Technical Paper 33 December 2003 IFSP Design Construction INTEGRATED FOOD S

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Technical Paper 33 December 2003 IFSP Design Construction INTEGRATED FOOD S Powered By Docstoc
					                            Technical Paper 33
                               December 2003


  Design - Construction


                            42 Huskison Street
                            31000 Trincomalee
                                     Sri Lanka

                              phone 026-22023
                                 fax 026-22296

                     GTZ internet
                   NEPC internet
                    BMZ internet

  Development Cooperation Sri Lanka - Germany

Low cost houses for IDPs    1
Toilets for better personal and public hygiene    6
Common drinking water well      12
Agro-wells   15
Overhead water tank and supply scheme for Divisional Centre Padavisiripura   18
Community building - pre-school      21
Primary school    24
Market stalls at Padavisiripura main market      29
Bridge across Weliala irrigation channel, Padavisiripura DS Division   31
Development of rural roads, culverts and causeways     34
Minor tank development     40
                                                                                                              Low Cost Houses for IDPs
The IFSP 'quick impact programme for inter-                  from the village to which they returned          masons and carpenters
nally displaced persons' (IDP) supports fami-                ! The family is living in a temporary shelter    ! Material for the toilet was provided ac-
lies who are returning to their villages or who              in their own land or in a neighbouring village   cording to IFSP standards.
have already returned but still stayed with                  or refugee camp
                                                                                                              The efforts of mobilisation and facilitating the
friends or relatives. A package for a low cost               ! The family does not have an own house          construction activities took ten months. At
house and a toilet was made available under                  in other places                                  the end of the 'quick impact programme for
a self-help approach. IFSP supplied con-
                                                             ! The family income is less than Rs.1,000        internally displaced persons' it was observed
struction material and provided technical
                                                             per capita and month                             that all families had completed their houses.
guidance. Individual families supplied labour
                                                             ! No settling-in allowance or any other          Many had started to extend the house or to
and, where ever possible also material. The
                                                             government support was provided.                 fix additional window, to plaster the walls
package consisted of material and services
                                                                                                              and to paint and decorate them. Many fami-
for the construction of a core house of 6x6m                 The special features of the IFSP package
                                                                                                              lies had started to establish home gardens.
(20x20 feet) with all basic structures, how-                 are as follows:
ever, challenges the individual family to fi-                                                                 Previous experience showed that Cajan
                                                             ! 1,500 concrete blocks are provided; the
nalise certain works themselves. The house                                                                    covered huts, as provided by government
                                                             family has to make or buy additional 500
is designed for two rooms and either a hall                                                                   institutions and non-government organisa-
                                                             blocks to complete the house
or a smaller hall and an indoor kitchen. Most                                                                 tions do not encourage returning IDPs to get
                                                             ! One door and one window for one room
families, however, prefer to have the kitchen                                                                 resettled and reintegrated. A solid but simple
                                                             are supplied
outside.                                                                                                      house, complemented by basic rehabilitation
                                                             ! Concrete flooring is provided for one          of the production and social infrastructure
IFSP had developed eligibility criteria1 in                  room                                             respond to the immediate needs of returning
closest cooperation with the National Hous-
                                                             ! Walls are not plastered                        IDPs. The experiences from the Veeran-
ing Development Authority (NHDA), Grama
                                                             ! Material for a low cost toilet is provided     cholai housing pilot project, which was im-
Sevaka and a local action group formed by
the returning IDPs:                                          ! All unskilled labour has to be provided by     plemented for 50 families by NHDA in the
                                                             the families                                     year 2002 in the Kuchchaveli DS Division,
! Land ownership is to be secured through                                                                     co-funded and technically supported by
                                                             ! IFSP contributed Rs. 80,000 for material
either deed or land permit                                                                                    IFSP, was the ‘blue print’ experience to em-
                                                             and skilled labour
! The displaced families are originated                                                                       bark of a programme of constructing and
                                                             ! The individual family contributed
                                                                                                              repairing houses for 330 IDP families during
                                                             Rs.14,000 worth of unskilled labour work in
1                                                                                                             the year 2003.
   Participatory Project Management – Principles and Prac-   the form of earth excavation, helping the
tices, Working Paper 55, October 2003, Forms 3.3 and 3.4

