carried out with out expense for materials as well as
               incentive for the actors. Therefore, the PO should be permitted to use
               some expenses for such purpose.
           -   To alleviate the problem of water shortage farmers were advised to
               prepare grouped plots near by water sources and provided with watering
               cans distributed by the PO.
           -   To protect the diseases that appeared on some of the vegetables, an
               attempt was made to use traditional and natural methods of protection.
           -   Beekeepers were advised to clean and smoke abandoned hives so that the
               message left behind by the evacuator colony will be destroyed to make it
               habitable for new colonies.
           -   To somewhat decrease the drought problem beekeepers were advised to
               keep some amount of flour, sugar and water in front of the beehives.
           -   To decrease the intensity heat, they were advised to put the hives higher
               from the ground and make shelter over the hives.
           -   Cutting the wings of the queen was also informed as an ideal way to stop
               the queen from flying there by forcing the colony to stay indirectly.
           -   Participants were advised to keep clean the hen houses and keep the exotic
               breed at base.


Objectives and Strategies

  The major objective of Bereh-Aleltu IFSP is to improve the food security situation of
the community in the programme area. To fully implement the objective the following
strategies are used: communities training as cross cutting activity, use of indigenous
knowledge and experience, promoting participatory action research, building community
based institutions, gender equity, conducting demonstrations of new technologies and
familiarization of production enhancing inputs, observance of optimum flexibility, use of
employment generation scheme, and targeting the resource poor.
3.2.1. General Conditions of the Programme Area Climate

The programme area is characterized as Dega climatic zone with altitude ranges between
2500 and 3200 meters above sea level. It also receives rainfall in two seasons, Belg and
Meher. The Belg season extends from February to April and the Meher rain beings in mid
of June and lasts in November.

In the reporting period, the Belg rain observed in some part of the program area for few
days during the second month of the quarter. Following this short rain, farmers had sown
the Belg season crop. However the rain ceased soon and interrupted the farming activity
of the Belg season. In general the climatic condition of the first and second quarter
characterized as cool during the night and windy, sunny and dry in the daytime. Whereas
the Meher season rain started in June. It started timely and the amount and distribution of
rainfall was adequate. and Vegetation Cover

In the programme area, the topographic features vary from place to place. In general,
undulated, mountainous and ridges land features are dominating. In the programme area,
there is no forest tree coverage except for some Eucalyptus trees at few homestead and
Addis Ababa Fuel Wood Plantation. Grass species are the major vegetation cover of the
area. Agricultural Production Crop Production

The major crops grown in the Belg season include mostly barely, and field pea while the
Meher season crops are barely, wheat, oat, faba bean, field pea, lentil, linseed, teff, and

The farmer sown Belg season crop following the first shower of rainfall though the
activities ceased because of shortage of rain. Crop sown in most Kebeles failed to
germinate and poor performance was observed. On the other hand, the amount and
distribution of rainfall in meher season was found good for crop and forage production.
The crop performance under field condition was promising and better yields are expected
though harvesting was not yet completed. Livestock Production

Livestock production is the dominant sub-sector of agricultural activities for the
livelihood of the community in the programme area. The dominant types of livestock
reared by the community in their order of importance are cattle, sheep, equine, goat, and
poultry. Individual farmers in the programme area used to keep sheep under fattening.

Because of the shortage of rainfall, the physical performance and production of livestock
reduced in the first two quarters and the situation improved in the next quarters. An
outbreak of Blackleg was observed at four DCs and caused death of 54 cattle. Like wise,
foot and mouth disease as an outbreak has occurred at Tebo DC. To control the outbreak,
the community has collected money to vaccinate their cattle. As of the reporting date, 720
cattle were vaccinated against blackleg disease. Poultry disease outbreak was observed in
the Bura supervision area at Siba Dega DC and 35 chicks died. Market Situation

The average price of crops, livestock and livestock products was assessed in markets
found in and/or nearby the programme area. The price of crops has shown significant
price fluctuation with in the reporting period that is the price was low during the first two
quarters because of high crop supply to the market to pay government taxes and
celebration of weeding and other cultural ceremonies. On the other hand, crop prices
showed slight increment from the month of June to the end of the year.

On the other hand, in the price of livestock showed certain increment in the second
quarter as compared to the first quarter. This occurred in relation to pick agricultural
period (land preparation) and social ceremonies. The price of livestock product especially
that of butter showed an increasing trend as compared to the first quarter. This was due to
shortage of livestock feed and water in the area because of the failure of Belg rain. But
showed decline trend in the 3rd & 4th quarters. Human Health

There was no human disease out break occurred in the area except for the common
clinical diseases, such as, common cold, influenza and the likes. However vaccination on
tetanus was given to women. Communication and Facilities

A road length of about 115 km (41 km asphalt and 74 all weather road) is touching the
programme area. The 74 km graveled road mostly touch and/or cross the programme area
KAs, expect for some KAs which are not accessible by road. To reduce the problem of
inaccessibility, the PO has started road rehabilitation programme at two supervision
areas. Food Security Conditions of the Programme Area

Crop production was limited to the Meher season mainly because of shortage of rainfall
in the Belg season, which could not be sufficient to support crop production as used to be
7-10 years before. Moreover, the late on-set and erratic nature of Meher rains as well as
prevalence of crop pests and diseases, frost and water logging problems resulted to
frequent crop losses in the area. As a result of this, the farming community of the area
had been subjected to food insecurity and/or shortage. The food shortage was serious
especially for the community living in ASE‟s program KAs that was supported by the
government relief programme for the last 5 years. Family labor sales within the area
and/or migration were the major copping mechanism of the resource poor farmers, while
the better off once survived by sales of livestock and livestock products.

In the year 2003 the Belg rains observed in few DCs and immediately ceased and
interrupted the sowing of Belg season crop and poor germination and complete failure of
the Belg crop. The Meher season started timely and the distribution was good. As a
result, better production is expected from the meher-cropping season.


Area coverage

The Bereh-Aleltu IFSP covers 12 development centers (12 KAs) that are located in North
and North east of the Bereh-Aleltu Wereda. The total households in the intervention area
are 7771 (1449 female- and 6322 male-headed) with a total population of 38477 (19781
female and 18696 male). The population in the area settled in 525 Warras or Gandas
consisting 7-10 households of closely related families.

Extension system

One Development Agent (DA) is assigned per development center (KA) serving 648
households on average. The DAs are supported by Village Level Development Promoters
(VLDPs) selected among and by the community. The numbers of VLDPs in a given DC
being governed by the number of “GOTs” in a DC/KAs and their distance within a KA, a
total of 45 VLDPs were selected and trained to support the efforts of DAs‟ in
implementing the development activities. Moreover, the area supervisors and technical
project officers gave the required supports for the DAs. DA to HH ratio is 1 to 648 and
VLDP to HH ratio is 1 to 165. Agricultural Production Enhancement Crop husbandry

Local level seed production

In the planning period, follow-up of the last year demonstrations and data compilation
have been performed.

Field days were organized at different levels to evaluate the performance of on-farm
trials. Farmers, field staffs, PO staffs, senior agronomist from ASEs HQ, WOA experts
and Wereda Administrator Council representative have attended the programme. On the
occasion, farmers were able to compare and contrast each crop varieties by setting their
own criteria.

Among the field pea varieties 'Adi' was preferred for its early maturity, better flowering
capacity and better yield. 'Tegegnech' is ranked first in number of seeds per pod and
number of pod per plant whereas the local cultivars have a better plant height and

Similarly, among the wheat varieties, HAR-604 was preferred for its relative tolerance to
water logging and insect pests where as HAR-1685 was found better in having high
tailoring capacity, long spike and high biomass in areas where there is no frost and water
logging conditions.

The faba bean varieties 'Degaga', 'CS-20-DK', and 'Bulga-70 were preferred over the
local cultivars in descending order. They have better plant height, tailoring capacity,
relative tolerant to water logging and frost.

The barley varieties, 'HB-42', 'Shege' and 'Miserach' were preferred over the local
cultivars for their vegetative performance and yield. 'Miserach' is found an early maturing
crop whereas 'HB-42' and 'shegie' have relatively long maturity period.

For promotional purpose, large-scale demonstrations were also conducted in the last year.
According to the DCs reports, a total of 326.2 Qt. (298.7 Qt. of wheat and 27.5 Qt. of
barley) were produced.

On the other hand, from Tulu fati nursery demonstration fields a total of 4.38 Qt. of seed
(1.5 qt. of HAR-604, 1.06 qt. HAR-1685, 0.58 qt. Triticale and 1.24 qt. of HB-42) were

Regarding recollection of seeds, a total of 3930 kg of improved seed (3743 kg of wheat &
187kg barley) was collected from the previous PPs. These seeds redistributed to 113
farmers for the Maher cropping season.

For the current year, a total of 246 farmers (214 male and 32 female) were selected and
organized in to 12 groups. 115 sessions of skill development training was given to these
PPs on lay out of plots, seeding and fertilizer rate of on farm trials. 190 demonstrations
(144 small scale and 46 large scale) were performed.

In addition, 7.0qt. of Triticaley variety was collected from Enebse Sar Mider PO and
demonstrated at the programme kebeles.

Collection of land races

In order to protect genetic erosion of local varieties, preservation of germ plasm of major
crops is indispensably important. Different land races of barley and wheat were assessed
and registered. Accordingly, barley land races, such as, Kessele, Felibehe, Werkie, Mage,
Gerbu Dima, and Kate were registered and identified as land races. Similarly, Wheat
varieties, such as, Burkitu, and Selalo are registered but not available to be collected.

Enset promotion

In the Period, Selection of new participants and follow-up of the last year demonstrations
has been conduced. 30 new PPs were selected and organized in 5 groups at selected 5
DCs. Including the former PPs 28 sessions of skill training was given on different topics,
such as, site selection, land preparation and transplanting of enset seedlings.

To evaluate the performance of enset seedlings, survival count of seedlings has been
carried out. The monitoring report indicated that average survival rate of enset seedlings
was found to be 34%. The reason for such poor performance is due to poor management
practices, unfavorable weather conditions (frost), and limited technical support of field

The PD including Agriculture development Officer conducted an experience-sharing visit
at Degem wereda of north Shoa zone of Oromiya region. The purpose of the visit was to
gain other's experience in areas of enset and to assess potential sources of enset planting

Upgrading traditional irrigation schemes

Two irrigation schemes constructed. In order to run the schemes efficiently and to make
them sustainable, the PO has formed a task force team, which comprises experts from
Wereda Irrigation Desk, Cooperative Promotion Office, Wereda Administration Council,
and Wereda Rural Development Office. two water user groups formed and were briefed
on the efficient utilization of water, scheme management, group organization, land use
policy and other managerial aspects.

Presently, the total numbers of households are 51. 248 family members would be
expected to benefit from the project.

The groups at both schemes were encouraged to grow vegetables on their irrigable lands.
The PO has supplied the members with different vegetable seeds, Potato tubers and
Organic fertilizer (ORGA) 3530m2 of land were covered with different vegetables
(Carrot, Beetroot, Lettuce, Swiss chard, cabbage and potato).
To both user groups about twenty sessions of skill training on vegetable seed bed
preparation, lay out, sowing, transplanting, liquid manure preparation, method of water
application and water management practices was given.

In addition, the PO has organized a four-day training programme at Sendafa town.
Experts from Wereda Cooperative Promotion Office and Irrigation desk gave the
training. A total of 15 trainees (10 members of User group committee and 5 community
elders) attended the programme. The major training topics were concepts of water use
policy, water utilization and management, Concepts on Cooperative organization and
marketing. The training programme was also supported by field visit at irrigation site
around Legedadi town.

Vegetable production

Currently, vegetable production activity was conducted two times per year. A total of 511
project participants (397 female and 114male) were selected and organized in to 21

Based on farmers request, the PO has collected four types of potato clones; namely,
Tolecha, Wechecha, Gera and Gorebela from Holleta and Sheno Research Center. The
two potato clones (Tolecha and Wechecha) were demonstrated in belg season on 67
farmers' plots after forming 7 Farmers' Research Groups (FRGs). The other two potato
clones was distributed to two DCs for the purpose of planting material production.

To acquaint field staffs on vegetable food preparation, the PO has conducted a training
programme on vegetable food preparation. Home science experts gave the training from
WOA. In the programme, 45 farmers (27 Female & 18 Male) also have got a chance to
attend the practical sessions that were conducted at field level.

Promotion of organic farming

A total of 240 PPs (186 male and 54 female) were selected and organized in to 12 organic
groups. These participants have attended 61 sessions of skill development training on
different organic farming techniques. 84 organic farming demonstrations (72 at farmers'
field and 12at DA compounds) were conducted.
After attending the training programme, a number of farmers have demonstrated
vegetation compost and liquid manure at their farm.

The PO has entered a bilateral agreement with NFMA (National fertilizer manufacturing
private limited agency) to promote phosphate fertilizer called 'Orga'. Prior to promotional
activity, the 'orga' fertilizer will be tested against the recommended commercial
fertilizers. With this regard, the on farm trials were conducted at 6 DCs on two crop
types, namely, potato and barley.

As part of planned activity, IKs on livestock disease, vegetables and fruits pests have
been collected. The identified IKs were tested on vegetables, enset and high land fruits. Livestock husbandry

Livestock breed improvement (Cattle)

In the planning period, selection of participants and group formation was performed. A
total of 360 PPs (315 male and 45 female) were selected and organized in to 12 groups.
To these PPs, 23 sessions of training was given on improved livestock management.
In order to identify the source and to get information/ experience on bull management,
the PO has performed preparatory tasks by communicating different institutions. After
gaining experiences, the PO has thoroughly discussed with CBOs as to how the bulls will
be managed. Finally an agreement was reached that the bulls will be handed over to
better of farmer and other farmers would get the service by paying service charge.

Eight bulls having a blood level of more than 87.5% purchased from individual farmers
around Degem wereda of North Shoa Zone. The bulls were distributed to farmers after
making some arrangements at field level with CBI excutive committee.

Forage development

In Forage production project, A total of 447 farmers were selected and organized in to 19
action groups. These participants attended 93 skill training sessions on the importance of
forage crops and establishment of forage plots. A good level of awareness was created
among the trainee farmers.

The PO collected 600 Kgs of vetch seeds, 5Kgs of panicum and 5Kgs of Rhodes grass
were collected from Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center and distributed to PPs for
forage development activity. These planting materials have covered a total area of 14.8

To encourage farmers for the adoption of for forage production technology, 42
demonstrations (30 at farmers plot and 12 at DA compounds) on forage production and
utilization were conducted in the period.

With regard to planting material production and distribution, 47961 seedlings of tree
lucern, sesbania and splits of elephant grass were produced in the nurseries and planted in
different forage development strategies at farmers field, DA compounds, public centers,
such as, school and health post compounds.

Poultry Production

In the period, follow-up of the previously distributed improved cockerels have been
performed across all DCs. To this effect, Out of the originally distributed 480 cockerels,
96 of them died due to coccidiosis and predators attack.

A total of 478 PPs (467 female and 11 male) were selected and organized into 24 poultry
groups. These project participants attended 165 skill-training sessions on poultry
management, such as, feeding, room hygiene, construction of poultry houses, poultry
diseases and their prevention methods.

As precondition for the project implementation, 1440 local pullets were purchased by PPs
and 92 poultry houses constructed. In the project period, 480 cockerels of Bovan Brown
breeds were purchased from Debre zeit Private poultry farm with a cost of Birr 20 per
cockerel and distributed to PPs. Each participant is expected to pay 50% of cost of the
cockerel. To this effect, the respective Poultry group committee has collected a sum of
Birr 9260.00. The poultry producers groups have formulated their own governing by-
laws and started exercising it.

To create linkages with input suppliers, the PO had organized a visit programme. In the
occasion, 33 farmers and 15 PO staffs were participated. Participants were able to visit
and introduced to Private poultry farms at Debre zeit.

Veterinary services

Eighteen crush points were constructed across DCs with full community participation.
The newly constructed vet post has been handed over to the WOA. Prior to handing over,
the PO has provided the necessary vet equipments and furniture, and the WOA, in its
side, also permanently assigned one junior vet technician. The vet post has expected to
give services for more than 15,000 livestock to the surrounding kebeles.

Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) have attended refreshment training in.
Animal health personnel‟s gave the training from WOA.

The PO has also provided the necessary logistic support to the WOA for the purpose of
cattle treatment and vaccination service activities. To this effect, it was possible to
provide vaccination service for more than 12,250 cattle against Black leg and Anthrax. Natural Resources Management

Trainee group formation and PP training: A Total of 893 PPs (622 male and 271
female) was organized in to 42 groups at 12 KAs. Accordingly, 174 training sessions
were given for these PPs on environmental degradation, environmental management and
protection, seedling management and out planting practices.
Nursery management and seedling production: Eleven (11) community ASE joint
nurseries were managed and 1,549,467 seedlings were raised, including leftover
seedlings 1,826,768 seedlings distributed and planted by the farmers.
Family/group nurseries: a total of 939,000 seedlings raised on 174 family/group
School nurseries: To create awareness among students on the importance of forest and
effect of deforestation, a total of 6 nurseries established and managed in 6 schools and
produced 31,000 different species in these nurseries.
Planting materials production: A total of 9540 vetiver grass splits planted at
community nurseries on 605 m2 of land and found in good condition. Like wise the
planted 2130 elephant grass cutting
Soil conservation practices: For integrated conservation measures 5 micro catchments
were selected. 40.5km stone bund, 39.3 soil bund, 10.3 km cut-off drain, 1.5 km artificial
waterway, 0.128 km check dam constructed and 1.3 km road maintained.
Different strategies used for out planting of seedlings per species 462437 on backyards,
289920 on live fences, 33,729 on farm boundaries, and 1928414 on woodlots. They are
all 11 species.

