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Strategies and Actions for Habitat Restoration

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					Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft



               HABITAT STRATEGIES AND ACTIONS FOR RECOVERY
              OF OREGON MID-COLUMBIA STEELHEAD POPULATIONS
During the recovery planning process, our teams for the Fifteenmile, Deschutes, John Day, Umatilla
and Walla Walla watersheds identified habitat strategies and actions that are believed to provide the
greatest opportunity to contribute to steelhead recovery. This document describes our common
approach and provides tables showing tributary habitat strategies and actions that are an essential part
of the overall effort needed to recover Oregon’s ten Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations to
viable status.

Approach to Identify and Prioritize Habitat Actions for Recovery
We developed a systematic and common approach to identify specific strategies and actions that will
offer the greatest opportunity for recovery of Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations in Oregon.
As a first step, we synthesized the results from the viability assessments, EDT and other analyses to
develop a population-level view of 1) priority areas, 2) limiting factors, and 3) contributing land-use
threats that hinder recovery. For the purpose of this assessment, limiting factors are defined as the
biological and physical conditions that impair salmonid population performance, whereas threats are
the land-use activities contributing to those factors.

Priority areas and limiting factors were determined through technical assessments, including EDT
analysis and viability assessments, as well as an expert panel process. Priority areas were also
determined by their relative importance in meeting regional recovery objectives for Mid-Columbia
River steelhead and other listed fish populations. This information allows for integration of population
specific recovery efforts to best accomplish recovery at the regional scale. Land-use threats were
determined from a variety of sources including the Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s
subbasin plans, the State 303(d) list, air photo analysis, personal knowledge of local managers, expert
panel results, and known cause-effect relationships between stream conditions and land-uses.

We considered priority areas, limiting factors and threats to develop a suite of habitat strategies needed
to recover population viability. We identified eight general habitat strategies necessary to recover the
populations: 1) protecting stream corridor structure/function and upland processes; 2) restoring passage
and connectivity between habitat areas; 3) restoring stream corridor structure, function and channel
stability; 4) restoring riparian function and condition; 5) restoring natural hydrographs to provide
adequate flow during critical periods; 6) restoring degraded water quality; 7) restoring degraded upland
processes; and 8) protecting and restoring habitat through public education and outreach. For each
strategy, we identified the key programs that address the strategy and the sufficiency of existing
programs. We then identified specific actions needed to fill gaps in current strategy implementation.
Actions differ from strategies in that they address program deficiencies as well as biophysical habitat
impairments and threats.

Strategic Prioritization Framework
Management actions for each population will be prioritized based on a strategic framework that
recognizes the importance of protection, enhancement, and restoration throughout the life cycle of the
species. This draft framework reflects guidance from the Oregon Mid-Columbia River Recovery
Sounding Board Under the framework, the following actions will be considered high priority:


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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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        Actions that provide long-term protection for the major life history strategies (i.e. summer and
         winter run timing) that currently exist at the MPG level.
        Actions that provide long-term protection of habitat conditions that support the viability of
         priority extant populations and their primary life history strategies throughout their entire life
         cycle. A population is considered a priority if it is critical for MPG or DPS viability.
        Actions that enhance the viability of priority extant populations.
        Actions that protect or enhance viability of multiple listed populations.
        Actions that enhance habitat and restore natural processes to increase survival, connectivity and
         reproductive success of priority extant populations.
        Actions that target the key limiting factors and that contribute the most to closing the gap
         between current status and desired future status of priority populations.
        Actions that are required to protect and enhance habitats for populations that are not critical for
         MPG or DPS viability but must be maintained.

2. Other things being equal, actions that demonstrate the following have high priority:

        Actions where opportunity for success is high (rather than those of limited feasibility).
        Actions that complement other land management, water quality, environmental management
         and recreational objectives as specified in fish management, conservation, recovery or other
         plans developed with and supported by subbasin stakeholders (rather than those that are
         isolated, stand-alone efforts).
        Actions that have landowner support and participation.
        Actions that demonstrate cost effectiveness relative to alternative means of achieving the same
         objectives.

Habitat Strategies and Actions for Recovery of Independent Populations
The following tables show the strategies and actions needed to address tributary habitat limiting factors
and threats for Mid-Columbia steelhead populations in Oregon. Strategy tables for each population
identify substrategies, the limiting factors and contributing threats that are addressed, the viability
parameters and life stages that would be most affected, and provide a short discussion. They name
priority locations ― the stream reaches or areas where actions should be applied first to gain the
greatest benefit. The strategy tables also identify key programs that are currently addressing the
limiting factors as well as program sufficiency and gaps. Habitat action tables for each population
identify proposed tributary habitat actions that are an essential part of the overall effort needed to
recover populations to viable status. Individual actions are described in terms of the status of current
efforts, implementing entities, strategies addressed, spatial coverage, implementation timeframe,
expected biophysical response timeframe and certainty of outcome.




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                 Habitat Strategies and Actions for Recovery of Fifteenmile Creek Populations

The Fifteenmile Creek population covers the entire Fifteenmile Subbasin, including the Fifteenmile,
Rock, Mosier, Chenoweth, Mill, and Threemile watersheds. The population contains three major
spawning areas, which are located in the Fifteenmile Creek watershed: the Upper Fifteenmile MaSA,
Eightmile MaSA and Fivemile MaSA.

            Primary limiting factors: Low flows, high water temperatures, sedimentation, channel
            confinement, and overall habitat loss.

            Primary threats: Roads, residential development, agricultural practices and forest uses.

Strategy 1. Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes.

                                                        Protect stream corridor structure and function
           Substrategies                    Factors           Threats Addressed                VSP               Life                      Discussion
                                           Addressed                                        Parameters        Stages
                                                                                            Addressed         Affecte
                                                                                                                  d
A. Protect floodplain function and        Many              Many threats including         All                All        Protecting functioning floodplains and
   channel migration                      factors,           livestock overgrazing                                       channels that are in balance with their ability
B. Protect riparian function              including          of riparian area,                                           to transport water and sediment is identified
C. Protect access to key habitats         key habitat       channelization, stream                                       as one of the highest priorities in the
D. Protect existing high water quality    quality and        bank armoring,                                              Subbasin Plan. All streams will have some
E. Protect natural stream flow regime     diversity,        agricultural                                                 level of erosion, because a stream channel is
F. Protect base flows through             sediment           practices (fertilizers,                                     never static. Having some erosion is
   management of water withdrawals        load, water        herbicides, sediments,                                      essential for recruitment of spawning gravel
G. Protect riparian function by           quality,          changes in plant                                             and other important ecological functions
   maintaining management                 flow              communities), fire                                           (such as fine sediments needed for riparian
   objectives                                               suppression techniques                                       plant growth).
H. Protect channel structure to                             and plant rehab, water
   maintain quality and quantity of                         withdrawals, loss of                                         Protecting base stream flows from further
   spawning grounds                                         beaver                                                       appropriations is a very important function of
                                                                                                                         protecting existing high quality habitats.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
All MaSAs in the Fifteenmile Creek watershed.

Key Programs
          Agency/Stakeholder                                   Program Name                            Sufficient                      Needs Expansion
USFS                                               Fifteenmile River Keeper, Northwest                                   Yes
                                                   Forest Plan
ODFW                                               Cooperative Agreements                                                Yes, the agreements are for only 10-15 years
Wasco County SWCD                                  CREP                                                                  Yes, the agreements are for only 10-15 years
Oregon Water Trust of other entity                 Lease or purchase instream water              Yes                     Yes, important to secure water rights to
                                                   rights                                                                guarantee instream flow
Wasco County SWCD                                  No-till Conversion                                                    Yes, very effective program and could be
                                                                                                                         expanded
USDA FSA                                           CRP and CREP                                  Yes                     Yes, CRP program near capacity but could be
                                                                                                                         expanded
ODA                                                   Agricultural Water Quality Program        Yes                      Adaptive Management Plan.
CTWSRO                                                Watershed Restoration                                              Yes
ODF                                                   Oregon Forest Practice Act                Unknown
Local Government                                      City and County Planning and Zoning                                 Yes,
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Protection of high quality habitats is the most cost effective way of ensuring fish have good quality habitat. Many programs are currently in plan in the subbasin
designed to restore physical habitat. These programs have proven effective, but it will take years to return the stream to a more natural condition.

Existing forest plans include special management designations for riparian reserves. The forest plans and BLM plans have been amended by the Northwest Forest
Plan which requires riparian reserve boundaries of two site potential tree heights on both sides of any fish bearing stream and contains very restrictive standards and
guidelines to ensure protection of aquatic and riparian resources. Compliance with riparian reserve standards and guidelines for a variety of land use activities




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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including timber harvest operations, cattle grazing, and others has been very good.

Farm Service Agency (FSA) programs that protect riparian areas and upland watersheds include the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and the Conservation
Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP). The CRP program pays landowners not to farm highly erodible soils and the CREP program pays landowners for setting
riparian corridors aside from grazing and farming. The long term effectiveness of both programs is limited by the relatively short duration of the contracts which
ranges from 10 to 15 years.

ODA„s Agricultural Water Quality Program is designed to prevent and control water pollution from agricultural activities and soil erosion on non-Federal and non-
Tribal Trust or Reservation lands. ODA relies on voluntary measures to protect water quality, but also enforces pollution and streamside vegetation requirements.
ODA needs to expand outreach to private landowners to inform them of water quality goals and requirements.


Strategy 2. Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas.

                                                   Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas
              Substrategies                          Factors             Threats Addressed        VSP Parameters          Life Stages Affected               Discussion
                                                   Addressed                                         Addressed
A. Restore access to isolated habitats          Key habitat              Dams, culverts,          Spatial structure,     All, primarily adults and
   blocked by artificial barriers, such as      quantity, habitat        irrigation diversions,   productivity           0+ juveniles
   dams, road culverts and irrigation           diversity, channel       instream structures
   structures.                                  stability, sediment
B. Restore access to isolated habitats          load
   blocked by flow and temperature              Entrainment
   barriers.
C. Provide screening at 100% of
   irrigation diversions.
D. Restore channel and floodplain
   connectivity

Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Fifteenmile, Fivemile, Eightmile Creeks downstream from Hwy 197, Threemile Cr: culvert at Highway I-84 amd Hwy 197, Chenowith Creek Bridge at Hwy 30.
Unscreened or poorly screened diversions throughtout all MaSas.
Key Programs
          Agency/Stakeholder                                    Program Name                                  Sufficient                   Needs Expansion
ODFW                                           Fish Passage/Screening                                 No                            Yes
ODOT                                           Culvert replacement or retrofit                        No                            Yes
USFS                                           Culvert replacement                                    Yes                           No
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Spatial structure of the Fifteenmile winter steelhead population has been modified and restricted by culvert barriers and hostile environmental conditions in the middle
and lower elevations (NPCC 2004).


Strategy 3. Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability.

                                              Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability
            Substrategies                        Factors               Threats Addressed             VSP        Life                            Discussion
                                                Addressed                                          Paramet     Stages
                                                                                                       ers     Affecte
                                                                                                  Address         d
                                                                                                       ed
a. Bring vertical and lateral stream         Channel stability,       Stream channelization,      Productiv    All          Many legacy effects of past land use practices
   movement in balance with                  habitat diversity,       berming and bank            ity,                      continue to affect instream habitat. Current
   landscape and flow regime.                key habitat              armoring, large wood        abundan                   practices have less effect.
b. Improve instream habitat.                 quantity,                removal, beaver             ce,
c. Increase role and abundance of            sediment load,           removal, removal of         spatial                   Fifteenmile has been extensively channelized
   wood and large organic debris in          flow, water              riparian vegetation,        structure,                and straightened and has subsequently
   streambeds.                               temperature              livestock overgrazing in    diversity                 downcut. Historical aerial photos indicate that
d. Restore channel and floodplain                                     riparian areas                                        the stream is shorter and steeper now than
   connectivity.                                                                                                            before the 1970s (NPCC 2004). Floodplains and
e. Restore off-channel and side-                                                                                            channels that are in balance are essential for
   channel habitat                                                                                                          proper stream function.

Priority Locations (geographic areas)
All MaSAs from forest boundary downstream. Priority reaches identified in EDT

Key Programs
          Agency/Stakeholders                                         Program Name                        Sufficient                        Needs Expansion




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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USFS                                               Fifteenmile River Keeper, Northwest Forest                            Yes, considerable restoration work has occurred
                                                   Plan                                                                  but program could be expanded
ODFW                                               Fifteenmile Creek habitat restoration                                 Yes, projects that are designed to restore stream
                                                   project                                                               function and return stream connection to
                                                                                                                         floodplain are needed
                                                   Oregon Forest Practices Act                      Yes                  Possibly
ODF
Wasco SWCD                                         Watershed restoration                                               Yes, conservation protection and outreach
                                                                                                                       measures implemented on private lands.
ODA                                               Ag. WQ Management Program                                            Yes
CTWSRO                                            Watershed Restoration                                                Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
ODA„s Agricultural Water Quality Program is designed to prevent and control water pollution from agricultural activities and soil erosion on non-Federal and non-
Tribal Trust or Reservation lands. ODA relies on voluntary measures to protect water quality, but also enforces pollution and streamside vegetation requirements.
ODA needs to expand outreach to private landowners to inform them of water quality goals and requirements.


Strategy 4. Restore riparian function and condition.

                                                           Restore riparian function and condition
          Substrategies                    Factors            Threats Addressed                  VSP                Life                      Discussion
                                          Addressed                                          Parameters           Stages
                                                                                              Addressed          Affected
a. Restore natural riparian plan       Bank                Livestock overgrazing,           Productivity,       All            Riparian areas have been altered through
   communities                         degradation, loss   agricultural conversion,         abundance,                         the subbasin. Many areas are recovering
b. Exclude livestock from riparian     of riparian         roads, urban                     spatial                            through newly implemented conservation
   areas                               vegetation, key     development, beaver              structure,                         practices.
c. Eradicate invasive plant species    habitat quantity,   removal                          diversity
   from riparian areas                 habitat quality,                                                                        Primary methods of riparian enhancement
d. Restore channel and floodplain      high stream                                                                             include riparian corridor fences to exclude
   connectivity                        temperatures,                                                                           livestock while controlling weeds, changes
                                       sediment load                                                                           in grazing management that promote
                                                                                                                               riparian recovery, and planting of native
                                                                                                                               shrubs.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
All MaSAs from forest boundary downstream, priority reaches identified in EDT

Key Programs
       Agency/Stakeholders                                 Program Name                                     Sufficient                     Needs Expansion
Wasco SWCD                                  Watershed restoration                                                              Yes
USDA FSA                                    CREP                                                                               Yes, could be expanded to additional
                                                                                                                               properties
Wasco SWCD                                  various                                                 Yes in some areas,         Yes
                                                                                                    no in others
ODFW                                        Fifteenmile Creek habitat restoration project                                   Yes, program has constructed a
                                                                                                                            considerable amount of livestock
                                                                                                                            exclosure fencing, however additional
                                                                                                                            opportunities likely available.
USFS                                           Fifteenmile River Keeper, PacFish/InFish                                     Yes, considerable restoration work
                                                                                                                            occurring
ODA                                            Agricultural Water Quality Program                                           Adaptive Management Plan
CTWSRO                                         Watershed restoration                                                        Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Riparian improvements have been documented to improve many fish habitat parameters. Constant maintenance of the fence lines must be conducted to keep
livestock out and protect the riparian vegetation. Construction of more off channel watering sites or water gaps would help to address part of the issue.


Strategy 5. Restore natural hydrograph to provide sufficient flow during critical periods.

                                      Restore natural hydrograph to provide sufficient flow during critical periods
          Substrategies                    Factors            Threats Addressed                  VSP             Life Stages                    Discussion
                                          Addressed                                          Parameters           Affected
                                                                                             Addressed
a. Increase low summer flow            Water quantity,       Water withdrawals,             Productivity,       All               EDT results indicate that high and low
b. Reduce high peak flows              temperature,          land conversion on             Abundance,                            flows reduce steelhead populations in
                                       oxygen,               uplands, road network,         Spatial                               every reach (NPCC 2004). The
                                       sediment, lack of     loss of beaver, riparian       Structure,                            Fifteenmile Creek watershed naturally



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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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                                       channel forming       destruction, loss of           Diversity                            experiences extreme annual fluctuations
                                       flow                  floodplains,                                                        in flow levels, but they are intensified by
                                                             channelization                                                      irrigation withdrawals and human-
                                                                                                                                 caused changes in runoff
                                                                                                                                 characteristics.

                                                                                                                                 The watershed has experienced an
                                                                                                                                 increase of up to 650% in peak flows
                                                                                                                                 since the 1850s (Wasco Co. SWCD
                                                                                                                                 2003).
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Low flows: MaSA downstream of upper most irrigation diversions (Orchard Ridge in Fifteenmile and Wolf Run in Eightmile); lower reach of Fivemile; Ramsey Cr from
the mouth to Olsen Diversion; Dry Cr. Efforts should start at the top and work downstream. High flows: upland agricultural fields, USFS road network
Key Programs
         Agency/Stakeholders                                   Program Name                           Sufficient                           Needs Expansion
USFS                                        Fifteenmile River Keeper, Northwest Forest Plan                                 Yes
ODFW                                        Fifteenmile Creek Habitat Restoration Project                                   Yes
Oregon Water Resources Department           Stream Flow Monitoring and Regulation                                           Yes
Oregon Water Trust or other entity          Leasing and Purchase of instream water rights                                   Yes, important to secure water rights which
                                                                                                                            guarantee instream flow
USFS, Wasco Co. SWCD, NRCS                  Irrigation efficiency, conveyance efficiency                                    Yes, piping open ditches and other
                                                                                                                            irrigation efficiency projects would decrease
                                                                                                                            irrigation demand on streams
Wasco Co. SWCD                              No-till conversion, watershed restoration                                       Yes
USDA FSA                                    CREP, CRP                                                                       Yes
CTWSRO                                      Watershed Restoration                                                           Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Peak flows are mitigated via upland vegetation, channel and riparian complexity, and closure of excess roads, particularly those with insufficient drainage. Highly
successful program now address upland and riparian conditions. Programs addressing channel complexity and road closure have, to date, only addressed a small
portion of the watershed. Low summer flows are affected by the same factors that affect peak flows, but are more directly affected irrigation withdrawals from the
stream and associated aquifers. Programs have addressed irrigation efficiency on some but not all farms. They have addressed conveyance efficiency on the Wolf
Run Ditch, but not the Orchard Ridge Ditch. Few if any efficiency programs have resulted in instream water rights.


Strategy 6. Restore degraded water quality.
                                                                 Restore degraded water quality
             Substrategies                        Factors            Threats Addressed                 VSP             Life                      Discussion
                                                 Addressed                                         Parameters        Stages
                                                                                                    Addressed       Affected
a. Reduce summer water temperatures           Altered stream         Water withdrawals,           Productivity,    Fry              Excessive summer temperatures
b. Increase riparian shading                  temperature            land conversion in           abundance,       dispersal        have been identified as a major
c. Minimize unnatural factors that lead to    regime, depleted       uplands, loss of             spatial          and rearing      limiting factor for Fifteenmile Creek.
   fluctuations in dissolved oxygen           oxygen                 riparian vegetation,         structure,                        Temperatures often approach or
   levels.                                                           channel widening             diversity                         exceed lethal levels for salmonids in
                                                                                                                                    some of the subbasin. Warm
                                                                                                                                    temperatures reduce the dissolved
                                                                                                                                    oxygen capacity of the water.
d. Reduce sediment inputs                     Sediment               Land conversion in           Productivity,    Spawning,        Recent conservation measures
e. Exclude livestock from riparian areas.                            uplands, loss of             abundance,       incubation,      have greatly reduced sediment
f. Reduce unnatural rates of erosion                                 riparian vegetation,         spatial          fry              inputs; however, sedimentation
   from upland areas                                                 channel widening,            structure,       dispersal,       remains elevated beyond historic
                                                                     road network                 diversity        rearing,         conditions. Streambank erosion is
                                                                                                                   over-            problematic in some areas. Some
                                                                                                                   wintering        level of erosion is necessary for
                                                                                                                                    recruitment of spawning gravel and
                                                                                                                                    to support other ecological
                                                                                                                                    functions.
g. Reduce chemical pollution inputs           Chemical               Pesticides, fertilizers,     Productivity,                     Amounts of chemical pollution
                                              pollution              herbicides, vehicle          abundance,                        reaching streams are unknown and
                                                                     hydrocarbons, etc.           spatial                           need to be determined. Widespread
                                                                                                  structure,                        use of chemicals is common in
                                                                                                  diversity                         agricultural practices near streams.
                                                                                                                                    Reduced streamflow may
                                                                                                                                    accentuate pollution.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Temperature: Fifteenmile Cr. - Dufur Valley downstream to mouth; Eightmile Cr. - FS boundary downstream to confluence with Fifteenmile Creek; Fivemile Cr. – FS
boundary downstream to confluence with Eightmile Creek. Sediment: upland agricultural fields, USFS road network. Chemicals: - agricultural lands throughout both
MaSAs and MiSAs, fords.



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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Key Programs
          Agency/Stakeholders                                   Program Name                                 Sufficient               Needs Expansion
Wasco Co. SWCD, OWEB, Irrigators               Irrigation conveyance efficiency                                              Yes, piping open ditches and other
                                                                                                                             projects will decrease irrigation
                                                                                                                             demand on streams
ODEQ                                           TMDL Development                                      No                       Yes, TMDLs for temperature and
                                                                                                                             sedimentation need to be completed
ODEQ, Wasco Co. SWCD, ODFW, USFS               Temperature TMDL Implementation Monitoring            Yes                     Continue existing level of monitoring
                                                                                                                             efforts
ODEQ, ODA, Wasco SWCD, USFS                    Sedimentation Monitoring (TMDL Development                                    Yes, agencies are working on an
                                               and Implementation)                                                           agreed-upon protocol for tracking
                                                                                                                             improvements over time; need
                                                                                                                             agency commitment to continue
                                                                                                                             monitoring over time
ODEQ, WyEast RC&D, others?                     Toxics monitoring (program doesn‟t actually           No                      Yes, funding needs to be secured to
                                               exist yet….)                                                                  assess in-stream toxics pollution
                                                                                                                             from pestcides
ODA                                            Ag WQ Management Program                              Yes                     Yes, need more outreach to
                                                                                                                             landowners on relationship between
                                                                                                                             streambank erosion and WQ.
WyEast RC&D                                    IFPnet                                                                        Yes, program needs expansion to
                                                                                                                             assist agriculture with reducing
                                                                                                                             chemical demand
Wasco Co. SWCD                                 No-till conversion, watershed restoration                                     Yes
USDA FSA                                       CREP, CRP                                                                     Yes
CTWSRO                                         Watershed Restoration                                                         Yes
ODF                                            Forest Practices Act                                  Unknown
ODFW                                           Fifteenmile Creek Habitat Restoration Project                                 Yes, could be expanded to other
                                                                                                                             private lands.
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Impaired water quality has been identified as a significant limiting actor affecting the subbasin.


Strategy 7. Restore degraded upland processes.

                                                         Restore degraded upland processes
          Substrategies                Factors Addressed         Threats Addressed                VSP                Life                Discussion
                                                                                              Parameters           Stages
                                                                                               Addressed          Affected
a. Improve upland water storage       low and peak flows,      Upland land use, loss of      Productivity,       All
   capacity.                          water quality, key       upland water storage          abundance,
b. Restore native upland plant        habitat quantity         capacity, vegetation          spatial
c. Employ BMPs to minimize                                     conversion on uplands,        structure,
   unnatural rates of erosion and                              overgrazing                   diversity
   runoff from upland sources.
d. Upgrade or remove problem forest
   roads.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Basinwide

Key Programs
          Agency/Stakeholders                                   Program Name                                 Sufficient               Needs Expansion
USDA FSA                                       CREP, CRP                                                                     Yes
Wasco Co. SWCD                                 No-till conversion, watershed restoration                                     Yes, program has greatly reduced
                                                                                                                             sedimentation
ODFW                                           Watershed Restoration                                                         Yes, dependent upon need and
                                                                                                                             funding
USFS                                           Fifteenmile River Keeper, Northwest Forest Plan                               Yes, considerable restoration work
                                                                                                                             occurring
ODA                                          Agricultural Water Quality Program                                              Adaptive Management Plan
CTWSRO                                       Watershed Restoration                                                           Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Strategy 8. Protect/restore habitat through public education and outreach.

                                                 Protect/restore habitat through education and outreach
            Substrategies                   Factors             Threats Addressed               VSP                Life                     Discussion
                                           Addressed                                        Parameters           Stages
                                                                                             Addressed          Affected
   a. Educate, landowners, land            Potentially     Potentially addresses           Productivity,       All           Topics of education include the
      management agencies, and             many            many threats including          abundance,                        importance of healthy riparian zones;
      others                               limiting        stream channelization,          spatial                           impacts of activities on uplands,
   b. Initiate demonstration projects      factors         stream bank armoring,           structure,                        floodplains and stream corridors on
      of good land management.                             water withdrawals,              diversity                         erosion rates and how it affects survival
   c. Outreach to government                               changes in upland plant                                           of steelhead eggs and other habitat
      officials.                                           communities, obstructions                                         parameters; impacts of heavy metals
                                                                                                                             and mine waste on fish; scarcity of flow
                                                                                                                             during critical periods for fish; fish
                                                                                                                             passage needs; and the relationship
                                                                                                                             between shade and water temperature.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Basinwide

Key Programs
           Agency/Stakeholders                                Program Name                               Sufficient                     Needs Expansion
ODFW                                          Outreach                                             No                      Yes
USFS                                          Outreach                                             No                      Yes
Wasco SWCD                                    Outreach                                             No                      Yes
WyEast RC&D                                   Outreach                                                                     Yes
ODA                                           Outreach                                                                     Yes
Watershed Councils                            Outreach                                                                     Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Educating landowners, other agencies, and the public about fish life history and habitat needs is a long, ongoing process and it will be very difficult to measure
tangible results.




Habitat Actions for Recovery of Fifteenmile Creek Steelhead Population.
Action                     Status         Implementing Entity       Strategy           Spatial Coverage1         Implementation       Expected              Certainty of
                                                                    Addressed                                    Timeframe            Biophysical           Outcome3
                                                                                                                                      Response2
Apply BMPs to land         Ongoing        SWCD, USFS,                                  High dispersal            Intermediate         Up to 15 years        High
management practices                      private landowners,                          downstream
                                          ODA, CTWSRO
Implement agricultural     Expands        SWCD                      3,5,6,7            At point of diversion     Ongoing              Immediate             High
water conservation         existing                                                    downstream to                                  increase in
measures                   program,                                                    mouth, population                              instream flow
                           proposes                                                    wide
                           new
                           projects
Implement urban            Expansion      SWCD, City of The         5,6                Mill Creek MiSA           Ongoing              Immediate             High
water conservation         of existing    Dalles                                                                                      increase in
measures                   program                                                                                                    instream flow
Lease or purchase          Ongoing        ODWR, Oregon              5,6                Population Wide           Unknown              Immediate             High
instream water rights                     Water Trust, other                           (Currently occurs in                           increase in
                                          entity                                       Fifteenmile MaSA)                              instream flow
Off channel water          Potential      unknown                   4,5,6,7
storage                    project
Finish piping Orchard      Expansion      SWCD, USFS,               5,6                Upper Fifteenmile and     unknown              Immediate             High
Ridge and Wolf Run         of existing    irrigators                                   Eightmile                                      increase in
diversions                 project                                                                                                    instream flow
95% conversion to no       Existing       SWCD                      4,5,6,7            Croplands, MaSAs          Ongoing              Reduce runoff         High
till farming               program                                                                               (completed by        sediment supply,
                                                                                                                 2012)                immediate
                                                                                                                                      increase base
                                                                                                                                      flow
Conversion to              Develop        SWCD                      4,5,6,7            Uplands                   Ongoing              Reduce runoff         High
perennial                  new                                                                                                        sediment supply,
crops/vegetation           programs                                                                                                   immediate



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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


Action                    Status         Implementing Entity       Strategy         Spatial Coverage1        Implementation   Expected            Certainty of
                                                                   Addressed                                 Timeframe        Biophysical         Outcome3
                                                                                                                              Response2
                                                                                                                              increase base
                                                                                                                              flow
Reduce road densities     Expansion      USFS                      3,4,5,6,7        USFS lands               Long term        Variable            Moderate
                          of existing                                                                                         depending on
                          project                                                                                             individual
                                                                                                                              treatment (5-20
                                                                                                                              yrs)
Promote fuels             Expansion      USFS                      4,5,7            USFS lands               Long term        Variable            Moderate
management                of existing                                                                                         depending on
                          project                                                                                             individual
                                                                                                                              treatment (5-20
                                                                                                                              yrs)
Improve irrigation        Expansion      SWCD,                     5,6              Agricultural lands       Ongoing          Increased           High
conveyance and            of existing    USFS,OWRD, OWEB                            throughout subbasin                       streamflow (0-5
efficeincy                effort                                                                                              yrs)
Conservation Reserve      Existing       USDA FSA, SWCD            6,7              Private lands            Ongoing          Increased           High
Enhancement               effort                                                    throughout MaSA                           riparian
Program (CREP)                                                                                                                protection and
                                                                                                                              restoration (0-15
                                                                                                                              yrs)
IFPnet--Develop           Existing       WyEast RC&D               4,6,7            Orchard lands            Ongoing          Reduce chemical     High
Integrated Fruit          effort                                                    throughout subbasin                       pollution
Production plans with                                                                                                         immediately
orchardists
Instream fish habitat     Expansion      ODFW, USFS                2,3,4,5,6        Private and forest       Ongoing          Increased habitat   High
restoration               of existing                                               lands                                     diversity (0-10
                          effort                                                                                              years)
Install off-stream        Expansion      ODFW, SWCD                3,4,6            Private lands            Ongoing          Riparian            High
livestock water to        of existing                                                                                         restoration (0-5
move cattle from          effort                                                                                              years)
streams
Install fencing to        Expansion      ODFW, SWCD,               3,4,5,6          Private lands            Ongoing          Riparian            High
exclude livestock from    of existing    CTWSRO                                                                               restoration (0-10
streams                   effort                                                                                              years)
Implement agricultural                   ODA                       all              basinwide                Ongoing          Variable            High
water quality plan
Continue TMDL             Existing       USFS, ODFW,               4,6              basinwide                Ongoing          Immediate           High
monitoring                effort         SWCD, ODEQ
Conduct outreach to       Ongoing        ODFW, USFS,               all              basinwide                Ongoing          Variable lag time   Unknown
resource users and                       SWCD, ODA, WyEast                                                                    depending upon
mangers                                  RC&D, CTWSRO                                                                         action taken
Initiate demonstration    Ongoing        ODFW, SWCD                                 basinwide                Ongoing          Variable lag time   unknown
projects                                                                                                                      depending upon
                                                                                                                              action taken
Toxics monitoring         Expansion      ODEQ, WyEast              4,6,7            Orchard lands            Ongoing          Reduce chemical     High
                          of             RC&D, others?                              throughout subbasin                       pollution
                          previous                                                                                            immediately
                          effort
Acquire                   When             Land Trusts                   All              Basinwide          Immediate        Long term           High
sensitive/significant     available
habitats
1
  Geographic scale of effect (relative amount of basin affected by action)
2 Expected response of action implementation ─ including how long for action to achieve full effectiveness
3 Relative certainty that expected results will occur as a result of full implementation of action




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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                 Habitat Strategies and Actions for Recovery of Deschutes Westside Population

The Deschutes River Westside steelhead population of Mid-Columbia River steelhead includes the
mainstem Deschutes River from Trout Creek to Pelton Dam and the tributaries flowing from the
Westside ─ including the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek, and the Metolius River and
Whychus Creek above the Pelton/Round Butte complex. The area contains five major spawning areas:
Lower Warm Springs, Middle Warm Springs, Upper Warm Springs, Mill, and Shitike; and six minor
spawning areas: Oak Canyon, White, Wapinitia, Eagle, Skookum, and Deschutes.