                                                                                                              INTEGRATED FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMME TRINCOMALEE   1

                                                                         Toilets for better Personal and Public Hygiene
Contaminated household environment and                       diseases are occurring                           are expected to dig the pits and assist the
risky hygiene practices account for almost                   ! Individual families are selected through a     masons and carpenters.
35% of the diseases in rural areas of Sri                    public screening process, which involves the     Community based Organisations (CBO) are
Lanka. More than half of the rural population                villagers themselves, Village Health Volun-      the implementing partners for construction.
in the country has no access to safe sanitary                teer (VHV), Village Health Committee,            IFSP conducts an agreement with the CBO
facilities. Poor personal and public hygiene,                Grama Sevaka, Social Development Officer         and opens a ‘Project Book’, which includes
insufficient sanitation facilities are causes of             and, where necessary, Public Health In-          the technical plans, bill of quantity and
infectious diseases.                                         spector (PHI)                                    budgets. The CBO organises action groups
The village health care and nutrition pro-                   ! House / hut and location of toilet have to     of five members each for speedy imple-
gramme of IFSP includes support for im-                      be on own land, availability of water is to be   mentation. The CBO monitors the progress
proved rural water supply and sanitation.                    secured, minimum number of family mem-           with the support of the VHV, IFSP Commu-
From 1999 until end 2003 the construction of                 bers should be five, preference is given to      nity Mobilisers and Engineers. CBOs are
almost 1,600 toilets in many villages was                    women headed households, widows and              instrumental in promoting unity and a service
supported. The approach is labour intensive.                 families with disabled members                   minded attitude amongst villagers.
Different types of toilets were constructed                  ! The location for the toilet and the socket     The construction of toilets is complemented
according to local preferences. IFSP en-                     pit is determined in closest cooperation with    by intensive awareness campaigns for better
courages the promotion of low cost toilets                   the PHI                                          personal and public hygiene. IFSP has intro-
with a high contribution from individual fami-
                                                             ! Protecting the surface and groundwater         duced a theatre play to promote health and
                                                             sources from pollution is given highest prior-   hygiene. Awareness continues after comple-
The procedure and criteria1 are as follows:                  ity.                                             tion of the construction. The families are
                                                             Before commencing the construction the PHI       regularly visited, the toilets are inspected.
! Villages are identified according to the
                                                             and the Village Health Committee organise        Officers from the Department of Health
vulnerability – poverty code
                                                             health awareness meetings. The modalities        Services and the VHVs monitor use and
! Improper sanitation facilities for more                                                                     maintenance. The cost of one toilet ranges
                                                             are agreed upon, such as schedule and
than two third of the population have to pre-                                                                 between Rs. 16,500 for a low cost model
                                                             contribution from the individual families. A
vail                                                                                                          and Rs. 28,000, depending on the location,
                                                             minimum contribution of 25% in the form of
!    Recent / frequent cases of water born                   unskilled labour, sand and concrete blocks       availability of material and logistic arrange-
                                                             or bricks is expected, however, depending        ments as well as local preferences for cer-
1                                                            on the local situation, contributions of up to   tain types.
   Participatory Project Management – Principles and Prac-
tices, Working Paper 55, October 2003, Form 3.2              40% are agreed upon and realised. Families

                                                                                                              INTEGRATED FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMME TRINCOMALEE   6

