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					AP United States History
  Unit 10 Turmoil & Progress
                                                            History Of The Viet People
                                                                 • Traces back over 2,200 years.
                                                                   • Remained relatively independent
                                                                     until 1858.
                                                                   • Continually pushed back Chinese
                                                                       and Malaysian invasions, but would
                                                                       pay tribute as a “client kingdom” to
                                                                       the Chinese.
                                                                   •   France, exploring new routes to
                                                                       China, claims the land known as
                                                                        • Quickly becomes one of France’s
                                                                          most profitable colonies.
                                                                        • Saigon was built to resemble a
            Colonial Saigon
                                                                         “Little Paris.”
                                                                  Ho Chi Minh
                                                                Impact of French rule.
                                                                • Very harsh and exploitative.
                                                                • French treated the Vietnamese
                                                                  as children.
                                                                • Little to no self-rule, very strict
                                                                    laws, brutal punishments, high

   French Aristocrat In
                                                                •   Were not allowed to serve in
    Vietnam, Circa 1910                                             the government, so had very
                                                                    little experience when the
                                                                    Japanese invaded and the
                                                                    French left.
                                                                                             • Born Nguyen Tat Thanh
                                                                                                Ho Chi Minh
                                                                                              in 1890.
                                                                                               • Educated in Paris,
                                                                                                 London, and Moscow.
                                                                                               • Very idealistic, originally
                                                                                                   democratic in thinking,
                                                                                                   but eventually became a
                                                                                               •   Started an underground
                                                                                                   movement for Vietnamese
                                                                                                   independence in the last
Ho Chi Minh As A Student In Paris
                                                                                                   years of World War I.
                                                   Ho Chi Minh
                                              •   One of the leading
                                                  nationalist figures of
                                                  the early twentieth
                                              •   Highly respected by
Ho Chi Minh With Students
                                                  all Vietnamese
 g/QIaPSMVXN1Q/s320/Ho+Chi+MInh+Museum4.JPG       people, even his
                                                                                   Ho Chi Minh
                                                                         • World War I & the Treaty of Versailles.
                                                                         • Wilson basesPoints. proposal on
                                                                           the Fourteen
                                                                                        his peace

                                                                            • One of the main issues was national
                                                                         • Allowed people to make choices

                                                                           about the government for themselves.
                                                                         • Ho audience withatWilson. asks for
                                                                               was in Paris the time,

                                                                            • Wants to discuss Vietnam. of self-
                                                                                                the ideal

                                                                         • Wilson, in his usualsee the “little
                                                                              determination for
                                                                                                Southern racist
POTUS Woodrow Wilson
                                                                           attitude, refuses to
                                                                           yellow monkey” and states that he is
                                                                           only referring to European peoples.
                                                                   Ho Chi Minh
                                                               • Ho becomes disillusioned
                                                                with democracy as a result
                                                                of Wilson.
                                                                 • Joins the French
                                                                   Communist Party in 1920.
                                                                 • Travels to Moscow and
                                                                   studies under Lenin.
                                                                 • Organizes the Indochinese
         Ho Chi Minh 1920                                         Communist Party in 1930
                                                                  and the Viet Minh, or
                                                                  Vietnamese Independence
                                                                  League in 1941.
                                                                                Ho Chi Minh
                                                                     • Experience in World War II.
                                                                            • Hothe Vietnamese resistance.
                                                                                 Chi Minh becomes a leader

                                                                               • Gains invaluable from both the
                                                                                 political support
                                                                                                   military and
                                                                                   Americans and the Soviets in
                                                                                   fighting Japanese and Vichy
                                                                                   French forces.
                                                                            • Builds a strong political base
                                                                              and store of arms in the
                                                                             northern provinces.
                                                                               • By 1945, represents the in
 Ho Chi Minh (3rd From Left) With
American OSS During World War II
                                                                                 strongest political force
                                                                               •   Wants to take the next step:
                                                                                   Vietnamese independence.
                                                   Vietnamese Independence
                                                   Post-WWII Issues
                                                  • Communist-backed and
                                                   democratic-backed groups
                                                   both declare independence.
                                                    • France wants to reassert control
                                                        over colonies lost during World
                                                        War II.
                                                    •   Were willing to recognize
                                                        autonomy, but not total
Charles De Gaulle Reviewing
 French Troops In Vietnam
                                                    •   Wants to set up a similar situation
                                                        to what is found in the British
                                                         • Vietnamese and other groups do
                                                          not trust French intentions.
                                                              Vietnamese Independence
                                                              Post-WWII Issues
                                                                 • France sets up puppet
                                                                     emperors in Cambodia,
                                                                     Laos, and Vietnam.
                                                                 •   Because the Communists
                                                                     and Ho Chi Minh were the
                                                                     first to claim
                                                                     independence, France
                                                                     would gain support from
                                                                     the U.S. for “stemming the
   French Colonies In
Laos, Cambodia & Indochina
                                                                     tide of world communism,”
                                                                     not for France’s true goal
                                                                     of preserving colonial
                                                          Vietnamese Independence
                                                          First Indochinese War
                                                   (Vietnamese War Of Independence)
                                                   • Negotiations between the French and
                                                     various Vietnamese groups break
                                                      • Ho Chi Minh turns his forces against the
                                                   • U.S. aids France financially, but sends