Capacity Building

14 ASE field staffs, 3 PO staffs, and 3 wereda GO staffs have attended a training
programme on Integrated Water shade Management for 5 consecutive days. In addition,
12 nursery technicians participated in Nursery Management training for 7 consecutive
More over, a training & visit programme were organized and 15 ASE's staffs and 2 WOA
staffs took part in areas of soil and water conservation activities. Social services Education


In the year 2003 the literacy programme was conducted in 12 programme Kebeles. About
1298 (914 male and 384 female) registered to begin the training, but only 706(484 male
and 222 female) successfully attends and complete 1st,cycle. 592 of them were dropout
due to different reasons.

24 local facilitators facilitated the training. Some of the facilitators were serving the
community voluntarily.


Community and Agri- Service Ethiopia construct currently one Access center. As the
agreement made by community and ASE Bereh-Aleltu Programme Office, the role of
ASE was to Assign skilled man power and supply factory products (Cement, Nails, and
Corrugated Iron sheet Etc.) The community collects locally available materials, plastering
the wall leveling the ground will be carried out by community.

Training of facilitators was conducted by PO in collaboration with WOE for 9 days. At
the end of the year 2003, 6 facilitators trained. The programme began at 4 Access centers.
One Access program was given in the houses of voluntary community members, because
of the communities‟ interest to construct Access center. As a result 285 (177 male and
108 Female) attends 1st, and 2nd,cycle programme by 8 Facilitators. According to the
facilitators report the number of students varies from time to time. The community has
developed a sense of owner ship in managing the access centers.

The parent Educational committee mobilizes the community in construction work, plans
the schedule at slack periods. The CBI and parent educational committee sold the grass
with Birr 705.00 and plants Different variety of seedling to rehabilitated the environment
and create sources of income when ASE Phases out.

Reading room construction

The constructed 3 reading rooms by the office were furnished and start to serve the
community. But some of them are not fully equipped with materials.

School rehabilitation

 1125 community members rehabilitates 4Km road to facilitate the road to transport
materials for school rehabilitation, the cost estimated for rehabilitation of the road is birr
The rehabilitated three elementary schools equipped with material that include 12 chairs,
12 Blackboards, 10 tables with single pedestal, 10shelves, 6 Volley Ball, 6 Foot Ball, 3
Volley Ball, and Net. The Total cost is Birr 8490.00. Community health services

The awareness raising training on health related issues were conducted in all programme
kebeles. 3462(1878F& 1584M) farmers attend 51training session on health Education
that was organized in18 groups. The topic covered during health education includes;
environmental sanitation and personal hygiene, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, mode of
transmission and control and preventive measure for HIV/AIDS and Methods of family

The constructed two health posts are giving the service, some of the services given by the
health post includes: health education, family planning service treatment of
communicable diseases and conducting routine EPI and campaigns of vaccination on
eradication of TT, Polio and Measles. Generally, 9249 Community members are
benefited from the health posts. 2650 community members (50%female) who came to get
medical service and to accompany the patient attend health education.

CBRHA' s Training (Community based reproductive health Agent)

Training of CBRHA's conducted in collaboration of North Shoa Health department,
Bereh-Aleltu wereda Health office and Ethiopian Aid (non-governmental organization).
The participant of the training nominated from Agri- Service Ethiopia programme areas.
They were 12 in number out which 7 of them were female the rest 5 were male. The
training was given for 15 days at class and practical training at sendafa clinic. Trainees
share experience from Kimbibit wereda Ethiopian aid community based reproductive
health agents at sheno. The trainees would be expected to perform the following tasks
upon completion of the training programme- Promotion of Family planning service,
Prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, Maternal and Child health
care and Promotion of traditional reproductive health activities.

Training of CBRHAs' supervisors conducted for 5 days at program office. The
participants were nominated from the clinic and health posts found in ASE programme
areas, all the participants were junior nurses. The CBRHA's will be certified after three
months active performance that will be recommended by the Supervisors.

An organization known as Consortium of Reproductive Health Association (CORHA)
provided the PO different manuals and curriculum, 15 daily activity registration Books,
15 IEC registration Books and 10000 Client cards which is totally estimated Birr 8000.00
to facilitate the service delivery of family planning.

Drugs which would be used for reproductive health/family planning service was
purchased from DKT Ethiopia with Birr 8050.00.The type of drugs were Confidence
(Depo-Provera) injectable contraceptive, prudence (Combined hormonal oral
contraceptive), Hiwot Trust condom, which has dual purpose, one is to serve as
contraceptive and the other is to prevent from STD and HIV/AIDS. All the collected
drugs and materials distributed to community based reproductive health agents.

Intervention on HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS is not only health problem, but also economic and social problem. Without
health, community development is unimaginable, so to halt such a problem, ASE get
involved on HIV/AIDS since the beginning of the IFSP in the area. But the intervention
couldn't pass beyond awareness rising, due to scarcity of budget and manpower to
involve in VCT (voluntary Counseling and Testing) and Care and support. To tackle the
problem program office has formulated a project proposal and submitted to Oromia
HAPCO for financial support.

Awareness rising training was given both for rural and urban communities, the
employees of Wereda offices, traditional healers, circumcisers, religious leader and
elderly community leaders. ASE organized the training in collaboration with Talent
Youth Association, Mekdim Ethiopia and Down of Hope Association Ethiopia Members
living with HIV/AIDS. The trainees upon return have advised/trained the community to
have a safe sex and to break harmful traditional practice. One of the practiced traditions
in the area is 'Wodajji' which means to have many sex partners for kissing that leads them
to un safe sex.

The United Nation Development Program (UNDP) has organized a Training workshop
with the aim of bringing positive behavioral change on HIV/AIDS, by implementing
community conversation program as a strategy. Gender
Training on prevention of harmful traditional practices conducted by ASE in
collaboration with wereda women affairs desk and wereda office of health. About 115
participants have attended the training. The participants were from wereda line office and
from rural traditional healers, Circumcisers, Field staff of ASE. The participation of
women is almost equal with male.

In addition, training on Women and child right was conducted in collaboration of Woreda
Women's Desk and wereda prosecutor office. The training was given on different issues
taking Ethiopian constitution as a reference. Participants of the training were nominated
from 12 ASE programme Kebeles and Women from Government sector, Elder
community Leaders, Religious Leaders, CBI leaders, KA justice Leaders, KA women
association representatives. The training was aimed to aware women about their right and
also to make the men knows the women right, in order to minimize violence against
women. Finally the participant agreed that woman has equal right with men, and decision
was made to respect the Ethiopian constitution especially in respecting Human right.

Abduction, rape, female circumcision, ovulectomy and wife beating are the harmful
practice distinguished in the area.

Gender analysis was conducted and indicated that the practical and strategic needs of
women is not well addressed. Rural Water Supply

In the reporting year four spring sources and four hand dug well sites were identified and
studied for development of springs and constructions of hand dug wells.
Nine water committee having fourty five members (27 male and 18 female) were formed
and eighteen water caretakers were selected at Tedecho, Gende Korie, Kubate, Botoro
and Jafar spring sites and Gende Sire, Ababoru, Gindebel and Kelate hand dug well sites.
The water committee formed facilitated the participation and contribution of the
community for water development activities in their kebeles.

Twenty-five water committee members and ten water caretakers from five water supply
scheme sites were trained on management and village level minor maintenances of water
supply schemes. The water caretakers are selected to undertake village level operations
and maintenances after being trained. ASE organized the training in collaboration with
the Zonal and Wereda water desks.

In the year five springs with different installations /five water points, three cattle troughs
and three washing basins/ were developed and four hand dug wells were constructed to
reduce the water supply problem of the community in the programme area.

a total of about 3000 population and about 1600 cattle have got services from these water
supply schemes.
The communities of the programme area participated in different stages of the water
supply development works. They have participated in; formation of community
representing water committee and water caretakers, site selection, construction,
supervision, and management of completed water supply schemes. Prior to
commencement of any construction works of water supply schemes, discussion was held
with the communities at their respective gots and contractual agreement on the role and
contribution of both ASE and the user community was signed to share the
responsibilities. Accordingly the community participated in their labour and availed
locally available construction materials and ASE participated in availing locally
unavailable construction materials and skilled labour.
The user community participation in construction of water development works include:
site excavation, clearing the roads to the construction sites, trench excavation, pipe laying
and back filling, collection of local construction materials /stones, woods…/, loading and
unloading of different materials, and fencing of water supply schemes.

ASE has handed over different water supply equipments and pipefitting to the water
committee to capacitate the water caretakers in village level minor maintenances of the
water supply schemes.

Following the training of the water committees and water caretakers all accomplished
water supply schemes are handed over to the community in the presence of the wereda
water desk. The water committee of each site has started collecting fees from each user
community member and managing the scheme to enable it gives the intended service and
make sustainable.

The water quality test for fifteen water supply schemes was done at the Water Works
Design and Supervision Enterprise by taking the samples of each scheme to the indicated
organization for the complete analysis. Capacity Building Community Training

In the year 2003, training programme has been conducted for three batches (Third, Forth
and for Fifth batch). A training programme activity for the third batch was carried over
from the year 2002. From this batch a total of 789 trainees (467M and 322F) have
completed the training programme attending 900 training sessions in the first quarter of
this year.

a total of 862 trainees (512 Male and 350 Female) from forth batch have completed the
training program attending 908 training sessions on different training topics. In the same
manner selection and registration of trainees for the fifth batch has been undertaken in the
third quarter of the reporting period. All in all, 972 new trainees (570M and 402F) were
registered, organized into 35 mixed groups (41%F) and attended 179 sessions so far.
Although lecturing is the dominantly used type of teaching method, an attempt was also
made to exploit the potentials of group discussion and case studies in training. Anti
HIV/AIDS clubs established in the primary school have contributed a lot in raising the
level of awareness of the community particularly on HIV/AIDS, Traditional Harmful
Practices and other health related issues. The interaction among participants during
training sessions is impressing.

A syllabus at kebele level was also prepared in the year 2003 to support the training
activities. The training was supported by teaching materials, such as; leaflets, posters,
booklets, and flipcharts.

Farmers' Graduation days

Farmers' field days were organized at the end of each graduation day as a mechanism to
get feedback and evaluate the training programme. During these graduation days,
participants commented on the weakness and strength of the training programme. They
reflected that the training helped them recognize their problems.
On the other hand, as a weak part of the programme, they identified that the training was
poorly linked with incentives (reward) and lengthy in period.

Training of VLDPs

In the last quarter of the year 2003, CBI-committee, and communities undertook a
performance appraisal of VLDPs at kebele and "Got" level, respectively. Accordingly,
8VLDPs that were found to be weak and incapable of carrying out their roles and
responsibilities were dismissed and replaced by new VLDPs. Others were warned. The
process of performance appraisal, dismissal, and warning of VLDPs were all done by the
community. The role of ASE in this process was restricted to the facilitation activities.
After carrying out performance evaluation, a three days training programme was
organized for VLDPs at the PO level. Hence, 44VLDPs(42M and 2 F) participated in the
training programme that took place from 3-5 December 2003. The training was focused
on major programme components, strategies and role of VLDPs in implementing each
component focusing on future plan, development concepts, Gender issues, HIV/AIDS,
Group facilitation and communication, CBIs and their roles and responsibilities. The
training was supported by video shows on Gender issues, soil and water conservation. Institutional building

Community Based Institutions (CBIs)

CBI education has been included as part of GARED since 2003. Capacity building
training for 82 CBI-leaders in the forth quarter of the year 2003 was given for three days.
A model by-law, a module, and a manual on the organization and management of CBI
were developed and distributed to each CBIs and field staffs to support the training
activities. The other capacity building activities offered to the CBIs were the support
made to the office construction and supply of stationery materials. ASE has supported the
construction of five CBI offices. The programme office contributed cements, skilled
labour, corrugated iron sheet, and other materials while the community mobilized all
locally available construction materials, provision of land and labour. Five CBI offices at
five kebeles are under construction.

On the other hand, the involvement of CBIs in development work is progressively
increasing from year to year. Besides participating in development activities that were
undertaken by ASE in collaboration with the community and other partners, their
management capacity in proposing and implementing small-scale income generating
activities has promisingly improved. Some CBIs involved in oxen and sheep fattening
activities, and others on giving credit service for it members. CBI-Ad hoc development
committees are also mobilizing and collecting monthly contribution and registration fee
from eligible members. By now 1632 CBI-members (909 male & 723Female) are
registered. All in all, CBIs across the 12 kebeles currently has a total of birr 31556.9 cash
at hand while birr 10412.00 was utilized to finance the above micro-projects.

In general the major development activities accomplished by CBIs in collaboration with
ASE in the year 2003 include:
     Facilitating and processing the provision of land for different construction
     Re-distribution and collection of inputs
     Conduct meetings with VLDPs, DAs and Supervisors
     Supervise and evaluate VLDPs, CAHWs, &Nursery attendants
     Enter agreement with ASE on duties and obligation of each in undertaking
       development activities (e.g. ACESS center construction)
     Mobilizing communities for development activities
     Monitor and follow-up of development activities.
     Mobilizing locally available materials for CBI office construction,
     Distribution of tree seedlings to members on cash basis

CBI Transformation
A one-day workshop has been organized at program office to discuss on the major
criteria that would be used to evaluate CBIs run by Adhoc committee so as to transform
them into CBIs run and managed by permanent executive committee. One Task force has
been established to assess the capacities and efficiencies of CBIs. The task force employe
jointly established criteria for the assessment.
Staff Training

In the reporting year, a two and half days training workshop was organized at head
quarter level on social science research. Five technical officers and the program director
have participated in the workshop.

In order to sensitize the staffs on strategy documents a three days sensitization workshop
has been organized at PO level and 17 ASE‟s staffs took the workshop.
As a capacity building programme ASE-HQ through creating network with Universities
has organized a summer education opportunity for staffs. From Bereh-Aleltu PO besides
two officers, and one supervisor who have joined Alemaya, Arba Minch, and Mekele
University since 2002,one DA has also joined Alemaya University for summer education
programme this year.

A training and community development officer attended an international course on
Farmer Led Extension organized by IIRR from 3-18 Nov. 2003, Kisumu, Kenya. To up
grade the capacity of the staff, a training workshop on Communication and facilitation
skills for 3 days, a two days workshop on PME and on Right Based Approach for one day
was organized at Debre Birhan. 12 DAs, 2Supervisors and 2 officers participated in the

In an effort to build the capacity of government counter parts, one photocopier for Rural
and Agricultural Development Office was delivered. Based on the proposal submitted,
the PO has supported the Wereda Women Affairs Desk and Wereda Cooperative
Promotion Office in organizing a training programme on Women Right, and farmers
training, respectively. Income diversification

An attempt was made to assess those organizations at Wereda level, which could provide
training in this area and further awareness creation and social promotion on income
generating activities has been undertaken in the reporting period. As a result demand for
credit services has increased from the part of the members. But availability of MFIs is
very low the only MFI that operates in one KA of the program area is PEACE_MFI. Up
on joint discussion with PEACE-MFI, the institution is now doing promotional activities
to extend its saving and credit services to cover two more KAs found in the programme
area. However, its potentials and client selection criteria is still far from the demand. Planning Monitoring and Evaluation

A total of 523 weekly meetings were conducted between DAs and VLDPs in this year,
and 52-area base meetings were conducted between supervisors and DAs. In addition to
this, 4 technical meeting at PO level and 12 monthly meeting were conducted to monitor
the progress of the development activities. All meetings conducted at all levels discussed
on the implementation of carried over activities, the process of PP selection, seedling
distribution, out planting, the performance of VLDPs and other issues and problems they
observed on the implemented activities. These monitoring meetings have created access
to control the implementation of the project at the community level.

Representatives from Oromia Zonal line departments and DPPB, which is having 7
members, conducted a three-days joint progress review-monitoring meeting. The
meeting was organized at community and wereda level. The first two-days were for field
visit and discussion with the community representative and the third day was for
discussion with the wereda GOs offices. Finally, the team produced a monitoring report
and submitted to the program office. In addition to this, a representative of EZE from its
head quarter, who is one of the donors of the program, visited the program activities.

Program Review Workshop and Formulation of Project proposal for second phase

Before the formulation of 2004-06 IFSP phase, a progrmme review meeting was held
with the community at PO, KA and "Got" level. The community with the staff of the
progrmme office has conducted discussion on the progrmme activities that were
undertaken in the last 2001-2003 progrmme-implementation period. Checklist was
developed to guide the programme evaluation process. It was focused on the limitation,
strength, and on the process of programme implementation. The community reflected that
the overall programme activities were planned based on their needs and most were
addressing their real problems. On the other hand, it was reflected that some of the
programme components have been limited to addressing only few community members.
The input distributed to project participants, for example, was too limited. More over
some "Gots" /village which are far and inaccessible from DCs received less attention.
The participants of the meeting also expressed that CBI committee members in some
KAs were not fairly managing the development activities. After having discussed and
evaluated the three years programme performance, a project proposal for second phase
was prepared with active participation of all stakeholders.