                                                                                                          Common Drinking Water Well
Village communities in Sri Lanka have dif-        WHO1.                                                           pollution must be less than 15m in the direction
ferent traditional techniques of ground water                                                                     of the ground water flow; sources of pollution can
                                                  IFSP follows following basic rules before                       be latrine pits, cattle sheds, drains, burial
exploration. The Bodhisathwa located a well
                                                  deciding on a particular location for the con-                  grounds or garbage disposal dumps
when a special type of grass was growing on
                                                  structing of a common well2:                                    ! Though the best level of service would be a
dry sand. Villagers involve an astrologer to                                                                      well per individual household, a satisfactory cov-
select a location for a dug well. By looking at   ! Decision making to site a common well is left
                                                  with the local households; the land rights with                 erage would be one well for up to ten households
"Nimithi" and the horoscope of the informant,                                                                     ! Specific criteria such as walking distance,
                                                  respect to the site of the well are to be confirmed
the astrologer describes the location and the     through a legal document                                        number of women headed households, poor
specifications such as depth and diameter.        ! Site must be above the level of rivers, tanks                 water availability and local contribution are ap-
People consult the village's Buddhist priest      or other low lying areas that are prone to flood                plied.
who knows to locate wells according to the        during rains                                                    Once the spot is located, the well is either
morphological and soil characteristics of the     ! Drinking water wells should not be built in                   dug manually or, in case the depth is beyond
land. People also employ the services of          paddy fields due to possible pollution of the water             the capacity of manual labour, by excavator
persons who are able to select sites for wells    by agro–chemicals
                                                                                                                  and then further deepened manually. The
by using a twig. Termites, Kumbuk trees and       ! Free access for all users is to be guaranteed                 peak of the dry season is most suitable for
Bamboo bushes are some of the indicators          through a written document by the owner of the
                                                  land where the well is located and the users
                                                                                                                  digging. Only then a water level can be
used to locate ground water. Some people in                                                                       reached, which would ensure supply
remote villages keep a buffalo for a few days     ! Location should be central to the user
                                                  households and ideally less than 200 m from the                 throughout the year. The water level should
without water and then take him to the land                                                                       not be lower than 2 m (6 feet). The average
                                                  furthest household
where he finds water.                                                                                             diameter of a common dug well is 3 m (10
                                                  ! Distance to the nearest possible source of
Today, basic geological maps, aerial photo-                                                                       feet). Construction is commonly done on top
graphs and topological maps are used in                                                                           of a reinforced concrete ring and a layer of
                                                     Investigation for Construction of Common Wells and Small     hard stones through either bricks or concrete
groundwater surveys. To obtain a high de-         Scale Water Supply schemes, Technical Papers 9, February
gree of accuracy in locating sites for well       2001, 38, December 2003; Water Quality Monitoring in the        blocks. It is recommended to have an apron
                                                  Coastal Area of Trincomalee District, Results of Phase I July   constructed to protect the well from contami-
construction, hydro geologists are using an       2000 - July 2001, May 2002, Technical Paper 16; Well In-
electrical resistivity meter, which shows the     ventory in the Nilaveli - Kuchchaveli Area, May 2002, Techni-   nation. The cost of a common well / village
                                                  cal Paper 17; North Eastern Coastal Sand Aquifer in Trinco-     water supply ranges between Rs. 63,000
dimension of the water aquifer and allows         malee District, May 2002, Technical Paper 18; Hydrological
estimating its safe yield. A conductivity meter   Investigation for the Selection of Common Drinking Water        and Rs. 195,000 depending on the depth,
                                                  Well Sites, 2002 and 2003, December 2003, Technical Paper       local material etc. The cost per participating
is used to make sure that the water is of ac-     38 and 39
ceptable quality and meets the standards of       2
                                                     Participatory Project Management – Principles and Prac-      family is roughly Rs. 2,800 on an average.
                                                  tices, Working Paper 55, October 2003, Form 3.1

                                                                                                                  INTEGRATED FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMME TRINCOMALEE   12
                         Common wells