             Primary limiting factors: 1) Key habitat quantity, 2) Sediment Load, 3) Temperature, 4) Habitat
             Diversity, 5) Flow. 6) Lack of Fish Passage over Pelton Round Butte complex high priority
             limiting factors in Metolius River and Whychus Creek, 7) Impacts from out of basin strays

             Primary threats: Road networks (including Hwy 26 Beaver Creek, USFS roads, Tribal road
             networks), logging practices, grazing practices, removal of overstory trees and bank vegetation
             from the riparian corridor, stream channelization, water withdrawal (Whychus Creek).

Strategy 1. Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes.

                                                 Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes
            Substrategies                     Factors            Threats Addressed                VSP                 Life                             Discussion
                                             Addressed                                         Parameters           Stages
                                                                                               Addressed           Affected
a. Protect floodplain function and           Many              Many threats including         All                 All               Protecting functioning floodplains and channels
   channel migration                         factors,           livestock overgrazing                                               that are in balance with their ability to transport
b. Protect riparian function                 including          of riparian area,                                                   water and sediment is identified as one of the
c. Protect access to key habitats            key habitat       channelization, stream                                               highest priorities in the Subbasin Plan. All
d. Protect existing high water quality       quality and        bank armoring,                                                      streams will have some level of erosion,
e. Protect natural stream flow regime        diversity,        agricultural                                                         because a stream channel is never static.
f. Protect base flows through                sediment           practices (fertilizers,                                             Having some erosion is essential for recruitment
   management of water withdrawals           load, water        herbicides, sediments,                                              of spawning gravel and other important
g. Protect riparian function by              quality,          changes in plant                                                     ecological functions (such as fine sediments
   maintaining management                    flow              communities), fire                                                   needed for riparian plant growth).
   objectives                                                  suppression techniques,
h. Protect channel structure to                                water withdrawals, loss of                                           Protecting base stream flows from further
   maintain quality and quantity of                            beaver                                                               appropriations is a very important function of
   spawning grounds                                                                                                                 protecting existing high quality habitats.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
MaSAs in Warm Springs River Basin, MaSA in Shitike Creek, Spawning areas in mainstem Deschutes River below Pelton Round Butte project. Potential MaSAs in
Whychus Creek and Metolius River.
Key Programs
              Agency/Stakeholder                                    Program Name                            Sufficient                               Needs Expansion
USFS and BLM                                           Wilderness Areas, Wilderness Study            For the areas                  Yes
                                                       Areas, Wild and Scenic River corridors, designated
                                                       Special Management designations
                                                       PacFish/Infish
ODFW                                                   Cooperative Agreements                        No                             Yes, the agreements are for only 10-15 years
USDA FSA                                               CREP                                          No                             Yes, the agreements are for only 10-15 years
CTWSRO                                                 Integrated Resources Mgmt Plan                Yes                            Yes, adaptive 10 year management plans
CTWSRO                                                 Watershed Maintenance/ Riparian               No                             Yes, continue to expand riparian fence network
                                                       Fence Program                                                                and maintenance of those fence lines
CTWSRO                                                 Road Rocking Program                          No                             Problem areas need to be identified and
                                                                                                                                    maintained.
ODA                                                    Agricultural Water Quality Program            Yes                            Adaptive Management Plan.
Local Government                                       City and County Planning and Zoning                                          Yes,
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Protection of high quality habitats is the most cost effective way of ensuring fish have good quality habitat. It is much less expensive over the long term to protect high
quality habitat than it is to degrade the habitat and then try to restore it. Protection of existing high quality habitat areas is a broad strategy capable of contributing to




                                                                                         10
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


meeting all of biological habitat objectives identified in the Subbasin Plan. Many objectives are likely to be met just by habitat protection and the associated natural
recovery of upland and/or riparian areas. Land acquisitions, easements, and cooperative agreements may also facilitate the implementation of active restoration projects.
The specific objectives addressed by each protection effort will vary, and must be assessed on a case-by-case basis.

The majority of the Deschutes Westside steelhead spawning areas occurs within the boundaries of the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation. The
Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs has developed and implemented the Integrated Resources Management Plan on Reservation lands.

Existing forest plans include special management designations for riparian habitat conservation areas (RHCA‟s). The forest plans and BLM plans have been amended by
PACFISH and INFISH, both of which require 300-foot buffers on any fish bearing stream for tree removal, as well as specific guidelines for livestock grazing and riparian
vegetation use. Compliance with the 300-foot buffer for timber harvest operations has been very good; however the interpretation of the grazing guidelines has been
inconsistent between National Forests. .

Farm Service Agency (FSA) programs that protect riparian areas and upland watersheds include the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and the Conservation Reserve
Enhancement Program (CREP). The CRP program pays landowners not to farm highly erodible soils and the CREP program pays landowners for setting riparian corridors
aside from grazing and farming. The long term effectiveness of both programs is limited by the relatively short duration of the contracts which ranges from 10 to 15 years.

ODA„s Agricultural Water Quality Program is designed to prevent and control water pollution from agricultural activities and soil erosion on non-Federal and non-Tribal Trust
or Reservation lands. ODA relies on voluntary measures to protect water quality, but also enforces pollution and streamside vegetation requirements. ODA needs to
expand outreach to private landowners to inform them of water quality goals and requirements.


Strategy 2. Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas.

                                                  Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas
          Substrategies                    Factors           Threats Addressed              VSP               Life                         Discussion
                                          Addressed                                    Parameters          Stages
                                                                                       Addressed           Affected
a. Restore access to isolated            Key habitat            Dams, culverts,       Distribution       All,          The major issue for this strategy is passage
   habitats blocked by artificial        quantity, habitat      irrigation diversions,Productivity       primarily     above the Pelton Round Butte Hydroelectric
   barriers, such as dams, road          diversity, channel     instream structures                      adults and    Complex. Dam construction in 1964 and failure
   culverts and irrigation               stability, sediment                                             0+            of upstream adult fish passage lead to extirpated
   structures.                           load                                                            juveniles     steelhead populations above the complex.
b. Restore access to isolated            Entrainment                                                                   Irrigation diversions occur primarily above the
   habitats blocked by flow and                                                                                        project. There has been a culvert inventory
   temperature barriers.                                                                                               conducted on the CTWS Reservation identifying
c. Provide screening at 100% of                                                                                        problem areas.
   irrigation diversions.
d. Restore channel and floodplain
   connectivity
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
MaSAs in Warm Springs River Basin, MaSA in Shitike Creek, Spawning areas in mainstem Deschutes River below Pelton Round Butte project. Potential MaSAs in
Whychus Creek and Metolius River
Key Programs
           Agency/Stakeholder                                  Program Name                          Sufficient                         Needs Expansion
ODFW                                            Fish Passage/Screening                        No                       The program completes a minimum of one
                                                                                                                       project per year, but is dependent upon
                                                                                                                       landowner cooperation and limited funding
PGE/CTWSRO                                      Pelton Fish Passage Plan                      Yes                      Program not implemented. 50 year time frame.
CTWSRO/ODFW                                     Salmon and Steelhead Reintroduction Plan      No                       Yes, adaptive plan over life of FERC license
ODOT                                            Culvert replacement or retrofit               No                       Yes
CTWSRO                                          IRMP                                          Yes                      Yes, adaptive management plan
CTWSRO, USFS, and BLM                           Culvert replacement                           No                       Yes
Upper Deschutes Watershed Council               Various passage projects                                               Yes, projects currently on Whychus and Lake
                                                                                                                       Creek, could be expanded to other areas.
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
 The major issue for this strategy is passage above the Pelton Round Butte Hydroelectric Complex (PRB). Dam construction in 1964 and failure of upstream adult fish
passage lead to extirpated steelhead populations above the complex. A new FERC license was issued in June of 2005. A main component of the license is the
reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above the PRB. New facilities, evaluation, modifications will need to be implemented. Juvenile out plants, downstream fish
passage efficiencies and timelines have been defined in the Salmon and Steelhead Reintroduction and Conservation Plan in draft written by ODFW and CTWS.

Irrigation diversions occur primarily above the project. CTWSRO culvert inventories have identified problem areas.




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


Strategy 3. Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability.

                                             Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability
           Substrategies                      Factors              Threats Addressed                VSP            Life                      Discussion
                                             Addressed                                         Parameters        Stages
                                                                                               Addressed        Affected
a. Bring vertical and lateral stream      Channel stability,     Stream channelization,       Productivity,    All           There has been a loss of off-channel and
   movement in balance with               habitat diversity,     bank armoring, large         abundance,                     side-channel habitats that once provided
   landscape and flow regime.             key habitat            wood removal, beaver         distribution,                  habitat for spawning and rearing, and
b. Increase role and abundance of         quantity,              removal, removal of          spatial                        refugia from high flows.
   wood and large organic debris in       sediment load,         riparian vegetation,         diversity
   streambeds.                            flow, water            livestock overgrazing in                                    Instream structures can be designed to
c. Restore channel and floodplain         temperature            riparian areas, loss of                                     improve channel stability, trap sediments
   connectivity.                                                 gravel recruitment                                          and raise the stream bed so that the
d. Restore off-channel and side-                                                                                             stream can more effectively interact with
   channel habitat                                                                                                           the floodplain. Typical structures include
e. Evaluate gravel recruitment                                                                                               rootwads, boulder clusters, whole trees,
   process                                                                                                                   and rock weirs where appropriate.

                                                                                                                             Loss of gravel recruitment due to hydro
                                                                                                                             complex. Without proper recruitment
                                                                                                                             spawning areas and rearing areas become
                                                                                                                             reduced.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
MaSAs in Warm Springs River Basin, MaSA in Shitike Creek, Spawning areas in mainstem Deschutes River below Pelton Round Butte project. Potential MaSAs in
Whychus Creek and Metolius River.
Key Programs
            Agency/Stakeholders                              Program Name                        Sufficient                    Needs Expansion
PGE/CTWSRO                                     Lower Deschutes Gravel Study                  Yes                  Possibly, based upon study results

PGE/CTWSRO                                         Large Wood Management Plan                          Yes                 Yes, adaptive as program is implemented
                                                   Stream enhancement program                          Yes in some         Possibly
USFS, BLM                                          (PacFish/Infish)                                    areas, no in
                                                                                                       others
Watershed Councils                                 Watershed restoration                               Dependent upon Only if specific needs cannot be addressed
                                                                                                                      by passive restoration techniques
                                                                                                       need and funding
Soil and Water Conservation Districts            Watershed restoration                                 Dependent upon Only if specific needs cannot be addressed
                                                                                                                      by passive restoration techniques
                                                                                                       need and funding
CTWSRO                                           IRMP                                                  Yes            Yes, adaptive management plan
ODA                                              Agricultural Water Quality Program                    Yes            Adaptive management plan.
NRCS, SWCD, private landowners                   CREP                                                  Yes            Could be expanded
Upper Deschutes Watershed Council                Various restoration projects                                         Yes, could be expanded.
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Large wood placement in the lower Deschutes, gravel augmentation studies and evaluation will be conducted by PRB licensees. The area of study and implementation
will occur between the Reregulating Dam and Shitike Creek.

ODA„s Agricultural Water Quality Program is designed to prevent and control water pollution from agricultural activities and soil erosion on non-Federal and non-Tribal
Trust or Reservation lands. ODA relies on voluntary measures to protect water quality, but also enforces pollution and streamside vegetation requirements. ODA needs
to expand outreach to private landowners to inform them of water quality goals and requirements.



Strategy 4. Restore riparian function and condition.

                                                               Restore riparian function and condition
          Substrategies                    Factors              Threats Addressed                 VSP             Life                      Discussion
                                          Addressed                                          Parameters         Stages
                                                                                              Addressed        Affected
a. Restore natural riparian plan       Channel stability,       Livestock overgrazing       Productivity,     All          Many stream systems have experienced a
   communities                         key habitat              of riparian area,           abundance,                     loss of riparian vegetation. Roads are located
b. Exclude livestock from riparian     quantity, habitat        channelization, stream      distribution                   in many riparian areas within the subbasin
   areas                               quality, flows,          bank armoring,                                             (NPCC 2004).
c. Eradicate invasive plant species    high stream              harvest in riparian
   from riparian areas                 temperatures,            areas, changes in
d. Restore channel and floodplain      sediment load            plant communities
   connectivity                                                 (including invasive
                                                                plants), fire



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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


                                                             suppression
                                                             techniques/plant
                                                             rehab, beaver removal
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
MaSAs in Warm Springs River Basin, MaSA in Shitike Creek, spawning areas in mainstem Deschutes River below Pelton Round Butte project. Potential MaSAs in
Whychus Creek and Metolius River.
Key Programs
          Agency/Stakeholders                                 Program Name                             Sufficient                        Needs Expansion
CTWSRO                                       Watershed Maintenance                               Yes/No                     Yes, needs to be continued
CTWSRO                                       IRMP                                                Yes                        Yes, adaptive management plan
SWCD‟s                                       Upland improvements, riparian improvements          Yes in some areas,         Yes
                                                                                                 no in others
ODFW
USFS and BLM
NRCS
ODA                                          Agricultural Water Quality Program                  Yes                        Adaptive Management Plan
Upper Deschutes Watershed Council            Various restoration projects                                                   Yes, could be expanded.
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Riparian improvements have been documented to improve many fish habitat parameters. The CTWSRO has erected and maintains nearly 70 miles of riparian exclusion
fences, constructed water gaps, and off channel watering station for livestock. Constant maintenance of the fence lines must be conducted to keep livestock out and
protect the riparian vegetation. Construction of more off channel watering sites or water gaps would help to address part of the issue.


Strategy 5. Restore natural hydrograph to provide sufficient flow during critical periods.

                                        Restore natural hydrograph to provide sufficient flow during critical periods.
          Substrategies                   Factors             Threats Addressed              VSP           Life Stages                         Discussion
                                         Addressed                                      Parameters          Affected
                                                                                        Addressed
A. Enhance base flow                  Altered stream        Water withdrawals          Productivity       All               Irrigation withdrawals in Whychus Creek dewater
B. Restore natural hydrographic       flow regime, key      Changes in upland          Abundance                            sections of the creek during summer baseflows.
   conditions where appropriate       habitat quantity,     plant community            Distribution
C. Increase pool habitat (beaver      habitat diversity,    Channelization,            Spatial                              Removal of large wood (Metolius River) and
   ponds)                             sediment,             Removal of large wood      Structure                            channelizing streams also increases water
D. Restore riparian vegetation and    Altered               Removal of beaver                                               velocities and reduces the ability of the stream to
   function                           temperature                                                                           hold water for gradual release. Incised and
                                      regime,                                                                               wide, shallow stream channels have reduced
                                      Lack of channel                                                                       floodplain storage capacity, which contributes to
                                      forming flows                                                                         lower flows and warmer water temperatures.

Priority Locations (geographic areas)
MaSAs in Warm Springs River Basin, MaSA in Shitike Creek, Spawning areas in mainstem Deschutes River below Pelton Round Butte project. Potential MaSAs in Whychus
and Metolius River.
Key Programs
          Agency/Stakeholders                                  Program Name                             Sufficient                        Needs Expansion
CTWSRO                                        IRMP, water quality standards                       Yes in some area, no Yes
                                                                                                  in other
ODFW                                          BPA Habitat Program, riparian improvements          No                      Yes
Oregon Water Resources Department             Stream Flow Monitoring and Regulation               No                      Yes
Oregon Water Trust and BOR                    Leasing and Purchase of Water Rights                No                      Yes
Soil and Water Conservation Districts         Improve irrigation efficiency, upland               Yes in some areas,      Yes
                                              improvements, riparian improvements                 no in others
Watershed Councils                            Upland improvements, riparian improvements          No                      Yes
NRCS                                          Upland improvements, riparian improvements          No                      Yes
DRC                                           Flow restoration projects                                                   Yes, Currently have projects in Whychus Creek,
                                                                                                                          could be expanded.
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Riparian improvements alone have been documented to improve base stream flows as well as a variety of other habitat parameters. For these reasons the CTWS, ODFW,
Watershed Councils, NRCS and Soil and Water Districts have implemented riparian improvements on federal, tribal, state, and private lands, primarily through construction of
riparian corridor fences that exclude livestock grazing and development of off channel watering devices. Public land managers have implemented PACFISH and INFISH
standards for protection and restoration of USFS and BLM lands. Primary constraints on more riparian improvements are personnel and funding.




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Strategy 6. Restore degraded water quality.
                                                                    Restore degraded water quality
             Substrategies                        Factors            Threats Addressed              VSP             Life                    Discussion
                                                 Addressed                                       Parameters       Stages
                                                                                                 Addressed        Affected
a. Exclude livestock from riparian areas.      Altered stream        Timber harvest in          Productivity,   Eggs, fry,   The Deschutes River and several
b. Increase riparian shading                   temperature           riparian areas, riparian   abundance       juveniles,   westside tributary reaches are included on
c. Reduce unnatural rates of erosion           regime, Chemical      grazing, high road                         adults       the 2002 ODEQ 303(d) list of water quality
   from upland areas                           contaminants,         densities, clearing of                                  limited streams. The lower Deschutes
d. Decrease channel width-to-depth             depleted oxygen       riparian vegetation for                                 River exceeds temperature criteria for
   ratios                                      sediment load         agriculture and rural                                   salmonid rearing from White River to
e. Increase deep pool habitat                                        development, fire                                       Pelton Dam. Water temperatures in lower
f. Maintain existing high water quality                              suppression                                             reaches of Warm Springs River and
   with respect to chemical                                          techniques, water                                       Shitike Creek can exceed 70°F from mid
   contamination                                                     quality parameters                                      to late summer. EDT identified water
g. Minimize unnatural factors that lead to                           altered by                                              temperature during incubation as a major
   fluctuations in dissolved oxygen                                  hydroelectric facility.                                 limiting factor in lower Shitike Creek,
   levels.                                                                                                                   Beaver Creek, and several other stream
e. Enhance Baseflow (see strategy 5)                                                                                         reaches (NPCC 2004b). Reduced
                                                                                                                             streamflows negatively affect water
                                                                                                                             quality.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
MaSAs in Warm Springs River Basin, MaSA in Shitike Creek, spawning areas in mainstem Deschutes River below Pelton Round Butte project. Potential MaSAs in
Whychus Creek and Metolius River.
Key Programs
            Agency/Stakeholders                                  Program Name                         Sufficient                      Needs Expansion
DEQ                                              CWA Section 401                                No                         Yes
CTWSRO                                           CWA Section 401, Water Quality Standards,      Yes, in some cases         Yes
                                                 Integrated Resource Management Plan
ODA                                              Agricultural Water Quality Program             Yes                        Adaptive Management Plan
USFS/BLM                                         Stream Restoration Program (PacFish/Infish)
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
ODA administers and enforces the Agricultural Water Quality Management Area Program. The Program is sufficient, however it needs more outreach to landowners.


Strategy 7. Restore degraded upland processes.

                                                                  Restore degraded upland processes
           Substrategies                     Factors Addressed       Threats Addressed                VSP           Life                    Discussion
                                                                                                 Parameters       Stages
                                                                                                  Addressed      Affected
a. Improve upland water storage       low and peak flows,      Upland land use, loss of         Productivity,   All
   capacity.                          water quality, key       upland water storage             abundance,
b. Restore native upland plant        habitat quantity         capacity, vegetation             distribution,
c. Employ BMPs to minimize                                     conversion on uplands,           spatial
   unnatural rates of erosion and                              overgrazing                      diversity
   runoff from upland sources.
d. Upgrade or remove problem forest
   roads.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
MaSAs in Warm Springs River Basin, MaSA in Shitike Creek, lands draining to spawning areas in mainstem Deschutes River below Pelton Round Butte project. Potential
MaSAs in Whychus and Metolius River.
Key Programs
             Agency/Stakeholders                               Program Name                            Sufficient                     Needs Expansion
NRCS,SWCD, Private Landowners                   CRP, CREP                                         Yes                     Yes
CTWSRO                                          Watershed Restoration                             Dependent upon          Yes
                                                                                                  need and funding
ODFW                                            Watershed Restoration                             Dependent upon          Yes
                                                                                                  need and funding
USFS/BLM                                       Stream Restoration Program (PacFish/Infish)                                Yes
CTWS                                           IRMP                                               Yes                     Yes, adaptive management plan
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


Strategy 8. Protect/restore habitat through public education and outreach.

                                                 Protect/restore habitat through education and outreach
            Substrategies                  Factors           Threats Addressed                VSP               Life                         Discussion
                                          Addressed                                      Parameters           Stages
                                                                                          Addressed          Affected
a. Educate, landowners, land              Potentially   Potentially addresses many      Productivity,       All              Topics of education include the
   management agencies, and others        many          threats including stream        abundance,                           importance of healthy riparian zones;
b. Initiate demonstration projects of     limiting      channelization, stream bank     distribution,                        impacts of activities on uplands,
   good land management.                  factors       armoring, water withdrawals,    and spatial                          floodplains and stream corridors on
c. Outreach to government officials.                    changes in upland plant         structure                            erosion rates and how it affects survival of
                                                        communities, obstructions                                            steelhead eggs and other habitat
                                                                                                                             parameters; impacts of heavy metals and
                                                                                                                             mine waste on fish; scarcity of flow during
                                                                                                                             critical periods for fish; fish passage
                                                                                                                             needs; the relationship between shade
                                                                                                                             and water temperature; and how many
                                                                                                                             fish are diverted by unscreened irrigation
                                                                                                                             diversions.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Basinwide

Key Programs
           Agency/Stakeholders                                     Program Name                          Sufficient                       Needs Expansion
ODFW                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
CTWSRO                                              Outreach                                       No                        Yes
USFS                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
BLM                                                 Outreach                                       No                        Yes
SWCDs                                               Outreach                                       No                        Yes
ODA                                                 Agricultural Water Quality Program             No                        Yes
Watershed Councils                                  Outreach                                       No                        Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Educating landowners, other agencies, and the public about fish life history and habitat needs is a long, ongoing process and it will be very difficult to measure
tangible results. Current activities include field days with school groups, agencies, and landowners, as well as presentations about life history and species of fish
present in the Deschutes River basin. The formation of Watershed Councils and SWCDs that are active in watershed restoration has increased awareness about fish
needs throughout the entire basin, but landowners, educators, and the public are eager for additional information. Current personnel cannot meet the demand for
education and outreach and still complete their other assigned duties. ODA funds SWCDs to provide water quality information to landowners.



Habitat Actions for Recovery of Deschutes River Westside Steelhead Population.
Action                     Status       Implementing Entity              Strategy          Spatial Coverage1            Implementation       Expected              Certainty of
                                                                         Addressed                                      timeframe            Biophysical           Outcome3
                                                                                                                                             Response2
Apply BMPs to              Ongoing      NRCS, USFS, BLM, ODFW,           1,4,7             High dispersal               Intermediate         5-15 years            High
livestock grazing                       Private landowners,                                downstream
practices                               CTWSRO, Watershed
                                        Councils, ODA, SWCDs
Apply BMPs to forest       Ongoing      USFS, Oregon Dept. of            1,4,7             High dispersal               Intermediate         Up to 5 years         High
practices                               Forestry, BLM                                      downstream
Vegetation                 Ongoing      USFS, BLM, NRCS,                 1,4,7             High dispersal               Juniper control      0-5 years             High
management                              SWCD‟s, Watershed                                  downstream                   can be done
                                        Councils,CTWS, BIA                                                              quickly, other
                                                                                                                        strategies such
                                                                                                                        as control of
                                                                                                                        invasive plants
                                                                                                                        may take more
                                                                                                                        than 20 years
Apply BMPs to road         Ongoing      CTWSRO, USFS, Oregon             1,3,4,7           High dispersal               Long term            Immediate for         High
system management                       Dept. of Forestry, ODOT                            downstream                                        sediment, other
                                                                                                                                             parameter 5-15
                                                                                                                                             years
Utilize appropriate fire   ongoing      CTWSRO, USFS                     4,7               Areas where fires            Long term            5-15 years            High
suppression                                                                                have occurred
techniques
Replace culverts           Ongoing      CTWSRO, USFS, BLM,               2                 Provide access to            Ongoing,             Immediate             High
                                        SWCDs, Watershed                                   upstream habitat             replacing all



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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


Action                    Status      Implementing Entity          Strategy       Spatial Coverage1       Implementation      Expected            Certainty of
                                                                   Addressed                              timeframe           Biophysical         Outcome3
                                                                                                                              Response2
                                      Councils, ODOT                                                      culverts blocking
                                                                                                          fish passage
                                                                                                          expected to take
                                                                                                          20 years
Screen unscreened         Ongoing     ODFW                         2              At point of diversion   Approximately –     Immediate           High
diversions                                                                                                diversions need
                                                                                                          to be screened.
                                                                                                          Should take --
                                                                                                          years
Replace screens that      Ongoing     ODFW                         2              At point of diversion   Approximately –     Immediate           High
do not meet criteria                                                                                      screens need to
                                                                                                          be replaced.
                                                                                                          Should take –
                                                                                                          years.
Obtain additional         As          CTWSRO, ODFW, DRC,           1,5,6          Whychus Creek           unknown             Long term           High
instream water rights     available   DBLT, PGE
Monitor and regulate      Ongoing     ODWR                         1,5,6          Point of diversion      Long term           immediate           High
water withdrawals                                                                 downstream to mouth
                                                                                  of Deschutes River
Lease/acquire             Ongoing     Oregon Water Resources       1,5,6          Point of diversion      Long term           immediate           High
instream water rights                 Dept., Oregon Water Trust,                  downstream to mouth
                                      PGE                                         of John Day River
Off-stream Livestock      Ongoing     CTWS                         1,5,6          Reservation streams     Ongoing, more       Immediate           High
watering                                                                                                  needed
Add large woody           As          PGE/CTWSRO, USFS,            3,5            Mainstem Deschutes/     Long term           Immediate           High
debris                    available   Watershed Councils                          Metolius River
Restore natural                       CTWSRO, ODFW, USFS,          2,3,4,5        High dispersal          Long term           5-15 years          High
channel form and                      BLM, Watershed Councils                     downstream from site
reconnect to floodplain
Stabilize and protect     Ongoing     CTWSRO, ODFW,                3,4            High dispersal          Long term           5-15 years          High
streambanks                           Watershed Councils, USFS,                   downstream from site
                                      BLM, ODA, SWCDs
Manage grazing in         Ongoing     CTWSRO, USFS, ODA,           3,4,6          High dispersal          Long term           5-15 years          High
riparian areas                        SWCDs                                       downstream from site
Restore riparian          Ongoing     CTWSRO, ODFW,                4,6            High dispersal          Long term           5-15 years          High
vegetative cover                      Watershed Councils,                         downstream from site
                                      SWCDs, USFS, BLM, ODA
Reconnect floodplain      Ongoing     CTWSRO,ODFW,                 3,4,5                                  Long term           immediate           Moderate
habitats                              Watershed Councils,
                                      SWCDs, USFS, BLM,
Reintroduce beaver        ongoing     ODFW, CTWSRO, USFS,          2,3,4,5        basinwide               Long term           Within 5 years      Moderate-high
                                      BLM
Manage return flow        ongoing     SWCDs                        5,6            High dispersal          Less than 5         immediate           High
reduce extreme                                                                    downstream              years
stream temperatures
Acquire/manage            Ongoing     CTWSRO, PGE, DRC,            1,3,4          High dispersal          Existing            immediate           High
stream corridor                       DBLT, NGO‟s                                 downstream              conservation
through conservation                                                                                      agreements are
easements                                                                                                 complete. Full
                                                                                                          implementation
                                                                                                          of conservation
                                                                                                          measures will
                                                                                                          take 5-15 years
                                                                                                          or more
Adopt and manage          ongoing     CTWSRO, ODFW, SWCDs          1,3,4          High dispersal          Agreements are      immediate           High, although
Cooperative                                                                       downstream              for 10-15 years                         not in
Agreements                                                                                                                                        perpetuity
Special Management        ongoing     USFS, BLM                    1,4,7          High dispersal          Complete,           immediate           High, although
Designations on public                                                            downstream              potentially                             subject to
lands                                                                                                     subject to                              change from
                                                                                                          change in                               forest plan or
                                                                                                          Forest Plan                             management
                                                                                                          revisions                               plan revision
Conduct outreach to       Ongoing     ODFW, NOAA Fisheries,        8              Entire basin            Long term           Variable lag time   Unknown
resource users and                    USFWS, USFS, BLM,                                                                       depending upon
mangers                               CTWSRO, Watershed                                                                       action taken



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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


Action                    Status         Implementing Entity               Strategy         Spatial Coverage1   Implementation   Expected            Certainty of
                                                                           Addressed                            timeframe        Biophysical         Outcome3
                                                                                                                                 Response2
                                         Councils, SWCD‟s, NGO‟s,
                                         ODA
Initiate demonstration    Ongoing        ODFW, NOAA Fisheries,             8                Entire basin        Long term        Variable lag time   unknown
projects                                 USFWS, USFS, BLM,                                                                       depending upon
                                         CTWSRO, Watershed                                                                       action taken
                                         Councils, SWCD‟s, NGO‟s,
                                         ODA
Conduct outreach to       ongoing        ODFW, NOAA Fisheries,             8                Entire basin        Long term        Variable lag time   unknown
government officials                     USFWS, USFS, BLM,                                                                       depending upon
                                         CTWSRO, Watershed                                                                       action taken
                                         Councils, SWCD‟s, NGO‟s
Implement outreach        Ongoing        ODFW, NOAA Fisheries,             8                Entire basin        Long term        Variable lag time   unknown
program for general                      USFWS, USFS, BLM,                                                                       depending upon
public                                   CTWSRO, Watershed                                                                       action taken
                                         Councils, SWCD‟s, NGO‟s,
                                         ODA
Support regional          Ongoing        ODFW, NOAA Fisheries,             8                Entire basin        Long term        Variable lag time   unknown
outreach efforts                         USFWS, USFS, BLM,                                                                       depending upon
                                         CTWSRO, Watershed                                                                       action taken
                                         Councils, SWCD‟s, ODA
Acquire                      When        Land Trusts                            All               Basinwide     Immediate        Long term           High
sensitive/significant        available
habitats
1
  Geographic scale of effect (relative amount of basin affected by action)
2 Expected response of action implementation ─ including how long for action to achieve full effectiveness
3 Relative certainty that expected results will occur as a result of full implementation of action




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


Habitat Strategies and Actions for Recovery of Deschutes River Eastside Population

The Deschutes River Eastside population includes the Deschutes River from its mouth to Trout Creek
and all of the tributaries flowing in from the east side, including Willow Creek above Pelton Dam. The
population contains five major spawning areas: Buck Hollow, Bakeoven, Ward/Antelope/Cold, Lower
Trout, and Upper Trout; and two minor spawning areas: Macks Canyon and Jones Canyon.