In the same manner communities discussed on their problems at "Got", KAs, Supervision
and PO level. All community members in each KA have participated in the identification
and prioritization of problems. Then representatives of the community from each KA
discussed and prioritized problems brought together at supervision and PO level. It was at
programme office level in the presence and participation of all stakeholders that the
second phase proposal was drafted. 36 Community representatives, 11 counterpart staff,
all PO staff, 3ASE's HQ staff participated in the second phase project proposal
formulation process which was held for 8 days including the write up.

In this reporting period, the PO finalized the preparation of the second phase project
document. It was discussed on the second phase proposal document at HQ level and
submitted to the donors. Research and Networking Research

The success of development programs to be adopted by the farming community under
consideration depends on the suitability and applicability of the technologies, which
includes the socio-economic and cultural aspects. In this regard, the PO jointly with the
HQs initiated a study on the existing traditional social organizations in the programme
area. The study included the assessment of various traditional social organizations, such
as, Idir, Mahber and Senbete, Shenecha, Iqub, Debo, etc., and their possible utilization in
development activities in the area. The field data on these traditional social organizations
was collected using different techniques. The data was analyzed and the report was
produced. According to the research findings, Idir was found to have immense potential
to be used for the formation of CBIs.

In addition, the PO has prepared two proposals on social issues entitled 'The attitudes of
farmers towards to soil conservation practices-The case of Bura Dibdibe Kike' and 'the
effect of alcoholism on livelihood'. Presently, the data collection is completed.

More over, the PO has run agricultural research activities of adaptability test of potato,
Enset, High land fruit and Triticale varieties with full participation of farmers. Networking

ASE from its past experiences learnt that the success of development programs, such as,
the Bereh-Aleltu IFSP, which have been under implementation for the last three years,
depends on the joint efforts and dedication of all the co-signatory bodies to works
towards the attainment of the desired objectives. In this regard, ASE has accumulated
quite enough experience on establishing networking with both NGOs and concerned GOs
to undertake collaborative works. ASE used to work closely with signatory bureaus of
Health, Agriculture, Education, Water, Mines and Energy, and Disaster Prevention and
Preparedness Commission of Oromia Regional State, line Departments of Health,
Agriculture, Cooperative Promotion, Education, Water, Mines and Energy, and Disaster
Prevention and Preparedness of North Shewa Zone, concerned Wereda Offices and
Administrative bodies at different levels as well as the target communities.

ASE also used to work closely with other NGOs (ANFEAE, Talent Youth), Research
Institutions (EARO, Holleta, Kulumsa, Areka and Sheno Agricultural Research Centers),
other GOs, as well as private sectors, such as, Micro-Finance Institutions (PEACE) and
Enset Promoting Farm at Legedadi. It also established strong networking relationship
with Ethiopian Roads Authority (Alemgena District Office and Debre Birhan Section).
ASE benefited a lot from the networking relations with all partners. It is such concerted
efforts that contributed to the successful achievements of Bereh-Aleltu IFSP over the last
three years made so far. Hence, to share experiences and information, ASE‟s Bereh-
Aleltu PO will continue to further strengthen its networking relationships with concerned
GOs, Private sectors and Other NGOs operating in and out of the programme area.


The total staff of Bereh-Aleltu PO was 30 as of December 31, 2003 of which 2 are female
and 28 are male. Among these 19 are technical staffs while 11 are support staffs serving
in programme coordination and administration unit. Manpower Development
The programme staff has been given short-term and in-service training courses to
upgrade their service capacity. In addition to this 1 technical staff have got the
opportunity of his first-degree education in summer program at Alemaya University. Facilities

The IFSPO owned office building with 9 rooms and 1 mini-library located at Sendafa.
There were store with in the office premises. The office was equipped with the required
furniture and office facilities. The IFSPO owned 5 desktop and one photocopier machine.
It also owned one Toyota pickup, one Land cruiser, one tractor with a trailer and three
motorcycles. The IFSPO owned residences and/or offices for supervisors and DAs at
grass root level. The DAs used horses /mules/ to travel from one got to another got in
performing their duties. The extension supervisors used motorcycles for monitoring of
different programme activities and supporting DAs. Besides the IFSPO used two
vehicles, one tractor with trailer and two motorcycles to facilitate the smooth
implementation of year 2003 program activities period. Budget allocation & utilization

The total budget excluding the HQs share allocated for Bereh-Aleltu IFSP for the year
2003 was br. 2,785,652.00. Out of the allocated budget br. 2,695,782.00 incurred as
expenditure, which means about 96.8%. The budget utilization condition by component is
briefly discussed as follows.

The total budget allocated for coordination and administration was br.437, 235.00, while
the expenditure incurred br. 414,271.00, which means 94.7%. The budget utilization for
Agricultural development was br.223, 613.00 for the year. Out of this br. 109,002.00
incurred for crop, br. 78,832.00 for livestock production costs and the remaining for
small-scale irrigation. The total allocated budget for social services was br. 562,536.00,
while the expenditure was br. 563,982.00. Out of this br. 206,880.00 for education, br.
72,592.00 for community health service and the remaining br. 284,510.00 were incurred
for rural water supply. the allocated budget for natural resource management was br.
565,220.00, Birr 582,103.00 was utilized where as Br.867, 039.00 was allocated for
community empowerment. Out of this br. 826,514.00 was incurred as expenditure. The
budget allocated for PME was br. 130,372.00, while the expenditure was br.106, 741.00.

3.2.4. Challenges and Success Challenges

The major challenges faced in the implementation of the 2003 Bereh-Aleltu IFSP include
the following

Migration: The migration of the community to other area for off-farm activities.
Topography: The roughed topography added to the existence of big rivers without
bridges was very limiting to travel and communicate all KAs, especially, during the rainy

Settlement patterns of the community: The community in the programme area settled
along the chains of the Berek Mountain in a scattered pattern. This has affected the
communication of the PO with the community as required.

Socio-cultural aspects: Alcoholism, labor mobilization, attitudes, etc., of the community
were some of the barriers that need penetration and a lot of efforts were exerted to change
the attitudes of the people.

Awareness of the community: Because the area is quite neglected and backward, the
awareness of the community for development activities was quite poor.

3.2.4. 2 Successes

Despite the various challenges the PO faced, certain remarkable achievements were made
in the implementation of the planned activities. The factors that contributed to the success
included the followings

Staff dedication: The PO staffs possess the required qualification and experiences in
implementing such rural development projects. Our front line workers were highly
dedicated to reach their community, in spite of the challenges of the topography,
settlement patterns and other socio-cultural barriers. In addition to that there was high
staff dedication to bear multiple tasks and shoulder the burdens and this has contributed a
lot to the success.

Contribution of development partners: All development partners at different levels,
including the community and their leaders, concerned Wereda Offices, Line
Departments, Signatory Bureaus, and EARO were encouraged to be involved in the
programme implementation activities. All partners including EARO contributed a lot on
issues related to their mandate and hence, facilitated the smooth programme
implementation. Because of their influence, the local community leaders played
significant role in acquainting ASE with the community. The Wereda Offices including
the Administration Council developed sense of ownership for the development activities
of ASE and increased their involvement to support the PO. This has contributed to
generate the required information about the socio-economic conditions of the area and
gave opportunities to penetrate into the community.

Supports of the HQs: Because of the magnitude of the problem ASE showed increased
interest for the materialization of the Bereh-Aleltu IFSP. Both technical and
administrative supports of the HQs were quite significant and made the programme
implementation successful.
Budget: The allocated budget was adequate to run the programme implementation as per
the plan.

3.2.5. Problems encountered

      Shortages of rain fall in belg season and hail damage.

       Germination problem of some vegetable seeds.
       Shortage of garden plots due to confined settlement pattern of „ Warras‟
       Aphids and frost attack on cabbage and potato
       Low market price of vegetables particularly for lettuce and Swiss chard.
       Incidences of coccidiosis and predators attack on poultry.
       The community showed less interest to participate on literacy training may be due
        to lack of awareness as well as Overlapping of the activity with the agricultural
    The other problem observed in the period was drop out of students in ACESS
    Boys are engaged in Agricultural activities and house hold chores and hiring their
        labor for better farmer for shepherding, locally known as '' Tikse".
    Turn over of ACESS facilitators was also the other problem. This is due to
        demanding better payment and job opportunity.
    Less attention of the community, even the model farmers to excavate waste
        disposal and construction of latrine.
    Limited contraceptive choices and scarcity of delivered pills and injectable
        contraceptive, and also less attention given by health institution found in the area
        to give family planning service
    Difficulties to change communities' behavior especially in alcohol drinking which
        leads them to unsafe sex resulted by contracting with STD and HIV/AIDS.
For all of these problems the PO has tried to give local solutions.

Objectives and Strategies:

The major objectives of the IFSP are: To contribute to the improvement of the household
food security status of the target population, and to effect attitudinal and behavioral
change of the target community towards realizing better productivity, improved social
services and bringing about social equity, building self-reliant community institutions and
enhancing sustainable use of natural resources. To fulfill these objectives the following
major strategies are implemented: Establishment of community based institutions, focus
on the resource poor, gender equity, community training, employment generation
scheme, participatory action research, and programme integration.

3.3.1. General Condition of the Programme Area

Enebse Sar Midir woreda is one of the 13 woredas of Misrak Gojjam Zone of Amhara
national regional state. The programe office (PO) operates in 7 kAs or 21 Gots of the
woreda and the total population is 6696 HHs (5148 male & 1548 female). This makes
about 27% of the total population of the woreda and 22% of the total area of the woreda.

A very rugged and undulated terrain characterises the program area. According to the
PRA finding during program formulation 43% mountainous, 38% undulating and 19%
plain lands describe the selected program kebeles.


The rainfall, which was rained in March 2003, has contributed much for land preparation
in the whole program area and for potato planting in highlands but since the rainfall
hasn‟t been stayed long there was a failure of potato production. April to mid June was
highly dry and hot. Due to this effect sorghum & maize plantation hasn‟t performed in
low land area. Even though the onset of long rain was late. Once the rain started it has
been performing very well. Generally the last nine months was dominated by dry and hot
temperature in the first 6 months the rest of 3 months has been characterized by good


Crop production

Crop farming at Enebse Sar Mir has been facing agronomic problems including soil
fertility loses accelerated erosion crop pests and population pressure.

The rainfall, which has occurred in March, has contributed for land preparation and
potato planting before the oxen getting tired due to shortage of feed. But, the dry & hot
whether of April to mid June has affected some of agronomic activities such as planting
of sorghum & maize in Kolla and barley & pulses in Dega. The potato crop production
has also highly affected and became out of production.

The rain has started as of mid June and even though it is late for some of the crops
plantation of all crops has been performed since the onset of the rain. All crops are found
in a good condition.

Livestock Production

Both crop and livestock farming is complementary. Especially in the programme area
crop production activities are supplied with the presence of farm animals so that, farmers
lively hood is dependant on livestock draft power and income.

Animal feed shortage in the program area was sever than the previous years. This was
due to crop failure of last year, which yields very low straw and crop residues.

The demand for additional land holding for crop production and a prolonged drought has
decreased an area of communal grazing land and caused high feed shortage.

After the onset of the rainfall feed availability improved in general and livestock
condition in now in a better status.

Health Condition

There was no significant epidemic that affect the normal socio economic condition of the
community. Besides, the condition of the common or localized diseases such as eye
disease, TB, and HIV/AIDS was not improved this may be due to low medical facilities
and awareness among the community members.


The program area is characterized by poor communication network and infrastructures
such as access roads to kebeles, telephone, etc. Besides, effort was made by ASE to
construct feeder roads from Mertule Mariam to Ansa and Mertule Mariam to yekendach
kebeles. In addition, new feeder roads from Derge to Laymichael and Dembeza are under
maintenance and construction.

Market condition

The major market centers where farmers of the programe area going to sell and buy the
major crops and livestock in and around the program area are Mertule Mariam, and Dibo.

The price of crop & livestock was cheaper in the 1st and beginning of 2nd quarter but at
this time the price of both crop & livestock has been increasing at increasing rate where
as the farmers haven‟t got any crop to sell, rather they are purchasing.

Food security

No significant food shortage has been observed among the community in general because
most of the kolla KAs are under relief aid but some of the peoples living in Dega &
Woyna Dega are in a shortage of food.

Extension service Status

The PO facilitates the IFSP in the program area by rendering extension service by 9 DAs
(1 female & 8 male) 2 supervisors 6 project officers and other administrative staff.

The extension service has been rendered by group approach through group training to
create interaction among PPs them selves which enable them to exchange useful
experience in order to integrated information from farmers and development agents. This
also helps to exert influence on group member‟s behaviour and norms.

More over, there are demonstration work and individual approach through home and
farm visit by field staffs to conduct mutual discussion with PPs. DA: HH ratio is 744,
while VLDP: HH ratio is 319.

3.3.2. Program Performance Agriculturar Development 1. Crop Extension

Vegetable Production

As one of the major components of crop extension registration of 1036 PPs (252 male
and 784 female) has been carried out which accounts 108% of the annual target. The
selection of PPs performed by CBIs in collaboration with ASE DAs and VLDPS 21
groups have been formed in 9 DCs and a total of 52 seasonal skill training session has
been conducted.
Regarding provision of input for demonstration 38.59 quintal of potato tuber, 78.8kg of
different vegetable seeds, 14,400 cutting (vines) of sweet potato and 1315 seedlings of
fruit and coffee were distributed to PPs.

Different vegetable types covered 7.7ha of land. From this total area of land PPs have
obtained about 4144 quintal of vegetable yield.

PPs have used 58% for home consumption (diet) and 42% for income generation.

Staff training workshop was organised on highland fruit production and management for
10 days and a total of 15 participants (11 ASE staff, 3 WoA and 1TVET) have attended
the training.

 Concerning organic farming practice, 620 PPs (342 male and 278F) were registered and
practiced different organic farming techniques. In the process 248 quintal of FYM and
compost & about 3200 litres of liquid manure were prepared and applied in their back
yard on 27.5 ha of land.

Experience exchange visit has conducted aiming to share experience of Awra Amba
community and other research and development organizations. This community is a good
example of high struggle in order to over come poverty. 130 people were participated in
the visit 57 of them were women. The participants were from projects participant
farmers, WoA staff and DAs, woreda rural development head, woreda administrator,
woreda women association chair lady, and ASE staff.

Special Achievements

Participants have benefited by the sale of vegetable seeds such as beet root, and onion
and got 937.00 Birr, more over other PPs produce vegetable using irrigation and earned
Birr 464.30 from the sell of produces.

Local Level Seed Production

Regarding local level seed production various satisfactory achievements have been
attended successfully. The total of 921PPs (764 M and 157 female) participants have
registered and selected by following ASEs targeting strategy with full participation of
poor community members and CBIs. This registration of PPs accounts for 108% of the
intended plan.

The participants are organized in 21 seed and grain training groups and have been given
48 seasonal skill-training sessions, which is 78% of the total target.

Other achievements, including improved seed purchase from PPs of improved seed
multipliers for further distribution was accomplished in most DCs.
Seeds like, wheat, barley, Haricot bean, triticale and potato (Zengena) were the major
crop seeds purchased by CBIs and ASE for demonstration and as input. The actual seed
distributed was too much comparing to the plan; this is due to high demand of seed by the
participants because of the effect of last year drought.

A total of 215.5 quintal of different cereal and pulse seeds were distributed to participants
for test and demonstration purpose and as a start up grain capital. PPs have covered about
182.9 ha of land and obtained 2612.5 quintal of yield.

Here, the grain store constructed at each CBI center was contributing for the storage of
quality seeds and reduces wastage. 2. Livestock Extension

 Forage Development

In this component 595 PPs (530 male and 65 females) are selected voluntarily for full
participation on different strategies of forage development. This activity has been run by
CBI/Adhoc and ASE- DAs. 21 forage development groups have organised for training,
35 seasonal skill-training sessions, which accounts 78% of the annual target, were given

On the other hand 7.88 quintal of different improved forage seeds were and 28096 fodder
seedlings, 8097 cuttings and splits distributed for the purpose of forage production and
seed multiplication. 18 forage production and utilization demonstrations were conducted
in all DCs to familiarize PPs with the newly introduced improved forage plant species.

Bee Keeping

A total of 148 poor farmers of which 133 male and 15 female are selected according to
targeting criteria which is 132% of the intended plan. 41 session of skill enhancement
training on bee management practices was given to the already selected PPs. On the other
hand, training of trainer farmers has organised at PO level and 42 (21 male & 21 female)
have been participated for 7 days. 74 transitional hives were made and transferring of
colonies from traditional to transitional beehive has carried out.

More over 21 transitional hives and 2688 top bars have supplied for demonstration
purpose mainly for women PP.

Poultry Production

In this component 495 women participants have been registered and organised in 21
groups. On top of this 41 skill training sessions have been conducted on improved poultry
management practices
Accordingly 495 PPs are practicing improved poultry production and 90 PPs have been
constructed poultry houses. 660 improved cookers were supplied by CBIs and PO for
trial and demonstration purpose.