Agro-wells are securing water supply for the      ! Depending on the seasonal rainfall, wa-      Authority
cultivation of ‘other field crops’ and vegeta-    ter from agro-wells provides supplementary
                                                                                                 ! Agreement is to be signed that confirms
ble in particular after the main and the inter-   irrigation
                                                                                                 share of the water.
mediate rainy season and, according to their
                                                  ! Agro-wells contribute to diversified farm-
capacity, to a limited extent also during the                                                    Once the spot is located, the well is either
                                                  ing, employment and income
dry season.                                                                                      dug manually or, in case the depth is beyond
                                                  ! Water is used for both, agriculture and      the capacity of manual labour, by excavator
The common features are the following:
                                                  domestic purposes                              and then further deepened manually. The
! Land around the households or in close                                                         peak of the dry season is most suitable for
                                                  ! Community cooperation is promoted by
proximity is a limiting factor for intensive                                                     digging. Only then a water level can be
                                                  e.g. commonly procuring and operating a
home gardening or semi-commercial horti-                                                         reached, which would ensure supply
                                                  water pump
culture, unless adequate water supply is                                                         throughout the year. The water level should
ensured                                           IFSP has supported the construction of agro-   not be lower than 2m (6 feet). Construction
                                                  wells under certain conditions:                is commonly done on top of a reinforced
! Holdings are fragmented and own agro-
                                                  !   A user group has to be formed              concrete ring and a layer of hard stones
wells are preferred by individual family
                                                                                                 through either bricks or concrete blocks. It is
! Expansion of agricultural lands especially      ! Three or more families (preferably 5)        recommended to have either a half or full
for vegetable cultivation requires an ever        have to share the well to ensure that up to    apron constructed to protect the well from
increasing demand for water for irrigation        0.5 acres per family can be cultivated         contamination.
and consequently, agro-wells are con-             ! The location should be preferably on the     The average costs for the construction of
structed                                          boarder of the land of the users               one agro-well are around Rs. 160,000, de-
! Agro-wells are large in size with a di-         ! The location is to be decided according      pending on the depth, soil and whether rock
ameter of up to 8m (24 feet), which allows        to local hydro geological conditions, e.g.     has to be cut in particular.
the extraction of larger quantities of water at   close to a minor tank or pond
a time
                                                  ! All families have to be contributing to
! Depths of agro-wells depends on the             construction in the form of labour and mate-
seasonal water table; a depth of 6m to > 8m       rial
is quite common
                                                  ! Contribution and support is to be en-
! A good agro-well could easily irrigate up       sured from third parties, e.g. Samurdhi
to 2.5 acres

                                                                                                 INTEGRATED FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMME TRINCOMALEE   15

   Overhead Water Tank and Supply Scheme for Divisional Centre Padavisiripura
Improved water supply has a very high prior-      The water tower for Padavisiripura was con-
ity amongst village communities. IFSP usu-        structed as result of a Participatory Needs
ally supported the construction of common         Assessment done in the year 2000. Due to
open dug wells for drinking water and also        the above reasons, IFSP had put the project
ago-wells, which are used for this purpose.       on hold. On request of the Divisional Secre-
The construction of large overhead water          tary the project was re-appraised and ap-
tanks was not considered a prime priority of      proved in July 2003. It was completed at
IFSP, mainly due to the rather high costs         total cost of Rs. 2.6 million in December
and the efforts for technical and logistic sup-   2003. The water supply scheme serves up to
port and the uncertainty of good mainte-          250 families in Padavisiripura town plus the
nance and operation by the local body in          offices of the Divisional Secretary and
charge.                                           Pradesha Saba.
Large water tanks require that ground water       Details of the scheme:
in sufficient quantity and quality is available
                                                  ! Construction of a well of a diameter of
throughout the year. For all requests for
                                                  7m (20 feet) and a depth of 6-7m (18-20
water supply schemes IFSP had involved
                                                  feet), which supplies sufficient water over the
hydro geological expertise to determine the
                                                  year; hydro geologist
safe yield and quality of the local ground
water source. In many cases, the water            ! Installation of a pump and pipe system to
quantity was insufficient. Increased abstrac-     feed the water tower
tion would have resulted in the seepage of        ! Construction of a water tower of a height
salt water. Such a situation would have           of up to 8m (25 feet) at a capacity of 11m3
made the investment into a supply scheme
obsolete. It was for this reason that e.g. wa-    ! Distribution system through galvanised
ter supply schemes for Pulmoddai and other        pipes and PVC pipes at a length of 1,000m
locations could not be supported. An added        from the water tower to the town.
constraint was the unwillingness of local
communities to cover the maintenance costs
of the schemes and pay an adequate fee for
the water.