            Primary limiting factors: 1) riparian condition, 2) Low flow, 3) Temperature, 4) Habitat
            Diversity, 5) Lack of Fish Passage, 6) Impacts from out of basin strays

            Primary threats: Grazing, roads, residences, and agriculture practices that simplify habitat;
            irrigation withdrawals; soil tilling, timber harvest, dams and roads.

Strategy 1. Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes.

                                                  Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes
            Substrategies                    Factors           Threats Addressed                VSP                 Life                             Discussion
                                            Addressed                                        Parameters           Stages
                                                                                             Addressed           Affected
a. Protect floodplain function and            Many           Many threats including         All                 All                Protecting functioning floodplains and channels that
   channel migration                          factors,        livestock overgrazing                                                are in balance with their ability to transport water
b. Protect riparian function                  including       of riparian area,                                                    and sediment is identified as one of the highest
c. Protect access to key habitats             key habitat channelization, stream                                                   priorities in the Subbasin Plan. All streams will
d. Protect existing high water quality        quality and bank armoring, agricultural                                              have some level of erosion, because a stream
e. Protect natural stream flow regime         diversity,      practices (fertilizers,                                              channel is never static. Having some erosion is
f. Protect base flows through                 sediment        herbicides, sediments,                                               essential for recruitment of spawning gravel and
   management of water withdrawals            load, water changes in plant                                                         other important ecological functions (such as fine
g. Protect riparian function by               quality,       communities), fire                                                    sediments needed for riparian plant growth).
   maintaining management                     flow           suppression techniques and
   objectives                                                plant rehab, water                                                    Protecting base stream flows from further
h. Protect channel structure to                              withdrawals, loss of beaver                                           appropriations is a very important function of
   maintain quality and quantity of                                                                                                protecting existing high quality habitats.
   spawning grounds
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Bakeoven Cr. from mouth to Deep Creek, Deep Creek from mouth to Cottonwood Creek, Cottonwood Creek from mouth to Ochoco Gulch. Buck Hollow Cr. from mouth to
Macken Canyon.
Key Programs
              Agency/Stakeholder                                     Program Name                           Sufficient                                Needs Expansion
USFS and BLM                                            Wilderness Areas, Wilderness Study          For the areas                  Yes
                                                        Areas, Wild and Scenic River corridors, designated
                                                        Special Management designations
ODFW                                                    Cooperative Agreements                      No                             Yes, the agreements are for only 10-15 years
USDA FSA/SWCD                                           CREP                                        No                             Yes, the agreements are for only 10-15 years
CTWSRO                                                  Integrated Resources Mgmt Plan              Yes                            Yes, adaptive 10- year management plans
CTWSRO                                                  Watershed Maintenance/ Riparian             No                             Yes, continue to expand riparian fence network and
                                                        Fence Program                                                              maintain fence lines
CTWSRO                                                  Road Rocking Program                        No                             Problem areas need to be identified and
                                                                                                                                   maintained.
ODA?SWCD                                                Agricultural Water Quality Program          Yes                            Adaptive Management Plan.
Local Government                                        City and County Planning and Zoning                                        Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Protection of high quality habitats is the most cost effective way of ensuring fish have good quality habitat. It is much less expensive over the long term to protect high quality
habitat than it is to degrade the habitat and then try to restore it. Protection of existing high quality habitat areas is a broad strategy capable of contributing to meeting all of
biological habitat objectives identified in the Subbasin Plan. Many objectives are likely to be met just by habitat protection and the associated natural recovery of upland and/or
riparian areas. Land acquisitions, easements, and cooperative agreements may also facilitate the implementation of active restoration projects. The specific objectives
addressed by each protection effort will vary, and must be assessed on a case-by-case basis.

Farm Services Agency (FSA) programs that protect riparian areas and upland watersheds include the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and the Conservation Reserve
Enhancement Program (CREP). The CRP program pays landowners not to farm highly erodible soils and the CREP program pays landowners for setting riparian corridors
aside from grazing and farming. The long term effectiveness of both programs is limited by the relatively short duration of the contracts which ranges from 10 to 15 years.




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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ODA„s Agricultural Water Quality Program is designed to prevent and control water pollution from agricultural activities and soil erosion on non-Federal and non-Tribal Trust or
Reservation lands. ODA relies on voluntary measures to protect water quality, but also enforces pollution and streamside vegetation requirements. ODA needs to expand
outreach to private landowners to inform them of water quality goals and requirements.


Strategy 2. Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas.

                                                   Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas.
          Substrategies                     Factors              Threats Addressed               VSP                Life                      Discussion
                                           Addressed                                        Parameters           Stages
                                                                                            Addressed            Affected
a. Restore access to isolated           Key habitat              Dams, culverts,           Distribution        All,
   habitats blocked by flow or          quantity, habitat        irrigation diversions,    Productivity        primarily
   temperature barriers and/or          diversity, channel       instream structures                           adults and
   artificial barriers, such as dams,   stability, sediment                                                    0+
   road culverts and irrigation         load                                                                   juveniles
   structures.                          Entrainment
b. Restore access to isolated
   habitats blocked by flow or
   temperature barriers
c. Provide screening at 100% of
   irrigation diversions.
d. Restore channel and floodplain
   connectivity

Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Need to identify priority locations

Key Programs
        Agency/Stakeholder                                 Program Name                                    Sufficient         Needs Expansion
ODFW                                         Trout Creek Fish Habitat Restoration Project                     Yes, project has made significant improvement is
                                             (BPA)                                                            overall fish habitat, needs to be expanded to
                                                                                                              other properties in basin. Recent large scale
                                                                                                              stream rehabilitation projects conducted on the
                                                                                                              Nye and Priday properties on Trout Creek have
                                                                                                              been successful at removing berms, restoring
                                                                                                              stream function, and creating additional habitat.
Jefferson SWCD                         Trout Creek Fish Habitat Restoration Project                           Yes, this companion project to the ODFW
                                       (BPA)                                                                  Habitat Project has made significant
                                                                                                              improvement is overall fish habitat, needs to be
                                                                                                              expanded to other properties in basin.
ODFW                                   Fish Passage/Screening                          No                     The program completes a minimum of one
                                                                                                              project per year, but is dependent upon
                                                                                                              landowner cooperation and limited funding
PGE/CTWS                               Pelton Fish Passage Plan                        Yes                    Program not implemented. 50 year time frame.
CTWS/ODFW                              Salmon and Steelhead Reintroduction Plan        No                     Yes, adaptive plan over life of FERC license
ODOT                                   Culvert replacement or retrofit                 No                     Yes
CTWSRO                                 IRMP                                            Yes                    Yes, adaptive management plan
CTWSRO, USFS, and BLM                  Culvert replacement                             No                     Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)




 Strategy 3. Restore stream corridor structure/function and channel stability.

                                              Restore stream corridor structure/function and channel stability.
            Substrategies                   Factors            Threats Addressed                 VSP               Life                       Discussion
                                           Addressed                                        Parameters           Stages
                                                                                             Addressed          Affected
a. Bring vertical and lateral stream       Channel            Grazing, agricultural        Productivity,       All          Streambank erosion and loss of riparian
   movement in balance with                stability,         practices,                   abundance,                       vegetation has led to wide shallow channels and
   landscape and flow regime.              habitat            channelization, berms,       distribution,                    width-to-depth ratios are greater than desirable
b. Increase role and abundance of          diversity,         roads, railroad bank         spatial                          throughout the Bakeoven watershed.
   wood and large organic debris in        key habitat        armoring, floodplain         diversity
   streambeds.                             quantity,          conversion.                                                   Channelization, berm construction, and bank
c. Restore and protect riparian areas      sediment                                                                         armoring, following floods has isolated the




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


d. Restore channel and floodplain         load, flow,                                                                  stream from the floodplain in many areas. Large
   connectivity.                          water                                                                        wood, and other instream habitat complexity is
e. Improve habitat complexity and         temperatur                                                                   lacking in the Buck Hollow watershed.
   channel diversity                      e, carrying
f. Restore off-channel and side-          capacity,                                                                    Instream structures can be designed to improve
   channel habitat                        predation                                                                    channel stability, trap sediments and raise the
                                                                                                                       stream bed so that the stream can more
                                                                                                                       effectively interact with the floodplain. Typical
                                                                                                                       structures include rootwads, boulder clusters,
                                                                                                                       whole trees, and rock weirs where appropriate.

Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Buck Hollow MaSA, headwaters downstream to mouth; Bakeoven MaSA, headwaters downstream to mouth; Trout Cr., headwaters downstream to mouth and Little
Trout Creek to Beaver Cr.; Deschutes River, mouth to Pelton Dam, Harris Canyon to Buck Hollow, Eagle Cr. to Shitike Cr.
Key Programs
        Agency/Stakeholders                                 Program Name                            Sufficient                         Needs Expansion
Sherman and Wasco SWCD,                      Bakeoven and BuckHollow Watershed              Project is uncderway in    Yes. The project is developing.
Landowners, Oregon State agencies.           Restoration Projects                           Bakeoven watershed
                                                                                            and is planned over a
                                                                                            10-year period. Project
                                                                                            is transitioning to
                                                                                            effectiveness
                                                                                            monitoring.
NRCS,SWCD, USDA FSA, Private                 CREP                                           This program works         Program could be expanded to more
Landowners                                                                                  well, but stream           landowners.
                                                                                            reaches still remain
                                                                                            unbuffered.
BLM Prineville District                      Various range and upland restoration           Yes
                                             projects.
ODFW                                         Trout Creek Fish Habitat Restoration Project                              Yes, project has made significant improvement is
                                             (BPA)                                                                     overall fish habitat, needs to be expanded to
                                                                                                                       other properties in basin.
Jefferson SWCD                               Trout Creek Fish Habitat Restoration Project                              Yes, this companion project to the ODFW
                                             (BPA)                                                                     Habitat Project has made significant
                                                                                                                       improvement is overall fish habitat, needs to be
                                                                                                                       expanded to other properties in basin.
PGE/CTWSRO                                   Relicensing of Pelton/Round Butte Complex      Yes, current program to
                                                                                            increase large woody
                                                                                            debris and investigate
                                                                                            sediment transport.
CTWSRO                                       Various projects                                                          Yes, improving riparian conditions, grazing
                                                                                                                       remains problematic in some areas.
BLM, Oregon State Parks, CTWSRO              Wild and Scenic Rivers                         Yes, program works
                                                                                            well and provides a
                                                                                            variety of protection to
                                                                                            river.
ODA/SWCD                                     Ag WQ Management Program                                                  Yes, more outreach needed on relationship
                                                                                                                       between vegetation and WQ and on streambank
                                                                                                                       vegetation requirements.
USFS                                         Stream Restoration Program (PacFish/Infish)                               Yes, Could be expanded to more streams in
                                                                                                                       Trout Creek Subbasin.
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
The Deschutes subbasin plan (NPCC 2004) inventory notes that Buck Hollow "runs clean", intermittent tributaries have become perennial, 95% of riparian areas are in
riparian pasture management or exclusion, and upland range conditions are vastly improved. Opportunities may exist to increase summer flows, reduce temperature,
and decrease sedimentation through water development (Lower Deschutes River Management Plan). CRP in uplands and riparian protection have and will provide
short term benefits, but instream physical habitat improvements may not accrue until the longer term. The upper third of Buck Hollow remains a restoration priority. The
future status of habitat benefits accruing from CRP enrollments could be unknown, since economic decisions by the landowners and government entities involved will
influence the area under agreements. None of the Buck Hollow watershed is in a "protected" status.

Planning and implementation of restoration and protection measures for Bakeoven Creek are similar to the Buck Hollow project, but began more recently. A draft
watershed assessment has been completed and includes an action plan with a 10-year time frame (Clark and Lamson 2005). Many benefits to steelhead have accrued
through changes in upland and riparian management plans since the 1987 Farm Bill. While watershed function continues to improve, habitat complexity will increase.
However some riparian areas are still unbuffered through fences or grazing management plans. Where riparian buffers do exist, habitat complexity will develop over the
longer term if buffers are maintained. Some benefits from trees will be slow to accrue because their size is relatively small, and only when larger age classes are
present, will the biological and physical results of large wood recruitment be realized.

Recent large scale stream rehabilitation projects in the Trout Creek watershed, such as those conducted on the Nye and Priday properties, have been successful at
removing berms, restoring stream function, and creating additional habitat. Several landowners with sensitive key spawning and rearing habitats in the Upper Trout
Creek may be willing to participate in conservation efforts.




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft



Large woody debris in Deschutes River mainstem consists mostly from white alder trees downstream of hydro projects, currently little or no recruitment from upstream
sources. Most problematic upstream of Warm Springs River.

ODA„s Agricultural Water Quality Program is designed to prevent and control water pollution from agricultural activities and soil erosion on non-Federal and non-Tribal
Trust or Reservation lands. ODA relies on voluntary measures to protect water quality, but also enforces pollution and streamside vegetation requirements. ODA needs
to expand outreach to private landowners to inform them of water quality goals and requirements.


Strategy 4. Restore riparian function and condition.

                                                             Restore riparian function and condition.
          Substrategies                     Factors           Threats Addressed             VSP               Life                           Discussion
                                           Addressed                                    Parameters          Stages
                                                                                         Addressed         Affected
a. Restore natural riparian plan       Channel stability,      Livestock               Productivity,      All             Riparian areas in the Bakeoven, Buck Hollow
   communities                         key habitat             overgrazing of          abundance,                         and Trout Cr MaSAs have been reduced or
b. Exclude livestock from riparian     quantity, habitat       riparian area,          spatial                            damaged by grazing. Riparian canopy cover is
   areas                               quality, flows,         channelization,         structure,                         relatively low. Streambank erosion and loss of
c. Eradicate invasive plant species    high stream             changes in plant        diversity                          riparian vegetation has led to wide shallow
   from riparian areas                 temperatures,           communities                                                channels and width-to-depth ratios are greater
d. Restore channel and floodplain      sediment load,          (including invasive                                        than desirable throughout the watershed.
   connectivity                        reduction in cover      plants)                                                    Existing riparian vegetation contributes little to
                                       and edge habitat                                                                   LWD. Loss of riparian function has led to
                                                                                                                          increased sedimentation.

                                                                                                                          Along Deschutes River, cattle grazing continues
                                                                                                                          to occur in many areas, railroad armored banks
                                                                                                                          limit riparian growth, campgrounds and heavy
                                                                                                                          recreational use trample streamside vegetation,
                                                                                                                          landowners have cleared vegetation around
                                                                                                                          residences to improve river views and access.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Bakeoven MaSA – headwaters downstream to mouth; Buck Hollow MaSA - headwaters downstream to mouth; Trout Creek MaSA – headwaters downstream to mouth,
Little Trout Creek to Beaver Creek priority reach for restoration from EDT; Deschutes River, mouth to Pelton Dam, Harris Canyon to Buck Hollow, Eagle Cr. to Shitike
Cr.
Key Programs
          Agency/Stakeholders                                 Program Name                            Sufficient                           Needs Expansion
Sherman and Wasco SWCD,                       Bakeoven and Buck Hollow Watershed              Just beginning              Yes
Landowners, Oregon State agencies             Restoration Projects
NRCS,SWCD, USDA FSA, Private                  CREP                                            Program works well,         Yes
Landowners                                                                                    but stream reaches
                                                                                              still remain
                                                                                              unbuffered.
BLM, Oregon State Parks, CTWSRO               Wild and Scenic River                                                       Yes, program works well and provides a variety
                                                                                                                          of protection to river.
ODFW                                           Trout Creek Fish Habitat Restoration (BPA)                                  Yes
Jefferson SWCD                                Trout Creek Fish Habitat Restoration (BPA)                                  Yes
USFS Ochoco Forest/BLM Prineville             PacFish/InFish                                  Yes, program
District                                                                                      addresses a variety
                                                                                              of land management
                                                                                              issues on USFS/BLM
                                                                                              lands.
CTWSRO                                        Various projects                                                            Yes, improving riparian conditions, grazing
                                                                                                                          remains problematic in some areas.
ODA, SWCD                                     Ag WQ Management Program                                                    Yes, more outreach needed on relationship
                                                                                                                          between vegetation and WQ and on streambank
                                                                                                                          vegetation requirements.
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Bakeoven Project is beginning and is planned over a 10-year period. While watershed function continues to improve, habitat complexity will increase. Some riparian
areas are still unbuffered through fences or grazing management plans. Habitat complexity will develop over the longer term if existing buffers are maintained. Some
benefits from trees will be slow because the trees are small. Only when larger age classes exist will biological and physical results of large wood recruitment be realized.

Recent large scale stream rehabilitation projects in the Trout Creek watershed, such as those conducted on the Nye and Priday properties, have been successful at
removing berms, restoring stream function, and creating additional habitat. Several landowners with sensitive key spawning and rearing habitats in the Upper Trout
Creek may be willing to participate in conservation efforts. Riparian improvements have improved water quality, but additional protection is needed throughout the basin.
Public land managers have implemented PACFISH and INFISH standards for protection and restoration of USFS and BLM lands. Leasing, or purchasing, instream
water rights has proven effective as long as senior water rights are obtained.




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft




Strategy 5. Restore natural hydrograph to provide sufficient flow during critical periods.

                                     Restore natural hydrograph to provide sufficient flow during critical periods.
      Substrategies                 Factors            Threats Addressed                VSP            Life Stages                         Discussion
                                   Addressed                                        Parameters          Affected
                                                                                     Addressed
a. Increase summer flow         key habitat          Water withdrawals             Productivity,      All               Degraded upland and riparian conditions from
b. Reduce high peak flows       quantity, habitat     Loss of upland water         Abundance,                           over grazing and upland agricultural practices
   to natural levels            diversity,           storage capacity,             diversity,                           contribute to reduced water storage and extreme
                                sediment,            grazing, agricultural         Spatial                              low flows. Lack of water in the lower reaches
                                Altered              use, channelization,          Structure                            and Bakeoven and Deep creeks impedes
                                temperature          loss of vegetative                                                 upstream and downstream fish passage. One
                                regime,              cover, roads,                                                      surface water right exists (0.57 cfs) in lower
                                Lack of channel      Removal of large wood,                                             reach of Buck Hollow.
                                forming flows        Loss of beaver
                                                                                                                        Consumptive use of flows in Trout Creek
                                                                                                                        exceeds the natural stream flow. Streamflow
                                                                                                                        below Amity Creek average < 1cfs during the
                                                                                                                        summer. Hay Creek to Little Trout Creek listed
                                                                                                                        as priority in EDT. Raising water table through
                                                                                                                        channel restoration has improved low summer
                                                                                                                        flows. Conversion of flood to sprinkler irrigation,
                                                                                                                        irrigation efficiency improvement, and piping
                                                                                                                        would increase flows.

                                                                                                                        Flow fluctuations are now larger than they were
                                                                                                                        historically. High flows have scoured out
                                                                                                                        channels reducing habitat diversity. Reduction
                                                                                                                        of native upland vegetation has reduced its
                                                                                                                        ability to retain and slowly release runoff. Fine
                                                                                                                        sediment levels are high in some reaches.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Bakeoven MaSA- headwaters downstream; Buck Hollow MaSA – headwaters downstream to mouth; Trout Cr. - headwaters downstream to mouth.

Key Programs
     Agency/Stakeholders                          Program Name                                    Sufficient                          Needs Expansion
Sherman and Wasco SWCD,              Bakeoven Watershed Project                            Will take time to         Yes
Property Owners, CTWSRO, and                                                               realize results.
Oregon State agencies
Buck Hollow Watershed Project        Buck Hollow Watershed Project                         Will take time to         Yes
                                                                                           realize results.
ODFW and Jefferson SWCD              Trout Creek Fish Habitat restoration projects          Will take time to        Yes
                                                                                           realize results.
BLM                                  Various projects related to agriculture and           Yes                       Yes
                                     rangeland improvements in uplands.
NRCS,SWCD, FSA, Private              CRP, CREP                                             Additional lands          Yes
Landowners                                                                                 available for
                                                                                           programs.
Sherman and Wasco SWCD,              Lease instream water rights.                                                    Yes
Oregon Water Resources, Private,
NMFS
Oregon Water Trust                   Lease water rights and return instream.                                         Yes, program works well could be expanded with
                                                                                                                     more willing landowners. Need assurance that
                                                                                                                     instream leases remain instream.
Jefferson SWCD, NRCS                     Various irrigation efficiency improvements, CRP,                            Yes
                                         CREP.
ODA/SWCD                                 Ag WQ Management Program                                                    Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
A draft watershed assessment for Bakeoven has been completed and includes an action plan with a 10-year time frame (Clark and Lamson 2005). Many benefits to
steelhead have accrued through changes in upland and riparian management plans since the 1987 Farm Bill. Opportunities may exist to increase summer flows, reduce
temperature, and decrease sedimentation through water development (Lower Deschutes River Management Plan). CRP in uplands and riparian protection have and
will provide short term benefits, but instream physical habitat improvements may not accrue until the longer term. The upper third of Bakeoven Creek remains a
restoration priority. The future status of habitat benefits accruing from CRP and CREP enrollments could be unknown, since economic decisions by the landowners and
government entities involved will influence the area under agreements. None of the Bakeoven watershed is in a "protected" status.

The Deschutes subbasin plan‟s (NPCC 2004) inventory notes that Buck Hollow "runs clean", intermittent tributaries have become perennial, 95% of riparian areas are in




                                                                                     22
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


riparian pasture management or exclusion, and upland range conditions are vastly improved. Opportunities may exist to increase summer flows, reduce temperature,
and decrease sedimentation through water development (Lower Deschutes River Management Plan). CRP in uplands and riparian protection have and will provide
short term benefits, but instream physical habitat improvements may not accrue until the longer term. The upper third of Buck Hollow remains a restoration priority. The
future status of habitat benefits accruing from CRP enrollments could be unknown, since economic decisions by the landowners and government entities involved will
influence the area under agreements. None of the Buck Hollow watershed is in a "protected" status. In 2001, 1 to 1.5 cfs from a headwater well in Buck Hollow Cr. was
used to supplement flow to protect fish from the drought (BPA #200105400).

Lack of adequate summer flow has been identified as a significant limiting factor in the Trout Creek Subbasin. Vegetative improvements in the upland and riparian
areas, have demonstrated positive results in restoring the natural hydrograph. Obtaining extractive water rights and returning instream has proven effective if senior
water rights are obtained. Several open irrigation ditches could be piped to improve water delivery. Recent large scale stream rehabilitation projects in the Trout Creek
watershed, such as those conducted on the Nye and Priday properties, have been successful at removing berms, restoring stream function, and creating additional
habitat.


Strategy 6. Restore degraded water quality.

                                                                   Restore degraded water quality.
          Substrategies                     Factors            Threats Addressed             VSP            Life Stages                       Discussion
                                           Addressed                                     Parameters          Affected
                                                                                          Addressed
a. Exclude livestock from riparian      Altered stream        Grazing, clearing of      Productivity,     Spawning,         Buck Hollow is on the 303(d) list for
   areas.                               temperature           riparian vegetation       abundance,        incubation, fry   temperature. Temperatures often exceed the
b. Increase riparian shading            regime, depleted      for agriculture, fire     spatial           dispersal,        lethal limits for salmonids in some non-listed
c. Reduce sedimentation and             oxygen, sediment      suppression,              structure,        rearing, over-    sections of Buck Hollow and Bakeoven
   unnatural rates of erosion from      load                  channelization            diversity         wintering,        creeks.
   upland areas                                                                                           outmigration
d. Decrease channel width-to-                                                                                               Trout Creek from the mouth to RM 50.7 is on
   depth ratios                                                                                                             the 303(d) list for temperature and
e. Increase deep pool habitat                                                                                               sedimentation. Temperatures often exceed
                                                                                                                            the lethal limits for salmonids in some
                                                                                                                            sections of the stream.

                                                                                                                            Soils are generally finely textured and
                                                                                                                            susceptible to precipitation-driven erosion,
                                                                                                                            forestry and agricultural practices have
                                                                                                                            greatly increase sedimentation. Upland
                                                                                                                            conversion to agriculture has reduced soil
                                                                                                                            stability. Loss of riparian function has led to
                                                                                                                            increased sedimentation.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
All of Buck Hollow Cr and tributaries; all of Bakeoven watershed; all of Trout Cr. and tributaries

Key Programs
        Agency/Stakeholders                                 Program Name                                Sufficient                        Needs Expansion
Sherman and Wasco SWCD, Oregon                Lease instream water rights.                       Yes
Water Resources, Private, NMFS
ODFW                                          Trout Creek Fish Habitat Restoration Project
                                              (BPA)
Wasco SWCD, Property Owners,                  Bakeoven Watershed Project
CTWSRO, and Oregon State agencies
BLM                                           Various projects related to agriculture and        Yes                        Yes
                                              rangeland improvements in uplands.
Sherman and Wasco SWCDS, Property             Buck Hollow Watershed Project                      Yes                        Yes
Owners
FSA, NRCS,SWCD, Private Landowners            CRP, CREP
ODA/SWCD                                      Ag WQ Management Program                                                      Yes, more outreach needed on relationship
                                                                                                                            between streambank vegetation and WQ and
                                                                                                                            on streambank vegetation requirements.
USFS                                                                                                                        Yes
                                               Stream Restoration Program (PacFish/Infish)
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
The Deschutes Subbasin plan's (NPPC 2004) inventory notes that Buck Hollow "runs clean", intermittent tributaries have become perennial, 95% of riparian areas are in
riparian pasture management or exclusion, and upland range conditions are vastly improved. Opportunities may exist to increase summer flows, reduce temperature,
and decrease sedimentation through water development (Lower Deschutes River Management Plan). CRP in uplands and riparian protection have and will provide
short term benefits, but instream physical habitat improvements may not accrue until the longer term. The upper third of Buck Hollow remains a restoration priority. The
future status of habitat benefits accruing from CRP enrollments could be unknown, since economic decisions by the landowners and government entities involved will
influence the area under agreements. None of the Buck Hollow watershed is in a "protected" status.




                                                                                      23
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


A draft watershed assessment for Bakeoven has been completed and includes an action plan with a 10-year time frame (Clark and Lamson 2005). Many benefits to
steelhead have accrued through changes in upland and riparian management plans since the 1987 Farm Bill. Opportunities may exist to increase summer flows, reduce
temperature, and decrease sedimentation through water development (Lower Deschutes River Management Plan). CRP in uplands and riparian protection have and
will provide short term benefits, but instream physical habitat improvements may not accrue until the longer term. The upper third of Bakeoven Creek remains a
restoration priority. The future status of habitat benefits accruing from CRP and CREP enrollments could be unknown, since economic decisions by the landowners and
government entities involved will influence the area under agreements. None of the Bakeoven watershed is in a "protected" status.



Strategy 7. Restore degraded upland processes.

                                                              Restore degraded upland processes.
           Substrategies                   Factors Addressed         Threats Addressed                VSP               Life                      Discussion
                                                                                                 Parameters           Stages
                                                                                                  Addressed          Affected
a. Improve upland water storage           Upland land use,                                      Productivity,       All
   capacity                               loss of upland water                                  abundance,
b. Restore native upland plant            storage capacity,                                     distribution,
   communities                            and grazing.                                          spatial
c. Upgrade or remove problem forest                                                             diversity
   roads
d. Employ BMPs to minimize
   unnatural rates of erosion and
   runoff from upland sources.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)


Key Programs
          Agency/Stakeholders                                       Program Name                                Sufficient                    Needs Expansion
NRCS,SWCD, Private Landowners                       CRP,                                                  Program could be         Yes,
                                                                                                          expanded to
                                                                                                          additional
                                                                                                          landowners
ODFW, SWCD                                          Watershed Restoration                                 Could be expanded        Yes
                                                                                                          to additional private
                                                                                                          lands.
BLM                                                Various projects related to agriculture and            Yes
                                                   rangeland improvements in uplands.
CTWSRO                                             IRMP                                                 Yes                        Yes, adaptive management plan
USFS                                               Stream Restoration Program (PacFish/Infish)                                     Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Many benefits to steelhead have accrued through changes in upland and riparian management.
Farm Services Agency (FSA) programs that protect riparian areas and upland watersheds include the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and the Conservation
Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP). The CRP program pays landowners not to farm highly erodible soils and the CREP program pays landowners for setting
riparian corridors aside from grazing and farming. The long term effectiveness of both programs is limited by the relatively short duration of the contracts which ranges
from 10 to 15 years.


Strategy 8. Protect/restore habitat through education and outreach.

                                                 Protect/restore habitat through education and outreach.
           Substrategies                   Factors            Threats Addressed                 VSP               Life                       Discussion
                                          Addressed                                        Parameters           Stages
                                                                                            Addressed          Affected
a. Educate, landowners, land              Potentially      Potentially addresses          Productivity,       All             Topics of education include the
   management agencies, and others        many             many threats including         abundance,                          importance of healthy riparian zones;
b. Initiate demonstration projects of     limiting         stream channelization,         distribution,                       impacts of activities on uplands,
   good land management.                  factors          stream bank armoring,          and spatial                         floodplains and stream corridors on
c. Outreach to government officials.                       water withdrawals,             structure                           erosion rates and survival of steelhead
                                                           changes in upland plant                                            eggs and other habitat parameters;
                                                           communities,                                                       impacts of heavy metals and mine waste
                                                           obstructions                                                       on fish; scarcity of flow during critical
                                                                                                                              periods for fish; fish passage needs; the
                                                                                                                              relationship between shade and water
                                                                                                                              temperature; and how many fish are
                                                                                                                              diverted by unscreened irrigation
                                                                                                                              diversions.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)



                                                                                     24
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


Basinwide

Key Programs
           Agency/Stakeholders                                     Program Name                          Sufficient                       Needs Expansion
ODFW                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
CTWSRO                                              Outreach                                       No                        Yes
USFS                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
BLM                                                 Outreach                                       No                        Yes
SWCDs                                               Outreach                                       No                        Yes
ODA                                                 Agricultural Water Quality Program             No                        Yes
Watershed Councils                                  Outreach                                       No                        Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Educating landowners, other agencies, and the public about fish life history and habitat needs is a long, ongoing process and it will be very difficult to measure
tangible results. Current activities include field days with school groups, agencies, and landowners, as well as presentations about life history and species of fish
present in the Deschutes River basin. The formation of Watershed Councils and SWCDs that are active in watershed restoration has increased awareness about fish
needs throughout the entire basin, but landowners, educators, and the public are eager for additional information. Current personnel cannot meet the demand for
education and outreach and still complete their other assigned duties. ODA funds SWCDs to provide water quality information to landowners.