Livestock Health

To improve livestock production and productivity livestock health activity project has
contributed a great deal. Refreshment training for CAHWs have been conducted at PO
level for 10 days.

Some of the services they rendered to the community were castration, treating bloated
animals, conducting training on different community gatherings such as 'senbete,' 'edir,'
etc about livestock health issues.

CAHWs provide castration service for 295 bulls and 148 shoats. They also mobilized the
community for vaccination when ever disease out breaks (blackleg and pasterolosis)
happen and about 4055 shoats, 1900 cattle and 460 equines have got vaccination by the
concerned body (WoA) was a result of CAHWs facilitation and mobilization.

On top of this, the constructed veterinary clinic along its medical equipment has been
handed over to the woreda office agriculture. 3. Nutrition Improvement

784 project participants who are participating in agricultural development project have
already been registered as a participant of nutrition improvement project.

Skill training has been given for those participants on introduced technologies of
improved nutrition.

63 PPs have attended a practical training in improved food preparation and preservation
methods in the PO compound in collaboration with woreda health office and WoA.

21 demonstrations were conducted on improved nutrition and diet patterns in all DCs to
disseminate improved food preparation and preservation technologies to the farm

Concerning follow up and expansion of improved food preparation and preservation
technologies a total of 784 participants have been visited.

In order to utilize the available food in a more efficient way with its nutritive quality
maintained this project helped the PPs very much. In a field day conducted before, PPs
for instance learn how to make bread and 'tella' from potato and different food types
('injera, bread, 'nifro') from the newly introduced crop, triticale.
To this effect, one experience sharing, field day was organised at PO level and over 400
people have participated. In addition to this 9 field days were organised at DC level. Participatory Research & Networking

PR means that most of information is generated from day to day activities of people and
environments. It is a type of research that primarily involves the participation of local
people /both women and men in the research process.

ASE believes that participatory research is an instrument for in depth understanding of
cross cutting development issues (poverty food security gender, Community training
indigenous knowledge and technological development research etc.

PTD and FFS are recently developed socio technical research tools that promote farmers
local innovation skill. It is experimented that, both research tools are more appropriate for
crop and livestock productivity enhancement and natural research management.

The objective of the project is to motivate farmers and relevant actors involved in the
generation and dissemination of agricultural information thought taking part in
participatory action research.

The programme office has been conducting participatory research with farmers by using
two of those tools (PTD & FFs) to let the farmers conduct research in their livelihood
problems. Mainly in natural resource management, crop production and livestock

Research Topics
Interface of exotic poultry breeds and local management system
Comparative effect of compost, farmyard manure, and in organic fertilizer on soil fertility
Integrated pest management farmers field school (IPM & FFs)

In addition to this farmers are doing research on modification of transitional beehives that
can be suitable for their environment & livestock medicine has been conducting by Ethno
vet FFs based on the need and problem of the community. It is very impressive to work
with and it looks promising because it is immediate problem solving way of research
conducted by the owner of the problem using more of local materials in a simpler way
and method.

Net working

The basic rational for networking is that development is achieved through collective
efforts of relevant actors. This calls for different actors in system to come together
through establishing networks, linkages, plant farms and forums. Net working in relevant
for lobbying to influence policy related matters, work towards common interest and build
positive image.
Based on this strategic direction for network PO is working at maximising the benefit
from such establishments and contributes own experiences to others. This involves build
partnership and alliance with relevant institution like Adet agriculture research center,
Andassa livestock research center and other development organization with the region. Rain Water Harvesting

For the selected thirty innovative farmers training on basics of roof/rain water harvesting
and drip irrigation was conducted. These trained farmers were organized on group basis
depending on the location of their farmland for better operational management of the
irrigation system.

For the purpose of small-scale irrigation, construction of two shallow irrigation wells was
completely carried out and started functioning. Similarly, three roof water-harvesting
schemes (as per the revised design at PO level) were completely carried out (from which
two of the schemes are found at selected DCs and the rest within the newly constructed
CSTC compound).

In addition to these, four potential runoff-harvesting sites for micro pond construction
works and potential sites for five irrigation shallow wells have been identified. Hydro
geological survey/studies were also conducted. Social Services Community Health Service

Health situation in the operational areas of ASE shows a reflection of the economic
stagnation and the prevalence of poverty. These health status is manifested by the low
access to basic health service like shortage of health delivery service, shortage of trained
health worker, lack of safe water supply, poor sanitation, high prevalence rate of
communicable disease and wide spread malnutrition. This situation is further aggravated
by the high population growth.

One of PO strategy direction is expansion of health facility to increase access to and
improve the quality of health services through construction of new health facilities.
During the reporting period one health post constructed with total cost of Birr 72,940
from this the contribution of the community (unskilled labour and provision of local
materials) is estimated to be Birr 3170.

The standard design of the health post, list of medical equipment and furniture was
collected from regional health Bureau and accordingly the medical equipment and office
furniture have been procured and purchased. On the other hand as per the agreement two
candidates for junior nurse were selected in collaboration with government health offices
and sent for training to Debre Birhan Junior clinical nursing training center in the year
2002. Currently the candidates are completed there training program.
Currently the number of health unit has increased from 7 & 2 to 9 and 4 in the woreda
and ASE operational program area respectively. Besides, the potentional health service
coverage has increased from 53% and 47% to 60% and 79% in the woreda & operational
area of the PO respectively.

During the reporting period, 5 days refresher course were conducted for 21 VLHPs (6 F,
15M) in order to provide effective and efficient health service for the community.
Besides, 4 days training course have been conducted for 11 (2F, 9M) DAs and
supervisors on population pressure and its consequences family planning, maternal and
child health care and nutrition.

As community level, one day training for 64 (38F, 26 M) on harmful traditional practices
and 3 days training have been conducted for 72 (40,32M) community members at PO
level in order to increase their awareness on HIV/AIDS, harmful traditional practices and
a basic concept of family planning.

In the reporting period 496 health education sessions have been conducted for 630
(315M, 315F) permanent group health education participants (husband and wife together)
by VLHPs through out the year. The provision of health education topics have been
mainly concentrated on controlling methods of communicable disease, STI, HIV/AIDS,
harmful traditional practice, family planning, promotion of personal hygiene, the
importance of environmental sanitation, maternal and child health care, improved
nutritional behaviour and the like. Besides, to reinforce the theoretical part of health
education session, home visiting to all health education participants have been conducted.
For reporting period of time 1512 households were visited for a total of 4903times by
VLHPs. Supervision has been undertaken routinely by DAs for effective and real
performance of the activity.

The information education communication on health issues have been conducted
substantially among different segments of the community other than group health
education participants at different times and occasions. The major target is to bring about
change in the behaviour of the individuals and communities, through improving
knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP), to enable them to act against the causes of ill
health and disease.

Mass and group health education sessions have been conducted on different relevant
health problems at different places by VLHPs, DAs, project officer, and anti-AIDS clubs
intensively to over come the health problems of the community. Education

The education program aims at providing opportunity to disadvantaged children and
adults that provide access to basic education with the main focus on out of school
children. At present, the main components of the education program are ACCESS for out
of school children, adult literacy program, and support to formal schools. Besides, the
organization contributes to rehabilitation of formal school in order to create a better
learning environment and ultimately improve the enrolment rate of students.

There are 14 ACCESS centers in the ASE operational areas. During the reporting period
1427 children (715 females, 713 males) registered and 1097 (557 females, 540 males)
take the final exam.
In order to strengthen the ACCESS program in the education year of 2003/2004, a one
day sensitization work shop has been held for 91 (63M, 28F) participants of parents
committee, community based institution representative of KA administration and
women‟s association.

During the year the community members in collaboration with woreda education office
screen and recruit 21(11M, 10F) ACCESS facilitators. For these facilitators ten (10) days
intensive training has organized in collaboration with WoE. The training course covers
10 manuals prepared for alternative basic child education program. Besides, to create
linkages between formal school, three (03) days work shop have been conducted for 32
ACCESS facilitators and 21 formal school teachers in collaboration with WoE. Currently
there are 32 (15F, 17M) ACCESS facilitators present in 14 ACCESS centers.
On the effort made to raise the reading capacity & awareness of an adult, two reading
rooms construction (at Dembeza and Berlay korsh DC) were completed & two reading
rooms (at Deber gomet and Zewoter Enejember DC) are under construction.

To create a better environment for the schools students, 3 rooms of one block formal
primary school has been constructed at Denbeza kebele.

For the reporting period, there are 29 adult literacy centers in ASE operational kebeles
and 53 (39M, 14F) literacy facilitators are operating the program. In order to make
efficient and effective teaching technique and methodology a 3 days training course has
been conducted for all of 53 literacy facilitators in collaboration with woreda education
office. The training course was mainly focused on adult psychology, adult teaching
methodology, non-formal education training and session planning process, recording, and
reporting system. ASE covers all expenditure of adult literacy program and honorarium
for literacy facilitators while technical support, coordination, monitoring and evaluation
is under taken by woreda education office. During the reporting period 2460 (707 female,
1753 males) adults register for the programme only 1156 (281 females, 875 males)
promoted to the next stage. Gender

In order to create awareness on the concept of gender in every training session organized,
it is tried to incorporate gender issues both at PO and development centre level to bring
equitable, development in society.

Besides, two days "Gender awareness" workshop was organized for 82 (43F & 39M)
members of community leaders of CBIs, woreda council, government staffs, religious
leaders, and community trainers. The workshop was focused on concept of gender, triple
role of women, practical and strategic gender need, gender and development, and
mainstreaming of gender issues in all development programs. Group work, discussion
and brainstorming were used as teaching methodologies.

Program office of ASE facilitate and give due consideration towards encouraging women
to engage and participate in the income generation scheme and conduct technical skill
training in order to achieve efficient and effective result. Moreover, the program office
arranges and conducts training on leadership and management skill to have got more
opportunities, great access to and control over resources. Regarding this fact, in
collaboration with woreda co-operative desk, 2 days training workshop on leader ship &
management skill have been organized for 97 members of action-based women's group
and different women committee participants. Besides in collaboration with woreda office
of justice 2 days training workshop has conducted for 161 (135F, 26M) community
members on familiarization of the Amhara National Regional State family code approval
proclamation no. 79/2003. Rural Water Supply and Construction

A/ Rural Water Supply

In cooperation with the users / CBI and having their active involvement, identification of
six naturally flowing springs and two ground water sources were carried out. Further
more, survey and cost effective designing works for five medium scale spring
development and two hands dug wells were also performed.

Jointly with the users and CBI, construction of three medium scale spring development,
three masonry/concrete reservoirs, four public water points and one cattle trough were
completely carried out and currently all the schemes are functional. During the process of
the construction, community members were fully participated by providing unskilled
labour and locally available construction materials. And also, CBI members and water
committee were jointly mobilized the users to contribute their own share during the
execution of water supply scheme construction works just as per the signed agreement
prior to the commencement of the construction works. As a result of this, 1325
community members have gained access to safe water supply system.

In order to make sure future operational management sustainability of community water
supply schemes, training was organized and conducted for the users group on importance
of potable water, its use and general aspects of water supply schemes operational
management. Similarly, twenty water committee members and eight water supply facility
units caretakers were elected from the users by the community and attended training on
community water supply schemes operation, management and minor operational trouble
shooting at village level.

B/ Other Construction Works
As per the agreement reached among Agri-service Ethiopia, ESM Woreda office of
education and IIZ/DVV to establish a well organized and efficient community skill
training center at Woreda level, detail design works, materials specification and cost
estimates of the center were performed and submitted to Woreda office of education and
for IIZ/DVV for any comments.

Then after, construction of community skill training hall having a total floor area 91 msq,
one office and mini-store building having a total floor area 49 msq, VIP latrine having
three separate rooms, cost effective kitchen and dining rooms building and boarding
shelter (that can accommodate 30 trainees at a time) for men and women trainees were
completely carried out. As built materials quantity and actual cost of the project has been
prepared and documented.

Currently, the training center has started functioning under the responsibility of Woreda
office of education.

In cooperation with the CBI members and the community, constructions of offices for
CBI members were completely carried out at 4 DCs. The newly constructed CBI offices
started functioning and provide better service for the program participants and for CBI
members at large. In addition to these, construction of CBI office at 1 DC is under way.

Based on the discussion and decision passed /to reduce the problem of enough class
rooms for the students/ between PO and Woreda office of education/, one building block
having three class rooms were completely carried out and currently handed over to the
WoE and started service provision.

Furthermore, to create and upgrade the reading skill/habits among program participants,
construction of two rural reading rooms was carried out within the compound of 2
development centers. Similarly, construction works of additional two reading rooms are
under way at 2 KAs.

For better seed storage/management at local level and establishing grain banking system
at development center level, construction of seed/grain store buildings having a total floor
area 72 msq were completely carried out at 5 KAs and currently started functioning.

In addition to these, as per the design and specification of Amhara Region bureau of
health, construction of one health post at 1 KA was completely carried out in cooperation
with the community. Currently, the health post has been handed over to the Woreda
health office and started the intended service.

To alleviate the existing serious problem of health service provision works at 1 KA, a
discussion was made and decision passed among Woreda council, Woreda health office
and PO, designing, materials specification writing and cost estimates works for mini-
laboratory /lipersy clinic building was carried out. Similarly, in cooperation with Woreda
health office and the community at large construction of the building /having a total floor
area of 40msq/ was completely carried out and automatically handed over to Woreda
health office.

For the purpose of community training, one community-training hall (having 60 msq
floor area) has been constructed within PO compound using extra construction materials
in a cost effective manner. And hence, this community-training hall will help the PO to
conduct various community-training programs and review meetings as well.

In order to establish suitable background for the PO to manage construction
labour/materials and achieve cost effective construction performance and timely
completion of construction activities, on job skill improvement training for construction
workers (18 masons and chief masons) was conducted. And hence resulted better
construction quality and efficient construction materials utilization too.

Community Participation

In all phases of water resource development works and other construction activities,
community members/users and CBI members have considerably participated in the
execution of rural water supply and other construction activities on voluntary basis,
providing locally available construction materials and participating in unskilled labour
works (which is valued in terms of Eth. birr 15,900.00)

Further more, the CBI has already taken over the responsibilities for operational
management aspects of the completed water supply schemes/infrastructures within their
respective KA. Natural Resource management

During the year 720 PPS were registered and organized under 58 training groups.
Training was conducted for 720PPs (432M, 288F) in 108 training sessions. The PPS have
acquired skill on nursery management and some SWC measures and developed interest to
promote natural resource management activities.

Training on FSWC was conducted for five days of which two days was for practical
demonstration of FSWC intervention. 9ASE DAS and supervisors (8M, 1F) and 11WOA
(9M, 2F) have participated in the training and have acquired skill on how to design,
layout and carryout FSWC activities

Experience exchange visit was conducted on integrated water shed management. As a
result of the experience exchange visit the community (39M, 6F) have acquired basic
skill on natural resource management and homestead development.

 Further to build up the capacity of the partners and ASE staff on how to plan land in
sustainable use, training was conducted on concepts, principles and techniques of
participatory land use planning. In the training different field workers have been
4 catchment areas were planned in four kebeles of the program according to land use
planning techniques and methods.

Forestry development and SWC curriculum have been prepared to make easy the training
approach for farming community.

To alleviate the problem of water shortage, ten days training was conducted for kola agro
climatic areas. Consequently, two water-harvesting structures have been constructed. 24
farmers and 6ASE staff participated in runoff water harvesting training.

Eight community nurseries have been under operation and raised various multipurpose
tree species seedlings. The CBI has had active concern and involvement in carrying out
the nursery management activities. The CBI committee sold some of the tree species and
earned 769.35 eth Birr to use for strength their capacities in finance.

 In addition 103 on farm nurseries and 6 schools established and were produced about
785536-seedling s and 800000 seedlings out planted through different ways.

SWC activates were practiced on selected micro sub catchments. Hence, 457ha farm
terraces, 12.73km cut of drain, 3.56km artificial and 2.13km check dam constructed with
community participation. Out of these total activities, some of them have been done in
four IWSM sites

Those activities carried out in the four IWSM sites are 208ha farm terrace, 1km check
dam, 0.92km artificial waterways, 10.986km cut of drain have been constructed. Besides,
41464 multipurpose tree species seedlings were produced; 7ha of degraded areas has
been closed against any intervention of human and livestock.

26.75km rural road has been constructed in all program kebeles on EGS basis. The
employment generation scheme was helped about 3251 food insecure community
members (1955M, 1296F) to bridge the food gap and to stay at home. In addition the
natural forest has been prevented from deforestation. EGS has also contributed to protect
natural forest and degraded areas. Based on these 40ha of degraded land and 66ha of
natural forestland have been protected from human and livestock interferences.      Training and Community Development    Community training

Recognizing that community training is instrumental for the realization of development
interventions GARED has been implemented since February 2003. First batch of
GARED participants were attending six months training program on selected issues that
are pertinent to the improvement of their livelihood.
Revising the previous program years GARED participant selection and group formation
i.e. 30 trainees/batch/KA was urgent task so as to address the training need of the needy
community members across the program areas. As the result, participant selection and
group formation increased by double, which is 60 trainees/batch/KA in consultation of
DAs and others in the second batch of GARED. Generally 940 participants (470F, 470M)
have attended the training program that accounts 196% of the intended plan. Participants
were organized in to 32 training groups and have attended 161 training session on the
selected issues that are relevant to bring desirable attitudinal and behavioural change.