                                                                                                    INTEGRATED FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMME TRINCOMALEE   18
                                                                                    Community Building – Pre-school
Community buildings and pre-schools meet         ment Society or other CBO should ensure           and contribution from the villagers for the
the interests of local communities for holding   that the two rooms are used as office and         construction of the building.
common meetings on village affairs. They         store
                                                                                                   The construction is done through the local
are also used as pre-school for children be-
                                                 ! Local CBO has to have a clear idea to           CBO with the support of the Divisional Sec-
low the school going age. In many cases,
                                                 make use of the building for other activities     retary or Pradesha Saba. IFSP signs an
training and education activities like classes
                                                 like vocational training for youth etc.           agreement in public and opens a project
for sewing, cookery, income generation,
                                                                                                   book. The CBO encourages and organises
health, community mobilisation etc. are con-     ! Land for the building is to be owned by
                                                                                                   the villagers to participate in the work. The
ducted. Participatory Needs Assessment           the state; DS should give permission for
                                                                                                   CBO also monitors progress and promotes
showed high priority for common permanent        construction; in case of private land, the
                                                                                                   unity and a service minded attitude. IFSP in
buildings for meeting and getting together.      owner or organisation is to confirm in writing,
                                                                                                   turn assists the villagers and the CBO in
                                                 with recommendation of the divisional land
Community buildings and pre-schools usu-                                                           particular through community mobilisation
                                                 officer that he is ready to hand over the land
ally have two covered permanent rooms and                                                          and technical advise. The average cost of a
                                                 as common property to the Divisional Sec-
a common large hall. The hall is used for                                                          community centre / pre-school ranges be-
meetings, training activities and conducting                                                       tween Rs. 250,000 and Rs. 350,000 de-
pre-school classes. The two rooms serve the      ! Minimum of 25% contribution of the total        pending on the final size, the material used
purpose of office for e.g. Rural Development     costs; IFSP advocates for higher contribu-        and specific local preferences, e.g. clay tiles
Officers, RDP and office bearers of the local    tions according to capacity of the commu-         for the roof as against roofing sheets.
CBO and as store.                                nity; village communities usually provide
                                                 unskilled labour, sand and cement blocks or
Selection criteria for pre-school and commu-
                                                 bricks and also timber for doors, windows
nity centre include:
                                                 and furniture.
! Parents of a minimum of 20 children in
                                                 Before commencing the construction work, a
the age group of four to five years should be
                                                 team consisting of RDO, GS, Social Devel-
willing to promote the pre-school
                                                 opment Officer and IFSP Community Mobi-
! Recruitment of teacher(s) and salary or        liser and / or Engineer organise one or more
allowance is to be ensured by either a local     awareness meetings. Topics to be ad-
CBO or the parents directly                      dressed include need and relevance of a
                                                 pre-school / community centre, use and
!   Grama Sevaka or local School Develop-
                                                 maintenance of the building, participation

                                                                                                   INTEGRATED FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMME TRINCOMALEE   21
          Community buildings

Primary School
The construction of primary schools in re-        unskilled labour, sand and cement blocks or
mote villages follows the technical standards     bricks and also timber for doors, windows
of the Department of Education. Usually, a        and furniture
primary village school consists of five class-
                                                  ! Confirmation of the project including
rooms and one office cum library for the
                                                  drawings, bill of quantity and estimate by the
principal and teachers. Construction is done
                                                  Zonal Director of Education and involvement
by the local School Development Society,
                                                  of the Construction Department of the De-
SDS. IFSP engineers and community mobi-
                                                  partment of Education
lisers provide technical and organisational
support. In very remote locations, IFSP sup-      ! Agreement with IFSP to be conducted
ports the construction of teacher’s quarters.     and project book opened.
Toilets and / or urinals are part of the devel-   Since SDSs are usually weak, IFSP and / or
opment package.                                   the technical officer of the Construction De-
The selection criteria for primary schools        partment of the Department of Education
follow PNA standards and include:                 have to provide continuous support. Regular
                                                  visits are necessary to review and discuss
! Villagers express their interest and high
                                                  progress and to solve constraints, such as
priority for having a school constructed
                                                  low contribution, delay of schedule. For cer-
! No permanent school building exists;            tain works like fixing the roof structure or
classes are conducted in open sheds, which        constructing sanitation facilities, qualified
need to be reconstructed after each mon-          workers have to be brought in. Experience
soon season                                       shows that locally contracted schools require
                                                  about one year to be completed. The cost for
! Availability of common / state land of
                                                  a standard primary village school is Rs. 1.3
sufficient space to house the school building
                                                  million, which includes the furniture. Teach-
and a play ground
                                                  ers’ quarters in the form of a complete house
! Minimum of 25% contribution of the total        with three rooms, kitchen and toilet costs
costs; IFSP advocates for higher contribu-        around Rs. 250,000.
tions according to capacity of the commu-
nity; village communities usually provide