Habitat Actions for Recover of Deschutes River Eastside Steelhead Population.
Action                    Status        Implementing Entity              Strategy          Spatial            Implementation       Expected                 Certainty of
                                                                         Addressed         Coverage1          timeframe            Biophysical              Outcome3
                                                                                                                                   Response2
Apply BMPs to             Ongoing       NRCS, USFS, BLM, ODFW,           1,4,5,6,7         High dispersal     Intermediate         5-15 years               High
livestock grazing                       Private landowners,                                downstream
practices                               CTWSRO, Watershed
                                        Councils, NRCS
Apply BMPs to forest      Ongoing       USFS, Oregon Dept. of            1,4,5,6,7         High dispersal     Intermediate         Up to 5 years            High
practices                               Forestry, BLM                                      downstream
Apply BMPs to road        Ongoing       CTWS, USFS, Oregon Dept.         1,2,4,7           High dispersal     Long term            Immediate for            High
system management                       of Forestry, ODOT                                  downstream                              sediment, other
                                                                                                                                   parameter 5-15
                                                                                                                                   years
Reduce road densities     ongoing       USFS                             4,7               forestlands        ongoing              0-5 years                High
Promote reforestation     ongoing       CTWSRO, USFS, watershed          1,4,7             Forestlands        Long term            0-10 years               High
and fuels                               councils, SWCDs, counties
management
Implement agricultural    Expansion     Watershed Councils,              1,2,5,6,7         Croplands          Ongoing, based       Immediate                High
water conservation        of existing   SWCDs                                              MaSA               on funding           Streamflow
measures (conversion      program/                                                                                                 (immediate); habitat
of flood to sprinkler,    new                                                                                                      diversity, floodplain
piping projects)          projects                                                                                                 connection (0-5 yrs)
Maintain irrigation       Ongoing       ODFW                             2                 Diversions         Based on funding     Immediate                High
diversions and                                                                             basinwide
screens
Riparian exclosure        Ongoing       SWCDs, NRCS, CTWS                4,6,7             basinwide          Immediate            Riparian restoration     High
Fencing/maintenance                                                                                                                (0-20 yrs); increased
(CREP)                                                                                                                             Streamflow, stabilize
                                                                                                                                   hydrograph (0-10
                                                                                                                                   yrs)
Convert to perennial      Ongoing       NRCS, SWCDs                      1,5,7             Croplands          Immediate            0-10 years               High
crops/vegetation                                                                           MaSAs
(CPR)
Monitor and regulate      Ongoing       ODWR                             1,5               Point of           Long term            immediate                High
water withdrawals                                                                          diversion
                                                                                           downstream to
                                                                                           mouth of
                                                                                           Deschutes
                                                                                           River
Lease/acquire             Ongoing       ODWR, Oregon Water Trust,        1,5,6             Point of           Long term            immediate                moderate
instream water rights                   PGE                                                diversion
                                                                                           downstream to
                                                                                           mouth of John
                                                                                           Day River
Add large woody           Ongoing       PGE/CTWSRO, USFS,                3,5,6                                Long term            Immediate                High
debris                                  ODFW




                                                                                     25
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


Action                     Status         Implementing Entity                Strategy          Spatial           Implementation      Expected         Certainty of
                                                                             Addressed         Coverage1         timeframe           Biophysical      Outcome3
                                                                                                                                     Response2
Restore natural                           CTWSRO, ODFW, USFS,                2,3,4,5,6         High dispersal    Long term           5-15 years       High
channel form and                          BLM, PGE, SWCDs,                                     downstream
reconnect to floodplain                   counties                                             from site
Water retention            Ongoing        SWCDs                              4,5,6,7           Uplands           Immediate           0-10 years       Moderate
structures
Stabilize and protect      Ongoing        CTWSRO, ODFW,                      3,4,6             High dispersal    Long term           5-15 years       High
streambanks                               Watershed Councils, USFS,                            downstream
                                          BLM, SWCDs                                           from site
Restore riparian trees     Ongoing        CTWSRO, ODFW,                      4,6               High dispersal    Long term           5-15 years       High
and vegetation                            Watershed Councils,                                  downstream
                                          SWCDs, USFS, BLM                                     from site
Juniper removal            Ongoing        SWCDs, NRCS                        4,7               Uplands           Immediate           0-20 years       High
Noxious weed removal       Ongoing        Counties, PGE                      4,7               basinwide         Immediate           0-5 years        Moderate
Berm/levee removal         Ongoing        CTWSRO,ODFW, SWCDs                 2,3,4             Effected          ongoing             0-5 years        High
                                                                                               reaches
                                                                                               downstream
Removal of gravel          Ongoing        SWCDs, NRCS                        2,3,4             Effected          Immediate           Immediate        High
push up dams,                                                                                  reaches
infiltration galleries                                                                         downstream
Reintroduce beaver         ongoing        ODFW, CTWSRO, USFS,                2,4,5,6           basinwide         Long term           Within 5 years   Moderate-high
                                          BLM
Manage return flow         ongoing        SWCDs                              5,6               High dispersal    Less than 5 years   immediate        High
reduce extreme                                                                                 downstream
stream temperatures
Acquire available high     When           unknown                            1                                                       Long term        High
quality habitat            available
Acquire/manage             Ongoing        CTWS, PGE, DRC, DBLT,              1l                High dispersal    Immediate           Variable         High
stream corridor                           NGO‟s, SWCD‟s                                        downstream
through conservation
easement/agreements
EQUIP (Environmental       ongoing        NRCS, SWCDs                        1,3,4,7,8         Uplands           Immediate           Variable         Moderate
Quality Incentive
Program)
Implement Lower            ongoing        ODA, SWCD‟s                        1,3,4,5,6,7,8     basinwide         Immediate           Variable         High
Deschutes
Ag. Quality Plan
Conduct outreach to        Ongoing        ODFW, NOAA Fisheries,              8                 Entire basin      Long term           Variable         Moderate
general public                            USFWS, USFS, BLM,
                                          CTWSRO, Watershed
                                          Councils, SWCD‟s, NGO‟s
Provide cost share for       Ongoing      Counties, SWCDs                       7,8               Entire basin
various upland range
and crop management
practices
Acquire                      When          Land Trusts                          All               Basinwide      Immediate           Long term        High
sensitive/significant        available
habitats
1
  Geographic scale of effect (relative amount of basin affected by action)
2 Expected response of action implementation ─ including how long for action to achieve full effectiveness
3 Relative certainty that expected results will occur as a result of full implementation of action




                                                                                         26
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft




                            Recovery Strategies and Actions for Lower John Day Population

            Primary limiting factors: 1) key habitat quantity, 2) sediment load, 3) temperature, 4) habitat
            diversity, and 5) flow. Obstructions are also high priority limiting factors in Bridge, Kahler,
            Muddy, Rock, and Thirtymile creeks.

            Primary threats: agricultural and grazing practices, removal of overstory trees and bank
            vegetation from the riparian corridor, water withdrawals, wetland draining and conversion, and
            stream channelization and diking.

Strategy 1. Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes.

                                             Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes
           Substrategies                       Factors            Threats Addressed                VSP              Life                       Discussion
                                              Addressed                                       Parameters          Stages
                                                                                               Addressed         Affected
a. Protect floodplain function and       Many factors,           Many threats including      Productivity,      All             Protection of high quality habitats is the
    channel migration                    including key           livestock overgrazing       abundance,                        most cost effective way of ensuring fish
b. Protect riparian function             habitat quality         of riparian area,           distribution                      have good quality habitat. It is much less
c. Protect access to key habitats        and diversity,          channelization, stream                                        expensive over the long term to protect
d. Protect existing high water quality   sediment load,          bank armoring,                                                high quality habitat than it is to degrade
e. Protect natural stream flow regime    water quality, flow     agricultural practices                                        the habitat and then try to restore it. Many
f. Protect base flows through                                    (fertilizers, herbicides,                                     objectives are likely to be met just by
    management of water withdrawals                              sediments, changes in                                         habitat protection and the associated
g. Protect riparian function by                                  plant communities),                                           natural recovery of upland and/or riparian
    maintaining management                                       water withdrawals,                                            areas. Land acquisitions, easements, and
    objectives                                                   loss of beaver                                                cooperative agreements may also
h. Protect channel structure to                                                                                                facilitate the implementation of active
    maintain quality and quantity of                                                                                           restoration projects.
    spawning grounds
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Mountain, Pine, Cottonwood, Bridge Creeks, which each have either designated roadless areas, Wilderness Study Areas, or designated Wilderness Areas within the
watershed. Also the mainstem John Day River between Parrish Creek and Tumwater Falls, which is a Wild and Scenic River.
Key Programs
                     Agency                                       Program Name                             Sufficient                        Needs Expansion
USFS and BLM                                      Wilderness Areas, Wilderness Study Areas,          For the areas             Yes
                                                  Wild and Scenic River corridors, Special           designated
                                                  Management designations
ODFW                                              Cooperative Agreements                             No                        Yes, the agreements are for only 10-15
                                                                                                                               years
NRCS                                              CREP                                               No                        Yes, the agreements are for only 10 years
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
The John Day River has 248.6 miles designated as Federal Wild and Scenic River and 317 miles designated as State Wild and Scenic, including the John Day River
from Tumwater Falls (RM 10) to Service Creek (RM 157). State designated reaches include the John Day mainstem from Tumwater Falls (RM 10) to Parrish Creek (RM
170). Although wild and scenic designation does not preclude development, it requires development to be consistent with protecting the Outstandingly Remarkable
Values (ORV‟s) for which the river was designated, requires review of any activity that may affect ORV‟s within the ¼ mile river corridor, and protects the free flowing
condition of the river. Designation as W&S essentially precludes construction of any major dam. A Management Plan adopted by BLM and Oregon State Parks
Department in 2001 for the designated rivers segments identifies specific management actions including development of livestock grazing management plans for each
allotment. Grazing management plans for most of the allotments within the corridor are complete.

Existing forest plans include special management designations for riparian habitat conservation areas (RHCA‟s). The forest plans and BLM plans have been amended
by PACFISH and INFISH, both of which require 300-foot buffers on any fish bearing stream for tree removal, as well as specific guidelines for livestock grazing and
riparian vegetation use. Compliance with the 300-foot buffer for timber harvest operations has been very good; however the interpretation of the grazing guidelines has
been inconsistent between National Forests. In areas where trees were harvested before the rules went into effect, it will take decades for them to grow big enough to
function as large wood and contribute to habitat parameters. Forest practices rules for private and state owned forest lands have guidelines for protection of riparian
function, although they are not nearly as restrictive as those on federal lands. Adding additional wilderness areas and wild and scenic river segments will require
designation by Congress. Designating additional RMA‟s or adding to the current restrictions within RHCA‟s will be revisited during the Forest Plan Revision process that
is currently underway.

Cooperative and conservation agreements on private land are tools for protecting high quality habitats. ODFW has used cooperative agreements over the last 21 years
to protect riparian corridors that have been fenced to exclude livestock grazing. Unfortunately those agreements are for only 15 years and there have not been funds or
personnel needed to extend them for longer time periods. Over 120 miles of stream throughout the basin have been protected under this program. Additional



                                                                                    27
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


opportunities will be limited by availability of funds and by willingness of landowners to sign conservation easements and/or agreements.

CTWSRO owns mitigation property near Clarno on the mainstem John Day River. It encompasses 33,557-acres and includes approximately 20 miles of steelhead
spawning and rearing habitat. All CTWSRO properties will be in conservation status perpetually.

NRCS programs that protect riparian areas and upland watersheds include the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and the Conservation Reserve Enhancement
Program (CREP). The CRP program pays landowners not to farm highly erodible soils and the CREP program pays landowners for setting riparian corridors aside from
grazing and farming. The long term effectiveness of both programs is limited by the relatively short duration of the contracts which ranges from 10 to 15 years.


Strategy 2. Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas.

                                                   Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas
          Substrategies                     Factors           Threats Addressed               VSP              Life                          Discussion
                                           Addressed                                     Parameters          Stages
                                                                                         Addressed           Affected
a. Restore access to isolated           Key habitat           Dams, culverts,           Distribution,      Primarily      Push up irrigation dams, concrete diversions, in-
   habitats blocked by artificial       quantity, habitat     irrigation diversions,    Productivity       adults and     channel stock ponds, and road culverts are
   barriers, such as road culverts      diversity, channel    instream structures                          0+             located throughout the entire basin. Push up
   and irrigation structures.           stability, sediment                                                juveniles      dams are common in the Rock/Mountain Creek
b. Minimize use of push up dams.        load                  Maintenance and                                             drainages. Concrete structures are located
c. Provide screening at 100% of         Entrainment           construction of                                             primarily in the Rock Creek (Lower John Day)
   irrigation diversions.                                     irrigation dams                                             drainage although there are a number of
d. Restore channel and floodplain                                                                                         structures scattered throughout other parts of
   connectivity                                                                                                           the basin, including Cherry Creek. Passage
                                                                                                                          problems at culverts are widespread throughout
                                                                                                                          all subbasins.
                                                                                                                          Annual maintenance and construction of push
                                                                                                                          up dams contributes to onsite and downstream
                                                                                                                          channel stability, loss of pools and other
                                                                                                                          structure, and increased sediment loads.
                                                                                                                          Screening of irrigation diversions began in 1950s
                                                                                                                          and most were screened by mid-1970s. Many
                                                                                                                          screens now need to be replaced to address
                                                                                                                          new criteria to reduce entrainment of emergent
                                                                                                                          fry and bull trout.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Irrigation or water storage related issues: Rock, Upper Rock, Middle Rock, Lone Rock, Thirtymile, Butte, Big Muddy, and Rock/Mountain creeks.
Screening needs: Rock Creek (Gilliam Co.), Keeton Cr. (Wheeler Co.), Bridge Cr. (Wheeler Co.), Lower John Day mainstem pumping sites
Key Programs
                   Agency                                      Program Name                            Sufficient                          Needs Expansion
Soil and Water Conservation Districts         Irrigation dam improvements                        Yes in some areas,       The Soil and Water Districts are constrained by
                                                                                                 no in others             the construction window of opportunity. The
                                                                                                                          counties could expand the program but are
                                                                                                                          constrained by funding and personnel
ODFW                                          Fish Passage/Screening                             No                       The program completes a minimum of one
                                                                                                                          project per year, but is dependent upon
                                                                                                                          landowner cooperation and limited funding
USFS and BLM                                  Culvert replacement                                No                       Yes
Watershed Councils                            Road Crossing Passage improvements                 No                       Yes
ODOT                                          Culvert replacement or retrofit                    No                       Yes
BOR                                           John Day Basin Program                             Yes                      No
CTWSRO                                        John Day Basin Program                             No                       Yes, the tribe contracts with Soil and Water
                                                                                                                          Districts to assist with consultation, permits, and
                                                                                                                          monitoring
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
The mainstem passage problems for the lower John Day population have been addressed, but there are many tributaries where adult passage is blocked and more
areas where juvenile passage problems occur. Irrigation dams, stock ponds, and road culverts are the primary causes of passage issues. Soil and Water Districts are
correcting passage at irrigation diversions and improperly installed culverts, but are constrained by funding and by personnel needed for construction oversight. An
inventory of road crossings on state and county roads in 1999 indicated 23 culverts on state owned roads and 43 culverts on county owned roads did not meet fish
passage criteria in the lower John Day River population. Some of those culverts have been replaced with structures that do meet the fish passage criteria, but much
work remains. Watershed councils and ODOT, who are the principal entities working on culverts are constrained primarily by funding. An inventory of road crossings on
federal lands indicates juvenile passage problems are pervasive, particularly on National Forests, with approximately 300 culverts not meeting passage criteria on just
the Malheur National Forest. The US Forest Service and BLM are constrained primarily by funding and the personnel needed for NEPA analysis. At the current rate of
culvert replacements, it will take over 50 years to correct all passage problems on National Forests. Another constraint is that existing state laws do not require
passage improvements at existing barriers unless there is a major change in the structure, such as reconstruction or significant modifications, so landowner cooperation
is critical for improving passage throughout the basin.




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


US Bureau of Reclamation is required in the Columbia River Biological Opinion to identify and assist with passage improvement design and flow restoration.

Currently, the ODFW Fish Passage and Screening program replaces about 20 irrigation diversion screens per year. With over 120 diversions in the John Day Subbasin
that either do not meet current screening criteria or are unscreened, it would take at least 6 years to replace them all. Of the 120 diversions, 75 have screens that do not
meet NOAA screening criteria. Currently, highest priority is given to diversions that are unscreened with lower priority given to diversions that have screens, but do not
meet the criteria. The program is constrained primarily by funding and personnel. Current law does not require water users to screen diversions less than 30 cubic feet
per second and virtually all diversions in the John Day are less than 30 cfs, so landowner cooperation is essential to success of the program.


Strategy 3. Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability.

                                              Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability
           Substrategies                       Factors             Threats Addressed               VSP              Life                        Discussion
                                              Addressed                                       Parameters          Stages
                                                                                               Addressed         Affected
a. Bring vertical and lateral stream        Channel stability,       Stream                  Productivity,      Primarily       There has been a loss of off-channel and
    movement in balance with                habitat diversity,       channelization, bank    abundance,         eggs, fry       side-channel habitats that once provided
    landscape and flow regime.              key habitat              armoring, large wood    distribution,      and 0+.         habitat for spawning and rearing, and
b. Place stable wood and other large        quantity,                removal, beaver                                            refugia from high flows.
    organic debris in streambeds.           sediment load,           removal, removal of
c. Restore channel and floodplain           flow, water              riparian vegetation,                                       .
    connectivity.                           temperature              livestock overgrazing
d. Restore off-channel and side-                                     in riparian areas
    channel habitat
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Rock, Upper Rock, Middle Rock, Lone Rock, Thirtymile, Butte, Bridge, Kahler, Mountain, Pinehollow, Grass Valley, and Hay creeks. Passive restoration techniques,
such as riparian fencing, are the preferred method for improving channel structure and stability. More active restoration techniques, such as rootwad placement or
channel reconfiguration, may be appropriate in these reaches.
Key Programs
                     Agency                                             Program Name                          Sufficient                     Needs Expansion
ODFW                                                  BPA Habitat Program                                No                     Yes, if specific needs cannot be addressed
                                                                                                                                by passive restoration techniques
USFS, BLM                                             Stream enhancement program                         Yes in some            Possibly
                                                                                                         areas, no in
                                                                                                         others
Watershed Councils                                    Watershed restoration                              Dependent upon         Only if specific needs cannot be
                                                                                                         need and funding       addressed by passive restoration
                                                                                                                                techniques
Soil and Water Conservation Districts                 Watershed restoration                              Dependent upon         Only if specific needs cannot be
                                                                                                         need and funding       addressed by passive restoration
                                                                                                                                techniques
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Instream activities have not been identified as a high priority by the recovery planning team or the subbasin plan team except when identified as a need for specific sites.
The planning team prefers that more passive approaches, such as riparian and upland improvements be emphasized. Typically, instream activities that would improve
floodplain function and channel migration processes would include placement of rootwads, whole trees, or boulder clusters to improved habitat complexity and habitat
diversity where those parameters are deficient and not expected to improve with passive restoration. Another structural activity would be to construct boulder or log
weirs to raise the water table, but only where a passive approach has not worked.


Strategy 4. Restore riparian function and condition.

                                                             Restore riparian function and condition
          Substrategies                     Factors            Threats Addressed                VSP               Life                        Discussion
                                           Addressed                                       Parameters           Stages
                                                                                            Addressed          Affected
a. Restore natural riparian plant      Channel stability,     Livestock overgrazing       Productivity,      Primarily       Primary methods of riparian enhancement
   communities                         key habitat            of riparian area,           abundance,         fry and 0+      include riparian corridor fences to exclude
b. Exclude livestock from riparian     quantity, habitat      channelization, stream      distribution                       livestock, changes in grazing management
   areas                               quality, flows,        bank armoring, cutting                                         that promote riparian recovery, and planting
c. Eradicate invasive plant species    high stream            of trees in riparian                                           of native shrubs.
   from riparian areas                 temperatures,          areas, changes in plant
d. Restore channel and floodplain      sediment load          communities (including
   connectivity                                               invasive plants), beaver
                                                              removal
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Lower John Day River mainstem below Cottonwood Bridge and above Service Creek, Rock Creek, Upper Rock, Middle Rock, Lone Rock, MaSa„s(Gilliam Co), Grass
Valley Canyon, some reaches of Mountain Creek (Wheeler Co), portions of Parrish Creek, Cherry Creek, some reaches of Kahler Creek, Ferry Creek, upper Hay Creek,
portions of Bridge Creek, Thirtymile Creek, Horseshoe Creek, Johnson Creek, portions of Butte Creek, Franks Creek, and upper reaches of Pine Hollow Canyon Creek



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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Key Programs
                 Agency                                      Program Name                                 Sufficient                        Needs Expansion
ODFW                                          BPA Habitat Program                                   No                         Yes
SWCD‟s                                        Upland improvements, riparian improvements            Yes in some areas,         Yes
                                                                                                    no in others
Watershed Councils                             Upland improvements, riparian improvements           No                         Yes
USFS and BLM                                   Upland improvements, riparian improvements           No                         Yes
NRCS                                           Upland improvements, riparian improvements           Yes                        No
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
In the last 20+ years ODFW, Watershed Councils, NRCS and Soil and Water Districts have implemented hundreds of miles of riparian improvements on private lands,
primarily through construction of riparian corridor fences that exclude livestock grazing and development of off channel watering devices. Public land managers have
implemented PACFISH and INFISH standards for protection and restoration of USFS and BLM lands. Even though hundreds of miles of riparian improvements have
been completed there are nearly 2,800 miles of stream occupied by steelhead within the John Day River Basin and hundreds more miles of tributaries to these streams
If only 10% of the stream reaches are degraded (which is probably low), it will take over 35 years to treat them if agencies proceed at the current rate. Bank stabilization
using some rock is still infrequently occurring after high water events in the Upper John Day River, primarily along irrigated pastures and on Rock Creek (Gilliam
County). These bank stabilization projects have historically relied on riprap and large rock, however in recent years the high economic and ecological cost of bank
armoring with riprap and of channelization has been recognized, so the emphasis has shifted toward a more passive approach for stabilization, primarily through riparian
vegetation improvements. Overgrazing of riparian areas by livestock continues, however it is not as widespread as historically.

Interest by private landowners and public land managers in riparian improvement remains high.

Another project that has been well accepted and will improve riparian condition is restoring historic cover types by removing juniper, reintroducing fire, enrollment into
CREP, and control of invasive/noxious plants. Primary constraints on implementing additional projects for more riparian improvements are funding and personnel
needed for planning, promotion, education of landowners, and implementation.


Strategy 5. Restore natural hydrograph to provide adequate flow during critical periods.

                                           Restore natural hydrograph to provide adequate flow during critical periods
          Substrategies                      Factors             Threats Addressed                VSP            Life Stages                          Discussion
                                            Addressed                                        Parameters           Affected
                                                                                             Addressed
a. Enhance base flow                     Altered stream         Water withdrawals           Productivity,       Eggs, fry and      Changes in the upland plant community due to
b. Restore natural hydrographic          flow regime, key       Changes in upland           Abundance,          0+                 fire suppression, invasive plants, and conversion
   conditions where appropriate          habitat quantity,      plant community             Distribution,                          of bunch grass prairies to wheat fields have
c. Increase pool habitat (beaver         habitat diversity,     Channelization              Spatial                                resulted in lower precipitation infiltration rates,
   ponds)                                sediment,              Removal of large wood       Structure                              which results in higher peak flows and lower low
d. Restore riparian vegetation and       Altered                Removal of beaver                                                  flows. Some tributaries are now dry where they
   function                              temperature                                                                               join the John Day River.
                                         regime,
                                         Lack of channel
                                         forming flows
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Rock Creek is intermittent for the lower 29 miles due to extensive pumping for irrigation and several of its tributaries are dry during summer months in lower reaches, Bridge,
Butte, Cherry, Big Muddy, Cottonwood, Rock/Mountain, Alder, lower Parrish, and Kahler creeks are all affected by irrigation withdrawals. Restoring watershed function in
Pinehollow Canyon will likely result in longer duration of surface flows.
Key Programs
                  Agency                                        Program Name                                Sufficient                           Needs Expansion
ODFW                                           BPA Habitat Program, riparian improvements            No                         Yes
Oregon Water Resources Department              Stream Flow Monitoring and Regulation                 No                         Yes
Oregon Water Trust and BOR                     Leasing and Purchase of Water Rights                  No                         Yes
Soil and Water Conservation Districts          Improve irrigation efficiency, upland                 Yes in some areas,         Yes
                                               improvements, riparian improvements                   no in others
Watershed Councils                             Upland improvements, riparian improvements            No                         Yes
NRCS                                           Upland improvements, riparian improvements            No                         Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Many landowners have converted from flood to sprinkler or gated pipe irrigation, which makes more efficient use of the water and grows more palatable forage but there has
not been an effective mechanism to protect saved water from being used by another irrigator downstream. Water measuring devices are just beginning to be required on
irrigation withdrawals and while progress is being made there is considerable resistance from irrigators. Extensive work by Watershed Councils and NRCS in the Lower John
Day has concentrated on preventing erosion of valuable topsoil by terracing wheat fields, building small sediment retention basins, enrollment of highly erodible soils into the
CRP program, and using no-till planting techniques, all of which increases precipitation infiltration rates and reduces the rate of runoff. Another project that has been well
accepted and will improve flow is restoring historic cover types by removing juniper, reintroducing fire, enrollment into CRP, and control of invasive/noxious plants. Primary
constraints on implementing additional projects are funding, instream water rights that are junior to most irrigation rights, and water laws that sometimes conflict with
conservation practices.

US Bureau of Reclamation, as required in the Columbia River Biological Opinion, is required to identify and assist with passage improvement design and flow restoration.
They have partnered with Oregon Water Trust on several water leases with one recent permanent acquisition of 10 cfs in the Middle Fork that will be left instream after July 20.




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Strategy 6. Restore degraded water quality.
                                                                   Restore degraded water quality
             Substrategies                       Factors             Threats Addressed                VSP               Life                       Discussion
                                                Addressed                                        Parameters           Stages
                                                                                                  Addressed          Affected
a. Exclude livestock from riparian areas.     Altered stream        Timber harvest in           Productivity,       Eggs, fry,     Elevated water temperature is the most
b. Increase riparian shading                  temperature           riparian areas, riparian    abundance,          0+, adults     pervasive water quality problem for the
c. Reduce unnatural rates of erosion          regime, Chemical      grazing, high road          distribution,                      Lower John Day River population, with 13
   from upland areas                          contaminants,         densities, clearing of      spatial                            stream reaches listed as water quality
d. Decrease channel width-to-depth            depleted oxygen       riparian vegetation for     structure                          limited. Additional reaches would
   ratios                                     sediment load         agriculture and rural                                          probably be listed if water temperature
e. Increase deep pool habitat                                       development, dry land                                          data was available.
f. Maintain existing high water quality                             grain fields left fallow
   with respect to chemical                                         during high                                                    Using efficient irrigation methods, which
   contamination                                                    precipitation periods,                                         reduces the amount of surface water
g. Minimize unnatural factors that lead to                          discharge of heavy                                             returning to the stream, should result in
   fluctuations in dissolved oxygen                                 metal and other                                                fewer nutrients from pastures reaching the
   levels.                                                          contaminants from                                              John Day River. Reducing nutrient loads
                                                                    mining sites                                                   will contribute to increased water quality
                                                                                                                                   by reducing biological oxygen demand
                                                                                                                                   and algae blooms.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Rock, Upper Rock, Middle Rock, Lone Rock, Bridge, Thirtymile, and Butte creeks

Key Programs
                   Agency                                         Program Name                                  Sufficient                      Needs Expansion
NRCS                                               CREP, CRP                                            No                         Yes
DEQ                                                Mine Waste Program                                   No                         Yes, limited by funding
ODA                                                Confined animal feeding operations (CAFO)            Yes                        Few CAFO operations exist within the
                                                                                                                                   basin
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Extensive grain fields in the Lower John Day River area have contributed to relatively high sediment loads in the lower river and tributaries. NRCS programs in this area
(primarily CRP) have been used extensively by landowners on the most erodible soils, but the removal of perennial grasses to plant annual crops still contributes unnatural
levels of sediment. Other sources of sediment include relatively high road densities on forested lands. Low stream flows during the hottest part of the year exacerbate the
already warm water temperatures. Opportunities for increasing stream flow through leasing of water rights, which often results in cooler water over a longer stream reach,
are being pursued by Oregon Water Trust and US Bureau of Reclamation. Constraints for future projects include acceptance by landowners and a secure, long term
funding source.

Reducing water temperatures through the use of improved riparian vegetation and more efficient methods of irrigation may take several years to provide measurable
results. Many projects that improve water quality by reducing irrigation return water have been completed.

Strategy 7. Restore degraded upland processes.

                                                                 Restore degraded upland processes
           Substrategies                     Factors Addressed          Threats Addressed               VSP             Life Stages                   Discussion
                                                                                                   Parameters            Affected
                                                                                                    Addressed
a. Restore native upland plant             Many factors, including    Livestock overgrazing,      Productivity,        Eggs, fry, and    Upland improvements such as
   communities                             altered flow regime,       high sediment from dry      abundance,           0+                restoring native plant communities
b. Upgrade or remove problem forest        channel stability,         land grain fields,          distribution,                          will improve precipitation infiltration
   roads                                   sediment load, water       changes in upland plant     spatial                                rates and ultimately improve
c. Employ BMPs to minimize                 quality, key habitat       communities, forest         structure                              watershed health, including the
   unnatural rates of erosion and          quantity, habitat          roads, unnatural fire                                              hydrograph.
   runoff from upland sources.             diversity                  regime
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Thirtymile, Rock, Butte, Service, Kahler, Parrish, Upper Rock, and Lone Rock creeks

Key Programs
                       Agency                                                  Program Name                           Sufficient               Needs Expansion
NRCS/Farm Service Agency                                   CRP                                                     No
SWCDs                                                      Juniper control                                         No
ODFW                                                       Green Forage                                            No                 Very small program
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
All three programs above are relatively small, with the CRP program the largest and best funded. CRP has been in existence for 20 years and has been one of the better
farm subsidy programs for watershed restoration. The CRP program has focused on the Lower John Day River (primarily below Thirtymile Creek) where dry land grain
crops are grown and where significant acres of highly erodible soil exist. Juniper control programs have focused on areas where extensive juniper encroachment has



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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


occurred. Juniper control can be completed using several different methods, including controlled burns, cutting with chainsaws, or by removing with bulldozers or
trackhoes. Although controlled burns are probably the most effective at controlling the spread of juniper, they are the most difficult to implement because of the threat of the
fire getting out of control and costs. Another drawback to controlled burns is that livestock grazing should be excluded from burned areas for at least two growing seasons
after the burn to ensure full recovery of desirable perennial grasses. There are opportunities to expand the juniper control program but the lack of a pasture to put livestock
into for two years after burning has limited its acceptance.