Furthermore, refreshment training was given for old GARED participants emphasizing
on the revision of most topics that were covered before focusing on problems
encountered on the applicability of knowledge gained from previous training program. In
addition to training, home and farm visit has been conducted by DAs, VLDPs, VLHPs to
assess whether trainees are capable of practicing the knowledge gained theoretically and
to provide technical support during the implementation of the training topics covered
through GARED. Training methods identification is crucial step to conduct effective
training program. Therefore, various training methods were applied aiming at raising
participation and interest creation among adults. Group discussion, role plays/ drama,
lecture/ presentation and others were some of training methods deployed during the year.
To further strengthen the training program, different types of teaching aids/materials were
used. To mention some posters, leaflets, booklets, hand out and radio cassettes were
among others. During the training program participants were motivated and encouraged
by raising provocative points to express their views, feelings and experience in
connection to the topics, which were under way during the training session that has
resulted interactive training program.

To come up with effective training program, preparation of training guide modules was
essential. Thus, concerned officers were prepared 4 seasonal skill enhancement and 3
general awareness education training guide modules and have been practiced to exercise
the new training approach in the 4th quarter of the year after module analysis workshop
has been carried.

To extend the scope of community training program, the PO has been discussing with
Debre Markos Radio Education Station to organize radio education program in
collaboration with the station. The PO has prepared a document and sent to the station for
comment before joint approval for the implementation. Repeated travel and discussion
was held to/with the radio station for the approval of working document and
implementation modality of the radio education program. The two parties, the PO and the
radio education, have agreed and signed memorandum of understanding to launch radio
education program on issue that are relevant to the improvement of socio-economic
condition of the community. The radio education program will cover Natural resource
management, HIV/AIDS, Income generating activities, Participatory technology
development, Harmful traditional practices, Malaria, ACCESS, and Gender.

The radio program will have 16 programs which, would last 8 months (Nov, 2003-july,
2004) & will presented by 4 dramas, 4 jokes, 3 telling story, and 5 explanations.
Currently, the radio station has started broadcasting the programs fortnightly having 20
minutes air time for each program as of 16th Nov 2003.The radio education program will
cover wider distance that is supposed to be important for framing community and others
with in and out of the program operational areas.

To enhance the knowledge of participants in different socio economic activities an
attempt of listening the radio education program has already started by organizing radio
education listening forum across the program areas. Question and answer forum has also
been organized with some sort of incentives for participants‟.

Training of VLDPs

To bridge the knowledge gap of VLDPs, which was identified during training need
assessment, training workshop was organized for 3 days.

During the training workshop trainees were invited to express their experience and
feelings on the area of the training topics. The training given would contribute much to
provide effective technical support for the beneficiaries engaged in different components. Community development (CBI)

A great effort has been carried out to capacitate CBI leaders so as to undertake over all
development activities to wards attaining sustainable development mainly focusing on the
poor and marginalized group of the rural community. With the objective of upgrading
managerial and leadership role of CBIs technical and managerial support by field staffs
and concerned officer has been continued in the area of financial & material
management, documentation and minute recording, data collection. Besides technical
support, the PO was organized 5 days training program for CBI leaders on financial and
material management and letter writing to/from partners and file compiling techniques.

Establishing community-based institution is a guarantee to sustain development
intervention. Realizing its importance for sustainability, an entry (Adhoc) committee was
established in all KAs across the program areas until the community acquired the
required awareness about the CBIs.The maturity assessment was started in the year 2002
in all KAs to transferred to CBIs however, only two adhocs namely Derge and
Laymicheal were full filled the requirements for the transferring process. Likewise
assessing the maturity of the rest adhoc committees and identifying the level of
awareness of the community about CBIs were carried out during this year. On the
occasion of evaluation for maturity, three of operational kebeles namely Ansa Berlay &
Dembeza were fulfilled the requirements and able to transfer to CBIs in the 2nd quarter of
the year. In the kebeles where CBIs were not established, unreserved effort was made by
the PO and stakeholders to strengthen them through training and technical assistance for
maturity. Due to the effort made in this regard, the community has started to raise the
need for the transfer of adhocs in their kebeles recognizing that CBIs are the only
development tool for the rural community.
 Lastly, the rest 7 adhocs have been transferred to CBIs after they have fulfilled the
necessary requirements in the year 2003.
The PO was played a great role in facilitating by-laws and working principles
development for CBIs both at KA and woreda level. The steering committee, which was
organized for facilitating the establishment of woreda CBI has been capacitated in the
preparation and development of woreda CBI by-law and working principles.

After completing the necessary arrangements and requirements the steering committee
wrote application letter to woreda council to get recognition and approval letter from
zonal justice office. The committee has got prompt replay from both offices, as it would
be possible to organize and form their self-help group. Finally due to the tremendous
effort made by the community and different actors with active facilitation of the PO
woreda CBI has got legal entity and established by the name called “Alem Birhan Ras
Agez Hibreteseb Limat Tequam” with 11 committee members. This institution has
continued its effort to be recognized by relevant governmental and non-governmental
organization through circular letter writing by woreda council. Thus 30 government
organization including the regional government and stakeholders both at woreda and
regional level have received the recognition letter from the woreda council. Besides,
woreda CBI has started the process to have its own stamps and necessary financial
documents to commence its regular activity. The PO and woreda CBI have planned to
celebrate CBI establishment anniversary to further familiarize the stakeholders and
surrounding community members about its objective, vision and mission of the institution
in the near future. Capacity building of GOs

To enhance service delivery of cooperatives to the rural community, training program
was organized for 48 cooperative leaders and 10 treasuries for 5 and 10 days respectively.
The training was conducted in collaboration with woreda cooperative promotion desk.

At the end of the training program, the PO and the woreda cooperative promotion desk
jointly noticed treasuries working at each cooperative are expected to provide technical
support for CBIs on financial and material management system by setting regular
monitoring and evaluation system in the respective CBI offices. Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation

During the year, 12 periodic reports (including this one) were compiled and distributed to
ASE head office, concerned line bureaus, and federal and regional DPPC.

The program office has tried its best to strengthen the capacity of its field staffs and CBIs
in the areas of planning, monitoring and evaluation through facilitating and coordinating
different planning, monitoring and evaluation activities at and grass root level at different
times. Among the PME approaches being exercised in the program office is conducting a
fortnight and monthly PME meeting with the involvement of project participants,
VLDPs, VLHPs, CBI committee members, development agents of ASE and Woreda
Office of Agriculture and Kebele administrators. In the meeting, VLDPs, VLHPS and
CBI committee members present written reports of the current period and plans for the
coming period. Discussions are held on the presented reports and plans and the
participants of the meeting suggest solutions/recommendations against the
limitations/problems already discussed.

To conduct vegetable market assessment questionnaire is prepared.

Internal Program review

Internal terminal program review was conducted by a group of technical personnel from
ASE head quarter with the involvement of the project participants (women and men),
CBI leaders, heads and relevant experts of government offices, and field staffs and
project officers of the program office at program office level. The total number of people,
from the community, line office, and the staffs of the program office, participated in the
review program was 108.

Facilitating monthly & quarterly review meetings of stakeholders

The monthly and quarter monitoring and review meetings have been conducted according
to their regular schedule at community and PO levels.

Coordinate field visit of program activities

During the year various field visites conducted in the PO coordinated by PME.

Conducting of impact monitoring

An impact monitoring entitled the contribution of ASE to the improvement of annual
crop production and livestock holding at household level was done during the reporting
period. This impact monitoring was conducted using the food security indicators set by
NOVIB partners in different workshops. The work was carried out according to the
decision passed by NOVIB partners in the previous workshop that had been held in
Mekele in June 2002.

The PME section conducted this impact monitoring work by applying a systematically
designed research methodology. All the methods of data collection and sampling
techniques as well as analytical tools were applied according to the statistical procedures
and guidelines presented and discussed by different authors.

The work was conducted in one intervention kebele of ASE in the woreda that was
selected purposely for different reasons. In the final analysis the work has revealed the
fruitfulness of the effort of ASE in realizing its objectives.

Food security situation assessment
Since Enebse Sar Midir Woreda in general and ASE operational kebeles in particular are
food insecure, periodic food situation assessment was found to be very vital to have
relevant information whether to revise the development approach according to the real
context in the area. Hence, the program office was conducting periodic food situation
assessments in the area during the year.

Preparation of mini project proposal

During the year the program office has a plan to prepare two mini project proposals.
Consequently, it has prepared three mini project proposals. The project proposals include
Sanitation and Water Supply Project for Mertule Mariam Town, Fighting Against
HIV/AIDS in Enebse Sar Midir Woreda and Emergency Relief project proposals. All
these projects have been submitted to potential donors and are supposed to get approval
in the year 2004.

Emergency food relief operation

During the year 17000 people living in three intervention rural kebeles of the IFSP areas
get emergency relief assistance by the PO.

Conduct a familiarization workshop on the concept of Employment Generation Schemes
(EGS) and the implementation modalities for the technical staffs of the program office,
relevant experts and heads of government offices, heads of kebele administrations of
thirty rural kebeles, CBI committees and community representatives for about six days in
two rounds. The total number of people participated in the two rounds workshop was

14066.82 quintal of relief food and 544.5 quintals of different crop seeds were distributed
to about 15998 target community members.

Project visit to Bereh Aleltu program

Enebse Sar Midir program office did have a chance to make a visit to Bereh Aleltu
program office of ASE during the inauguration of the various development
projects/activities performed by the program office.

Action plan preparation of the IIZ/DVV supported Adult Literacy Program

One of the activities that Enebse Sar Midir program office has been implementing is the
facilitation of adult literacy education program. To strengthen the implementation of this
program, ASE has been trying to establish a kind of development partnership with the
Institute for International Cooperation /German Adult Education Association, IIZ/DVV.
The partnership was started in the year 2002. As part of the implementation process,
Enebse Sar Midir Program Office participated in the preparation of the action plan for the
impetration of adult literacy program and community skill training with the presence of
the head of the Training Program Department and the Training Program Officer of ASE
head quarter in Debre Markos. The major activities, which were of course assumed to be
the responsibilities of ASE, incorporated in the action plan include the construction of
low cost boarding shelter to facilitate the skill training, facilitate the organization of the
familiarization training on functional adult literacy for facilitators, concerned woreda
decision makers and experts, organize training on community leadership and community
organization management to community members, prepare the concept paper on how to
access credit to CSTC trainees, and participate in the monitoring and evaluation of the

Participating in a social science research training and in bi-annual meeting
organized by ASE head quarter

Participating in a food security workshop organized and hosted by ORDA

The partner organizations of NOVIB in Ethiopia had decided in July 2002 (In Mekele) to
conduct the food security workshop in September 2003. Partner organizations were
expected to take part in the workshop by presenting evaluation reports of the contribution
of their respective development programs/projects to the improvement of the food
security situation of the target households measured against the food security indicators.
Hence, the PME section prepared the required report and presented it to the workshop,
which was organized and hosed by the Organization for Rehabilitation and Development
in Amhara (ORDA) in September 2003 in Lalibela.

Preparation of a research project proposal

According to the assignment given by the head quarter of ASE, at the end of the Social
Science Research training, the PME section, together with other project officers prepared
a research project proposal entitled “Study on factors affecting community participation
on natural resources conservation and development-the case of Enebse Sar Midir
woreda”. And the report has been submitted to the head quarter for comment and

3.3.3. Organizational Development Staffing

At the end of the fourth quarter of 2003, the total number of permanent contract workers
of Enebse Sar Midir Program office has been 28 (24 Male & 4 Female) and this is 86%
male and 14% female. During the quarter the administration and finance officer has
terminated his employment contract.

Recruitment: Two project officers (PM&E and NRM), six development agents (five
male and one female) and one cashier were hired in the year.

Promotion:     Two development agents were promoted to supervisor positions.
Transfer:      One community Development officer was transferred to the Program
office and a cashier was transferred to another program office from the program office.

Resignation: Four development agents, two-project officers (community development
and administration & finance officers) resigned their employment contract during the
year. Staff Development

In order to up date the skills of the PO staffs and improve their performance, it has been
attempted to involve PO‟s staff on eight different training workshops six project officers

The details are indicated below Transport

The program office was carrying out its activities by four field cars. In addition to this
ASE HQ two trucks substantially back up the PO in mobilization of construction
materials. Seven motorbikes were purchased in the fourth quarter of the year though they
were not used for the implementation process because of the delay of facilitating the
purchase and delivery processes.

In addition to vehicles there are about 9 mules and horses, which solved the problem of
transport form DCs to the program office and the vise versa.

3.3.4. Budget performance

      A total of Birr 3413240was allocated for the year and Birr 3450152 which
       3126312 or 90.6% of the allocated budget was utilized.
      The budget utilization by component during the quarter is verified as follows:
      Co-ordination and Administration: The total budget allocated for this section was
       Birr 450260 and Birr 468421 ( 104%) was utilized.

      Agriculture Development: The total budget for this section was Birr 696860 and
       Birr 552628 (79.3%) was utilized.
      Social Service: The total budget allocated was Birr 948862 & Birr 902980
       (95.2%) was utilized.
      Natural Resource Management: The total budget for this section was Birr 696330
       and only Birr 614863 (88.3%) was utilized.
      Community Empowerment: The total budget for this section was Birr 585520
       and Birr 516458 (88.2%) was utilized.
      Monitoring and Evaluation: The total budget allocated was Birr 72320 and Birr
       70962 which 98%, was utilized.

3.3.5. Problems Encountered
      Shortage of rainfall and heavy rain fall with hailstorm
      Pest incidence /occurrence aphid, termite
      Disease occurrence, which causes death of bees, bitterness of honey taste.
      The deformation of locally made top bars and unfitting to each other.
      Problem of predator and Occurrence of poultry disease for poultry
      Resistance of the community members to pay the vaccination fee,
      Lack of veterinary technicians and shortage of vet. equipments like burdizo and
       trocal canula for CAHWs.
      Shortage/absence of good quality construction material at local level,
      In accessibility of the construction site (to facilitate bulk construction materials
       supply timely),
      Free grazing is widely prevailing in the area and livestock damaged many planted
       tree species.

Solutions envisaged

     Effective use of possible water sources
     Practicing traditional pest control measures
     Constructing appropriate excess water disposal techniques & implementing
      proper seedlings management.
     Providing additional feed to colonies and proper inspection of hives
     Leaving the available honey to the colonies
     Proper use of poultry house and fencing and Providing training on preparation of
      supplementary feed, practice of traditional treatment and vaccination of hens
     Frequent community sensitisation to bring behavioural change
     Initiating WoA for the deployment of veterinary technician
     Considering the provision of additional veterinary equipment to the CAHWs by
3.4.  LALOMAMA            MIDER-INTEGRATED               RURAL       DEVELOPMENT

Objectivies and Strategies

The main objectives of the IRDP are: fulfill basic needs and basic rights of poor and
marginalized people, raise the awareness level of the community in all development
issues (thereby improve their problem solving capacity), increase household income of
the community, improve the nutritional and health status of the family, increase access of
the community to basic social services, and enhance gender equity. To implement the
objectives successfully the following major strategies are proposed: community
participation, targeting, capacity building, gender mainstreaming, advocacy and policy
influence, networking, and phasing out.

3.4. 1. General Overview of the Program Area

Lalomama Medir Integrated Rural Development Program Area is found in North Shoa
Zone of the Amhara National Regional State located at 256 km and 126 km North east of
Addis Ababa and Debre Birehan (the capital of the Zone) respectively. The program area
has ten operational rural Kebeles that have an average distance of 27 km from the
program office with 7 km at the nearest and 42 km at the most distant operational Kebele.


The data collected from the ten operational Kebeles indicates that a total population of
39600 (50 % Females) is settled in the program kebeles. The number of Households
living in the program area is 11316 (26 % Female) households.


The program area is characterized by low rainfall and cold temperature. The average
annual rainfall and temperature are 724mm and 12.5 degree centigrade respectively.
As opposed to the previous years, the climatic condition of the year was suitable for
agricultural activities. The rain shower occurred in February, March and April 2003 has
created conducive environment for the cultivation of sorghum and "Zengada" at the
Woina Dega agro ecological zones. Moreover, the main rain season, which was started in
the first week of July and continued up to the last week of September, was sufficient in its
amount and even in its distribution that enabled the farmers to produce better production.
The climatic condition of the Woreda in general and the operational Kebeles in particular
was suitable for crop and livestock production except the reduction of yields in some
areas where the frost occurred in November.


The topography of the program area consists of 40% plain, 50% undulated with hilly, and
10% steep slopes with cliffs. The area is divided in to Dega and Woina-Dega Agro
ecologies with an attitudinal range of 2200-3100 meters above sea level.