                                                     no military support.
                                                      • France usesrest lined of U.S. aid for the
                                                        military, the
                                                                      only half
                                                                                the pockets of
                                                          French aristocrats in Vietnam, as well as
                                                          President Charles de Gaulle.
                                                      •   French army is undermanned and ill-
     Vietnamese Patriots
During The First Indochina War
                                                      •   Morale, already suffering from World War
                                                          II, deteriorates from fighting a guerrilla
                                                          war in the jungles against the Viet Minh.
                                                                 Vietnamese Independence
                                                      First Indochinese War
                                               (Vietnamese War Of Independence)
                                                                • War lasts for eight years.
                                                                • Dien Bien Phu.
                                                                   • Bulk of the French army is trapped in a
                                                                     remote outpost in the north.
                                                                   • The Viet Minh and Democratic forces
                                                                     surround the outpost and France

 Captured French Soldiers
                                                                • By the end of the war, Eisenhower
Following The Surrender At
                                                                  declares that Southeast Asia was
      Dien Bien Phu
                                                                  of “transcendent importance” to
                                                                  American security.
                                                                   • Stability of a democratic government in
                                                                     Vietnam was essential.
                                                            Vietnamese Independence

                                                                       • Very awkward treaty signed
                                                 Geneva Peace Accords, 1954
                                                                        in 19 54 by France,
                                                                        Cambodia, Laos, the
                                                                        Democratic Republic of
                                                                        Vietnam (North), the State of
                                                                        Vietnam (South), the United
                                                                        Kingdom, the Soviet Union,
                                                                        the People’s Republic of
       Vietnamese During The                                            China, and the United States.
      Capture Of Dien Bien Phu
                                                                         • Each signatory pledged to guarantee
                                                                           the terms of the treaty.
                                                                         • Few of the parties would uphold their
                                                                         • Vietnam would become the second
                                                                           battleground for the Superpowers.
                                                  Vietnamese Independence

                                       Geneva Peace Accords, 1954
                                            The Accords.
                                                              • Independence for Laos,
                                                                Cambodia, and Vietnam.
                                                              • Hostilities to cease, as well as
                                                                  the prohibition of foreign
                                                                  troops, military personnel,
                                                                  arms, and munitions from
                                                                  entering the country.
                                                              •   No foreign military bases in
                                                                  the country, unless freedom
                                                                  is threatened.
                                                              •   Temporary partition of
                                                                  Vietnam at the 17th parallel.
Partition Of Vietnam, 1954
                                                Vietnamese Independence

                                                           • The Accords.
                                    Geneva Peace Accords, 1954
                                                             • National to be heldfor
                                                                 two years.
                                                             •   The Vietnamese people are
                                                                 to enjoy the fundamental
                                                                 freedoms guaranteed by
                                                                 democratic institutions.
                                                             •   Free expression of the
                                                                 general will of the
                                                                 Vietnamese people.
                                                             •   Protection of the rights of
                                                                 individuals and property
Finalizing The Geneva Accords         must be upheld.
                                                    Vietnamese Independence
                                       Geneva Peace Accords, 1954
                                           The Accords.
                                                         • No reprisals by either side.
                                                         • All sides are committed to
                                                             the reestablishment and
                                                             consolidation of peace in
                                                         •   All foreign powers are to
                                                             refrain from any
French POWs After The
 Fall Of Dien Bien Phu
                                                             interference in the internal
                                                             affairs of Cambodia, Laos,
                                                             and Vietnam.
                                                                             Early American Involvement
                                                                            Eisenhower Years
                                                                   •Ngo Dinh Diem.
                                                                            • Prime Minister of the Republic
                                                                              of Vietnam (South).
                                                                            • Fragile power base among the
                                                                             Catholics, French-trained urban
                                                                             elites, and landlords.
                                                                              • Not looking for any major changes
                                                                                to the status quo.
                                                                              • No new land policy to benefit the
                                                                                rural poor.
                                                                              • Focuses more on the growth of
   S.V. President Ngo Dinh Diem