The ODFW Green Forage program provides a wildlife seed mixture of native grasses and desirable forage to landowners who have recently completed juniper clearing
projects, logging projects or other ground disturbing activities. The primary purposes are to provide additional forage for deer and elk and to reduce deer and elk damage
complaints; however it also has benefits to watershed health by providing grasses that provide perennial ground cover.

The limitations to all the programs are funding and, to a lesser extent, acceptance by landowners.


Strategy 8. Protect/restore habitat through public education and outreach.

                                                  Protect/restore habitat through education and outreach
            Substrategies                   Factors           Threats Addressed                  VSP              Life                       Discussion
                                           Addressed                                        Parameters          Stages
                                                                                             Addressed         Affected
a. Educate, landowners, land               Potentially     Potentially addresses           Productivity,      All            Topics of education include the
   management agencies, and others         many            many threats including          abundance,                        importance of healthy riparian zones;
b. Initiate demonstration projects of      limiting        stream channelization,          distribution,                     impacts of activities on uplands,
   good land management.                   factors.        stream bank armoring,           and spatial                       floodplains and stream corridors on
c. Outreach to government officials.                       water withdrawals,              structure                         erosion rates and how it affects survival of
                                                           changes in upland plant                                           steelhead eggs and other habitat
                                                           communities, obstructions                                         parameters; impacts of heavy metals and
                                                                                                                             mine waste on fish; scarcity of flow during
                                                                                                                             critical periods for fish; fish passage
                                                                                                                             needs; the relationship between shade
                                                                                                                             and water temperature; and how many
                                                                                                                             fish are diverted by unscreened irrigation
                                                                                                                             diversions.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Basinwide

Key Programs
                   Agency                                        Program Name                            Sufficient                       Needs Expansion
ODFW                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
SWCDs                                               Outreach                                       No                        Yes
NRCS                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
CTWSRO                                              Outreach                                       No                        Yes
CTUIR                                               Outreach                                       No                        Yes
USFS                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
BLM                                                 Outreach                                       No                        Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Educating landowners, other agencies, and the public about fish life history and habitat needs is a long, ongoing process and it will be very difficult to measure
tangible results. Current activities include field days with school groups, agencies, and landowners, as well as presentations about life history and species of fish
present in the John Day River basin. The formation of Watershed Councils and SWCDs that are active in watershed restoration has increased awareness about fish
needs throughout the entire basin, but landowners, educators, and the public are eager for additional information. Current personnel cannot meet the demand for
education and outreach and still complete their other assigned duties.




Habitat Actions for Recovery of Lower John Day River Steelhead Population
Actions                 Status          Implementing        Strategy       Spatial Coverage1                  Implementation              Expected           Certainty of
                                        Entity             Addressed                                          timeframe                   Biophysical        Outcome3
                                                                                                                                          Response2
Apply BMPs to           Ongoing         NRCS, USFS,          3, 4, 6       Riparian recovery will be          Intermediate                5-15 years         Moderate,
livestock grazing                       BLM, ODFW,                         localized, but water quality                                                      depending upon
practices                               Private                            effects (sediment and                                                             compliance and
                                        landowners,                        temperature) will have high                                                       monitoring
                                        CTWSRO,                            dispersal downstream
                                        Watershed
                                        Councils,
                                        NRCS
Apply BMPs to           Ongoing         USFS, Oregon          3, 4, 7      Large wood recruitment will        Intermediate                Up to 5 years      High, dependent
forest practices                        Dept. of                           be localized, but water quality                                for water          upon compliance



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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Actions                Status       Implementing      Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                   Implementation             Expected        Certainty of
                                    Entity           Addressed                                       timeframe                  Biophysical     Outcome3
                                                                                                                                Response2
                                    Forestry, BLM                effects (sediment and                                          quality         and monitoring
                                                                 temperature) will have high                                    impacts,
                                                                 dispersal downstream                                           longer for
                                                                                                                                large wood
                                                                                                                                recruitment
Restore wet            Ongoing      TNC, USFS,         3, 5, 6   Benefits of improved channel        Intermediate               5-15 years      Moderate
meadows                and          CTWSRO                       morphology will be localized,
                       planned                                   improved water table and the
                                                                 resulting increased stream
                                                                 flow and lower water
                                                                 temperatures will have high
                                                                 dispersal downstream
Vegetation             Ongoing      USFS, BLM,         7, 5      Effects of higher precipitation     Juniper control can be     5-30 years      Moderate
management                          NRCS,                        infiltration rates will have high   done quickly, other
                                    SWCD‟s,                      dispersal downstream                strategies such as
                                    Watershed                                                        control of invasive
                                    Councils                                                         plants may take more
                                                                                                     than 20 years
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing      USFS, Oregon        7, 6     Reduced sediment and                Long term                  Immediate for   High; funding on
road system                         Dept. of                     improved hydrologic function                                   sediment,       public lands and
management                          Forestry,                    will have high dispersal                                       other           landowner
                                    ODOT                         downstream                                                     parameter 5-    cooperation on
                                                                                                                                15 years        private lands will
                                                                                                                                                determine rate of
                                                                                                                                                treatment
Apply measures to      ongoing      USFS, BLM,          6, 7     Reduced sediment and                Long term, many forest     5-15 years      Moderate,
reduce erosion                      Oregon Dept                  improved hydrologic function        roads have legacy                          although funding
from forest roads                   of Forestry                  will have high dispersal            issues with regard to                      on public lands
(including                                                       downstream                          sediment transport and                     and landowner
closing/decommissi                                                                                   routing of runoff.                         cooperation on
on)                                                                                                  Decommissioning may                        private lands will
                                                                                                     take many years                            determine rate of
                                                                                                                                                treatment
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing      NRCS,               7, 6     Reduced sediment and                Long term, dependent       0-20,years,     Moderate,
agricultural                        SWCD‟s,                      improved hydrologic function        on implementation of       depending       dependent upon
practices to control                Private                      will have high dispersal            Agricultural Water         upon            voluntary
erosion and runoff                  landowners,                  downstream                          Quality Management         treatments      landowner
                                    Farm Service                                                     Plans                      applied         participation
                                    Agency
Apply BMPs to          Not          County             7, 4, 6   Reduced sediment and                Immediate, depending       Immediate       Moderate,
municipal and          currently    Planning                     improved hydrologic function        on how aggressive                          dependent upon
residential land       identified   departments                  will have high dispersal            county planning                            county
management to          as a                                      downstream                          departments are with                       compliance with
control runoff         concern                                                                       enforcing existing                         land use planning
                                                                                                     county planning rules                      goals
Remove push up         Ongoing      Soil and Water       2       Provide access to upstream          Ongoing, but all push      Immediate       High, if comply
dams                                Conservation                 habitat                             up dams not expected                       with fish passage
                                    Districts                                                        to be corrected for at                     design criteria
                                                                                                     least 15 years
Replace culverts       Ongoing      USFS, BLM,           2       Provide access to upstream          Ongoing, replacing all     Immediate       High, if comply
                                    Watershed                    habitat                             culverts blocking fish                     with fish passage
                                    Councils,                                                        passage expected to                        design criteria
                                    ODOT                                                             take 20 years
Construct ladders      Ongoing      Soil and Water       2       Provide access to upstream          Ongoing, providing         Immediate       High if comply
over existing                       Conservation                 habitat                             passage at all diversion                   with fish passage
permanent                           Districts,                                                       and pond barriers will                     design criteria
concrete or earth                   ODFW                                                             take many years
fill dams
Screen unscreened      Ongoing      ODFW                 2       At point of diversion               Approximately 80           Immediate       High, if comply
diversions                                                                                           diversions need to be                      wit fish screening
                                                                                                     screened. Should take                      criteria
                                                                                                     about 4 years
Replace screens        Ongoing      ODFW                 2       At point of diversion               Approximately 80-100       Immediate       High if comply wit
that do not meet                                                                                     screens need to be                         fish screening
criteria                                                                                             replaced. Should take                      criteria
                                                                                                     about 4-5 years.




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


Actions                 Status      Implementing      Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation             Expected          Certainty of
                                    Entity           Addressed                                     timeframe                  Biophysical       Outcome3
                                                                                                                              Response2
Obtain additional       On hold     ODFW                5, 6     Point of diversion downstream     Unknown, ODFW is           Long term         High, although
instream water                                                   to mouth of John Day River        reluctant to file for      because           dependent upon
rights                                                                                             additional ISWRs until     senior water      cancellation of
                                                                                                   pending applications       rights still      unused senior
                                                                                                   are approved by            have priority     water rights
                                                                                                   Oregon Water
                                                                                                   Resources Department
Monitor and             Ongoing     ODWR                5, 6     Point of diversion downstream     Long term, dependent       immediate         High if water use
regulate water                                                   to mouth of John Day River        upon ODWR enforcing                          reporting and
withdrawals                                                                                        the requirement to                           requirement for
                                                                                                   measure water useage                         measuring
                                                                                                                                                devices is
                                                                                                                                                enforced
Lease/acquire           Ongoing     Oregon Water       1, 5, 6   Point of diversion downstream     Long term and highly       immediate         High, if the
instream water                      Resources                    to mouth of John Day River        dependent upon                               leased water is
rights                              Dept., Oregon                                                  landowner willingness                        protected from
                                    Water Trust                                                    to lease.                                    being
                                                                                                                                                appropriated to a
                                                                                                                                                downstream user
Irrigation efficiency   Ongoing     Soil and Water      5, 6     Point of diversion downstream     Long Term and              Immediate         High, if the saved
projects                            Districts,                   to mouth of John Day River        dependent upon                               water is protected
                                    NRCS                                                           landowner willingness                        from being
                                                                                                   to participate and                           appropriated to a
                                                                                                   availability of projects                     downstream user
Floodplain aquifer      Planned     CTWSRO,             5, 6     Potentially high dispersal from   Long term, although        Immediate         High, if the
recharge projects       and some    Soil and Water               recharge project site             opportunities for pilot                      additional water
                        ongoing     Districts                    downstream for many miles         projects is dependent                        is protected from
                                                                                                   upon willing landowner                       being
                                                                                                                                                appropriated to a
                                                                                                                                                downstream user
Off-stream storage      Planned     Soil and Water       5       Potentially high dispersal from   Long Term and              Physical          Benefits to fish
basins                  and         Districts                    project site downstream for       dependent upon             response will     will be hard to
                        ongoing                                  many miles                        properly designed and      take several      quantify and may
                                                                                                   monitored storage          years and is      be offset by
                                                                                                   basins                     dependent on      reductions in
                                                                                                                              the number of     channel forming
                                                                                                                              storage basins    flows
                                                                                                                              completed
Add large woody         As needed   ODFW, USFS,          3       For the immediate stream          Once identified, short     Immediate         High
debris                              Watershed                    reach                             term
                                    Councils,
                                    SWCD‟s
Restore natural         Planned     Watershed            3       For the treated stream reach      Short term, once           Physical          High
channel form and                    Councils, Soil                                                 identified                 response will
reconnect to                        and Water                                                                                 be immediate,
floodplain                          Districts,                                                                                biological
                                    ODFW, USFS,                                                                               response may
                                    BLM                                                                                       take 5-10
                                                                                                                              years
Stabilize and           Ongoing     Soil and Water      3, 6     For the treated stream reach,     Passive stabilization      With passive      Medium to high,
protect                             Districts,                   with physical benefits            techniques are referred    restoration the   depending upon
streambanks                         USFS, BLM,                   dispersed to downstream           and take longer to         response may      the extent of the
                                    ODFW,                        reaches                           implement                  take 15 years     treatments
                                    Watershed
                                    Councils
Manage grazing in       Ongoing     NRCS, AFS,          4, 6     Riparian function will be         Long term because of       5-15 years,       High, based upon
riparian areas                      USFS, BLM,                   limited to specific reach but     widespread need            depending         experience with
                                    Soil and Water               water quality improvements                                   upon grazing      existing grazing
                                    Districts,                   will have high dispersal                                     plan adopted.     management and
                                    ODFW,                        downstream from site                                         Riparian          riparian recovery
                                    Watershed                                                                                 corridor          projects
                                    Councils                                                                                  fencing and
                                                                                                                              removal of
                                                                                                                              riparian
                                                                                                                              grazing has
                                                                                                                              the fastest




                                                                           34
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


Actions               Status       Implementing    Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation            Expected         Certainty of
                                   Entity         Addressed                                     timeframe                 Biophysical      Outcome3
                                                                                                                          Response2
                                                                                                                          recovery rate.
Restore riparian      Ongoing      ODFW,             4, 6     Riparian function will be         Long term because of      5-15 years,      High, based upon
vegetative cover                   Watershed                  limited to specific reach but     widespread need           (see above)      experience with
                                   Councils,                  water quality improvements                                                   existing grazing
                                   SWCDs,                     will have High dispersal                                                     management and
                                   USFS, BLM,                 downstream from site                                                         riparian recovery
                                   CTUIR                                                                                                   projects
Reconnect             Ongoing      ODFW,              3       Effect on physical habitat        Long term, because of     5-15 years,      Moderate,
floodplain habitats                Watershed                  features will be localized, but   widespread need           depending        depending upon
                                   Councils,                  effects on water quality will                               upon             how extensive
                                   SWCDs,                     have high dispersal                                         frequency and    the project is and
                                   USFS, BLM,                 downstream                                                  duration of      frequency and
                                   CTUIR                                                                                  channel          duration of
                                                                                                                          altering flows   channel altering
                                                                                                                                           flows
Reintroduce beaver    ongoing      ODFW,             3,4      Effect on physical habitat        Long term, due to         Within 5 years   Moderate-high,
                                   CTWSRO,                    features will be localized, but   acceptance by             once the dams    dependent upon
                                   USFS, BLM                  effects on water quality will     landowners and            are built        acceptance by
                                                              have high dispersal               widespread need                            landowners
                                                              downstream
Apply BMPs for        ongoing      ODA, NRSC,        6, 3     Water quality improvement         5-15 years                5-15 years       Moderate,
development and                    counties                   would have high dispersal                                                    although not
waste management                                              downstream                                                                   identified as a
                                                                                                                                           significant
                                                                                                                                           problem
Apply BMPs to         ongoing      ODA                6       Water quality improvement         Some treatments could     5-15 years       High, once a
animal feeding                                                would have high dispersal         be done immediately.                       treatment has
operations                                                    downstream                        There are few animal                       been agreed
                                                                                                feeding operations                         upon
                                                                                                within the basin, only
                                                                                                one of which has been
                                                                                                identified as a problem
Acquire/manage        Ongoing      CTUIR, TNC,       4, 3     Water quality improvement         Existing conservation     5-15 years       High, based on
stream corridor                    RMEF, John                 would have high dispersal         agreements are            with passive     previous
through                            Day Basin                  downstream, stream corridor       complete. Full            restoration      cooperative
conservation                       Trust                      and function improvements         implementation of         approaches       agreements
easements                                                     would be confined to the          conservation measures
                                                              specific site                     will take 5-15 years or
                                                                                                more
Adopt and manage      ongoing      ODFW,              3       Water quality improvement         Agreements are for 10-    immediate        High, although
Cooperative                        SWCDs                      would have high dispersal         15 years                                   not in perpetuity
Agreements                                                    downstream, stream corridor
                                                              and function improvements
                                                              would be confined to the
                                                              specific site
Special               ongoing      USFS, BLM         1, 3     Water quality improvement         Complete, potentially     immediate        High, although
Management                                                    would have high dispersal         subject to change in                       subject to change
Designations on                                               downstream, stream corridor       Forest Plan revisions                      from forest plan
public lands                                                  and function improvements                                                    or management
                                                              would be confined to the                                                     plan revision
                                                              specific site
Designate             Ongoing as   USFS, BLM,        1, 3     Water quality and flow            Unknown                   5-15 years       Unknown, subject
additional            identified   Oregon State               improvement would have high                                                  to availability of
wilderness or wild                 Parks                      dispersal downstream, stream                                                 areas that meet
and scenic status                                             corridor and function                                                        criteria
                                                              improvements would be
                                                              confined to the specific site
Conduct outreach      Ongoing      ODFW, NOAA         8       Entire basin                      Long term                 Variable lag     Unknown,
to resource users                  Fisheries,                                                                             time             depends upon
and managers                       USFWS,                                                                                                  action taken as a
                                   USFS, BLM,                                                                                              result of being
                                   CTWSRO,                                                                                                 more informed
                                   Watershed
                                   Councils,
                                   SWCD‟s
Initiate              Ongoing      ODFW, NOAA         8       Entire basin                      Long term                 Variable lag     unknown,




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Actions                Status          Implementing        Strategy       Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation         Expected       Certainty of
                                       Entity             Addressed                                         timeframe              Biophysical    Outcome3
                                                                                                                                   Response2
demonstration                            Fisheries,                                                                                time           depends upon
projects                                 USFWS,                                                                                                   action taken as a
                                         USFS, BLM,                                                                                               result of being
                                         CTWSRO,                                                                                                  more informed
                                         Watershed
                                         Councils,
                                         SWCD‟s
Conduct outreach          ongoing        ODFW, NOAA                8           Entire basin                Long term               Variable lag   unknown,
to government                            Fisheries,                                                                                time           depends upon
officials                                USFWS,                                                                                                   action taken as a
                                         USFS, BLM,                                                                                               result of being
                                         CTWSRO,                                                                                                  more informed
                                         Watershed
                                         Councils,
                                         SWCD‟s
Implement                 Ongoing        ODFW, NOAA                8           Entire basin                Long term               Variable lag   Unknown,
outreach program                         Fisheries,                                                                                time           depends upon
for general public                       USFWS,                                                                                                   action taken as a
                                         USFS, BLM,                                                                                               result of being
                                         CTWSRO,                                                                                                  more informed
                                         Watershed
                                         Councils,
                                         SWCD‟s
Support regional          Ongoing        ODFW, NOAA                8           Entire basin                Long term               Variable lag   Unknown.
outreach efforts                         Fisheries,                                                                                time           depends upon
                                         USFWS,                                                                                                   action taken as a
                                         USFS, BLM,                                                                                               result of being
                                         CTWSRO,                                                                                                  more informed
                                         Watershed
                                         Councils,
                                         SWCD‟s
1
  Geographic scale of effect (relative amount of basin affected by action)
2 Expected response of action implementation ─ including how long for a specific action to achieve the desired biological effect
3 Relative certainty that expected results will occur as a result of full implementation of action




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft




                        Recovery Strategies and Actions for North Fork John Day Population

            Primary limiting factors: key habitat quantity, sediment load, temperature, habitat diversity,
            flow and channel stability.

            Primary threats: riparian disturbance, stream channelization and relocation, grazing, timber
            harvest, road building, irrigation withdrawals, mining, and dredging.

Strategy 1. Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes.

                                               Protect stream corridor structure/ function and upland processes
           Substrategies                       Factors               Threats                 VSP              Life                            Discussion
                                              Addressed             Addressed           Parameters          Stages
                                                                                         Addressed         Affected
a. Protect floodplain function and        Many factors,           Threats include      Productivity,      All             Protection of high quality habitats is the most cost
   channel migration                      including key           livestock            abundance,                         effective way of ensuring fish have good quality
b. Protect riparian function              habitat quality         overgrazing of       distribution,                      habitat. It is much less expensive over the long
c. Protect access to key habitats         and diversity,          riparian area,                                          term to protect high quality habitat than it is to
d. Protect existing high water quality    sediment load,          channelization,                                         degrade the habitat and then try to restore it. Land
e. Protect natural stream flow regime     water quality, flow     stream bank                                             acquisitions, easements, and cooperative
f. Protect base flows through                                     armoring,                                               agreements may also facilitate the implementation
   management of water withdrawals                                agricultural                                            of active restoration projects.
g. Protect riparian function by                                   practices
   maintaining management                                         (fertilizers,
   objectives                                                     herbicides,
h. Protect channel structure to                                   sediments,
   maintain quality and quantity of                               changes in plant
   spawning grounds                                               communities),
                                                                  water
                                                                  withdrawals,
                                                                  loss of beaver

Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Tributaries of the North Fork John Day River within the NF John Day Wilderness and North Fork John Day River from Big Creek upstream to headwaters, Granite Creek,
South Fork Desolation Creek, upper Clear Creek, and upper Hidaway Creek.
Key Programs
                    Agency                                      Program Name                             Sufficient                         Needs Expansion
USFS and BLM                                       Wilderness Areas, Wilderness Study              For the areas          Yes
                                                   Areas, Wild and Scenic River corridors, designated
                                                   Special Management designations
ODFW                                               Cooperative Agreements                          No                     Yes, the agreements are for only 10-15 years
NRCS                                               CREP                                            No                     Yes, the agreements are for only 10 years
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
The John Day River has 248.6 miles designated as Federal Wild and Scenic River and 317 miles designated as State Wild and Scenic, including the North Fork John Day
River from Camas Creek (RM 57) to the headwaters (RM 112). State designated reaches include the North Fork John Day from near Monument (RM 20) to the North Fork
wilderness boundary (RM 76.5). A wild and scenic designation requires development to be consistent with protecting the Outstandingly Remarkable Values (ORV‟s) for
which the river was designated, requires review of any activity that may affect ORV‟s within the ¼ mile river corridor, and protects the free flowing condition of the river.
Designation as W&S essentially precludes construction of any major dam. A Management Plan was adopted by BLM and Oregon State Parks Department in 2001 for the
designated rivers segments. Implementation of all the actions identified in the plan will likely take many years, however grazing management plans for most of the
allotments within corridor are complete.

Wilderness designation essentially prevents any development and offers the greatest opportunity for protection of high quality habitat. Wilderness areas within the
boundaries of the North Fork population include the North Fork John Day Wilderness (85,000 acres). The primary rationale for designating the North Fork Wilderness was
for protection of anadromous fish habitat.

Existing forest plans include special management designations for riparian habitat conservation areas (RHCA‟s). The forest plans and BLM plans have been amended by
PACFISH and INFISH, both of which require 300 foot buffers on any fish bearing stream for tree removal, as well as specific guidelines for livestock grazing and riparian
vegetation use. Compliance with the 300 foot buffer for timber harvest operations has been very good, however the interpretation of the grazing guidelines has been
inconsistent between National Forests. The RHCA‟s and PACFISH buffers have been useful tools for protection of a variety of riparian values, unfortunately the rules were
implemented in the mid-1990‟s after many trees within riparian areas had already been harvested. In those areas where trees were harvested before the rules went into
effect, it will take decades for them to grow big enough to function as large wood and contribute to habitat parameters. Forest practices rules for private and state owned
forest lands have guidelines for protection of riparian function, although they are not nearly as restrictive as those on federal lands. Adding additional wilderness areas and
wild and scenic river segments will require designation by Congress. Designating additional RMA or adding to the current restrictions within RHCA‟s will revisited during the



                                                                                     37
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


Forest Plan Revision process that is currently underway.

Cooperative and conservation agreements on private land are tools for protecting high quality habitats. ODFW has used cooperative agreements over the last 21 years to
protect riparian corridors that have been fenced to exclude livestock grazing. Unfortunately those agreements are for only 15 years and there have not been funds or
personnel needed to extend them for longer time periods. In the North Fork subbasin, a perpetual conservation agreement to prevent subdividing a 10,000 acre parcel is in
place on Gilmore and Straight creeks and includes approximately 3.3 miles of steelhead spawning and rearing habitat.

NRCS programs that protect riparian areas and upland watersheds include the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and the Conservation Reserve Enhancement
Program (CREP). The CRP program pays landowners not to farm highly erodible soils and the CREP program pays landowners for setting riparian corridors aside from
grazing and farming. The long term effectiveness of both programs is limited by the relatively short duration of the contracts which ranges from 10 to 15 years.


Strategy 2. Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas.

                                                  Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas
          Substrategies                    Factors           Threats Addressed               VSP             Life                           Discussion
                                          Addressed                                     Parameters         Stages
                                                                                        Addressed          Affected
a. Restore access to isolated          Key habitat           Dams, culverts,           Distribution      Primarily       Push up irrigation dams, concrete diversions, in-
   habitats blocked by artificial      quantity, habitat     irrigation diversions,    Productivity      adults and      channel stock ponds, and road culverts are
   barriers, such as road culverts     diversity, channel    instream structures                         0+              located throughout the entire basin. Push up
   and irrigation structures.          stability, sediment                                               juveniles       dams are common in the Cottonwood Creek
b. Minimize use of push up dams.       load                  Maintenance and                                             drainage. Passage problems at culverts are
c. Provide screening at 100% of        Entrainment           construction of                                             widespread throughout all subbasins.
   irrigation diversions.                                    irrigation dams                                             Annual maintenance and construction of push
d. Restore channel and floodplain                                                                                        up dams contributes to onsite and downstream
   connectivity                                                                                                          channel stability, loss of pools and other
                                                                                                                         structure, and increased sediment loads.
                                                                                                                         Screening of irrigation diversions began in 1950s
                                                                                                                         and most were screened by mid-1970s. Many
                                                                                                                         screens now need to be replaced to address
                                                                                                                         new criteria to reduce entrainment of emergent
                                                                                                                         fry and bull trout.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
For irrigation related passage issues: Cottonwood Creek/Fox drainage
For culverts: SF Trail, Meadowbrook, Upper Granite creeks
Key Programs
                  Agency                                     Program Name                            Sufficient                            Needs Expansion
Soil and Water Conservation Districts        Irrigation dam improvements                       Yes in some areas,          The Grant Soil and Water District is constrained
                                                                                               no in others                by the construction window of opportunity. Other
                                                                                                                           counties could expand the program but are
                                                                                                                           constrained by funding and personnel
ODFW                                           Fish Passage and Screening                       No                         The program completes a minimum of one
                                                                                                                           project per year, but is dependent upon
                                                                                                                           landowner cooperation and limited funding
USFS and BLM                                   Culvert replacement                              No                         Yes
Watershed Councils                             Road Crossing Passage improvements               No                         Yes
ODOT                                           Culvert replacement or retrofit                  No                         Yes
BOR                                            John Day Basin Program                           Yes                        No
CTWSRO                                         John Day Basin Program                           No                         Yes, the tribe contracts with SWCDs to assist
                                                                                                                           with consultation, permits, and monitoring
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Most of the mainstem passage problems have been addressed, but there are many tributaries where adult passage is blocked and more areas where juvenile passage
problems occur. Irrigation dams, stock ponds, and road culverts are the primary causes of passage issues. Soil and Water Districts are correcting passage at irrigation
diversions and improperly installed culverts, but are constrained by funding and by personnel needed for construction oversight. Watershed councils and ODOT, who
are the principal entities working on culverts are constrained primarily by funding. An inventory of road crossings on federal lands indicates juvenile passage problems
are pervasive, particularly on National Forests, with approximately 300 culverts not meeting passage criteria on just the Malheur National Forest. The US Forest Service
and BLM are constrained primarily by funding and the personnel needed for NEPA analysis. At the current rate of culvert replacements, it will take over 50 years to
correct all passage problems on National Forests. Another constraint is that existing state laws do not require passage improvements at existing barriers unless there is
a major change in the structure, such as reconstruction or significant modifications, so landowner cooperation is critical for improving passage throughout the basin.

The Malheur, Wallowa Whitman, Umatilla and Ochoco National Forests have culvert inventories for their lands. ODFW has an inventory of culverts on state and county-
owned roads. The inventory shows there are four culverts on state owned roads and one culvert on county owned roads that do not meet fish passage criteria within the
North Fork population boundary. There has not been an inventory of road culverts on private lands.

US Bureau of Reclamation, as required in the Columbia River Biological Opinion, is required to identify and assist with passage improvement design and flow
restoration.




                                                                                      38
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Currently, the ODFW Fish Passage and Screening program replaces about 20 irrigation diversion screens per year. More than 120 diversions in the John Day subbasin
either do not meet current screening criteria or are unscreened, so it would take at least 6 years to replace them all. Of the 120 diversions, 75 have screens that do not
meet NOAA screening criteria. Currently, highest priority is given to diversions that are unscreened with lower priority given to diversions that have screens, but do not
meet the criteria. The program is constrained primarily by funding and personnel needed for implementation. Current law does not require water users to screen
diversions less than 30 cubic feet per second and virtually all diversions in the John Day are less than 30 cfs, so landowner cooperation is essential to success of the
program.


Strategy 3. Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability.

                                              Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability
           Substrategies                       Factors             Threats Addressed               VSP              Life                        Discussion
                                              Addressed                                       Parameters          Stages
                                                                                               Addressed         Affected
a. Bring vertical and lateral stream        Channel stability,      Stream channelization,   Productivity,      Primarily      There has been a loss of off-channel and
   movement in balance with                 habitat diversity,      bank armoring, large     abundance,         eggs, fry      side-channel habitats that once provided
   landscape and flow regime.               key habitat             wood removal, beaver     distribution,      and 0+.        habitat for spawning and rearing, and
b. Increase role and abundance of           quantity,               removal, removal of                                        refugia from high flows.
   wood and large organic debris in         sediment load,          riparian vegetation,
   streambeds.                              flow, water             livestock overgrazing in                                   Extensive mining in upper North Fork
c. Restore channel and floodplain           temperature             riparian areas                                             tributaries has impacted floodplain
   connectivity.                                                                                                               connectivity and channel sinuosity.
d. Restore off-channel and side-
   channel habitat
e. Trap sediment on floodplain as
   appropriate
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Camas Creek from Wilkins Creek to Cable Creek, Owens Creek, Clear Creek below Ruby Creek, Olive Creek below Beaver Creek, Bull Run Creek, Boulder Creek,
Crane Creek above Forest Rd 73, lower Boulder Creek (Granite Cr trib), Cottonwood Creek below EF Cottonwood.
Key Programs
                     Agency                                             Program Name                          Sufficient                    Needs Expansion
ODFW                                                  BPA Habitat Program                                Yes                   No
USFS, BLM                                             Stream enhancement program                         Yes in some           Possibly
                                                                                                         areas, no in
                                                                                                         others
Watershed Councils                                    Watershed restoration                              Dependent upon        Only if specific needs cannot be
                                                                                                         need and funding      addressed by passive restoration
                                                                                                                               techniques
Soil and Water Conservation Districts                 Watershed restoration                              Dependent upon        Only if specific needs cannot be
                                                                                                         need and funding      addressed by passive restoration
                                                                                                                               techniques
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Instream activities have not been identified as a high priority by the recovery planning team or the subbasin plan team except when identified as a need for specific sites.
The planning team prefers that more passive approaches, such as riparian and upland improvements be emphasized. Typically, instream activities would include
placement of rootwads, whole trees, or boulder clusters to improved habitat complexity and habitat diversity where those parameters are deficient and not expected to
improve with passive restoration.