Natural Resources

The natural resources of the Woreda in general and the operational Kebeles in particular
have been used exhaustively that it has been reached to the point where the resources
could not shoulder the residents. Due to population pressure and unwise resource
utilization, the fertility of the soil has reduced, the vegetation cover has also been cleared
out and as a result many wild animals have also been abandoned from the area. Under the
umbrella of the current natural resources, there are potential resources that can contribute
for the development of the area. In this regard, the area is endowed with water resources
for irrigation, mines like opal and coal.
The land use pattern is categorized in to 60 % cultivated land, 15% grazing land, 5%
settlement, 5% plantation (homestead & communal) and 15% wasteland.

Economic Bases

Agriculture is the main livelihood of the people living in the program Kebeles. It consists
of crop and livestock production. With an average land holding of 0.75 hectare of land
per household, farmers grow many crops such as wheat, Fababean, Chickpea, Lentils,
Barely and Teff. In addition to these crops, crops such as filed pea, Fenugreek, Vetch,
Nug, sesame and flax were grown in the reporting year. These major crops are estimated
to cover 11987.72 ha of land.

From the field observation, it was seen that most of the cultivated land have been covered
by HAR 604 wheat and CS-20-DK Fababean varieties. These improved crop varieties
have been adopted not only in the operational Kebeles of the program office but also they
have been disseminated to the neighboring Kebeles by diffusion effect. The assessment
made on the productivity of those improved seeds indicates that they are 5 times
productive than the land races. Moreover, they are early maturing, resistant to frost and
water logging. Though these varieties are highly demanded by the farming community,
there was shortage to get the seeds. This is due to the failure of crop in the previous year.

To alleviate the problem the CBIs have distributed wheat and fababean seeds from their
seed stores. Additionally, they purchased seeds from the local markets and Kulumsa
Agricultural Research Center and distributed to those poor farmers who could not meet
their seed requirements. The other problem occurred in the year was shortage in the
supply of chemical fertilizer especially DAP. As the WOA extension system encourages
farmers to use chemical fertilizers, the demand for it was high but not met by its supply.
In this regard those farmers who have been encouraged by ASE to prepare compost and
farm yard manures were not susceptible to the problem.

The other main Economic base of the area is livestock production. Livestock and crop
production are complementary farming activities: The livestock sector provides draft and
natural fertilizer for the crop production and in turn the crop residuals are used for
livestock feed. In the program area, livestock production is equally important to food
security especially during lean period. Cattle, sheep, goats, equine and poultry are the
main livestock mix of the area. Unlike the previous years, in this year animal feed
shortage was not a problem of livestock production.


In the program area there are four main market places; namely: Molale, Kolomargefia,
Shesho and Wogere where farmers and petty traders deal with agricultural and
consumable goods. The market assessment made on the four market places indicates that
the price of grains has been increased when it is compared to the previous years. The
reduction of crop production in the year 2002 and the absence of food aid in the reporting
year are the main reasons of the price increment. When we compare the price of grains of
the reporting period on quarter basis, there was a reduction of grain price in the fourth
quarter as the farmers were able to get better yield and started to sell their produces.

Extension System

In the reporting period, 35 VLDPs, 9 DAs, 1 Supervisor and one TCD officer have been
engaged in the extension service. Ratios of DA: HHs is 1:1257; DA: VLDPs is 1:4; and
VLDPs: HHs is 1:323.

3.4.2. Program performance Food security Training And Community Development

As a continuation of the previous quarters, 25 sessions of GAREd conducted in the fourth
quarter of the year. 249 (249% of the quarter‟s plan) home and farm visits and 9 (129%
of the quarter‟s plan) were carried out in the quarter. As part and parcel of the capacity
building of Lalomama Medir community based institution, networking of the Woreda
CBI with research centers, input sources and other organizations have also been done in
the 4th quarter of the reporting year. In this regard, experience-sharing visit was organized
for 24 CBI leaders (both at Keble and Woreda levels), 9 GO Office staff members
including DAs, 4 PA leaders and 10 ASE staff members. To this end Lalomama Medir
CBI has been linked/ Networked/ with research centers (Sheno and Kulumssa ARCs),
input sources (Arsi improved seeds multiplication center, Debrezeit poultry production
and distribution center), Selam Vocational training center, and Bio-Farm Enterprise in
Addis Ababa. During the experience-sharing visit, the aforementioned centers and
organizations have appreciated the initiation of the community to solve its complex and
multifaceted problems and also they have expressed their commitment to continue and
strengthen their network with the CBI.

Generally, in the year 2003, identification of 937 out of which 40% females, formation of
48 training groups, and conducting 291 sessions of GAREd programs have been
accomplished. While conducting those GARED sessions, mixed participatory learning
methods and approaches have been applied. Apart from the group education approach,
education on local social meetings like “Idir”, religious ceremonies at churches and other
formal forums organized by the PA and/or Woreda government officials and community
mobilization forums were also used. In line with these methods and approaches, teaching
aids such as video show, drama organized by local clubs, role-plays, leaflets, posters, flip
charts and radio cassettes have been employed to a larger extent.

The major contents dealt on the GARED sessions includes: Causes and effects of food
insecurity, Alternatives to improve the present food security status, Improved crop
varieties and animal breeds, Seed bed preparation on vertisol, Integrated pest
management, Cultivation practices/land preparation, sowing, weeding, harvesting, post
harvest techniques/, importance and methods of organic farming, Nutrition and health,
Natural resources/ current status, causes of natural resource degradation and its
consequences, measures to be taken so as to revert the present situation/,The role of
women in development, Effects, modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS and its prevision
methods, Importance and methods of family planning, etc.

In order to strengthen the relationship between the community and extension workers, to
give individual extension service and to assess the impacts of trainings, 533 home and
farm visits which is 107% of the annual plan has been implemented for the year 2003.
The other achievement that was put in place in the year was organizing of farmers' field

During the reporting period 12 farmers' field days were organized with the aim of
disseminating best practices that have been demonstrated on selected farmers. A total of
1457 farmers, out of which 33% were females, have attended the field days. Wheat
variety demonstration /Triticale/, Awassa 83 sweet potato variety, forage development
demonstrations, model pit latrine constructions, model poultry house constructions, and
other best practices were visited on the field days. The performance of previously
introduced crop varieties (HAR 604, HAR 1685 and CS-20-DK) was also visited on the
field days.

The suggestions and comments given by the participants of the field days indicates that
the newly introduced crops and vegetables are highly productive, resistant to water
logging and early maturing in that the farmers could harvest before the frost damage it.
All these increase their acceptability and they have a very high demand by the farmers.
On the other hand the productivity of improved crop seeds which were introduced three
and four years back is getting lower and lower. The farmers have also put their
suggestions that it would be better to replace the previous crop seeds by the new ones and
also it would be very important to keep the quality of seeds while the CBIs collect the
repayments from the beneficiaries.

Community based institution building is the other important phase out oriented
achievement of the program office. Activities such as formation of CBI at Woreda level,
formulation of CBI by-law, facilitating the legalization process of the CBI established at
the Woreda level, restructuring of the Kebele and Got CBIs, construction and furnishing
of 10 CBI offices are some of the major achievements under community based institution
building. The participation of the community and government offices was active in the
CBI formation, facilitation of the selection of CBI leaders and approval of the CBI by-
law. Moreover, the communities have also been involved in the provision of local
materials like ash, stone, water, in transporting construction materials for the construction
of CBI offices. There were some community members who supplied construction wood
poles. The involvement of PA administrations and the Woreda Community Mobilization
and Organization Office in community mobilization for CBI office construction in
particular and CBI formation in general is worth mentioning.

With the aim of improving the extension service giving capacity of front line extension
workers / both ASE &WOA Development Agents/ and VLDPs, training has been
   conducted on forage development, poultry production, facilitation and communication
   skills, vegetable production and nutrition, organic farming and sheep production. Vegetable Production

   Identification of 1308 (87% of the plan) vegetable production participants and organizing
   of 48 sessions of skill enhancement training groups has been done in the reporting year.
   The topics covered in the skill enhancement training include compost and seedbed
   preparation, spacing, NCP methods and food preparation techniques. Integration of
   vegetable production with organic farming is the other achievement of the year. Inline
   with this, 22 organic farming demonstrations were conducted.

   Purchasing and distribution of inputs has also been done in the reporting year. In this
   regard 20.73 kg of different vegetable seeds / carrot, Swiss chard, Lettuce, Cabbage and
   onion/, 3 Qt of Garlic bulb, 24.23 Qt of potato tuber out of which 19.23 Qt is supplied by
   CBIs from their stocks and vegetable multiplication centers, 50 Apple seedlings and 100
   watering cans were distributed to beneficiaries. More than 848 participants got access to
   these inputs so that they could increase their income and household nutrition status.

   As the program office is on phase out period, reducing of the external dependency for
   inputs has been given due emphasis. For this, in addition to the previous three vegetable
   multiplication centers additional 3 centers were established. The construction of three
   additional light diffused potato stores has raised the number of light diffused stores to 10.
   Currently a total of 40 poor HHs has been selected by the CBIs and they are producing
   vegetable tubers and bulbs in the multiplication centers.

Ato Hailu W/kidan is one of the participants of potato production project. He is living in a village
called Zebir at Kebkele 017. He is 50 and has 3 male and 3 female family members. He said that
he had no any experience in the production of potato before. According to his explanation he was
participated on the year 2002 field day and could know the importance of vegetable production.
Ato Hailu continued his explanation and said, “…At the end of the field visits and the
explanation, I developed interest. I saw the yield produced by the then participants. I was so much
impressed and explained my interest to the CBI leaders and the development agent. As the time
comes, I was the first to be registered. After attending a skill-training program, I took potato
tuber/seed. Accordingly I prepared compost and plant 25 kg of Gorebella potato variety on 125m2
land. I produced 5 Qt of potato. After I paid 0.25 Qt potato to the CBI, I allotted 2 Qt for home
consumptionand for seed. I sold the rest 2.75 Qt to the neighboring farmers and earned Birr
550.00. Apart from what I earned, I am very much satisfied with the skill I acquired and I am
encouraging my friends to do so. Look! I have my own seed, I and my family consumed at home
and Nutrition and Diet Pattern what I can fulfill what I lack."
     I have earned additional income with

   During the reporting year, identification of 200 female participants, identification of 19
   trainees (two from each PA), and demonstration of food preparation were the
   achievements of this sub sector. The training organized for the 19 women at the Woreda
   level cover vegetable production techniques, importance and methods of preparation of
   balanced diet. These women have been organizing training programs on food preparation
and preservation at their respective Kebeles. Up to the reporting period the front line
workers of the PO have been providing support to these trainers. Local Level seed Production

Conducting of 20 sessions of skill enhancement training for 521 selected participants
have been made in the reporting period. Vertisol management, integrated pest
management, seed quality management, and post harvest techniques were some of the
topics dealt in the skill enhancement sessions. Following the skill enhancement training,
distribution of 154.455 Qt of HAR 604 /Wheat/ and 38.74 Qt of CS-20-DK /fababean/
were made. Out of the total 139.195 Qt improved seeds distributed to the resource poor
farmers only 49 Qt were supplied by the program office while the other is supplied by the
CBIs from the research centers (30 Qt HAR 604), from their own stocks and from the
local markets. A total of 570 resource poor farmer out of which 145 are female-headed
farmers were benefited from the improved seed distribution.
Experiences of the previous years have shown that construction of seed stores has
paramount importance to reduce dependency on external inputs suppliers. Accordingly,
the construction of one seed store at one Kebele was completed in the reporting period
and this increased the total number of seed stores constructed to ten. Two weight
balances were also purchased and provided to CBIs.

The other achievement made in the reporting period is variety demonstration. Two crop
varieties; namely PF-Tegegnech (Pea) and Tritical (Wheat) were demonstrated across the
two agro ecologies- Dega and Woinadega. 104 voluntarily farmers (44 on PF-Tegegnech
and 60 on Triticale) have participated on the demonstration process. Here the farmers
were responsible to manage all the farming activities including the allocation of land for
the demonstrations. Efforts were made to assess the adaptability and productivity of these
new crop varieties whether they are adaptable or not to the Dega and Woinadega agro-
ecologies. These varieties, compared to the land races they are early maturing, productive
and resistant to water logging. Especially Triticale is more productive, water logging
resistant and matures earlier than even the previous improved seeds of wheat. The Bio
mass of Triticale is also superior to any wheat varieties known in the areas. To put the
whole in one, the farmers have been willing to adopt these new improved seeds. Poultry Production

Totally 51 sessions of skill enhancement training programs were organized and
conducted to 260 voluntarily selected resource poor women. Poultry house construction;
feeding, brooding, and health care management were dealt on the enhancement training.

A total of 502 pullets and cockerels were distributed to 100 beneficiaries at 3:2 pullets to
cockerels ratio. Along with the provision of pullets and cockerels, 6 Qt of balanced
poultry feed was also been distributed in order to enable the hens to feed on till they
adapt to the situation at the farmers level.
In the reporting period only 146 poultry houses were constructed. This achievement is
49% of the total plan. The reason for the deviation of the plan is that many farmers prefer
keeping pullets in their house to constructing separate poultry houses, as they fear
predators. The purchase and distribution of poultry drugs has not been done due to the
lack of drugs that have long expiring date.

Training of GO DAs and linking of CBIs with Deberzeit poultry production and
distribution center were also accomplished in the reporting period. In line with this 10
GO DAs trained on poultry management and 24 CBI leaders visited Debrezeit poultry
production and distribution center. Improvement of Sheep Production

With the aim of improving of the wool and mutton production of "Menz" sheep, 45
sessions of skill enhancement training programs on forage production and methods of
feeding were organized and conducted for 219 identified community participants. The
training was supported with the production and provision of different types of forage
seeds. In the reporting period 151 participants were able to develop forage on 4 hectare of
land under different forage development strategies.

Training of resource poor farmers, with due emphasis to females and youths, on modern
wool processing technologies was the other achievement under taken. Here 13 farmers
out of which 62 % are females have been trained and supplied with hair processing
equipment. Supervision and follow up of the previously organized wool processing
groups has also been made. Veterinary equipments that cost Birr 14,875 have been
purchased and supplied to WOA. Burrdizo-Cattle, Burrdizo-Sheep, Ballingun-Cattle,
Ballingun-Sheep, Non electrical-stabilizer, Cat gut-Chronic, Needle for treatment, Needle
for Vaccination, and Surgical-Needle are some of the equipment that were supplied to
the WOA. Forestry Soil and Water Conservation

During the reporting year it was planned to select 400 (25% female) project participants
and 360 (17% female) participants were selected and participated in this sub sector. The
participants were selected based on their interest and full participation of the respective
CBIs in collaboration with the VLDPs. This achievement is 90% of the planned activity.
Moreover, it was planned to conduct 80 sessions of skill enhancement training program
and 60 (75%) was accomplished. The topics covered during the training include:
plantation and forest management, erosion and its effects, methods of preventing erosion,
use and application of physical and biological conservation structures.

A total of 311 beds of seedlings were sawn on project nurseries sites. In the 6 project
nursery sites and schools and on farm nurseries it was planned to produce about 1425000
seedlings of these species. The actual performance shows that 1234334 (87% of the plan)
seedlings were raised in the reporting year. Out of the total production of the seedlings,
1,292500 (93.6%) seedlings were planted. Out of these 710785 (55.%) seedlings are
planted on individuals‟ wood lots, 323215 (25%) on communal forestlands, 155100
(12%) around the church compounds, and 103400(8%) planted in the school compounds.
The survival rate of the out planted seedlings of the individual wood lots, communal
forestlands, church and school compounds is 86%, 42%, 72% and 65% respectively.

In the project nursery sites initially 44 resource poor farmers were selected by the
respective CBI with full involvement of the community as a whole to participate in the
seedling for labor program. Finally 30 of them participated actively. They were able to
produce 180,000 seedlings and supply for the local market. The total amount of money
they earned from the sale of the seedlings was Birr3600.00 and they shared on average
Birr120.00 each. This was under a controlled market price.

Those six project nursery sites, which were managed by the PO were handed over to the
CBIs and the WOA. An agreement document was prepared before the handing over of
the sites that indicates the management processes and the duties and responsibilities of
different actors including the PO. Accordingly the CBIs and Kebele Administration took
the responsibility of selection of participants based on agreed criteria and management of
the overall activities of the sites. The WOA has taken the responsibility of providing
technical field assistance and supervises and organizes skill-training programs where
necessary in collaboration with the CBIs. The PO also took the responsibility of
providing seeds of different species for a year and follow up the performance of the
project to ensure its sustainability until the termination of the program. Accordingly 89
resource poor farmers were selected and started preparing the land for seedling and the
PO provided 30 Kg of eucalyptus globules and 15 Kg of Rhanus prinoides species of

During the reporting year leguminous forage species were planted on 25 km (50% of the
annual plan) strip planting on farmlands. 550 (110% of the annual plan) meters of check
dams were constructed and supported by grass strips available in the area. Moreover to
prevent the high gully erosions of the area Vetver grass is introduced to the community,
which is provided by Southern Wollo Zone.

Necessary preconditions and model site selection for integrated water shade planning and
management on 700 hectare have been implemented at Selam Betigle Kebele. The
planning and     delineation of the area was done in collaboration with the HO.
Maintenance of 4 Km of feeder road was also carried out during the reporting period.

As a phase out strategy, in the reporting period two bridges and 2 kms of road
constructed in the year (2002) were handed over to the concerned governmental office
(the Woreda Rural Roads Desk). This was late due to the absence of concerned
government body.