                                                                                                   INTEGRATED FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMME TRINCOMALEE   24
                                                                 Market Stalls at Padavisiripura Main Market
The construction of market stalls serve the     a closed back wall of 2m (6.6 feet), covered
promotion of local business In many villages    with overlapping roofing sheets to protect
small traders who supply a wide range of        against rain
goods and products display their cargo on
                                                The individual stalls are numbered. Fees are
the ground. This common practice is not in
                                                collected from the users by the Women De-
line with the standards of good hygiene and
                                                velopment Society, which is in charge of
does also make goods not looking attractive
                                                operation and maintenance. The WDS, RDS
to the consumer. In case of rain, the ground
                                                and the Pradesha Saba had significantly
becomes muddy, dirt may affect the goods
                                                contributed to the construction. As in all
and shopping may become even less attrac-
                                                other cases an agreement with IFSP was
                                                conducted and a project book was opened.
IFSP had supported the construction of 16       The IFSP engineer in support of the area
market stalls at the main market of             had prepared the planning and had provided
Padavisiripura on request of the Divisional     technical and organisational guidance during
Secretary. The stalls complemented an ear-      construction, which was done over a period
lier project, which could not be completed.     of six months. The cost for one single market
The stalls extend the local market.             stall is around Rs. 20,000.
The local RDS and the Pradesha Saba were
the implementing partners. The
Padavisiripura Women Development Soci-
ety, WDS took over the stalls after construc-
tion to promote their members in doing
small-scale business and trade in particular.
Market stalls consist of a simple structure:
! Elevated concrete floor of about 50 cm
(1.5 feet) to keep it free from dirt
! Structure of 2 inch GI pipes of 2.30m (7.6
feet) for open space to the market front and

                                                                                                INTEGRATED FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMME TRINCOMALEE   29
Bridge across Weliala Irrigation Channel, Padavisiripura DS Division
                                                   The Participatory Needs Assessment in
                                                   Padavisiripura had resulted in the identifica-
                                                   tion of logistic constraints. The Weliala irri-
                                                   gation channel from the Padaviya Tank to
                                                   the command area is separating the village
                                                   from the paddy fields and from access to the
                                                   main road to Padavisiripura. This channel
                                                   carries a high and fast water load during the
                                                   monsoon and requires a solid structure.
                                                   IFSP engineers in cooperation with technical
                                                   officers from the Road Development De-
                                                   partment had done an assessment, which
                                                   showed that quite a massive construction
                                                   was needed.
                                                   The IFSP engineer who supported infra-
                                                   structure projects in Padavisiripura DS Divi-
                                                   sion had designed a bridge with a length of
                                                   >14m plus two wing walls and one middle
                                                   pier and two approach slabs, which alto-
                                                   gether would give a total length of 22m. The
                                                   height of the bridge was 3.5m. A BoQ and a
                                                   cost estimate were prepared. Total costs
                            Situation during PNA   were estimated at Rs. 2.1 million and the
                                                   period for construction at >6 months. Due to
                                                   temporary budget constraints this project
                                                   was recommended to other development
                                                   agencies for funding.