Strategy 4. Restore riparian function and condition.

                                                             Restore riparian function and condition
          Substrategies                     Factors            Threats Addressed                VSP               Life                        Discussion
                                           Addressed                                       Parameters           Stages
                                                                                            Addressed          Affected
a. Restore natural riparian plant      Channel stability,      Livestock overgrazing      Productivity,      Primarily       Primary methods of riparian enhancement
   communities                         key habitat             of riparian area,          abundance,         fry and 0+.     include riparian corridor fences to exclude
b. Exclude livestock from riparian     quantity, habitat       channelization, stream     distribution                       livestock, changes in grazing management
   areas                               quality, flows,         bank armoring, cutting                                        that promote riparian recovery, and planting
c. Eradicate invasive plant species    high stream             of trees in riparian                                          of native shrubs.
   from riparian areas                 temperatures,           areas, changes in
d. Restore channel and floodplain      sediment load           plant communities
   connectivity                                                (including invasive
                                                               plants), beaver
                                                               removal

Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Reaches on Rudio, Cottonwood, Deerhorn, Jericho, Camas, and Desolation creeks.




                                                                                     39
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Key Programs
                Agency                                       Program Name                                 Sufficient                        Needs Expansion
ODFW                                          BPA Habitat Program                                   No                         Yes
SWCD‟s                                        Upland improvements, riparian improvements            Yes in some areas,         Yes
                                                                                                    no in others
Watershed Councils                             Upland improvements, riparian improvements           No                         Yes
USFS and BLM                                   Upland improvements, riparian improvements           No                         Yes
NRCS                                           Upland improvements, riparian improvements           Yes                        No
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
In the last 20+ years ODFW, Watershed Councils, NRCS and Soil and Water Districts have implemented hundreds of miles of riparian improvements on private lands,
primarily through construction of riparian corridor fences that exclude livestock grazing and development of off channel watering devices. Public land managers have
implemented PACFISH and INFISH standards for protection and restoration of USFS and BLM lands. Even though hundreds of miles of riparian improvements have
been completed there are nearly 2,800 miles of stream occupied by steelhead within the John Day River Basin and hundreds more miles of tributaries to these streams
If only 10% of the stream reaches are degraded (which is probably low), it will take over 35 years to treat them if agencies proceed at the current rate. Bank stabilization
using some rock is still infrequently occurring after high water events in the Upper John Day River, primarily along irrigated pastures and on Rock Creek (Gilliam
County). These bank stabilization projects have historically relied on riprap and large rock, however in recent years the high economic and ecological cost of bank
armoring with riprap and of channelization has been recognized, so the emphasis has shifted toward a more passive approach for stabilization, primarily through riparian
vegetation improvements. Overgrazing of riparian areas by livestock continues, however it is not as widespread as historically. Interest by private landowners and
public land managers in riparian improvement remains high.

Another project that has been well accepted and will improve riparian condition is restoring historic cover types by removing juniper, reintroducing fire, enrollment into
CREP, and control of invasive/noxious plants. Primary constraints on implementing additional projects for more riparian improvements are funding and personnel
needed for planning, promotion, education of landowners, and implementation.


Strategy 5. Restore natural hydrograph to provide adequate flow during critical periods.

                                       Restore natural hydrograph to provide adequate flow during critical periods
          Substrategies                     Factors             Threats Addressed                VSP            Life Stages                      Discussion
                                           Addressed                                        Parameters           Affected
                                                                                            Addressed
a. Enhance base flow                    Altered stream        Water withdrawals            Productivity       Eggs, fry and      Changes in the upland plant community
b. Restore natural hydrographic         flow regime, key      Changes in upland            Abundance          0+                 due to fire suppression, invasive plants,
   conditions where appropriate         habitat quantity,     plant community              Distribution                          and conversion of bunch grass prairies to
c. Increase pool habitat (beaver        habitat diversity,    Channelization               Spatial                               wheat fields have resulted in lower
   ponds)                               sediment,             Removal of large wood        Structure                             precipitation infiltration rates, which results
d. Restore riparian vegetation and      Altered               Removal of beaver                                                  in higher peak flows and lower low flows.
   function                             temperature                                                                              Some tributaries are now dry where they
                                        regime,                                                                                  join the John Day River. Removal of large
                                        Lack of channel                                                                          wood and channelizing streams also
                                        forming flows                                                                            increases water velocities and reduces the
                                                                                                                                 ability of the stream to hold water for
                                                                                                                                 gradual release.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Cottonwood/Fox and lower Rudio Creeks are the tributaries most affected by irrigation withdrawals. The mainstem North Fork below Wall Creek has numerous
irrigation withdrawals, but warm water temperatures preclude steelhead from using for year long rearing.
Key Programs
                  Agency                                        Program Name                               Sufficient                       Needs Expansion
ODFW                                           BPA Habitat Program, riparian improvements            No                        Yes
Oregon Water Resources Department              Stream Flow Monitoring and Regulation                 No                        Yes
Oregon Water Trust and BOR                     Leasing and Purchase of Water Rights                  No                        Yes
Soil and Water Conservation Districts          Improve irrigation efficiency, upland                 Yes in some areas,        Yes
                                               improvements, riparian improvements                   no in others
Watershed Councils                             Upland improvements, riparian improvements            No                        Yes
NRCS                                           Upland improvements, riparian improvements            No                        Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Many landowners have converted from flood to sprinkler or gated pipe irrigation, which makes more efficient use of the water and grows more palatable forage but there
has not been an effective mechanism to protect saved water from being used by another irrigator downstream. Water measuring devices are just beginning to be
required on irrigation withdrawals and while progress is being made there is considerable resistance from irrigators. Another project that has been well accepted and will
improve flow is restoring historic cover types by removing juniper, reintroducing fire, enrollment into CRP, and control of invasive/noxious plants. Primary constraints on
implementing additional projects are funding, instream water rights that are junior to most irrigation rights, and water laws that sometimes conflict with conservation
practices.

US Bureau of Reclamation is required in the Columbia River Biological Opinion to identify and assist with passage improvement design and flow restoration.




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


Strategy 6. Restore degraded water quality.
                                                                   Restore degraded water quality
             Substrategies                       Factors             Threats Addressed              VSP               Life                      Discussion
                                                Addressed                                        Parameters         Stages
                                                                                                 Addressed          Affected
a. Exclude livestock from riparian areas     Altered stream         Timber harvest in           Productivity,     Eggs, fry,      Elevated water temperature is a
b. Increase riparian shading                 temperature            riparian areas, riparian    abundance         juveniles,      pervasive water quality problem for the
c. Reduce unnatural rates of erosion         regime, Chemical       grazing, high road                            adults          North Fork John Day River population,
   from upland areas                         contaminants,          densities, clearing of                                        with 39 stream reaches listed as water
d. Decrease channel width-to-depth           depleted oxygen        riparian vegetation for                                       quality limited. Additional reaches
   ratios                                    sediment load          agriculture and rural                                         would probably be listed is water
e. Increase deep pool habitat                                       development, dry land                                         temperature data was available.
f. Address contamination associated                                 grain fields left fallow
   with historic mining activities in the                           during high precipitation                                     Even though irrigation is not common
   subbasin                                                         periods, discharge of                                         in the North Fork, there are some
g. Maintain existing high water quality                             heavy metal and other                                         opportunities to use more efficient
   with respect to chemical                                         contaminants from                                             irrigation methods, which reduces the
   contamination                                                    mining sites                                                  amount of surface water returning to
h. Minimize unnatural factors that lead to                                                                                        the stream, and result in fewer
   fluctuations in dissolved oxygen                                                                                               nutrients from pastures reaching the
   levels.                                                                                                                        North Fork John Day River and its
                                                                                                                                  tributaries. Reducing nutrient loads will
                                                                                                                                  contribute to increased water quality by
                                                                                                                                  reducing biological oxygen demand
                                                                                                                                  and algae blooms.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Granite Creek and tributaries for impacts of mining effluent and lower North Fork John Day River, Camas, Cottonwood, Rudio, and Owens creeks and lower reaches of
Wall, Desolation, and Wilson creeks for elevated water temperatures
Key Programs
                     Agency                                          Program Name                             Sufficient                    Needs Expansion
NRCS                                                CREP, CRP                                            No                      Yes
DEQ                                                 Mine Waste Program                                   No                      Yes, limited by funding
ODA                                                 Confined animal feeding operations (CAFO)            Yes                     Few CAFO operations exist within the
                                                                                                                                 basin
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Heavy metal and other contaminants coming from historic and ongoing mining activity in the Granite Creek drainage has resulted in elevated levels of these
contaminants found in sediments. ODFW biologists have observed dead fish and adult fish with gill lesions in the streams of this watershed. Although the cause of this
mortality is not certain, elevated iron and heavy metal concentrations may be a contributing factor. Although recent surveys conducted by the UNF and U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) indicated that mercury was not present in high enough concentrations known to cause these types of effects, conditions at
abandoned mine sites and abatement ponds may change yearly, increasing the amount of heavy metals released (NMFS 2004/0008). Low stream flows during the
hottest part of the year exacerbate the already warm water temperatures. Opportunities for increasing stream flow through leasing of water rights, which often results in
cooler water over a longer stream reach, are being pursued by Oregon Water Trust and US Bureau of Reclamation. Constraints for future projects include acceptance
by landowners and a secure, long term funding source.

Reducing water temperatures through the use of improved riparian vegetation and more efficient methods of irrigation may take several years to provide measurable
results. Many projects that improve water quality by reducing irrigation return water have been completed.

Camas, Cottonwood, and Owens creeks and lower reaches of Wall, Desolation, and Wilson creeks are relatively good producers of steelhead that are listed as water
quality limited due to elevated water temperatures.


Strategy 7. Restore degraded upland processes.

                                                                 Restore degraded upland processes
          Substrategies                  Factors Addressed           Threats Addressed              VSP              Life                       Discussion
                                                                                                 Parameters         Stages
                                                                                                 Addressed         Affected
a. Restore native upland plant         Many factors, including      Livestock overgrazing,      Productivity,     Eggs, fry,      Upland improvements such as
   communities                         altered flow regime,          changes in upland          abundance         and 0+          restoring native plant communities will
b. Upgrade or remove problem           channel stability,           plant communities,                                            improve precipitation infiltration rates
   forest roads                        sediment load, water         forest roads, unnatural                                       and ultimately improve watershed
c. Employ BMPs to minimize             quality, key habitat         fire regime                                                   health, including the hydrograph.
   unnatural rates of erosion and      quantity, habitat
   runoff from upland sources.         diversity                                                                                  Suppression of fires over the last 80
                                                                                                                                  years has contributed to higher than
                                                                                                                                  normal tree densities and increased
                                                                                                                                  threat of high intensity fires. High



                                                                                     41
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
July 12, 2006 draft


                                                                                                                                     intensity fires have greater potential for
                                                                                                                                     damaging watershed function than
                                                                                                                                     lower intensity fires.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Cottonwood/Fox Creek, upper Rudio Creek. There are areas on National Forest Lands that have degraded conditions due to fire suppression, but they are difficult to
quantify.
Key Programs
                         Agency                                                    Program Name                             Sufficien              Needs Expansion
                                                                                                                                 t
NRCS/Farm Service Agency                                     CRP                                                            No
SWCDs                                                        Juniper control                                                No
ODFW                                                         Green Forage                                                   No           Very small program
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
All three programs above are relatively small, with the CRP program the largest and best funded; however all the programs are limited by funding and, to a lesser extent,
acceptance by landowners. CRP has been in existence for 20 years and has been one of the better farm subsidy programs for watershed restoration. Juniper control
programs have focused on areas where extensive juniper encroachment has occurred. Juniper control can be completed using several different methods, including
controlled burns, cutting with chainsaws, or by removing with bulldozers or trackhoes. Although controlled burns are probably the most effective at controlling the spread
of juniper, they are the most difficult to implement because of the threat of the fire getting out of control and costs. Another drawback to controlled burns is that livestock
grazing should be excluded from burned areas for at least two growing seasons after the burn to ensure full recovery of desirable perennial grasses. There are
opportunities to expand the juniper control program but the lack of a pasture to put livestock into for two years after burning has limited its acceptance. The ODFW
Green Forage program provides a wildlife seed mixture of native grasses and desirable forage to landowners who have recently completed juniper clearing projects,
logging projects or other ground disturbing activities. The primary purposes are to provide additional forage for deer and elk and to reduce deer and elk damage;
however it also has benefits to watershed health by providing grasses that provide perennial ground cover.


Strategy 8. Protect/restore habitat through public education and outreach.

                                                   Protect/restore habitat through education and outreach
            Substrategies                   Factors            Threats Addressed                  VSP              Life                        Discussion
                                           Addressed                                         Parameters          Stages
                                                                                              Addressed         Affected
a. Educate, landowners, land               Potentially     Potentially addresses            Productivity,      All             Topics of education include the
   management agencies, and others         many            many threats including           abundance,                         importance of healthy riparian zones;
b. Initiate demonstration projects of      limiting        stream channelization,           distribution,                      impacts of activities on uplands,
   good land management.                   factors         stream bank armoring,            and spatial                        floodplains and stream corridors on
c. Outreach to government officials.                       water withdrawals,               structure                          erosion rates and how it affects survival of
                                                           changes in upland plant                                             steelhead eggs and other habitat
                                                           communities, obstructions                                           parameters; impacts of heavy metals and
                                                                                                                               mine waste on fish; scarcity of flow during
                                                                                                                               critical periods for fish; fish passage
                                                                                                                               needs; the relationship between shade
                                                                                                                               and water temperature; and how many
                                                                                                                               fish are diverted by unscreened irrigation
                                                                                                                               diversions.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Basinwide

Key Programs
                   Agency                                        Program Name                            Sufficient                       Needs Expansion
ODFW                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
SWCDs                                               Outreach                                       No                        Yes
NRCS                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
CTWSRO                                              Outreach                                       No                        Yes
CTUIR                                               Outreach                                       No                        Yes
USFS                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
BLM                                                 Outreach                                       No                        Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Educating landowners, other agencies, and the public about fish life history and habitat needs is a long, ongoing process and it will be very difficult to measure
tangible results. Current activities include field days with school groups, agencies, and landowners, as well as presentations about life history and species of fish
present in the John Day River basin. The formation of Watershed Councils and SWCDs that are active in watershed restoration has increased awareness about fish
needs throughout the entire basin, but landowners, educators, and the public are eager for additional information. Current personnel cannot meet the demand for
education and outreach and still complete their other assigned duties.




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Habitat Actions for Recovery of North Fork John Day River Steelhead Population.

Actions                Status       Implementing      Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                   Implementation           Expected        Certainty of
                                    Entity           Addressed                                       timeframe                Biophysical     Outcome3
                                                                                                                              Response2
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing      NRCS, USFS,        3, 4, 6   Riparian recovery will be           Intermediate             5-15 years      Moderate,
livestock grazing                   BLM, ODFW,                   localized, but water quality                                                 depending upon
practices                           Private                      effects (sediment and                                                        compliance and
                                    landowners,                  temperature) will have high                                                  monitoring
                                    CTWSRO,                      dispersal downstream
                                    Watershed
                                    Councils,
                                    NRCS
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing      USFS, Oregon       3, 4, 7   Large wood recruitment will         Intermediate             Up to 5 years   High, dependent
forest practices                    Dept. of                     be localized, but water quality                              for water       upon compliance
                                    Forestry, BLM                effects (sediment and                                        quality         and monitoring
                                                                 temperature) will have high                                  impacts,
                                                                 dispersal downstream                                         longer for
                                                                                                                              large wood
                                                                                                                              recruitment
Restore wet            Ongoing      TNC, USFS,         3, 5, 6   Benefits of improved channel        Intermediate             5-15 years      Moderate
meadows                and          CTWSRO                       morphology will be localized,
                       planned                                   improved water table and the
                                                                 resulting increased stream
                                                                 flow and lower water
                                                                 temperatures will have high
                                                                 dispersal downstream
Vegetation             Ongoing      USFS, BLM,         7, 5      Effects of higher precipitation     Juniper control can be   5-30 years      Moderate
management                          NRCS,                        infiltration rates will have high   done quickly, other
                                    SWCD‟s,                      dispersal downstream                strategies such as
                                    Watershed                                                        control of invasive
                                    Councils                                                         plants may take more
                                                                                                     than 20 years
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing      USFS, Oregon        7, 6     Reduced sediment and                Long term                Immediate for   High; funding on
road system                         Dept. of                     improved hydrologic function                                 sediment,       public lands and
management                          Forestry,                    will have high dispersal                                     other           landowner
                                    ODOT                         downstream                                                   parameter 5-    cooperation on
                                                                                                                              15 years        private lands will
                                                                                                                                              determine rate of
                                                                                                                                              treatment
Apply measures to      ongoing      USFS, BLM,          6, 7     Reduced sediment and                Long term, many forest   5-15 years      Moderate,
reduce erosion                      Oregon Dept                  improved hydrologic function        roads have legacy                        although funding
from forest roads                   of Forestry                  will have high dispersal            issues with regard to                    on public lands
(including                                                       downstream                          sediment transport and                   and landowner
closing/decommissi                                                                                   routing of runoff.                       cooperation on
on)                                                                                                  Decommissioning may                      private lands will
                                                                                                     take many years                          determine rate of
                                                                                                                                              treatment
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing      NRCS,               7, 6     Reduced sediment and                Long term, dependent     0-20,years,     Moderate,
agricultural                        SWCD‟s,                      improved hydrologic function        on implementation of     depending       dependent upon
practices to control                Private                      will have high dispersal            Agricultural Water       upon            voluntary
erosion and runoff                  landowners,                  downstream                          Quality Management       treatments      landowner
                                    Farm Service                                                     Plans                    applied         participation
                                    Agency
Apply BMPs to          Not          County             7, 4, 6   Reduced sediment and                Immediate, depending     Immediate       Moderate,
municipal and          currently    Planning                     improved hydrologic function        on how aggressive                        dependent upon
residential land       identified   departments                  will have high dispersal            county planning                          county
management to          as a                                      downstream                          departments are with                     compliance with
control runoff         concern                                                                       enforcing existing                       land use planning
                                                                                                     county planning rules                    goals
Remove push up         Ongoing      Soil and Water       2       Provide access to upstream          Ongoing, but all push    Immediate       High, if comply
dams                                Conservation                 habitat                             up dams not expected                     with fish passage
                                    Districts                                                        to be corrected for at                   design criteria
                                                                                                     least 15 years
Replace culverts       Ongoing      USFS, BLM,           2       Provide access to upstream          Ongoing, replacing all   Immediate       High, if comply
                                    Watershed                    habitat                             culverts blocking fish                   with fish passage
                                    Councils,                                                        passage expected to                      design criteria
                                    ODOT                                                             take 20 years




                                                                            43
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Actions                 Status      Implementing      Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation             Expected          Certainty of
                                    Entity           Addressed                                     timeframe                  Biophysical       Outcome3
                                                                                                                              Response2
Construct ladders       Ongoing     Soil and Water       2       Provide access to upstream        Ongoing, providing         Immediate         High if comply
over existing                       Conservation                 habitat                           passage at all diversion                     with fish passage
permanent                           Districts,                                                     and pond barriers will                       design criteria
concrete or earth                   ODFW                                                           take many years
fill dams
Screen unscreened       Ongoing     ODFW                 2       At point of diversion             Approximately 80           Immediate         High, if comply
diversions                                                                                         diversions need to be                        wit fish screening
                                                                                                   screened. Should take                        criteria
                                                                                                   about 4 years
Replace screens         Ongoing     ODFW                 2       At point of diversion             Approximately 80-100       Immediate         High if comply wit
that do not meet                                                                                   screens need to be                           fish screening
criteria                                                                                           replaced. Should take                        criteria
                                                                                                   about 4-5 years.
Obtain additional       On hold     ODFW                5, 6     Point of diversion downstream     Unknown, ODFW is           Long term         High, although
instream water                                                   to mouth of John Day River        reluctant to file for      because           dependent upon
rights                                                                                             additional ISWRs until     senior water      cancellation of
                                                                                                   pending applications       rights still      unused senior
                                                                                                   are approved by            have priority     water rights
                                                                                                   Oregon Water
                                                                                                   Resources Department
Monitor and             Ongoing     ODWR                5, 6     Point of diversion downstream     Long term, dependent       immediate         High if water use
regulate water                                                   to mouth of John Day River        upon ODWR enforcing                          reporting and
withdrawals                                                                                        the requirement to                           requirement for
                                                                                                   measure water useage                         measuring
                                                                                                                                                devices is
                                                                                                                                                enforced
Lease/acquire           Ongoing     Oregon Water       1, 5, 6   Point of diversion downstream     Long term and highly       immediate         High, if the
instream water                      Resources                    to mouth of John Day River        dependent upon                               leased water is
rights                              Dept., Oregon                                                  landowner willingness                        protected from
                                    Water Trust                                                    to lease.                                    being
                                                                                                                                                appropriated to a
                                                                                                                                                downstream user
Irrigation efficiency   Ongoing     Soil and Water      5, 6     Point of diversion downstream     Long Term and              Immediate         High, if the saved
projects                            Districts,                   to mouth of John Day River        dependent upon                               water is protected
                                    NRCS                                                           landowner willingness                        from being
                                                                                                   to participate and                           appropriated to a
                                                                                                   availability of projects                     downstream user
Floodplain aquifer      Planned     CTWSRO,             5, 6     Potentially high dispersal from   Long term, although        Immediate         High, if the
recharge projects       and some    Soil and Water               recharge project site             opportunities for pilot                      additional water
                        ongoing     Districts                    downstream for many miles         projects is dependent                        is protected from
                                                                                                   upon willing landowner                       being
                                                                                                                                                appropriated to a
                                                                                                                                                downstream user
Off-stream storage      Planned     Soil and Water       5       Potentially high dispersal from   Long Term and              Physical          Benefits to fish
basins                  and         Districts                    project site downstream for       dependent upon             response will     will be hard to
                        ongoing                                  many miles                        properly designed and      take several      quantify and may
                                                                                                   monitored storage          years and is      be offset by
                                                                                                   basins                     dependent on      reductions in
                                                                                                                              the number of     channel forming
                                                                                                                              storage basins    flows
                                                                                                                              completed
Add large woody         As needed   ODFW, USFS,          3       For the immediate stream          Once identified, short     Immediate         High
debris                              Watershed                    reach                             term
                                    Councils,
                                    SWCD‟s
Restore natural         Planned     Watershed            3       For the treated stream reach      Short term, once           Physical          High
channel form and                    Councils, Soil                                                 identified                 response will
reconnect to                        and Water                                                                                 be immediate,
floodplain                          Districts,                                                                                biological
                                    ODFW, USFS,                                                                               response may
                                    BLM                                                                                       take 5-10
                                                                                                                              years
Stabilize and           Ongoing     Soil and Water      3, 6     For the treated stream reach,     Passive stabilization      With passive      Medium to high,
protect                             Districts,                   with physical benefits            techniques are             restoration the   depending upon
streambanks                         USFS, BLM,                   dispersed to downstream           preferred and take         response may      the extent of the
                                    ODFW,                        reaches                           longer to implement        take 15 years     treatments




                                                                           44
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Actions               Status    Implementing      Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation            Expected         Certainty of
                                Entity           Addressed                                     timeframe                 Biophysical      Outcome3
                                                                                                                         Response2
                                Watershed
                                Councils
Manage grazing in     Ongoing   NRCS, AFS,          4, 6     Riparian function will be         Long term because of      5-15 years,      High, based upon
riparian areas                  USFS, BLM,                   limited to specific reach but     widespread need           depending        experience with
                                Soil and Water               water quality improvements                                  upon grazing     existing grazing
                                Districts,                   will have high dispersal                                    plan adopted.    management and
                                ODFW,                        downstream from site                                        Riparian         riparian recovery
                                Watershed                                                                                corridor         projects
                                Councils                                                                                 fencing and
                                                                                                                         removal of
                                                                                                                         riparian
                                                                                                                         grazing has
                                                                                                                         the fastest
                                                                                                                         recovery rate.
Restore riparian      Ongoing   ODFW,               4, 6     Riparian function will be         Long term because of      5-15 years,      High, based upon
vegetative cover                Watershed                    limited to specific reach but     widespread need           (see above)      experience with
                                Councils,                    water quality improvements                                                   existing grazing
                                SWCDs,                       will have High dispersal                                                     management and
                                USFS, BLM,                   downstream from site                                                         riparian recovery
                                CTUIR                                                                                                     projects
Reconnect             Ongoing   ODFW,                3       Effect on physical habitat        Long term, because of     5-15 years,      Moderate,
floodplain habitats             Watershed                    features will be localized, but   widespread need           depending        depending upon
                                Councils,                    effects on water quality will                               upon             how extensive
                                SWCDs,                       have high dispersal                                         frequency and    the project is and
                                USFS, BLM,                   downstream                                                  duration of      frequency and
                                CTUIR                                                                                    channel          duration of
                                                                                                                         altering flows   channel altering
                                                                                                                                          flows
Reintroduce beaver    ongoing   ODFW,               3,4      Effect on physical habitat        Long term, due to         Within 5 years   Moderate-high,
                                CTWSRO,                      features will be localized, but   acceptance by             once the dams    dependent upon
                                USFS, BLM                    effects on water quality will     landowners and            are built        acceptance by
                                                             have high dispersal               widespread need                            landowners
                                                             downstream
Address               ongoing   DEQ, USFS            6       Primarily in contaminated         Long term, although       Immediate in     High, although
contamination from                                           reaches, with intermediate        actual treatment may      the specific     contingent upon
mine related                                                 dispersal downstream              take only a matter of     stream reach.    adequate
discharge                                                                                      days.                                      maintenance
Apply BMPs for        ongoing   ODA, NRSC,          6, 3     Water quality improvement         5-15 years                5-15 years       Moderate,
development and                 counties                     would have high dispersal                                                    although not
waste management                                             downstream                                                                   identified as a
                                                                                                                                          significant
                                                                                                                                          problem
Apply BMPs to         ongoing   ODA                  6       Water quality improvement         Some treatments could     5-15 years       High, once a
animal feeding                                               would have high dispersal         be done immediately.                       treatment has
operations                                                   downstream                        There are few animal                       been agreed
                                                                                               feeding operations                         upon
                                                                                               within the basin, only
                                                                                               one of which has been
                                                                                               identified as a problem
Manage return flow    ongoing   SWCDs,               6       Water quality improvement         Less than 5 years,        Immediate        High, reduced
to reduce extreme               Watershed                    would have high dispersal         once the project has                       temperatures has
stream                          Councils                     downstream                        been identified                            been well
temperatures                                                                                                                              documented
Acquire/manage        Ongoing   CTUIR, TNC,         4, 3     Water quality improvement         Existing conservation     5-15 years       High, based on
stream corridor                 RMEF, John                   would have high dispersal         agreements are            with passive     previous
through                         Day Basin                    downstream, stream corridor       complete. Full            restoration      cooperative
conservation                    Trust                        and function improvements         implementation of         approaches       agreements
easements                                                    would be confined to the          conservation measures
                                                             specific site                     will take 5-15 years or
                                                                                               more
Adopt and manage      ongoing   ODFW,                3       Water quality improvement         Agreements are for 10-    immediate        High, although
Cooperative                     SWCDs                        would have high dispersal         15 years                                   not in perpetuity
Agreements                                                   downstream, stream corridor
                                                             and function improvements
                                                             would be confined to the
                                                             specific site




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Actions                Status          Implementing        Strategy       Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation          Expected       Certainty of
                                       Entity             Addressed                                         timeframe               Biophysical    Outcome3
                                                                                                                                    Response2
Special                ongoing         USFS, BLM              1, 3        Water quality improvement         Complete, potentially   immediate      High, although
Management                                                                would have high dispersal         subject to change in                   subject to change
Designations on                                                           downstream, stream corridor       Forest Plan revisions                  from forest plan
public lands                                                              and function improvements                                                or management
                                                                          would be confined to the                                                 plan revision
                                                                          specific site
Designate              Ongoing as      USFS, BLM,             1, 3        Water quality and flow            Unknown                 5-15 years     Unknown, subject
additional             identified      Oregon State                       improvement would have high                                              to availability of
wilderness or wild                     Parks                              dispersal downstream, stream                                             areas that meet
and scenic status                                                         corridor and function                                                    criteria
                                                                          improvements would be
                                                                          confined to the specific site
Conduct outreach       Ongoing           ODFW, NOAA                8      Entire basin                      Long term               Variable lag   Unknown,
to resource users                        Fisheries,                                                                                 time           depends upon
and managers                             USFWS,                                                                                                    action taken as a
                                         USFS, BLM,                                                                                                result of being
                                         CTWSRO,                                                                                                   more informed
                                         Watershed
                                         Councils,
                                         SWCD‟s
Initiate                  Ongoing        ODFW, NOAA                8           Entire basin                 Long term               Variable lag   unknown,
demonstration                            Fisheries,                                                                                 time           depends upon
projects                                 USFWS,                                                                                                    action taken as a
                                         USFS, BLM,                                                                                                result of being
                                         CTWSRO,                                                                                                   more informed
                                         Watershed
                                         Councils,
                                         SWCD‟s
Conduct outreach          ongoing        ODFW, NOAA                8           Entire basin                 Long term               Variable lag   unknown,
to government                            Fisheries,                                                                                 time           depends upon
officials                                USFWS,                                                                                                    action taken as a
                                         USFS, BLM,                                                                                                result of being
                                         CTWSRO,                                                                                                   more informed
                                         Watershed
                                         Councils,
                                         SWCD‟s
Implement                 Ongoing        ODFW, NOAA                8           Entire basin                 Long term               Variable lag   Unknown,
outreach program                         Fisheries,                                                                                 time           depends upon
for general public                       USFWS,                                                                                                    action taken as a
                                         USFS, BLM,                                                                                                result of being
                                         CTWSRO,                                                                                                   more informed
                                         Watershed
                                         Councils,
                                         SWCD‟s
Support regional          Ongoing        ODFW, NOAA                8           Entire basin                 Long term               Variable lag   Unknown.
outreach efforts                         Fisheries,                                                                                 time           depends upon
                                         USFWS,                                                                                                    action taken as a
                                         USFS, BLM,                                                                                                result of being
                                         CTWSRO,                                                                                                   more informed
                                         Watershed
                                         Councils,
                                         SWCD‟s
1
  Geographic scale of effect (relative amount of basin affected by action)
2 Expected response of action implementation ─ including how long for a specific action to achieve the desired biological effect
3 Relative certainty that expected results will occur as a result of full implementation of action




                                                                                    46
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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                       Recovery Strategies and Actions for Middle Fork John Day Population

            Primary limiting factors: 1) key habitat quantity, 2) habitat diversity, 3) sediment load, 4) flow,
            and 5) temperature.