On the other hand 34.6 Km of soil and stone bund 21 Km bund maintenance 1.6 cut off
dram 25 Km strip planting 5 Ha area closure was conducted in the year 2003. in addition
one work shop was conducted to WOA and PO development agents, the work shop
organized by collaboration of ASE ,HQ the total participants was 22 . And one water
shade management plan prepared at Kebele Selam Betigile, the size of the catchments
was 700 Ha, the plan was conducted with collaboration of Woreda Office of Acrcultur
and it is three-year plan. Community Health Service

In collaboration with Woreda Health Office, 16(3 females) Health Care providers trained
on Community Based Health Care (CBHC) for 5 days. The program has helped to refresh
the trainees‟ their knowledge and skill on the issues and contributed a lot to enable them
to provide quality health care services to the surrounding communities. Another training
of trainers was also organized and conducted in collaboration with Talent Youth
Association on HIV/AIDS for the selected persons from the government offices and
school clubs with the aim of combating HIV/AIDS using workplace program. It is
expected that the organization participated in the training will formulate a comprehensive
policies addressing management, human resources, prevention, education, VCT,
occupational exposure, confidentiality and employee benefits related HIV/AIDS. In this
training 17(4 females) were participated and training manuals, leaflets, posters and
booklets were distributed to the participants. At the end of the training trainees designed
action plan for the year of 2004 and establish core team that coordinates their future

As part of capacity building of the school anti-HIV/AIDS clubs, one set of education and
teaching materials was supplied to two anti-HIV/AIDS clubs at Ago and Kolomargefia
first cycle primary schools. The items include Radio Cassette Recorders, mega phone,
and dry cell batteries.

Totally in the year 5 microphones, 3 tape recorder and 2 sets of stationary material were
supplied to five first cycle primary schools anti-HIV/AIDS clubs in the target PAs. A set
of drugs was purchased and provided to the Mollale health center in which the WoH have
taken the responsibility of utilizing the drugs on the basis of revolving system based on
the agreement reached among the Rural Development Committee in order to maintain a
permanent source of medicine. For this purpose the WoH printed especial receipts with
full recognition and permission of the RDC.

Twenty-Seven sessions of mass education and advocacy on prevention of HIV/AIDS
provided for more than 2500 (1500 females) community members. The program has been
conducted at community assembly, church compounds, market days and other social
community forums like “Iqub” and “Idir” where many of the community members
gathered together for different purposes. A house-to-house visit was also conducted. In
all these moves 1240 leaflets and 20 posters were distributed to support the health
education dissemination.

The mass education disseminated through audiovisual aid, local and school drama clubs,
religious leaders and VLHPs have been playing significant role in the dissemination of
mass education in general and prevention of HIV/AIDS in particular. The education
program focused on the titles and issues of HIV/AIDS, STDs, HTPs, Family planning,
prevention of communicable disease and environmental and personal sanitation. Here
contribution of the religious leaders, VLHPs, Local Drama Clubs and School anti-
HIV/AIDS Clubs was high in brining about attitudinal and behavioral changes towards
HIV/AIDS and other communicable disease.

Generally, in the reporting year 275 sessions of mass education and advocacy on
prevention of HIV/AIDS was provided for more than 29537 (14049 females) community
members. Other good achievements of the year 2003 include a campaign against
HIV/AIDS organized for a week in collaboration with the Woreda Administration and
Health Offices. Fifteen higher institutions students (2 females) who were at their long
vacation were recruited and trained for the campaign. The students were assigned in 7
PAs. Though the campaign was organized mainly on HIV/AIDS prevention, the content
of lessons they conducted include other important health issues like prevention of
communicable and sexually transmitted disease and personal and environmental hygiene.
The campaign was supported by drama and poems prepared by the students themselves.
Many people were attracted and impressed by their way of presentation and a total of
6037 (2249 F) community members were participated in the program. The topics were
covered in 42 sessions.

6796 leaflets 189 posters and 4 booklets supported the health education dissemination in
the year. These materials have been secured from North Shoa Zone HIV/AIDS
Secretariat Office and from North East Coordination Office of Family Guidance
Association of Ethiopia (FGAE).

A formal network was established with the North Shoa Zone HIV/AIDS Secretariat
Office with the coordination of North Shoa DPPC. The network includes all NGOs
working on HIV/AIDS. The objective of the network is to coordinate the efforts of all
concerned bodies especially NGOs and to bring significant result on the prevention of the
fast growing disaster by the spread of HIV/AIDS. A regular meeting period on quarterly
base was planned and will be conducted on the issue and special report will be submitted
to the Secretariat Office through the Zone DPPC.

One EPI shelter was constructed in 4th quarter at Kebele 023. For the construction of the
EPI shelter the community provided local materials like stone, wood poles and
participated in labor, which is estimated to be Birr 700 per shelter.

Totally 5 EPI shelters were constructed at Kebeles 08,09,023,024 in the year 2004. Five
EPI shelters, including those constructed in the previous years were handed over to the
Woreda Health Office and the respective Kebele Administrations. It is estimated that the
constructed shelters have provided vaccination service for about 2300 mother and
children each.

Two ventilated improved pit latrines (VIP) were constructed as model at 023
Kolomargefia and 018 Wogere PAs. As a result of the health education provided in
different ways, 57 private pit latrines were constructed at 9 Kebeles. These latrines have
contributed to improve the environmental and personal hygiene and in the prevention of
communicable diseases in the PAs.

Among the community health trainees VLHPs, school anti-HIV/AIDS club members and
Woreda Health Office staffs participated actively to educate community in their locality
and remarkable changes have been seen. On the other hand anti-HIV/AIDS committees‟
performance has not been successful for that the government officials do not supervise
and provide technical support to them.

In the reporting quarter HIV/AIDS day was celebrated for the 1st time in Lalomama at
Molale town. The PO in collaboration with the Woreda HIV/AIDS Secretariat Office and
Woreda Health Office organized the celebration program. ASE‟s Local Dram Clubs,
students form Molale primary and Preparatory School clubs have done wonderful jobs
and presented drama and poems especially focusing on HIV/AIDS and HTPs. It was such
an interesting drama and poem that transferred a clear message about the HIV/AIDS
transmission and prevention methodologies and attracted the attention of many of the
participants. During the celebration 200 leaflets and 15 posters were distributed.

Those 10 EPI shelters constructed in previous years provided vaccination service for
2451 and 4098 mothers and children in the quarter and the year respectively. They also
helped to dissemination health information for the surrounding communities at the time
of out reach vaccination services.

Moreover, the health posts constructed earlier are functional and provide basic health
care such as medical and surgical care as an out patient service system, maternal and
child care, first aid, health education and counseling. These services have been provided
before and after starting medical services. In this regard the communities awareness level
has raised and behavioral change created on the prevention of communicable disease
including HIV/AIDS and STDS. In the 4th quarter, bout 1608 target community members
have got medical and surgical service, 602 oral pills, 1400 condoms distributed for 140
clients from the Health posts. Totally 2275 community members have got medical and
surgical service and 860 oral pills, 1760 condoms distributed for 256 clients provided in
the year.

During the reporting quarter the most common diseases registered at Molale Health
Center and PA health institutions were pneumonia, Helmenthiasis, gastritis, URTI, soft
tissue injury, pyrexia/unknown fevered/ skin and Eye disease. Education

   3.4.2. 3.1. Non-formal education - ACCESS

l facilitator during the reporting period and 7 facilitators during the last three quarters
were selected and assigned ACCESS centers.
To build the capacity of facilitators, during the reporting period, training program was
organized and conducted in collaboration with the WOE and the Woreda Curriculum
Development Team. In the training 36 (12 females) facilitators were participated in the
training program. Other than enhancing the facilitation skills of facilitators, the training
program has made facilitators be able to incorporate gender issues and methods of
preventing HIV/AIDS in their regular lessons. Totally 4 (80% of the plan) training
programs were organized and conducted during the reporting year.

To alleviate the scarcity of reference materials, textbooks and workbooks in the ACCESS
centers, 371 textbooks of formal schools and 5177 workbooks were distributed to all
centers during the third and fourth quarters respectively. In addition to this, different
materials and equipments that are used for the production of instructional materials were
distributed to 9 formal schools, which are linked to all ACCESS centers. Accordingly,
teachers in theses schools and ACCESS center facilitators have been preparing jointly
and submitted their action plan to the program office and the WOE, which show a regular
schedule for meeting and production of instructional materials.

 To meet the increasing number of students in the ACCESS centers, expanding the
centers (construction of additional rooms) was mandatory. Accordingly, in the reporting
period 1 center and in the last 3 quarters 4 centers were expanded to accommodate
students up to the level.

After the necessary preconditions have been facilitated between the program office and
the WOE, during the reporting period, 12 ACCESS centers were handed over to the
government and the community successfully. The WOE assigned two officials that are
responsible to run and manage the non-formal education sector (ACCESS and FAL).
Additionally, all ACCESS center were made to get supervision coverage from the WOE
and the formal schools

The promotes during the year in the three levels, i.e. level 1, level 2 and level 3 as per
examinees was 93.88%, 95.66% and 97,73% respectively. The average detainee rate and
dropout rate in the three levels was 4.82% and 16.7% respectively.

To make the ACCESS centers self-sufficient and support their efforts, during the year,
they were provided with vegetable seeds, variety of tree seeds and gardening tools.

For the academic year 2003/2004, a total of 1906 children (934 females) have registered
and are attending ACCESS program. Facilitators, CBIs and PECs have played a great
role in increasing the enrolment rate of students by initiating the community to send
school aged children to ACCESS centers. FAL

The PO in collaboration with WOE organized and conducted training program to
facilitators who will participate in the FAL program carried out from December 2003 to
June 2004. In the training, l3 male and l female have participated.
Prior to this training, similar program was conducted before the commencement of the
previous (December2002-June 2003) FAL program for 15(1 female) facilitators

During the report year 764 (289 female) adults were attended the program and finally
after administering the examination, which was set by WOE as per the BOE standard
(guide line), those attendants who passed successfully to the next level 417(148 females)
were awarded certificates. The certificates were prepared and signed by WOE, Kebele
Education and Training Board and the PO. Registration of old and new FAL attendants
for the academic year 2003/2004 has been carried out during the reporting period. The
teaching and learning process will begin from January 1, 2004. for this purpose 4200
different books, i.e. teaching materials, text books, leaflets and other texts that could be
used as reference materials were distributed to all centers. Rural Water Supply

During the reporting quarter, the construction of one-spring development and one small-
scale irrigation schemes, which were started in the previous quarters, was completed at
Kebele Yedil Chora and Selame Betgile. The capacity of the spring at Kebele Yedil
Chora is 1.5 Liters /second and it is serving to 165 households and 396 Livestock for
drinking. Similarly the capacity of the small-scale irrigation scheme is 3-lit/ second and it
can irrigate three hectares of land that serves 86 households.

The other activity carried out in the reporting quarter is that the training of 40 water
committee members and 8 CBI leaders on water management. This training was
conducted in collaboration with the Woreda Water Desk.

Totally in the reporting year two springs were developed for drinking both for human and
cattle at Kebele Yedil Chara and Tihun Abeba that serve 345 rural people (HHs) and 396
livestock for drinking. Two small-scale irrigation schemes were constructed at Kebele
Yedile Chora and Selame Betgle with a capacity of cultivating 4.5 hectares of land that
benefit 119 households. Moreover, three run off water harvesting schemes that contain
about 60,000 liters each were constructed at three different Kebeles (one at a primary
school compound). These schemes serve as a supplementary irrigation and as domestic
animal consumption. The people are producing onion; cabbage, carrot and other
vegetables both for their consumption and for sell. On the other hand three roof
catchments were constructed at three primary schools to solve the problem of drinking
water mainly for school children. The construction of one farm pond was also completed
with the capacity of 130m3 that serve both for irrigation and livestock consumption .

In all the constructions of these completed water projects the community members,
though there was a resistance in some places due to their busyness, were participating in
collecting local materials like stone, sand and contributed labor. The total community
participation in all the projects was estimated to be 2360 PD, which is about Birr
The other important achievement in the reporting year is the handing over of those five
water points, which were completed in the past two years. Zebire spring development
scheme at Dileber Kebele, Seradiber and Fuwa at Gohe Kebele, Gezet at Yedel Chora
Kebele and Biskorebta spring development and Yecha hand dug well at Tihun Abeba
Kebeles were handed over to the Woreda Water Desk and dto the respective community.
The handing over was delayed due to the absence of focal person in the Woreda for long
time after the government restructuring. Gender Route Project

As part of women capacity building, of the construction of the Woreda Women
Association Office was completed 100% and furnished. The office constructed
depending on the plan designs of Zone Urban Development Office and handed over to
the Zone And Woreda Women Association Offices.

In collaboration with North Shoa Women Associations Office, gender sensitization
workshop training program organized and conducted for women leaders of the locality at
different levels to build their capacity. In this training a total of 48 women (20 from ten
Kebeles Women Association, 28 from woreda and Kebele CBI Leaders) have been
participated in the training program. The training was supported with drama show (role
plays), based on community believes and self image.

In the year 2003, totally 105 women leaders at different levels participated in the
leadership training programs provided with in two rounds. The topics covered in the
trainings include gender division of labor, women control power over resource and
benefits, decision-making, and HTP prevention. The trainees were selected from Kebele
and Woreda Women Association Office, Kebele and Woreda community based
institutions. Moreover, workshop on HTPs prevention was conducted for two days in two
rounds for the Woreda and Kebele HTP prevention committee members, to the
community leaders and HTP practitioners in the target PAs.
Since HTPs are roadblock of human rights, the workshop focused on conventions of the
rights of the child and other human rights, the survey on HTPs in the Woreda has
completed, the document production has under process.
In the training two resource persons participated from the Zone Labor and Social Affairs
Office. At the end of the training, the committees at different levels were strengthened
and the Woreda Youths, Culture and Sports Office took the responsibility of following
and supporting these committees so as to enable them to play their role in preventing the
deep-rooted HTPs.

From the total 293 (60% female) trainees were participated in the trainings organized and
conducted on gender route training programs. ASE staffs, Kebele and Woreda CBI and
some religious leaders participated actively and share knowledge and experiences to the
surrounding communities.

Another important achievement of the reporting year was the training program organized
and conducted for 29 women out of which 9 were heads of their household, to address the
practical and strategic gender needs. They were trained as Village Level Health
Promoters (VLHPs) in order to solve the problem of reproductive health and disseminate
knowledge among the community. After the training the VLHPs are working closely with
the community at their respective villages and they identified common communicable
diseases and teach people about contraceptive methods. To crreat easy access to family
planning services they link clients to ADA CBRHAs.

The efforts so far to equalize the participation of both sexes in development and decision
making power is encouraging. The participation of women in various activities increased
and improved even in resource management. However, still it needs maximizing the
participation of women in strategic needs and in income generation schemes and this has
to be improved to ensure their resource control power and maintain their rights.

The total number of female participants in the IRDP planed for the year 2003 was about
8530 (50%) and the actual performance of the year shown in the table above is 17111
(46.3 %). As compared to the year 2002 achievements, the 2003 performance is increased
by 0.3%.

3.4.3. Organization and Management

3.4.3. 1. Personnel

At the end of the reporting period there were 19 (17 male and 2 female) permanent
employees. Nine of them are Development Agents, 1 Supervisor and acting Project
Officer, 4 Project Officers, one Storekeeper/Secretary one Cashier and one
Driver/Mechanic, one Driver/Purchaser and a Program Director. There were also 6 (all
male) temporarily employed workers working as guard, messenger, cleaner and
Construction Forman.

Transfer: the former driver/purchaser was transferred to Bereh Aleltu PO on his own
personal interest and application.
Promotion: A total of four employees were promoted from their initial position to the
next position as per the rules and regulation of the. The following table shows the details:

Exit Staff: One staff was resigned on his own personal interest and application.

Vacant Post: There were above four vacant posts going open for the past project years.
The detail is shown as below.

Temporary Contract Workers: At the end of the reporting year there were six
temporary contract employees. The detail is shown as below. Staff Development
 As a capacity building, the most staff members of the PO have participated in various
training, workshops and exchange visits on different themes organized by different
bodies. Transport

The PO has one Land-Cruiser Toyota motor and Land-Rover double cap cars. There are
also four old motorbikes, which have been providing service. Networking

The PO has strengthened its networking with the community at large, with PAs, CBIs,
different NGOs and Sector Office at the Woreda, Zone and Regional level. Moreover the
networking established with research and inputs delivery organizations has been
strengthened and extended to the CBIs also. In this regard trainings, workshops, meetings
and evaluations were held in collaboration with these bodies. Improved seed was
procured with smooth relation created between ILRI, Kulumsa Agricultural Research
Institute and the PO. The established network has been continued with Sheno
Agricultural Research Institute in training, experience sharing and in the follow up and
support of participatory researches carried out in the program areas.