                                                   INTEGRATED FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMME TRINCOMALEE   31
                                                 Development of Rural Roads, Culverts and Causeways
Rural roads are a prerequisite for access to      ! Allowing ‘natural compaction’ by rain,          A culvert is a small bridge structure of less
markets and services. Since most of the           wind and weather and use                          than 6m spans between faces of abutments.
rural roads (non-classified roads, usually                                                          It is constructed along the road and at the
                                                  ! Intensive involvement of village commu-
maintained by communities and / or Prade-                                                           location of junction between the stream path
                                                  nities, which included contributions in the
sha Sabas) in Trincomalee district were ei-                                                         and the road. It is only during the rainy sea-
                                                  form of unskilled labour, but also organising
ther neglected and / or structures were de-                                                         son that people realise the value of this
                                                  the works assigned to Rural Development
stroyed, villages had put high priority on the                                                      structure.
rehabilitation. IFSP had started with a labour
                                                                                                    As for effective water flow to prevent erosion
intensive approach for road betterment. This      ! Considering that road construction re-
                                                                                                    and damage to surface and side drains, the
includes the cleaning and clearing of side        quires a minimum upkeep and repairs for
                                                                                                    most common culvert, because easy to
drains, filling potholes and low lying spots      two seasons following the construction / re-
                                                                                                    make, was the box culvert. All material could
and constructing storm water drainage along       habilitation due to erosion and heavy use
                                                                                                    be procured locally. Pipe culverts on the
the roadside.                                     during the Monsoon, e.g. ox carts and live-
                                                                                                    other hand, required the procurement of
                                                  stock are a serious damaging factor on wet
Since it was observed that the Monsoon had                                                          hume pipes from outside at quite high costs.
quite a damaging effect on roads that were                                                          At the same time they had to be carefully
repaired without adequate technical investi-      IFSP has developed rural road networks            laid and properly covered to withstand ero-
gation and planning, IFSP had applied a           >260 km. Instead of supporting the better-        sion and the load of tractors and trailers.
simple and yet effective approach:                ment or construction of dead-end roads, ring      Causeways allow crossing rivers during high
                                                  roads were constructed and many connec-           tide or floods.
! Assessment of road conditions before
                                                  tion roads. Small bridges, causeways and a
and after the Monsoon
                                                  large number of culverts needed to be con-
! Determination which organisation ‘owns’         structed and / or repaired. The average cost
the road and what could be expected for           for one kilometre of road, either rehabilitated
rehabilitation, repair and maintenance            or newly constructed, ranges between Rs.
                                                  230,000 and Rs. 1,300,000, depending on
! Basic technical design. BoQ and cost
                                                  the number of culverts / causeways to be
estimate for rehabilitation and development
                                                  constructed, the dimension of earth works,
works including surface cover (clay, gravel)
                                                  surface cover etc.
and compaction, side drains, culverts and

                                                                                                    INTEGRATED FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMME TRINCOMALEE   34
Roads, culverts, drainages, bridges, causeways

                                                 INTEGRATED FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMME TRINCOMALEE   35
                                                                                                                          Minor Tank Development
To support the Department of Agrarian De-                    total of about 200 tanks suitable for irrigation            benefit from the development of the tank
velopment (DOAD); IFSP Trincomalee had                       agriculture in Trincomalee district were re-
                                                                                                                         ! FO has to fully take over O&M after con-
entered into cooperation for the rehabilitation              habilitated and / or developed by IFSP from
and development of minor irrigation                          1999/2000 to end 2003 at a total cost of Rs.
schemes (minor tanks). Many tanks were                       35 million. The average cost per ha of com-                 ! Cost per ha of additionally developed
neglected, abandoned and more or less de-                    mand area is about Rs. 25,0002.                             command area < Rs. 50,000
stroyed as a cause of the conflict. Since the                                                                            ! Financial / economic internal rate of re-
                                                             The selection criteria for development with
paddy economy is the ‘backbone of village                                                                                turn not be less than 15%
                                                             support from IFSP followed basically the
livelihoods’ and nutrition and food security
                                                             approach of DOAD3:
aims at improving the availability and the
access to food, development and rehabilita-                  ! Tanks, which were not renovated for the                   Head works - earth dams
tion of the small-scale irrigation infrastructure            last four years                                             The upstream and downstream slopes usu-
became a core activity from 1999 to 2003.                                                                                ally face the highest load. The upstream
                                                             ! Establishment and registration and func-
The minor tank development programme not                                                                                 slope comes under stress after a sudden
                                                             tioning of a farmer organisation (FO) in ac-
only focuses on technical aspects of con-                                                                                draw down of the reservoir level. The down-
                                                             cordance with the Agrarian Services Act of
struction, renovation and repair but also on                                                                             stream slope could become critical when the
                                                             1979 amended in 1991
the social economic dimension of the village                                                                             reservoir is filled and the earth is saturated.
irrigation system1.                                          ! FO had to agree to contribute a minimum                   The upstream slope needs to be protected
                                                             of 10% of the civil cost of construction                    against erosion, including wave erosion and
IFSP had deployed six young civil engineers
                                                             ! Willingness of FO and members to ac-                      the downstream slope against surface run
and two draught persons to support DOAD.
                                                             tively participate                                          off. Seepage through the dam must be con-
Equipment and budgets were made avail-
                                                                                                                         trolled. The downstream slope should be
able for physical construction. The project                  !   Command area is >8ha and <80ha                          such as to ensure that the seepage line re-
contributed to reinstate the productive ca-
                                                             !   More than 10 farm families who would                    mains well within the slope and is properly
pacity of conflict affected village communi-
                                                                                                                         drained. For the design of head works and
ties to quickly resume or increase agricul-
                                                             2                                                           earth dams, detailed slope stability compu-
tural production. Fifty minor schemes of a                     Projects like NEIAP and NGOs like ACF and also DOAD
                                                             with funds from WFP developed tanks. Until end 2003 about   tations are usually not done, as only unsta-
                                                             150 minor schemes were redeveloped.                         ble slopes of an average length of 10 to 20m
1                                                            3
  The IFSP approach towards minor tank development is          IFSP had done a comprehensive survey and inventory to
described in Technical Paper 21, IFSP 75 Minor Tank devel-   identify the state of about 100 tanks and to recommend a
                                                                                                                         have to be stabilised. The standards for
opment Programme, May 2002 and Working Paper 56, Im-         staged and phased approach. 75 Minor Tank Rehabilitation    slopes are given in the drawings of a head-
pact Assessment of the Minor Tank Development Pro-           Programme – Preliminary Assessment Survey, March 2000,
gramme.                                                      Technical Paper 2.
                                                                                                                         wall and a cross section for a dam.