            Primary threats: riparian disturbance, stream channelization and relocation, grazing, timber
            harvest, road building, passage barriers, irrigation withdrawals, mining, and dredging.

Strategy 1. Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes.

                                               Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes
           Substrategies                     Factors          Threats Addressed            VSP                Life                            Discussion
                                            Addressed                                   Parameters          Stages
                                                                                        Addressed          Affected
a. Protect floodplain function and        Many factors,      Many threats              All                All            Protecting base stream flows from further
   channel migration                      including key      including livestock                                         appropriations is a very important function of
b. Protect riparian function              habitat quality    overgrazing of                                              protecting existing high quality habitats.
c. Protect access to key habitats         and diversity,     riparian area,
d. Protect existing high water quality    sediment load,     channelization,
e. Protect natural stream flow regime     water quality,     stream bank
f. Protect base flows through             flow               armoring,
   management of water withdrawals                           agricultural practices
g. Protect riparian function by                              (fertilizers,
   maintaining management                                    herbicides,
   objectives                                                sediments, changes
h. Protect channel structure to                              in plant
   maintain quality and quantity of                          communities), water
   spawning grounds                                          withdrawals, loss of
                                                             beaver
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Upper reaches of Big, Big Boulder, and Granite Boulder creeks that originate in the Vinegar Hill-Indian Rock Scenic Area, Other areas with high potential for protection
once they are restored include the Middle Fork mainstem from Ragged Creek to the upper end of Phipps Meadow and streams that drain the north side of Dixie Butte
(Davis, Butte, Placer Gulch, and Greenhorn creeks).
Key Programs
                     Agency                                        Program Name                           Sufficient                        Needs Expansion
USFS and BLM                                          Wilderness Areas, Wilderness Study            For the areas           Yes
                                                      Areas, Wild and Scenic River corridors, designated
                                                      Special Management designations
ODFW                                                  Cooperative Agreements                        No                      Yes, the agreements are for only 10-15 years
NRCS                                                  CREP                                          No                      Yes, the agreements are for only 10 years
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Protection of high quality habitats is the most cost effective way of ensuring fish have good quality habitat. It is much less expensive over the long term to protect high
quality habitat than it is to degrade the habitat and then try to restore it. Land acquisitions, easements, and cooperative agreements may also facilitate the implementation
of active restoration projects. The specific objectives addressed by each protection effort will vary, and must be assessed on a case-by-case basis.

The John Day River has 248.6 miles designated as Federal Wild and Scenic River and 317 miles designated as State Wild and Scenic. State designated reaches include
the Middle Fork John Day River from its mouth to Crawford Creek Bridge (RM 71). The Indian Rock Vinegar Hill Scenic Area in the Malheur and Umatilla National Forests
is managed primarily for its scenic values, which offers good protection for watershed and fish habitat parameters.

Existing forest plans include special management designations for riparian habitat conservation areas (RHCA‟s). The forest plans and BLM plans have been amended by
PACFISH and INFISH, both of which require 300-foot buffers on any fish bearing stream for tree removal, as well as specific guidelines for livestock grazing and riparian
vegetation use. Compliance with the 300-foot buffer for timber harvest operations has been very good, however the interpretation of the grazing guidelines has been
inconsistent between National Forests. Forest practices rules for private and state owned forest lands have guidelines for protection of riparian function, although they are
not nearly as restrictive as those on federal lands. Adding additional wilderness areas and wild and scenic river segments will require designation by Congress.
Designating additional RMA‟s or adding to the current restrictions within RHCA‟s will be revisited during the Forest Plan Revision process that is currently underway.

Cooperative and conservation agreements on private land are tools for protecting high quality habitats. ODFW has used cooperative agreements over the last 21 years to
protect riparian corridors that have been fenced to exclude livestock grazing. Unfortunately those agreements are for only 15 years and there have not been funds or
personnel needed to extend them for longer time periods. Over 120 miles of stream throughout the basin have been protected under this program. Additional opportunities
will be limited by availability of funds and by willingness of landowners to sign conservation easements and/or agreements.

Conservation agreements and acquisitions by conservation organizations are another recently used tool that can protect high quality habitat. The Middle Fork John Day
River has five parcels with conservation easements or conservation organizations as the owners. A perpetual riparian conservation agreement restricting development and



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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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grazing is currently in place on a 310 acre private parcel in the Middle Fork near river mile 40. Another conservation property is the Nature Conservancy Dunstan Preserve
(approx. 1,200 acres) near RM 50. It is managed primarily for fish benefits. The Oxbow Conservation Area (1,022 acres) and the Forrest Conservation Area (approx 867
acres) both owned by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon are managed as mitigation for the loss of fish and wildlife habitat associated
with hydroelectric development on the Columbia River. Another privately owned parcel has a perpetual water lease agreement to prevent water withdrawals after July 20,
which will result in approximately 10 cfs being left in the stream, primarily for the benefit of salmon and steelhead.

NRCS programs that protect riparian areas and upland watersheds include the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and the Conservation Reserve Enhancement
Program (CREP). The CRP program pays landowners not to farm highly erodible soils and the CREP program pays landowners for setting riparian corridors aside from
grazing and farming. The long term effectiveness of both programs is limited by the relatively short duration of the contracts which ranges from 10 to 15 years.


Strategy 2. Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas.

                                                  Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas
          Substrategies                    Factors           Threats Addressed               VSP             Life                          Discussion
                                          Addressed                                     Parameters         Stages
                                                                                        Addressed          Affected
a. Restore access to isolated          Key habitat           Dams, culverts,           Distribution      Primarily      Push up irrigation dams, concrete diversions, in-
   habitats blocked by artificial      quantity, habitat     irrigation diversions,    Productivity      adults and     channel stock ponds, and road culverts are
   barriers, such as road culverts     diversity, channel    instream structures                         0+             located throughout the entire basin. Passage
   and irrigation structures.          stability, sediment                                               juveniles      problems at culverts are widespread throughout
b. Minimize use of push up dams.       load                  Maintenance and                                            all subbasins.
c. Provide screening at 100% of        Entrainment           construction of                                            Annual maintenance and construction of push
   irrigation diversions.                                    irrigation dams                                            up dams contributes to onsite and downstream
d. Restore channel and floodplain                                                                                       channel stability, loss of pools and other
   connectivity                                                                                                         structure, and increased sediment loads.
                                                                                                                        Screening of irrigation diversions began in 1950s
                                                                                                                        and most were screened by mid-1970s. Most
                                                                                                                        screens within the Middle Fork population
                                                                                                                        boundaries have been replaced to address new
                                                                                                                        criteria to reduce entrainment of emergent fry
                                                                                                                        and bull trout.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Irrigation or water storage related issues: Long Creek and tributaries
Culverts: Camp, Long, Vinegar, Butte, Crawford, and Little Boulder creeks
Key Programs
                  Agency                                      Program Name                          Sufficient                            Needs Expansion
Soil and Water Conservation Districts         Irrigation dam improvements                     Yes in some areas,          The Grant Soil and Water District is constrained
                                                                                              no in others                by the construction window of opportunity. The
                                                                                                                          North Fork Watershed Council may be able to
                                                                                                                          expand their program but are constrained by
                                                                                                                          funding, personnel, and to a lesser degree
                                                                                                                          landowner cooperation.
ODFW                                          Fish Passage/Screening                             No                       The program completes a minimum of one
                                                                                                                          project per year, but is dependent upon
                                                                                                                          landowner cooperation and limited funding
USFS and BLM                                  Culvert replacement                                No                       Yes
Watershed Councils                            Road Crossing Passage improvements                 No                       Yes
ODOT                                          Culvert replacement or retrofit                    No                       Yes
BOR                                           John Day Basin Program                             Yes                      No
CTWSRO                                        John Day Basin Program                             No                       Yes, the tribe contracts with SWCDs to assist
                                                                                                                          with consultation, permits, and monitoring
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Most of the mainstem passage problems have been addressed, but there are many tributaries where adult passage is blocked and more areas where juvenile passage
problems occur. Irrigation dams, stock ponds, and road culverts are the primary causes of passage issues. Soil and Water Districts are correcting passage at irrigation
diversions and improperly installed culverts, but are constrained by funding and by personnel needed for construction oversight. An inventory of road crossings on state
and county roads in 1999 indicated 14 culverts on state owned roads and 4 culverts on county owned roads did not meet fish passage criteria within the Middle Fork
population boundary. Some culverts have been replaced with structures that do meet the fish passage criteria, but much work remains. Watershed councils and
ODOT, who are the principal entities working on culverts are constrained primarily by funding. An inventory of road crossings on federal lands indicates juvenile
passage problems are pervasive, particularly on National Forests, with approximately 300 culverts not meeting passage criteria on just the Malheur National Forest. The
US Forest Service and BLM are constrained primarily by funding and the personnel needed for NEPA analysis. At the current rate of culvert replacements, it will take
over 50 years to correct all passage problems on National Forests. Another constraint is that existing state laws do not require passage improvements at existing
barriers unless there is a major change in the structure, such as reconstruction or significant modifications, so landowner cooperation is critical for improving passage
throughout the basin.

US Bureau of Reclamation is required in the Columbia River Biological Opinion to identify and assist with passage improvement design and flow restoration.

Currently, the ODFW Fish Passage and Screening program replaces about 20 irrigation diversion screens per year. With over 120 diversions in the John Day Subbasin




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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that either do not meet current screening criteria or are unscreened, it would take at least 6 years to replace them all. Of the 120 diversions, 75 have screens that do not
meet NOAA screening criteria. Currently, highest priority is given to diversions that are unscreened with lower priority given to diversions that have screens, but do not
meet the criteria. The program is constrained primarily by funding and personnel. Current law does not require water users to screen diversions less than 30 cubic feet
per second and virtually all diversions in the John Day are less than 30 cfs, so landowner cooperation is essential to success of the program.


Strategy 3. Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability.

                                              Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability
           Substrategies                       Factors             Threats Addressed               VSP               Life                       Discussion
                                              Addressed                                       Parameters           Stages
                                                                                               Addressed          Affected
a. Bring vertical and lateral stream        Channel stability,      Stream channelization,   Productivity,       Primarily     Historic dredge mining in several reaches
    movement in balance with                habitat diversity,      bank armoring, large     abundance,          eggs, fry     of the mainstem Middle Fork between
    landscape and flow regime.              key habitat             wood removal, beaver     distribution,       and 0+.       Caribou Creek and Mosquito Creek has
b. Increase role and abundance of           quantity,               removal, removal of                                        simplified the stream channel.
    wood and large organic debris in        sediment load,          riparian vegetation,
    streambeds.                             flow, water             livestock overgrazing in                                   There has been a loss of off-channel and
c. Restore channel and floodplain           temperature             riparian areas                                             side-channel habitats that once provided
    connectivity.                                                                                                              habitat for spawning and rearing, and
d. Restore off-channel and side-                                                                                               refugia from high flows.
    channel habitat
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Upper mainstem Middle Fork from Big Creek upstream to Idaho Creek, Lower Vinegar, Vincent, and Long creeks, Channel reconfiguration work is needed from the
mouth of Granite Boulder Creek to Ragged Creek, between Big Boulder Creek and Camp Creek, between Elk Creek and Bear Creek, and near the mouth of Mosquito
Creek. The North Fork Watershed Council is working with a landowner to restore channel sinuosity on Rush Creek.
Key Programs
                     Agency                                             Program Name                          Sufficient                    Needs Expansion
ODFW                                                  BPA Habitat Program                                No                    Yes, if specific needs cannot be addressed
                                                                                                                               by passive restoration techniques
USFS, BLM                                             Stream enhancement program                         Yes in some           Possibly
                                                                                                         areas, no in
                                                                                                         others
Watershed Councils                                    Watershed restoration                              Dependent upon        Only if specific needs cannot be
                                                                                                         need and funding      addressed by passive restoration
                                                                                                                               techniques
Soil and Water Conservation Districts                 Watershed restoration                              Dependent upon        Only if specific needs cannot be
                                                                                                         need and funding      addressed by passive restoration
                                                                                                                               techniques
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Instream activities have not been identified as a high priority by the recovery planning team or the subbasin plan team except when identified as a need for specific sites.
The planning team prefers that more passive approaches, such as riparian and upland improvements be emphasized. Typically, instream activities would include
placement of rootwads, whole trees, or boulder clusters to improved habitat complexity and habitat diversity where those parameters are deficient and not expected to
improve with passive restoration.


Strategy 4. Restore riparian function and condition.

                                                             Restore riparian function and condition
          Substrategies                     Factors            Threats Addressed                VSP                Life                       Discussion
                                           Addressed                                       Parameters            Stages
                                                                                            Addressed           Affected
a. Restore natural riparian plant      Channel stability,     Livestock overgrazing       Productivity,       Primarily      Primary methods of riparian enhancement
   communities                         key habitat            of riparian area,           abundance,          fry and 0+     include riparian corridor fences to exclude
b. Exclude livestock from riparian     quantity, habitat      channelization, stream      distribution                       livestock, changes in grazing management
   areas                               quality, flows,        bank armoring, harvest                                         that promote riparian recovery, and planting
c. Eradicate invasive plant species    high stream            in riparian areas,                                             of native shrubs.
   from riparian areas                 temperatures,          changes in plant
d. Restore channel and floodplain      sediment load          communities (including
   connectivity                                               invasive plants), beaver
                                                              removal
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Some reaches of the mainstem Middle Fork John Day and Long, Slide, Eightmile, Sixmile, Twelvemile, Granite, Camp, and Crawford creeks

Key Programs
                Agency                                      Program Name                                  Sufficient                       Needs Expansion
ODFW                                         BPA Habitat Program                                   No                        Yes




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SWCD‟s                                        Upland improvements, riparian improvements             Yes in some areas,      Yes
                                                                                                     no in others
Watershed Councils                             Upland improvements, riparian improvements            No                      Yes
USFS and BLM                                   Upland improvements, riparian improvements            No                      Yes
NRCS                                           Upland improvements, riparian improvements            Yes                     No
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
In the last 20+ years ODFW, Watershed Councils, NRCS and Soil and Water Districts have implemented hundreds of miles of riparian improvements on private lands,
primarily through construction of riparian corridor fences that exclude livestock grazing and development of off channel watering devices. Public land managers have
implemented PACFISH and INFISH standards for protection and restoration of USFS and BLM lands. Even though hundreds of miles of riparian improvements have
been completed there are nearly 2,800 miles of stream occupied by steelhead within the John Day River Basin and hundreds more miles of tributaries to these streams
If only 10% of the stream reaches are degraded (which is probably low), it will take over 35 years to treat them if agencies proceed at the current rate. Overgrazing of
riparian areas by livestock continues, however it is not as widespread as historically. Interest by private landowners and public land managers in riparian improvement
remains high.

Another project that has been well accepted and will improve riparian condition is restoring historic cover types by removing juniper, reintroducing fire, enrollment into
CREP, and control of invasive/noxious plants. Primary constraints on implementing additional projects for more riparian improvements are funding and personnel
needed for planning, promotion, education of landowners, and implementation.




Strategy 5. Restore natural hydrograph to provide adequate flow during critical periods.

                                        Restore natural hydrograph to provide adequate flow during critical periods
          Substrategies                     Factors              Threats Addressed                VSP              Life                          Discussion
                                           Addressed                                         Parameters          Stages
                                                                                             Addressed          Affected
a. Enhance base flow                    Altered stream          Water withdrawals           Productivity       Fry and 0+      Changes in the upland plant community due
b. Restore natural hydrographic         flow regime, key        Changes in upland           Abundance                          to fire suppression, invasive plants, and
   conditions where appropriate         habitat quantity,       plant community             Distribution                       conversion of bunch grass prairies to wheat
c. Increase pool habitat (beaver        habitat diversity,      Channelization              Spatial                            fields have resulted in lower precipitation
   ponds)                               sediment,               Removal of large wood       Structure                          infiltration rates, which results in higher peak
d. Restore riparian vegetation and      Altered                 Removal of beaver                                              flows and lower low flows. Removal of large
   function                             temperature                                                                            wood and channelizing streams also
                                        regime,                                                                                increases water velocities and reduces the
                                        Lack of channel                                                                        ability of the stream to hold water for gradual
                                        forming flows                                                                          release.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Long Creek and its tributaries and the Mainstem Middle Fork between Coyote Creek and Camp Creek. Most of the other sections of the Middle Fork with consumptive
water rights are now under conservation agreements.
Key Programs
                 Agency                                         Program Name                                 Sufficient                          Needs Expansion
ODFW                                          BPA Habitat Program, riparian improvements             No                            Yes
Oregon Water Resources Department             Stream Flow Monitoring and Regulation                  No                            Yes
Oregon Water Trust and BOR                    Leasing and Purchase of Water Rights                   No                            Yes
Soil and Water Conservation Districts         Improve irrigation efficiency, upland                  Yes in some areas, no         Yes
                                              improvements, riparian improvements                    in others
Watershed Councils                            Upland improvements, riparian improvements             No                            Yes
NRCS                                          Upland improvements, riparian improvements             No                            Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Riparian improvements alone have been documented to improve base stream flows as well as a variety of other habitat parameters. Primary constraints on more
riparian improvements are personnel and funding. Many landowners have converted from flood to sprinkler or gated pipe irrigation, which makes more efficient use of
the water and grows more palatable forage but there has not been an effective mechanism to protect saved water from being used by another irrigator downstream.
Water measuring devices are just beginning to be required on irrigation withdrawals and while progress is being made there is considerable resistance from irrigators.
Extensive work by Watershed Councils and NRCS has concentrated on preventing erosion of valuable topsoil by terracing wheat fields, building small sediment
retention basins, enrollment of highly erodible soils into the CRP program, and using no-till planting techniques, all of which increases precipitation infiltration rates and
reduces the rate of runoff. Flow are also improving through restoration of historic cover types by removing juniper, reintroducing fire, enrollment into CRP, and control of
invasive/noxious plants. Primary constraints on implementing additional projects are funding, instream water rights that are junior to most irrigation rights, and water
laws that sometimes conflict with conservation practices.

The Oregon Water Trust has made good progress at restoring flows in the Middle Fork with a total of over 20 cfs of water being converted to instream flow and water
leases for another approximately 11 cfs on various streams throughout the basin.




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Strategy 6. Restore degraded water quality.
                                                                   Restore degraded water quality
             Substrategies                       Factors            Threats Addressed                VSP            Life                         Discussion
                                                Addressed                                       Parameters        Stages
                                                                                                 Addressed        Affected
a. Exclude livestock from riparian areas      Altered stream       Timber harvest in           Productivity,    Eggs, fry,       The primary source of sediment within the
b. Increase riparian shading                  temperature          riparian areas, riparian    abundance,       juveniles,       Middle Fork population boundary is from
c. Reduce unnatural rates of erosion          regime, Chemical     grazing, high road          distribution     adults           relatively high road density on National
   from upland areas                          contaminants,        densities, clearing of      and spatial                       Forest lands. Elevated water
d. Decrease channel width-to-depth            depleted oxygen      riparian vegetation for     structure                         temperatures are the result of reduced
   ratios                                     sediment load        agriculture and rural                                         riparian vegetation and loss of floodplain
e. Increase deep pool habitat                                      development, dry land                                         function (wet meadow storage).
f. Address contamination associated                                grain fields left fallow
   with historic mining activities in the                          during high precipitation                                     Elevated water temperature is a pervasive
   subbasin                                                        periods, discharge of                                         water quality problem for the Middle Fork
g. Maintain existing high water quality                            heavy metal and other                                         John Day River population, with 21 stream
   with respect to chemical                                        contaminants from                                             reaches listed as water quality limited.
   contamination                                                   mining sites                                                  Additional reaches would probably be
h. Minimize unnatural factors that lead to                                                                                       listed is water temperature data was
   fluctuations in dissolved oxygen                                                                                              available.
   levels.
                                                                                                                                 Using more efficient irrigation methods
                                                                                                                                 should result in fewer nutrients from
                                                                                                                                 pastures reaching the John Day River.

                                                                                                                                 Although the Middle Fork has been
                                                                                                                                 extensively impacted by historic mining
                                                                                                                                 activity, there are no known contamination
                                                                                                                                 issues.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
For sediment: Mainstem Middle Fork above Camp Creek, Long Creek and tributaries, Butte Creek, Indian Creek, and Slide Creek.
For temperature: Mainstem between Highway 7 and Caribou Creek and below Camp Creek, Long Creek, and Indian Creek
Key Programs
                     Agency                                          Program Name                           Sufficient                      Needs Expansion
NRCS                                                  CREP, CRP                                       No                       Yes
DEQ                                                   Mine Waste Program                              No                       Yes, limited by funding
ODA                                                   Confined animal feeding operations (CAFO)       Yes                      Few CAFO operations exist within the
                                                                                                                               basin
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Low stream flows during the hottest part of the year exacerbate the already warm water temperatures. Opportunities for increasing stream flow through leasing of water
rights, which often results in cooler water over a longer stream reach, are being pursued by Oregon Water Trust and US Bureau of Reclamation. Constraints for future
projects include acceptance by landowners and a secure, long term funding source.

Reducing water temperatures through the use of improved riparian vegetation and more efficient methods of irrigation may take several years to provide measurable
results. Many projects that improve water quality by reducing irrigation return water have been completed.


Strategy 7. Restore degraded upland processes.
                                                                 Restore degraded upland processes
           Substrategies                     Factors Addressed          Threats Addressed            VSP            Life Stages                     Discussion
                                                                                                  Parameters         Affected
                                                                                                  Addressed
a. Restore native upland plant            Many factors, including    Livestock overgrazing,      Productivity      Eggs, fry and       Upland improvements such as
   communities                            altered flow regime,       high sediment from dry      and               0+                  restoring native plant communities
b. Upgrade or remove problem forest       channel stability,         land grain fields,          abundance                             will improve precipitation infiltration
   roads                                  sediment load, water       changes in upland plant                                           rates and ultimately improve
c. Employ BMPs to minimize                quality, key habitat       communities, forest                                               watershed health, including the
   unnatural rates of erosion and         quantity, habitat          roads, unnatural fire                                             hydrograph.
   runoff from upland sources.            diversity                  regime
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Lower Middle Fork and north side tributaries, Long Creek, Middle Fork mainstem above Highway 7.

Key Programs
                    Agency                                                   Program Name                           Sufficient                  Needs Expansion
NRCS/Farm Service Agency                                  CRP                                                     No




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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SWCDs                                                        Juniper control                                             No
ODFW                                                         Green Forage                                                No                  Very small program
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
All three programs above are relatively small, with the CRP program the largest and best funded. All the programs are limited by funding and, to a lesser extent,
acceptance by landowners. CRP has been in existence for 20 years and has been one of the better farm subsidy programs for watershed restoration. Juniper control
programs have focused on areas where extensive juniper encroachment has occurred. Juniper control can be completed using several different methods, including
controlled burns, cutting with chainsaws, or by removing with bulldozers or trackhoes. Although controlled burns are probably the most effective at controlling the spread of
juniper, they are the most difficult to implement because of the threat of the fire getting out of control and costs. Another drawback to controlled burns is that livestock
grazing should be excluded from burned areas for at least two growing seasons after the burn to ensure full recovery of desirable perennial grasses. There are
opportunities to expand the juniper control program but the lack of a pasture to put livestock into for two years after burning has limited its acceptance. The ODFW Green
Forage program provides a wildlife seed mixture of native grasses and desirable forage to landowners who have recently completed juniper clearing projects, logging
projects or other ground disturbing activities. The primary purposes are to provide additional forage for deer and elk and to reduce deer and elk damage; however it also
has benefits to watershed health by providing grasses that provide perennial ground cover.


Strategy 8. Protect/restore habitat through public education and outreach.

                                                 Protect/restore habitat through education and outreach
            Substrategies                  Factors           Threats Addressed                  VSP             Life                        Discussion
                                          Addressed                                        Parameters         Stages
                                                                                            Addressed        Affected
a. Educate, landowners, land              Potentially     Potentially addresses           Productivity,     All             Topics of education include the
   management agencies, and others        many            many threats including          abundance,                        importance of healthy riparian zones;
b. Initiate demonstration projects of     limiting        stream channelization,          distribution,                     impacts of activities on uplands,
   good land management.                  factors         stream bank armoring,           and spatial                       floodplains and stream corridors on
c. Outreach to government officials.                      water withdrawals,              structure                         erosion rates and how it affects survival of
                                                          changes in upland plant                                           steelhead eggs and other habitat
                                                          communities, obstructions                                         parameters; impacts of heavy metals and
                                                                                                                            mine waste on fish; scarcity of flow during
                                                                                                                            critical periods for fish; fish passage
                                                                                                                            needs; the relationship between shade
                                                                                                                            and water temperature; and how many
                                                                                                                            fish are diverted by unscreened irrigation
                                                                                                                            diversions.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Basinwide

Key Programs
                   Agency                                        Program Name                            Sufficient                       Needs Expansion
ODFW                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
SWCDs                                               Outreach                                       No                        Yes
NRCS                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
CTWSRO                                              Outreach                                       No                        Yes
CTUIR                                               Outreach                                       No                        Yes
USFS                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
BLM                                                 Outreach                                       No                        Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Educating landowners, other agencies, and the public about fish life history and habitat needs is a long, ongoing process and it will be very difficult to measure
tangible results. Current activities include field days with school groups, agencies, and landowners, as well as presentations about life history and species of fish
present in the John Day River basin. The formation of Watershed Councils and SWCDs that are active in watershed restoration has increased awareness about fish
needs throughout the entire basin, but landowners, educators, and the public are eager for additional information. Current personnel cannot meet the demand for
education and outreach and still complete their other assigned duties.


Habitat Actions for Recovery of Middle Fork John Day River Steelhead Population
Actions                Status       Implementing           Strategy       Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation              Expected           Certainty of
                                    Entity                Addressed                                         timeframe                   Biophysical        Outcome3
                                                                                                                                        Response2
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing      NRCS, USFS,              3, 4, 6      Riparian recovery will be         Intermediate                5-15 years         Moderate,
livestock grazing                   BLM, ODFW,                            localized, but water quality                                                     depending upon
practices                           Private                               effects (sediment and                                                            compliance and
                                    landowners,                           temperature) will have high                                                      monitoring
                                    CTWSRO,                               dispersal downstream
                                    Watershed
                                    Councils, NRCS
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing      USFS, Oregon             3, 4, 7      Large wood recruitment will       Intermediate                Up to 5 years      High, dependent
forest practices                    Dept. of Forestry,                    be localized, but water quality                               for water          upon compliance



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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Actions                Status    Implementing          Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                   Implementation             Expected        Certainty of
                                 Entity               Addressed                                       timeframe                  Biophysical     Outcome3
                                                                                                                                 Response2
                                 BLM                              effects (sediment and                                          quality         and monitoring
                                                                  temperature) will have high                                    impacts,
                                                                  dispersal downstream                                           longer for
                                                                                                                                 large wood
                                                                                                                                 recruitment
Restore wet            Ongoing   TNC, USFS,             3, 5, 6   Benefits of improved channel        Intermediate               5-15 years      Moderate
meadows                and       CTWSRO                           morphology will be localized,
                       planned                                    improved water table and the
                                                                  resulting increased stream
                                                                  flow and lower water
                                                                  temperatures will have high
                                                                  dispersal downstream
Vegetation             Ongoing   USFS, BLM,             7, 5      Effects of higher precipitation     Juniper control can be     5-30 years      Moderate
management                       NRCS, SWCD‟s,                    infiltration rates will have high   done quickly, other
                                 Watershed                        dispersal downstream                strategies such as
                                 Councils                                                             control of invasive
                                                                                                      plants may take more
                                                                                                      than 20 years
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing   USFS, Oregon            7, 6     Reduced sediment and                Long term                  Immediate for   High; funding on
road system                      Dept. of Forestry,               improved hydrologic function                                   sediment,       public lands and
management                       ODOT                             will have high dispersal                                       other           landowner
                                                                  downstream                                                     parameter 5-    cooperation on
                                                                                                                                 15 years        private lands will
                                                                                                                                                 determine rate of
                                                                                                                                                 treatment
Apply measures to      ongoing   USFS, BLM,              6, 7     Reduced sediment and                Long term, many forest     5-15 years      Moderate;
reduce erosion                   Oregon Dept of                   improved hydrologic function        roads have legacy                          funding on public
from forest roads                Forestry                         will have high dispersal            issues with regard to                      lands and
(including                                                        downstream                          sediment transport and                     landowner
closing/decommissi                                                                                    routing of runoff.                         cooperation on
on)                                                                                                   Decommissioning may                        private lands will
                                                                                                      take many years                            determine rate of
                                                                                                                                                 treatment
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing   NRCS, SWCD‟s,           7, 6     Reduced sediment and                Long term, dependent       0-20,years,     Moderate,
agricultural                     Private                          improved hydrologic function        on implementation of       depending       dependent upon
practices to control             landowners,                      will have high dispersal            Agricultural Water         upon            voluntary
erosion and runoff               Farm Service                     downstream                          Quality Management         treatments      landowner
                                 Agency                                                               Plans                      applied         participation
Remove push up         Ongoing   Soil and Water           2       Provide access to upstream          Ongoing, but all push      Immediate       High, if comply
dams                             Conservation                     habitat                             up dams not expected                       with fish passage
                                 Districts                                                            to be corrected for at                     design criteria
                                                                                                      least 15 years
Replace culverts       Ongoing   USFS, BLM,               2       Provide access to upstream          Ongoing, replacing all     Immediate       High, if comply
                                 Watershed                        habitat                             culverts blocking fish                     with fish passage
                                 Councils, ODOT                                                       passage expected to                        design criteria
                                                                                                      take 20 years
Construct ladders      Ongoing   Soil and Water           2       Provide access to upstream          Ongoing, providing         Immediate       High if comply
over existing                    Conservation                     habitat                             passage at all diversion                   with fish passage
permanent                        Districts, ODFW                                                      and pond barriers will                     design criteria
concrete or earth                                                                                     take many years
fill dams
Screen unscreened      Ongoing   ODFW                     2       At point of diversion               Approximately 80           Immediate       High, if comply
diversions                                                                                            diversions need to be                      wit fish screening
                                                                                                      screened. Should take                      criteria
                                                                                                      about 4 years
Replace screens        Ongoing   ODFW                     2       At point of diversion               Approximately 80-100       Immediate       High if comply wit
that do not meet                                                                                      screens need to be                         fish screening
criteria                                                                                              replaced. Should take                      criteria
                                                                                                      about 4-5 years.
Obtain additional      On hold   ODFW                    5, 6     Point of diversion downstream       Unknown, ODFW is           Long term       High, although
instream water                                                    to mouth of John Day River          reluctant to file for      because         dependent upon
rights                                                                                                additional ISWRs until     senior water    cancellation of
                                                                                                      pending applications       rights still    unused senior
                                                                                                      are approved by            have priority   water rights
                                                                                                      Oregon Water
                                                                                                      Resources Department