An exchange visit was organized and carried out for CBI leaders, relevant Woreda sector
offices, GO DAs, and PA leaders. In this program W/ro Ayelech‟s Traditional Soil
Conservation practice at Ankober, Sheno Agricultural Research Center, Selam
Vocational School, Bio Farm in Addis Ababa, Kulumsa Agricultural Research center at
Assela Improved Seed Multiplication Center, Debrezeit Poultry Production Center, and
Assela Molt Factory were visited. In this visit the CBIs were networked with the research
and input delivery centers for their future relation. Moreover, an exchange visit on
highland fruit production was also conducted in collaboration with GTZ

Joint technical review meetings (PRRPs) were conducted with the community, CBIs,
Zone DPP Desk and Woreda Sector Offices. During the fourth quarter of the reporting
year different NGOs working in North Shoa conducted quarterly review meeting at
LaloMama and the projects of the PO were visited by these parties.

The PO has conducted two PRRPs with the community, one on the mid year and the
other on the end of the year. Based on the results of the PRRPs the operational plan for
the year 2004 was prepared. Financial Performance

The financial source of the PO is the fund granted by AAE, which is procured through
child sponsorship mechanism. The total budget allocated for the year 2003 was Birr2,
110,655.00 (Two million one hundred ten thousand six hundred fifty five Birr only). The
total expenditure of the year was Birr2023269.00 (Two million twenty three thousand
two hundred sixty Birr nine only), which is 94.9% of the allocated budget. The variance
Birr87386.00 (Eight seven thousand three hundred eighty-six Birr) is effect of the over
utilized budget in the year 2001, which is not possible to adjust due to the unwillingness
of AAE to refund that amount of money. Details of the budget utilization are attached in
the annex part of this document and a short summary of the expenditure by major sectors
is depicted here under.

3.4.4. Problems and solution measures

      Large number of dropouts in community training programmes has been recorded
       in the reporting period.
      Less capacity of the members of the local drama clubs to prepare scripts for plays,
      The shortage of Gorebela tuber
      Budget shortage
      There was shortage of CS-20-DK/Fababean/ in the reporting period.
      Wool processing trainees are not willing to work in-group.
      Farmers had no enough time to participate in those activities that require their
      High dependency on food aid and government‟s unsystematic application of food
       for work program hindered the voluntary involvement of farmers.
      The open grazing system, which is highly exercised by most of the farmers
       created a great problem to promote biological conservation measures.
      Shortage of contraceptive choice in the Woreda.
      Absence of VCT in the Woreda
      Shortage Booklets, leaflets and posters.
      Facilitators' turnover of both programs
      High dropout rate.
      Resistance of the community members in some places to provide local materials
       for the construction.
      Frequent government staff turnover.


      Preparation of scripts on different issues by external resource person is
      Regarding the causes of GARED and SET dropouts, detail assessment should be
      Build the resource management and leadership capacity of the CBI leaders.
      Searching for community development fund for the CBIs is a critical issue
      Support the CBIs so that they can prepare mini project proposal on irrigation for
      The demand for exotic pullets and cockerels could not be satisfied only through
       provision and distribution. Hence encouraging of local brooding system and
       supporting the Woreda CBI to establish mini poultry production/brooding/ project
       is suggested.
     The program office should assess the problem of wool processing groups in depth
      and give solution.



         Formation of the (Promotion of Participatory Methodology) (PROPAM)

         Organizing series of meeting of the steering committee

         Writing proposal for funding

         Writing invitations for more than 40 participants and follow-up of the

         Developing terms of reference for a person identified to present a paper on

         Revising the terms of references of the steering committee and preparing it for

         Setting up the facilitation modality of the founding workshop

         Organizing the meeting/ the workshop that launches the establishment of the
          forum at CRDA.

         Preparing proceeding of the one day workshop on PROPAM

         Facilitation of preparatory works for the initiative known as promotion of
          farmers innovation and Experimentation (PROFIEET)

         Organize series of meeting of the PROFIEET Steering Committee/ preparing
          agendas, conveying the meeting, writing minutes etc./
         Select a consultant and work as a counter part of the consultant on behalf of
          the steering committee. Accordingly, joint trips were made to Awassa and

         Organize a one day workshop to discuss findings of the consultant on the state
          of art of participatory research in Ethiopia
   Prepare – proceedings/minutes of the mini workshop

   Actively participate in the organization of a National workshop on Farmers
    Competence Initiative.

       -   Work as member of the Steering Committee, particularly as a treasure.
       -   Participate in the preparatory works to organize a National workshop
           on FCI
       -   Organize the workshop that was conveyed for 4 days and which was
           attended by senior professionals in the country
       -   A new professional association known as LINK-OROVAMP was
       -   Produce financial reports and present it in the steering Committee

   Organize one-day workshop in Debremarkos to develop and discuss the
    implementation of ASE-DVV partnership project on skill enhancement.

   Organize and conduct (3 days long) training on the concepts of farmer
    innovation and PTD for Amaro staff in collaboration with programs
    Department and private consultant

   Facilitate summer course training for ASE staff in collaboration with the

   Attending forum meetings on capacity building and PRSP.

   Participate in the review exercise of ESM and Bereh Aleltu – Program Office

   Review the reports on 3 decades experiences of ASE on training and

   Implementation Plan of ASE-DVV joint FAL training at Enebse IFSP was
    prepared and sent to DVV, East Africa Regional Project Office

   Coordinated the Construction of low cost boarding at ESM-IFSP with DVV

   An article briefly mirroring ASE‟s profile was prepared and given to DVV for

   Workshop on PROFIEET was organized at national level

   The Training Modules that were prepared by Enebse IFSP, Bereh Aleltu IFSP
    and Amaro IFSP were seen Vs their relevance
          Involved as a member in planning team of Bereh Aleltu Project proposal

          Review Workshop was conducted in Amaro IFSP

          Module preparation Workshop in which all ASE staff that had no orientation
           before, was conducted at Lalomama IFSP

          Module preparation Training Manual arranged, photocopied and distributed to
           all the POs

          Terms of Reference on FAL and Terms of Reference for concept paper on
           possible credit sources were prepared and given to potential resource persons
           as per our understanding with DVV

          Monitoring Field visit was made to Amaro IFSP, all the sites were visited with
           view to observing the implementation of training Vs the guide line

          Participated in International Workshop on Participatory Extension

          Participated in the workshop organized by Amhara Education Bureau at
           Woldia and Presented a concept paper on FFS

          Prepared a paper on FFS for publication on DVV bulletin


 4.3.1. FINANCE


The budgeted revenue for the year 2003 was Birr 15,155,090 whereas the actual revenue
was Birr 13,693,724. The imbalance came because the revenue obtained from the
funding sources was less than the one budgeted for the period.

Major financial sources for Bereh Aleltu and Enebessie Sar Midir IFSPs are NOVIB and
EED. Semen Shoa IRDP is financed by Action Aid Ethiopia. While, Amaro Kelo IFSP
financed by TROCARE. The amount donated by each donor is shown below.

       Donor                                Amount in Birr
       EED (EUR 476,780)                     3,451,495
       NOVIB (EUR 453,877)                   4,304,531
       AAE                                   2,021,036
       TROCARE                                  3,912,643
       Other Income1                                4,019
       Total Income                            13,693,724

CHART 1: Source of Fund for the Year 2003. (%)

                        TROCARE                                EED
                          29%                                  25%



In this part of the report the financial expenditure is compared with the budget.

The average expenditure for the period covered is 93% of the allocated budget. When
analyzed by region the performance varies from 101% (Head Quarter) to 86% (Amaro
Kelo IFSP). See Chart 2 below.

Chart 2: Financial Performance by Region (Birr '000)

 Because of losses in foreign currency exchange rate, “Other Income” which was Birr
181,614 has been reduced to Birr 4019 as shown above.





                                           HQ        Bereh    Enebese     Amaro     S.Shoa         Total
                       Budget              2261      2786       3450      4547      2111           15155
                       Expend.             2283      2697       3135      3932      2023           14070
                       Variance            -22        89        315        615        88           1085

When the expenditure is analyzed by cost category, as indicated in chart 3 below, the
personnel cost is 105%, program cost is 88%, investment cost is 88% and administration
cost is 102% of the budget.

Chart 3: Financial Performance by Cost Category (Birr’000)

                               Personnel          Program    Investment    Admin.          Total
                 Budget             3678           7387        2978        1112        15155
                 Expend.            3851           6479        2606        11334       14070
                 Variance           -173           908          372        -10222          1085

From the above summary figures, it could be concluded that the budget variances are
reasonable. However, since summary figures do not show positive and negative
variances, each activity‟s variance is discussed below in detail in order to show the true
picture of the financial performance.


       As indicated in Annex 1 the budget utilization of the HQ as a whole is 1 % above
       the allocated budget. There are positive and negative variances.
        The total personnel cost is 20 % above the allocated budget and this is the major
        variance shown for the period. The reason for this is the unbudgeted salary
        adjustment made on the 4th quarter. The program cost, the investment cost and
        the administration cost are utilized 91%, 64% and 78% respectively. Under these
        budget lines some costs are over utilized but the amounts are in significant.


 86% of the budget was consumed during this period. Although the overall performance
 seems within the budget limit, some over and under variances are observed. For some
 budget lines expenses are incurred but no budget is allocated. (i.e. research, consultancy,
 vet post construction, household furniture and spring development). Among the budget
 lines that are over utilized are: culvert (bridge) construction (83%), water supply
 equipment (45%), office furniture (76%), bank charges (425%). Insufficient fund has
 been allocated for the bank charges in the previous years therefore sufficient budget must
 be allocated in the future.


        97 % of the allocated budget has been utilized (see annex 2). In some budget
        lines, minor variations have been shown but it was not significant. Apart from
        personnel cost, all costs are utilized within the budget limits.


        The average budget utilization for this period is 91 %. (see annex 3). Personnel
        cost is over utilized 4% above the allocated budget. Significant variances are
        shown under the investment cost, (office building 52% above the budget). This
        shows that unplanned purchase has been performed. Also insufficient funds have
        been allocated for stationeries and office supplies and bank charges. No budget
        is allocated for culvert (bridge) construction, but expenses are incurred during this
        period. Therefore attention must be given in the future.


      96 % of the allocated budget has been utilized. Though the total expenditures seem
      to be within the budget line, budgets are significantly over utilized under some cost
      lines. Among the budget lines, roof catchments (44%), run of water harvesting
      (51%), and net working (52%) is above budget. On the other hand, no budgets were
      allocated for support to formal school but expenditures were incurred during this
      period. Attention must be given in allocating the yearly budget.


a). HRM Activities
       Recruitment & Resignation

       At the beginning of the year, we had 136 staff members. 3 Project Officer; 5 Program
       Officers, 6 Development Agents a total of 16 employees left the organization due to
       resignation for higher education; other employment opportunities, death, etc.

       On the other hand, 4 Project Officers; 9 Development Officers; 1 Cashier; 1 Admin and
       Finance Officer, 1 Secretary/Store Keeper, 1 Purchaser Driver; 1 Program Officer and 1
       Assistant Librarian; total of 18 were employed during the year.

Description                  Head       Enebse   Amaro      Bereh     S/Shoa         Total
                             Quarter    Sar      Kelo       Aleltu
Beginning Of year            32         27       26         31        20             136
    Recruitment             2          9        6          1         2              20
    Transfer                           1                   2                        3
Sub total                    34         37       32         34        22             23
    Death                   1                                                       1
    Contract
       termination           1                                                       1
    Resignation             2          6        2          2         1              13
    Internal transfer
                                        1        1                    1              3
Sub total                    4          7        3          2         2              18
End of 4th quarter           30         30       29         32        20             141

ASE Staff Profile
                     Bereh         Ene           Ama       mam        H
                                   bse           ro        a          Q
                                                           Midi                      G.To
                                                           r                         tal
                                 Tot          Tot        Tot        Tot        Tot
                     M   F       al M       F al M     F al M     F al M F     al M          F Total
Director                                                                  1      1         1 0         1
Programs Dept
Director                                                                  1      1         1 0         1
Training Dept
Director                                                                    1        1     1 0        1
Support Services
Dept Director                                                                   1    1     0    1     1
Division Heads                                                              1   1    2     1    1     2
Progam Officers                                                             4   2    6     4    2     6
Project Director                     1    0    1   1      1      1      1            0     3    0     3
Adm & Fin
Officer                1   0    1    0    0    0    1    1       1   1        0            3 0        3
PME Officer                     0    1    0    1    1    1           0        0            2 0        2
Project Officers       3   0    3    5    0    4    7    7      3    3        0           17 0       18
Supervisors            3   0    3    2    0    2    2    2      1    1        0            8 0        8
DAs                   12   0   13    9    2   11    9 1 10      8 1 9         0           38 4       43
Support staff         11   2   13    7    2    9    5 2 7       4 1 5 11 7 18             35 14      52
Total                 30   2   32   26    4   30   26 3 29     18 2 20 19 11 30          114 22     141

         Staff Development

         In an effort to develop the staff of ASE various training and development works have
         been done in the HQs and the program Offices. A training Plan was prepared for the
         fourth quarter and courses were organized accorgingly.

         Generally in the HQs and program Offices, various short and long term programs were
         arranged for staffs of the HQ and the Program Offices. Among the short term programs
         the following are the major ones.

         Training & workshops on Right based Approach to Development; Constituency building
         Communication & Facilitation Skills; Organization & management; PME; Integrated
         Water shade Management; Vidiography and stills Photography; Workshop on Pan
         African conference on water facilitated by HRD Division.

         Other training Programs were also organized by the Program Offices that encompass the
         following topics.

                  Agriculture
                  Food security
                  Research
                  Education
                  Land use
                  Animal production
                  Research
                  Gender Mainstreaming
                  Plant Production
      Tse tse control
      Computer application
      PPME
      And other related topics

Participants of these programs were Development Agents, Supervisors, Project Officers,
Program Officers and support staffs from the Program Offices and the Head Quarters

Performance Evaluation System

A new appraisal system including new appraisal format developed and Orientation
program conducted to Program Offices; the system is being exercised.

Long term programs

One Development Agent is admitted to a local University for a summer degree program
and one program Director is sent abroad to attend masters degree program.
Computerization of the human resource database

Record and retrieval system of the Human resource information of ASE is developed in
collaboration with the Information technology section; Data is partially captured . Trial
of the system is underway.

Salary and benefits

The annual Salary Increase for the yr 2003 is given to ASE staff according to the
provisions of the Administrative manual of ASE.

Based on motivational survey conducted by the HRD Division; a salary and benefit
package was studied by the Division and submitted to the Management. On the basis of
this a new salary and benefit package was studied by external consultant and
implemented after the approval of the ASE Board of Management.

Insurance policies bought to new employees and adjustments of the insurance policies are
underway based on the newly implemented salary package.

Contracts of all employees are renewed for the coming two years per the employment
policy of ASE.

Facilitation of Training; Management and Procurement Committees were made by
the HRD Division including; Selection of trainees; Organizing meetings and writing
minutes and Correspondence; Purchase of Various materials & supplies; Invitation &
Selection of consultants for various services; Handling medical & insurance cases;
Supplying information to other organizations issuing certificates and other related works.
b). General Services

Providing Vehicle & truck maintenance Services were given to the HQ and Program
Offices as required. Vehicle repair & maintenance service were given to ERSHA (other
NGO) on payment basis.

The maintenance services were for different types of vehicles, motor bicycles, trucks
generators, welding machines, water pumps and other equipment.

Finalizing the upgrading the HQ garage was made that include the expansion of the
garage facilities.
Unnecessarily dumped materials in HQ are under disposal communication & follow up
for the other items is underway.

Change of new plate numbers for ASE vehicles in the HQ and Program Offices is done as
per the instruction of the government.

Procurement and stores management

Purchasing materials and supplies to HQ & Program Offices that encompass 124
purchase orders worth of Br 367,950.54 at HQ and 178 purchase worth of
Br.1,494,983.67 orders were processed and the items were checked and received by HQ

The items include office machinery, construction materials, Health supplies, spareparts,
printing materials, agricultural tools, clothing, office supplies…
 1272 quintals of wheat were obtained from CRDA for relief

Stores and Supply
Equipment & Materials worth of Br 1,495,052.2 0 were dispatched to POs Receiving,
handling, storing and issuing materials and supplies to HQ & Program Offices Incoming
goods that include supplies; materials, tools and equipment worth of Br 367,950.54 were
checked and received.

Checking recording and reconciling periodically were made. Equipment materials &
supplies worth of Br 360, 456.31 were issued. Status report of obsolete items were made.
Disposal of various items is announced and final selection made. Conducting annual
physical inventory of 2003 conducted by a task force.


Source of Fund           EUR                     Birr
NOVIB                    453,780.22              4,304,531.00
EED                      368,377.28              3,451,495.00
TROCARE                  -                       3,912,643.00
AAE                      -                       2,014,490.00
*Other Income            -                       4,459.00
Sub-total                822,157.50              13,687,618.00
GRAND TOTAL              822,157.50              13,687,618.00


PROGRAM        Annual         Annual         Variance      % Of Budget
               Expenditure    Budget                       Utilization
HQ             2,282,905.00   2,261,445.00   -21,460.00    101
Amaro Kello    3,932,816.00   4,547,183.00   614,367.00    86
Bereh Aleltu   2,700,967.00   2,785,652.00   84,685.00     97
Enebsie Sar    3,135,311.00   3,450,152.00   314,841.00    91
Lalomama       2,023,285.00   2,110,655.00   87,370.00     96
Total          14,075,284.00 15,155,087.00 1,079,803.00    93


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