                                                                                                                         INTEGRATED FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMME TRINCOMALEE   40
Drainage design                                          also prevents that land, which is located         Bathing steps
Rice plants can withstand a certain amount               within the cascade gets submersed. It is also     Bathing steps serve the purpose of getting
of excess water, which should however not                vital for the safety of the dam. Spills have to   close and safely to the water surface. Bath-
exceed 15 to 20 cm, depending on the vari-               be well designed and have to have adequate        ing steps have to be designed in a way that
ety. The growing stages of rice with the                 capacity to dispose of the entire surplus         they can accommodate a given number of
strongest reaction to excess water are dur-              water at the time of the worst flood. A spill-    persons at a time. They need to be protected
ing transplanting, tilling and panicle initiation.       way can be located either within the body of      against man made erosion, resulting from
Considerable yield reductions down to zero               the dam or at the end of it or entirely away      walking up and down the dam next to the
occur when the depth of water layer exceeds              from it, independently in a saddle. IFSP is       steps. Protection through a stone package
half the height of plant for more than three             practising only two types, which are the clear    right and left of the steps is recommended.
days. Hence, farm turnouts and drainage                  over fall spill and the crest wall spill.
channels have to consider an efficient stor-
age and run-off of irrigation water.                     Farm turnout, anicut,
                                                         end regulator
Sluices                                                  Farm turnouts ensure that irrigation water,
Water is stored in a reservoir for irrigation            which is released from the sluice, is flowing
below the spillway crest level. To be able to            to the earth channels that feed the paddy
draw water as and when needed it is essen-               fields. Usually, lined channels are con-
tial that outlets be provided through the body           structed to prevent erosion. Turnouts do not
of the dam (pipe outlet or sluice way). IFSP             exceed 20m.
has constructed and / or rehabilitated head-             IFSP has constructed few anicuts to allow
wall type sluices, which can be constructed              that water from different sources can be
easily by the farming community with the                 used at a time. Irrigation water from e.g. a
support of cement and locally available ma-              minor tank, which is flowing through a chan-
terial. The repair of leaks can be easily done.          nel is crossed by a pipe system to allow that
                                                         water from a main irrigation channels that is
Spillways                                                fed from another source is used.
A spillway is used for effectively disposing of          An end regulator is a gate that allows that
the surplus water from upstream to down-                 irrigation water is released from a main
stream. The spillway prevents the water to               channel into a secondary channel. The water
rise above the maximum reservoir level and               level is regulated / controlled.


Ministry for Eastern Development and Muslim
                            Religious Affairs

       North East Provincial Council (NEPC)

  Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation
                     and Development (BMZ)

       German Technical Cooperation (GTZ)
                                                        INTEGRATED FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMME
                                                        42 Huskison Street
                                                        31000 Trincomalee
                                                        Sri Lanka

        Integrated Food Security Programme
                                                        phone      026-2222 023, 2222 687
                         Trincomalee (IFSP)
                                                        fax        026-2222 296

                                                        Author and Design:
                                                        IFSP Team


Description: Project Management Bill of Quantity document sample