                                                                                the cities.
                                                                    Early American Involvement
                                                                 Eisenhower Years
                                                            •Ngo Dinh Diem.
                                                                • Did not have much military
                                                                • Did not have the support of Binh
                                                                    Xuyen, leader of the Vietnamese
                                                                    crime syndicate.
                                                                •   Catholic leader in a Buddhist
                                                                •   Poor leadership qualities, looking
                                                                    out for his own interests.
    Brother Ngo Dinh Dhu
                                                                •   Worst choice Eisenhower could
                                                                      Early American Involvement
                                                                 Eisenhower Years
                                                                • Diem secures power base.
                                                                  • Relies more on his family than on
                                                                    democratically chosen officials.
                                                                  • Wins the election of 1955, which
                                                                    was claimed to be rigged.
                                                                  • Refuses to hold nationwide
                                                                       elections for other offices in 1956.
                                                                        • Instead, proclaims South Vietnam to
                                                                          be an independent nation.
                                                                        • Violation of the Geneva Accords.
                                                                        • Supported by Ike, who had proof that
                                                                          Ho Chi Minh and the communists
      Ngo Dinh Diem With Ike       were receiving military aid from China
                                                                          and beginning guerrilla war in the
                                                         Early American Involvement
                                                        Eisenhower Years
                                                       • Ike’s support.
                                                         • Officially recognizes Diem’s
                                                             government, despite protests
                                                             from U.S. and U.N. officials.
                                                         •   Sends $200 million in military
                                                             and economic aid.
                                                              • Promote internal security and
                                                                  economic stability in South
                                                              •   Establish and maintain control
                                                                  throughout the territory.
South Vietnamese Army Officers
   With American Advisors
                                                              •   Effectively counteract Viet Minh
    I/AAAAAAAAAS0/CIWTWRku3-8/s1600/s+v+a.jpg                     infiltration and paramilitary
                                                                  activities SOUTH of the 17th parallel.
                                                                           Early American Involvement
                                                                            Kennedy Years
                                                                           • “Flexible response” foreign
                                                                              • Increase economic and military
                                                                                aid to Diem.
                                                                              • Focused on training programs,
                                                                                  as Kennedy wants people to
                                                                                  fight the war themselves.
                                                                              •   Sends 16,000 “economic and
                                                                                  military advisors.”
                                                                              •   Includes the Green Berets, who
                                                                                  were to train the SVA in guerrilla
    South Vietnamese Army                                                         tactics and provide medical
  Officer Training His Troops                                                     assistance.
                                                                              •   Secretly become involved in the
                                                                                  actual hostilities.
                                                                            Early American Involvement
                                                                                 Kennedy Years
                                                                              • Diem develops into a
                                                                                        totalitarian dictator.
                                                                                        • Ngo Dinh Nhu.
                                                                                           • Brother of Diem, becomes
                                                                                             his enforcer.
                                                                                           • Brutal and repressive,
                                                                                               raids Buddhist pagodas,
                                                                                               kills the monks, takes the
                                                                                               valuables, and burns the
                                                                                           •   Uses military troops to
Buddhist Monk Protesting The Regime Of Diem
                                                                                               stop a peaceful
                                                                                               demonstration, killing
                                                                                               over 300.
                                                              Early American Involvement
                                                               Kennedy Years
                                                                • Kennedy wants serious
                                                                  changes in Vietnam.
                                                                   • Cannot win against the
                                                                       Communists with Diem in
                                                                   •   Only option available:
                                                                       OVERTHROW THE DIEM
                                                                        • The United States would
                                                                         not take an active role in a
                                                                         coup, but also would not
35th POTUS John Fitzgerald Kennedy                                       prevent one.
                                                                                            Early American Involvement
                                                                                             Kennedy Years
                                                                                • November 1, 1963.
                                                                                           • Military leaders in Vietnam assassinate
                                                                                             both Diem and Nhu.
                                                                                           • Kennedy begins negotiating a
                                                                                             withdrawal of American forces with
                                                                                              • Wants to wait to withdraw after the
                                                                                                1964 election.
                                                                                              • “…I’ll become one of the most
                                                                                                unpopular presidents in history. I’ll be
                                                                                                damned everywhere as a Communist
                                                                                                appeaser. But I don’t care. If I tried to
Assassination Of Diem 11/1/63                                                                   pull out completely now from Vietnam,
  21 Days Later, JFK Would                                                                      we would have another Joe McCarthy
     Meet A Similar Fate                                                                        Red Scare on our hands, but I can do it!Diem_dead.jpg

                                                                                                after I’m reelected. So we had better
                                                                                                make damned sure that I’m reelected.”
                                                       Early American Involvement
                                                             Kennedy Years
                                                               • Viet Minh response
                                                                 to the coup.
                                                                 • An attempt byto trade
                                                                   United States
                                                                     one puppet for another.
                                                                 •   Were increasing military
                                                                     activities and
                                                                     recruitment in the
                                                                 •   Prepared to take
                                                                     advantage of any chaos
                                                                     or opposition resulting
                                                                     from coup.
Viet Cong Forces Crossing Rice Paddies
                                                                   Early American Involvement
                                                                 Kennedy Years
                                                            • Planning to follow the same
                                                                  strategy used against France.
                                                                  • Goals were long-term and took
                                                                    steps, not leaps.
                                                                  • Prepared for a long conflict.
                                                                  • Subtle, complex, and manipulative
                                                                  • Overcome military handicaps.
                                                                     • Increase military forces by recruiting
                                                                       from the South Vietnamese peasants.
           Viet Cong Tunnels                                         • Attack only when success was
                                                                     • Never become involved in a large,

                                                                       open battle.
                                                                     • Prepare to hit and “blend.”
                     Early American Involvement
                 Viet Cong Tunnels

                    Viet Cong Tunnels
                               Early American Involvement
                           Viet Cong Tunnels

                               Viet Cong Tunnels

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