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Actions                 Status    Implementing        Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation             Expected          Certainty of
                                  Entity             Addressed                                     timeframe                  Biophysical       Outcome3
                                                                                                                              Response2
Monitor and             Ongoing   ODWR                  5, 6     Point of diversion downstream     Long term, dependent       immediate         High if water use
regulate water                                                   to mouth of John Day River        upon ODWR enforcing                          reporting and
withdrawals                                                                                        the requirement to                           requirement for
                                                                                                   measure water useage                         measuring
                                                                                                                                                devices is
                                                                                                                                                enforced
Lease/acquire           Ongoing   Oregon Water         1, 5, 6   Point of diversion downstream     Long term and highly       immediate         High, if the
instream water                    Resources Dept.,               to mouth of John Day River        dependent upon                               leased water is
rights                            Oregon Water                                                     landowner willingness                        protected from
                                  Trust                                                            to lease.                                    being
                                                                                                                                                appropriated to a
                                                                                                                                                downstream user
Irrigation efficiency   Ongoing   Soil and Water        5, 6     Point of diversion downstream     Long Term and              Immediate         High, if the saved
projects                          Districts, NRCS                to mouth of John Day River        dependent upon                               water is protected
                                                                                                   landowner willingness                        from being
                                                                                                   to participate and                           appropriated to a
                                                                                                   availability of projects                     downstream user
Floodplain aquifer      Planned   CTWSRO, Soil          5, 6     Potentially high dispersal from   Long term, although        Immediate         High, if the
recharge projects       and       and Water                      recharge project site             opportunities for pilot                      additional water
                        some      Districts                      downstream for many miles         projects is dependent                        is protected from
                        ongoing                                                                    upon willing landowner                       being
                                                                                                                                                appropriated to a
                                                                                                                                                downstream user
Off-stream storage      Planned   Soil and Water         5       Potentially high dispersal from   Long Term and              Physical          Benefits to fish
basins                  and       Districts                      project site downstream for       dependent upon             response will     will be hard to
                        ongoing                                  many miles                        properly designed and      take several      quantify and may
                                                                                                   monitored storage          years and is      be offset by
                                                                                                   basins                     dependent on      reductions in
                                                                                                                              the number of     channel forming
                                                                                                                              storage basins    flows
                                                                                                                              completed
Add large woody         As        ODFW, USFS,            3       For the immediate stream          Once identified, short     Immediate         High
debris                  needed    Watershed                      reach                             term
                                  Councils,
                                  SWCD‟s
Restore natural         Planned   Watershed              3       For the treated stream reach      Short term, once           Physical          High
channel form and                  Councils, Soil                                                   identified                 response will
reconnect to                      and Water                                                                                   be immediate,
floodplain                        Districts, ODFW,                                                                            biological
                                  USFS, BLM                                                                                   response may
                                                                                                                              take 5-10
                                                                                                                              years
Stabilize and           Ongoing   Soil and Water        3, 6     For the treated stream reach,     Aggressive treatment       With passive      Medium to high,
protect                           Districts, USFS,               with physical benefits            of eroding streambanks     restoration the   depending upon
streambanks                       BLM, ODFW,                     dispersed to downstream           with rock will probably    response may      the extent of the
                                  Watershed                      reaches                           not occur due to           take 15 years     treatments
                                  Councils                                                         environmental
                                                                                                   concerns so is
                                                                                                   dependent upon more
                                                                                                   passive stabilization
                                                                                                   techniques which will
                                                                                                   take longer to
                                                                                                   implement
Manage grazing in       Ongoing   NRCS, AFS,            4, 6     Riparian function will be         Long term because of       5-15 years,       High, based upon
riparian areas                    USFS, BLM, Soil                limited to specific reach but     widespread need            depending         experience with
                                  and Water                      water quality improvements                                   upon grazing      existing grazing
                                  Districts, ODFW,               will have high dispersal                                     plan adopted.     management and
                                  Watershed                      downstream from site                                         Riparian          riparian recovery
                                  Councils                                                                                    corridor          projects
                                                                                                                              fencing and
                                                                                                                              removal of
                                                                                                                              riparian
                                                                                                                              grazing has
                                                                                                                              the fastest
                                                                                                                              recovery rate.
Restore riparian        Ongoing   ODFW,                 4, 6     Riparian function will be         Long term because of       5-15 years,       High, based upon




                                                                           54
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Actions               Status      Implementing      Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation            Expected         Certainty of
                                  Entity           Addressed                                     timeframe                 Biophysical      Outcome3
                                                                                                                           Response2
vegetative cover                  Watershed                    limited to specific reach but     widespread need           (see above)      experience with
                                  Councils,                    water quality improvements                                                   existing grazing
                                  SWCDs, USFS,                 will have High dispersal                                                     management and
                                  BLM, CTUIR                   downstream from site                                                         riparian recovery
                                                                                                                                            projects
Reconnect             Ongoing     ODFW,                3       Effect on physical habitat        Long term, because of     5-15 years,      Moderate,
floodplain habitats               Watershed                    features will be localized, but   widespread need           depending        depending upon
                                  Councils,                    effects on water quality will                               upon             how extensive
                                  SWCDs, USFS,                 have high dispersal                                         frequency and    the project is and
                                  BLM, CTUIR                   downstream                                                  duration of      frequency and
                                                                                                                           channel          duration of
                                                                                                                           altering flows   channel altering
                                                                                                                                            flows
Reintroduce beaver    ongoing     ODFW,               3,4      Effect on physical habitat        Long term, due to         Within 5 years   Moderate-high,
                                  CTWSRO, USFS,                features will be localized, but   acceptance by             once the dams    dependent upon
                                  BLM                          effects on water quality will     landowners and            are built        acceptance by
                                                               have high dispersal               widespread need                            landowners
                                                               downstream
Apply BMPs to         ongoing     ODA                  6       Water quality improvement         Some treatments could     5-15 years       High, once a
animal feeding                                                 would have high dispersal         be done immediately.                       treatment has
operations                                                     downstream                        There are few animal                       been agreed
                                                                                                 feeding operations                         upon
                                                                                                 within the basin, only
                                                                                                 one of which has been
                                                                                                 identified as a problem
Manage return flow    ongoing     SWCDs,               6       Water quality improvement         Less than 5 years,        Immediate        High, reduced
to reduce extreme                 Watershed                    would have high dispersal         once the project has                       temperatures has
stream                            Councils                     downstream                        been identified                            been well
temperatures                                                                                                                                documented
Acquire/manage        Ongoing     CTUIR, TNC,         4, 3     Water quality improvement         Existing conservation     5-15 years       High, based on
stream corridor                   RMEF, John Day               would have high dispersal         agreements are            with passive     previous
through                           Basin Trust                  downstream, stream corridor       complete. Full            restoration      cooperative
conservation                                                   and function improvements         implementation of         approaches       agreements
easements                                                      would be confined to the          conservation measures
                                                               specific site                     will take 5-15 years or
                                                                                                 more
Adopt and manage      ongoing     ODFW, SWCDs          3       Water quality improvement         Agreements are for 10-    immediate        High, although
Cooperative                                                    would have high dispersal         15 years                                   not in perpetuity
Agreements                                                     downstream, stream corridor
                                                               and function improvements
                                                               would be confined to the
                                                               specific site
Special               ongoing     USFS, BLM           1, 3     Water quality improvement         Complete, potentially     immediate        High, although
Management                                                     would have high dispersal         subject to change in                       subject to change
Designations on                                                downstream, stream corridor       Forest Plan revisions                      from forest plan
public lands                                                   and function improvements                                                    or management
                                                               would be confined to the                                                     plan revision
                                                               specific site
Designate             Ongoing     USFS, BLM,          1, 3     Water quality and flow            Unknown                   5-15 years       Unknown, subject
additional            as          Oregon State                 improvement would have high                                                  to availability of
wilderness or wild    identifie   Parks                        dispersal downstream, stream                                                 areas that meet
and scenic status     d                                        corridor and function                                                        criteria
                                                               improvements would be
                                                               confined to the specific site
Conduct outreach      Ongoing     ODFW, NOAA           8       Entire basin                      Long term                 Variable lag     Unknown,
to resource users                 Fisheries,                                                                               time             depends upon
and managers                      USFWS, USFS,                                                                                              action taken as a
                                  BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                              result of being
                                  Watershed                                                                                                 more informed
                                  Councils,
                                  SWCD‟s
Initiate              Ongoing     ODFW, NOAA           8       Entire basin                      Long term                 Variable lag     unknown,
demonstration                     Fisheries,                                                                               time             depends upon
projects                          USFWS, USFS,                                                                                              action taken as a
                                  BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                              result of being
                                  Watershed                                                                                                 more informed




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Actions                Status       Implementing           Strategy       Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation         Expected       Certainty of
                                    Entity                Addressed                                         timeframe              Biophysical    Outcome3
                                                                                                                                   Response2
                                      Councils,
                                      SWCD‟s
Conduct outreach          ongoing     ODFW, NOAA                   8           Entire basin                 Long term              Variable lag   unknown,
to government                         Fisheries,                                                                                   time           depends upon
officials                             USFWS, USFS,                                                                                                action taken as a
                                      BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                                result of being
                                      Watershed                                                                                                   more informed
                                      Councils,
                                      SWCD‟s
Implement                 Ongoing ODFW, NOAA                       8           Entire basin                 Long term              Variable lag   Unknown,
outreach program                      Fisheries,                                                                                   time           depends upon
for general public                    USFWS, USFS,                                                                                                action taken as a
                                      BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                                result of being
                                      Watershed                                                                                                   more informed
                                      Councils,
                                      SWCD‟s
Support regional          Ongoing ODFW, NOAA                       8           Entire basin                 Long term              Variable lag   Unknown.
outreach efforts                      Fisheries,                                                                                   time           depends upon
                                      USFWS, USFS,                                                                                                action taken as a
                                      BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                                result of being
                                      Watershed                                                                                                   more informed
                                      Councils,
                                      SWCD‟s
1
  Geographic scale of effect (relative amount of basin affected by action)
2 Expected response of action implementation ─ including how long for a specific action to achieve the desired biological effect
3 Relative certainty that expected results will occur as a result of full implementation of action




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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                    Recovery Strategies and Actions for Upper John Day Steelhead Population

            Primary limiting factors: 1) key habitat quantity, 2) habitat diversity, 3) fine sediment, 4)
            temperature, and 5) flow. Obstructions are also priority limiting factors in Beech and Laycock
            creeks.

            Primary threats: Agricultural practices, overgrazing by livestock, removal of large trees from
            the riparian corridor, wetland draining and conversion, stream channelization and diking,
            mining, and dredging.

Strategy 1. Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes.
                                              Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes
            Substrategies                     Factors         Threats Addressed             VSP                Life                           Discussion
                                             Addressed                                   Parameters          Stages
                                                                                         Addressed          Affected
a. Protect floodplain function and         Many factors,      Many threats              All                All             Protecting base stream flows from further
   channel migration                       including key      including livestock                                          appropriations is a very important function of
b. Protect riparian function               habitat quality    overgrazing of                                               protecting existing high quality habitats.
c. Protect access to key habitats          and diversity,     riparian area,
d. Protect existing high water quality     sediment load,     channelization,
e. Protect natural stream flow regime      water quality,     stream bank
f. Protect base flows through              flow               armoring,
   management of water withdrawals                            agricultural practices
g. Protect riparian function by                               (fertilizers,
   maintaining management                                     herbicides,
   objectives                                                 sediments, changes
h. Protect channel structure to                               in plant
   maintain quality and quantity of                           communities), water
   spawning grounds                                           withdrawals, loss of
                                                              beaver
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
EF and Middle Fork of Canyon Creek, tributaries draining the north side of Strawberry Wilderness, upper McClellan Creek (tributary to John Day River), McClellan Creek
(tributary to EF Beech Cr), upper Fields Creek, John Day River above Blue Mt. Hot Springs and tributaries Rail, Roberts, Reynolds, Deardorff, and Call creeks.
Key Programs
                    Agency                                    Program Name                         Sufficient                         Needs Expansion
USFS and BLM                                       Wilderness Areas, Wilderness Study        For the areas             Yes
                                                   Areas, Wild and Scenic River corridors, designated
                                                   Special Management designations
ODFW                                               Cooperative Agreements                    No                        Yes, the agreements are for only 10-15 years
NRCS                                               CREP                                      No                        Yes, the agreements are for only 10 years

Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Protection of high quality habitats is the most cost effective way of ensuring fish have good quality habitat. It is much less expensive over the long term to protect high
quality habitat than it is to degrade the habitat and then try to restore it. Land acquisitions, easements, and cooperative agreements may also facilitate the
implementation of active restoration projects. The specific objectives addressed by each protection effort will vary, and must be assessed on a case-by-case basis.

The John Day River has 248.6 miles designated as Federal Wild and Scenic River and 317 miles designated as State Wild and Scenic. Federally designated reaches
include the mainstem John Day from Tumwater Falls (RM 10) to Service Creek (RM 157). State designated reaches include the mainstem John Day from Tumwater
Falls to Parrish Creek (RM 170).

Existing forest plans include special management designations for riparian habitat conservation areas (RHCA‟s). The forest plans and BLM plans have been amended
by PACFISH and INFISH, both of which require 300 foot buffers on any fish bearing stream for tree removal, as well as specific guidelines for livestock grazing and
riparian vegetation use. Compliance with the 300 foot buffer for timber harvest operations has been very good, however the interpretation of the grazing guidelines has
been inconsistent between National Forests. Forest practices rules for private and state owned forest lands have guidelines for protection of riparian function, although
they are not nearly as restrictive as those on federal lands. The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness encompasses 68,700 acres and protects the headwaters of several
tributaries that drain into the John Day River above the town of John Day. Adding additional wilderness areas and wild and scenic river segments will require
designation by Congress. Designating additional RMA‟s or adding to the current restrictions within RHCA‟s will be revisited during the Forest Plan Revision process that
is currently underway.

Cooperative and conservation agreements on private land are tools for protecting high quality habitats. ODFW has used cooperative agreements over the last 21 years
to protect riparian corridors that have been fenced to exclude livestock grazing. Unfortunately those agreements are for only 15 years and there have not been funds or




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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personnel needed to extend them for longer time periods. Over 120 miles of stream throughout the basin have been protected under this program. Additional
opportunities will be limited by availability of funds and by willingness of landowners to sign conservation easements and/or agreements.

The CTWSRO owns a mitigation property (3,365 acres) on the Mainstem John Day River above Prairie City which is managed for the benefit of fish and wildlife.

NRCS programs that are used within this population to protect riparian areas and upland watersheds include the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP).
The CREP program pays landowners for setting riparian corridors aside from grazing and farming. The long term effectiveness of the program is limited by the relatively
short duration of the contracts which ranges from 10 to 15 years.


Strategy 2. Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas.

                                                   Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas
          Sub-strategies                    Factors           Threats Addressed               VSP             Life                           Discussion
                                           Addressed                                     Parameters         Stages
                                                                                         Addressed          Affected
a. Restore access to isolated          Key habitat            Dams, culverts,           Distribution      Primarily       Push up irrigation dams, concrete diversions, in-
   habitats blocked by artificial      quantity, habitat      irrigation diversions,    Productivity      adults and      channel stock ponds, and road culverts are
   barriers, such as road culverts     diversity, channel     instream structures                         0+              located throughout the entire basin. Push up
   and irrigation structures.          stability, sediment                                                juveniles       dams are most common in the Upper John Day
b. Minimize use of push up dams.       load                   Maintenance and                                             and tributaries. Concrete structures are located
c. Provide screening at 100% of        Entrainment            construction of                                             primarily in the Rock Creek (Lower John Day)
   irrigation diversions.                                     irrigation dams                                             drainage although there are a number of
d. Restore channel and floodplain                                                                                         structures scattered throughout other parts of
   connectivity                                                                                                           the basin, including Beech Creek and Reynolds
                                                                                                                          Creek. Passage problems at culverts are
                                                                                                                          widespread throughout all subbasins.
                                                                                                                          Annual maintenance and construction of push
                                                                                                                          up dams contributes to onsite and downstream
                                                                                                                          channel stability, loss of pools and other
                                                                                                                          structure, and increased sediment loads.
                                                                                                                          Screening of irrigation diversions began in 1950s
                                                                                                                          and most were screened by mid-1970s. Many
                                                                                                                          screens now need to be replaced to address
                                                                                                                          new criteria to reduce entrainment of emergent
                                                                                                                          fry and bull trout.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Irrigation or water storage related issues: Warrens, Bridge, Birch, Belshaw, Fields, Moon, McClellan, Beech, Canyon, Strawberry, Dixie, Isham, Dads, and Reynolds
creeks. Most irrigation diversions are in the Upper John Day drainage and it has been the major emphasis for replacement of non-criteria screens.
Culverts: Canyon Creek and tributaries, Reynolds Creek, John Day River above Blue Mt Hot Springs, and Fields Creek
Key Programs
                   Agency                                        Program Name                           Sufficient                        Needs Expansion
Soil and Water Conservation Districts            Irrigation dam improvements                      Yes in some areas,      The Grant Soil and Water District is constrained
                                                                                                  no in others            by the construction window of opportunity.
ODFW                                             Fish Passage/Screening                           No                      The program completes a minimum of one
                                                                                                                          project per year, but is dependent upon
                                                                                                                          landowner cooperation and limited funding
USFS and BLM                                     Culvert replacement                              No                      Yes
Watershed Councils                               Road Crossing Passage improvements               No                      Yes
ODOT                                             Culvert replacement or retrofit                  No                      Yes
BOR                                              John Day Basin Program                           Yes                     No
CTWSRO                                           John Day Basin Program                           No                      Yes, the tribe contracts with SWCDs to assist
                                                                                                                          with consultation, permits, and monitoring
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Most of the mainstem passage problems have been addressed, but there are many tributaries where adult passage is blocked and more areas where juvenile passage
problems occur. Irrigation dams, stock ponds, and road culverts are the primary causes of passage issues. In the Upper John Day subbasin, the Grant Soil and Water
Conservation District has implemented many passage improvement projects and currently has a waiting list of landowners who want them to correct passage problems
at irrigation diversions on tributaries as well as the few remaining mainstem problem areas. The Grant SWCD is currently constrained by a relatively short in-water work
period (4-6 weeks), so it will likely take another 10 years to address most of the tributary passage problems. Other Soil and Water District are also correcting passage at
irrigation diversions and improperly installed culverts, but are constrained by funding and by personnel needed for construction oversight. An inventory of road crossings
on state and county roads in 1999 indicated 14 culverts on state owned roads and 43 culverts on county owned roads within the Upper John Day population boundaries
did not meet fish passage criteria. Some of those culverts have been replaced with structures that do meet the fish passage criteria, but much work remains.
Watershed councils and ODOT, who are the principal entities working on culverts are constrained primarily by funding. An inventory of road crossings on federal lands
indicates juvenile passage problems are pervasive, particularly on National Forests, with approximately 300 culverts not meeting passage criteria on just the Malheur
National Forest. The US Forest Service and BLM are constrained primarily by funding and the personnel needed for NEPA analysis. At the current rate of culvert
replacements it will take over 50 years to correct all passage problems on National Forests. Another constraint is that existing state laws do not require passage
improvements at existing barriers unless there is a major change in the structure, such as reconstruction or significant modifications, so landowner cooperation is critical
for improving passage throughout the basin.




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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US Bureau of Reclamation is required in the Columbia River Biological Opinion to identify and assist with passage improvement design and flow restoration.

Currently, the ODFW Fish Passage and Screening program replaces about 20 irrigation diversion screens per year. With over 120 diversions in the John Day Subbasin
that either do not meet current screening criteria or are unscreened, it would take at least 6 years to replace them all. Of the 120 diversions, 75 have screens that do not
meet NOAA screening criteria. Currently, highest priority is given to diversions that are unscreened with lower priority given to diversions that have screens, but do not
meet the criteria. The program is constrained primarily by funding and personnel. Current law does not require water users to screen diversions less than 30 cubic feet
per second and virtually all diversions in the John Day are less than 30 cfs, so landowner cooperation is essential to success of the program.


Strategy 3. Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability.

                                              Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability
           Substrategies                       Factors             Threats Addressed               VSP              Life                        Discussion
                                              Addressed                                       Parameters          Stages
                                                                                               Addressed         Affected
a. Bring vertical and lateral stream        Channel stability,      Stream channelization,   Productivity,      Primarily      There has been a loss of off-channel and
   movement in balance with                 habitat diversity,      bank armoring, large     abundance,         eggs, fry      side-channel habitats that once provided
   landscape and flow regime.               key habitat             wood removal, beaver     distribution,      and 0+.        habitat for spawning and rearing, and
b. Increase role and abundance of           quantity,               removal, removal of                                        refugia from high flows.
   wood and large organic debris in         sediment load,          riparian vegetation,
   streambeds.                              flow, water             livestock overgrazing in                                   Typical structures include rootwads,
c. Restore channel and floodplain           temperature             riparian areas                                             boulder clusters, whole trees, and rock
   connectivity.                                                                                                               weirs where appropriate.
d. Restore off-channel and side-
   channel habitat
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Mainstem John Day River from Dayville to Blue Mt. Hot Springs, although restoring channel migration processes will require a landowner willing to sacrifice irrigated
pastureland. Opportunities may be limited to property owned by CTWSRO, above Prairie City.
Key Programs
                     Agency                                             Program Name                          Sufficient                    Needs Expansion
ODFW                                                  BPA Habitat Program                                No                    Yes, if specific needs cannot be addressed
                                                                                                                               by passive restoration techniques
USFS, BLM                                             Stream enhancement program                         Yes in some           Possibly
                                                                                                         areas, no in
                                                                                                         others
Watershed Councils                                    Watershed restoration                              Dependent upon        Only if specific needs cannot be
                                                                                                         need and funding      addressed by passive restoration
                                                                                                                               techniques
Soil and Water Conservation Districts                 Watershed restoration                              Dependent upon        Only if specific needs cannot be
                                                                                                         need and funding      addressed by passive restoration
                                                                                                                               techniques
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Instream activities have not been identified as a high priority by the recovery planning team or the subbasin plan team except when identified as a need for specific sites.
The planning team prefers that more passive approaches, such as riparian and upland improvements be emphasized. Typically, instream activities would include
placement of rootwads, whole trees, or boulder clusters to improved habitat complexity and habitat diversity where those parameters are deficient and not expected to
improve with passive restoration.


Strategy 4. Restore riparian function and condition.

                                                             Restore riparian function and condition
          Substrategies                     Factors            Threats Addressed                VSP               Life                        Discussion
                                           Addressed                                       Parameters           Stages
                                                                                            Addressed          Affected
a. Restore natural riparian plan       Channel stability,     Livestock overgrazing       Productivity,      Primarily       Primary methods of riparian enhancement
   communities                         key habitat            of riparian area,           abundance,         fry and 0+      include riparian corridor fences to exclude
b. Exclude livestock from riparian     quantity, habitat      channelization, stream      distribution                       livestock, changes in grazing management
   areas                               quality, flows,        bank armoring, cutting                                         that promote riparian recovery, and planting
c. Eradicate invasive plant species    high stream            of trees in riparian                                           of native shrubs.
   from riparian areas                 temperatures,          areas, changes in plant
d. Restore channel and floodplain      sediment load          communities (including
   connectivity                                               invasive plants), beaver
                                                              removal
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Some reaches of the upper mainstem John Day River and Ingle, Harper, Beech, Bear, Birch, Dans, and Reynolds creeks, the lower reaches of Fields, Belshaw,
Cummings, Moon, Riley, Strawberry, Pine, and Laycock creeks
Key Programs



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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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                Agency                                       Program Name                                  Sufficient                       Needs Expansion
ODFW                                          BPA Habitat Program                                    No                      Yes
SWCD‟s                                        Upland improvements, riparian improvements             Yes in some areas,      Yes
                                                                                                     no in others
Watershed Councils                             Upland improvements, riparian improvements            No                      Yes
USFS and BLM                                   Upland improvements, riparian improvements            No                      Yes
NRCS                                           Upland improvements, riparian improvements            Yes                     No
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Riparian improvements have been documented to improve many fish habitat parameters. For these reasons, in the last 20+ years ODFW, Watershed Councils, NRCS
and Soil and Water Districts have implemented hundreds of miles of riparian improvements on private lands, primarily through construction of riparian corridor fences
that exclude livestock grazing and development of off channel watering devices. Public land managers have implemented PACFISH and INFISH standards for
protection and restoration of USFS and BLM lands. Even though hundreds of miles of riparian improvements have been completed there are nearly 2,800 miles of
stream occupied by steelhead within the John Day River Basin and hundreds more miles of tributaries to these streams If only 10% of the stream reaches are
degraded (which is probably low), it will take over 35 years to treat them if agencies proceed at the current rate. Bank stabilization using some rock is still infrequently
occurring after high water events in the Upper John Day River, primarily along irrigated pastures and on Rock Creek (Gilliam County). These bank stabilization projects
have historically relied on riprap and large rock, however in recent years the high economic and ecological cost of bank armoring with riprap and of channelization has
been recognized, so the emphasis has shifted toward a more passive approach for stabilization, primarily through riparian vegetation improvements. Overgrazing of
riparian areas by livestock continues, however it is not as widespread as historically. Interest by private landowners and public land managers in riparian improvement
remains high.

Other projects to restore historic cover types include removing juniper, reintroducing fire, enrollment into CREP, and control of invasive/noxious plants. Primary
constraints on implementing additional projects for more riparian improvements are funding and personnel needed for planning, promotion, education of landowners, and
implementation.


Strategy 5. Restore natural hydrograph to provide adequate flow during critical periods.

                                       Restore natural hydrograph to provide adequate flow during critical periods
          Substrategies                     Factors             Threats Addressed                VSP             Life                           Discussion
                                           Addressed                                        Parameters          Stages
                                                                                            Addressed          Affected
a. Enhance base flow                    Altered stream        Water withdrawals            Productivity       Adults,         The Upper John Day River does not meet
b. Restore natural hydrographic         flow regime, key      Changes in upland            Abundance          Eggs, fry,      requested in stream water right flows for all of
   conditions where appropriate         habitat quantity,     plant community              Distribution       and 0+          August and the first half of September during
c. Increase pool habitat (beaver        habitat diversity,    Channelization               Spatial                            irrigation season. Some tributaries are dry
   ponds)                               sediment,             Removal of large wood        Structure                          where they join the John Day River. Changes
d. Restore riparian vegetation and      Altered               Removal of beaver                                               in the upland plant community due to fire
   function                             temperature                                                                           suppression, invasive plants, and conversion
                                        regime,                                                                               of bunch grass prairies to wheat fields have
                                        Lack of channel                                                                       resulted in lower precipitation infiltration rates,
                                        forming flows                                                                         which results in higher peak flows and lower
                                                                                                                              low flows.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Fields, Indian, McClellan, Pine, Beech, Bear, Strawberry, Isham, Dean, Moon, Laycock, Dog, Ingle, and Riley creeks (all Upper John Day) have significantly less than
naturally available flow or are either dry or intermittent in their lower reaches due to irrigation withdrawals. During low water years, the mainstem John Day River
between Dayville and Mt. Vernon is intermittent.
Key Programs
                 Agency                                            Program Name                               Sufficient                      Needs Expansion
ODFW                                             BPA Habitat Program, riparian improvements             No                      Yes
Oregon Water Resources Department                Stream Flow Monitoring and Regulation                  No                      Yes
Oregon Water Trust and BOR                       Leasing and Purchase of Water Rights                   No                      Yes
Soil and Water Conservation Districts            Improve irrigation efficiency, upland                  Yes in some areas,      Yes
                                                 improvements, riparian improvements                    no in others
Watershed Councils                               Upland improvements, riparian improvements             No                      Yes
NRCS                                             Upland improvements, riparian improvements             No                      Yes

Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Many landowners have converted from flood to sprinkler or gated pipe irrigation, which makes more efficient use of the water and grows more palatable forage but there
has not been an effective mechanism to protect saved water from being used by another irrigator downstream. Water measuring devices are just beginning to be
required on irrigation withdrawals and while progress is being made there is considerable resistance from irrigators, particularly in the Upper John Day. Flows are also
improving because of projects that restore historic cover types by removing juniper, reintroducing fire, enrollment into CRP, and control of invasive/noxious plants.
Primary constraints on implementing additional projects are funding, instream water rights that are junior to most irrigation rights, and water laws that sometimes conflict
with conservation practices.

US Bureau of Reclamation, as required in the Columbia River Biological Opinion, is required to identify and assist with passage improvement design and flow
restoration. They have partnered with Oregon Water Trust on several water leases, most notably in Standard Creek, tributary to Dixie Creek.




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Strategy 6. Restore degraded water quality.
                                                                Restore degraded water quality
            Substrategies                    Factors           Threats Addressed              VSP             Life                          Discussion
                                            Addressed                                    Parameters         Stages
                                                                                          Addressed         Affected
a. Exclude livestock from riparian        Altered stream       Timber harvest in        Productivity,     Adults,          Elevated water temperature is the most
   areas.                                 temperature          riparian areas,          abundance,        eggs, fry,       pervasive water quality problem for the Upper
b. Increase riparian shading              regime, Chemical     riparian grazing,        distribution,     juveniles        John Day River population, with 27 stream
c. Reduce unnatural rates of erosion      contaminants,        high road densities,     spatial                            reaches listed as water quality limited.
   from upland areas                      depleted oxygen      clearing of riparian     structure                          Additional reaches would probably be listed is
d. Decrease channel width-to-depth        sediment load        vegetation for                                              water temperature data was available.
   ratios                                                      agriculture and rural
e. Increase deep pool habitat                                  development, dry                                            Using more efficient irrigation methods, which
f. Maintain existing high water quality                        land grain fields left                                      reduces the amount of surface water
   with respect to chemical                                    fallow during high                                          returning to the stream, should result in fewer
   contamination                                               precipitation periods,                                      nutrients from pastures reaching the John
g. Minimize unnatural factors that                             unnatural fire regime                                       Day River. Reducing nutrient loads will
   lead to fluctuations in dissolved                                                                                       contribute to increased water quality by
   oxygen levels.                                                                                                          reducing biological oxygen demand and
                                                                                                                           algae blooms.

                                                                                                                           Although mining has been extensive
                                                                                                                           throughout the upper John Day River, no
                                                                                                                           heavy metal contaminants have been found.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Temperature: Mainstem John Day River, Beech, EF Beech, Canyon, Grub, Indian, Laycock, Belshaw, Fields, and Bear creeks
Sediment: Indian Creek (from burned area)
Key Programs
                  Agency                                  Program Name                         Sufficient                        Needs Expansion
NRCS                                          CREP, CRP                                   No                       Yes
DEQ                                           Mine Waste Program                          No                       Yes, limited by funding
ODA                                           Confined animal feeding operations          Yes                      Few CAFO operations exist within the basin
                                              (CAFO)

Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Reducing water temperatures through the use of improved riparian vegetation and more efficient methods of irrigation may take several years to provide measurable
results. Many projects that improve water quality by reducing irrigation return water have been completed, particularly between the town of John Day and the National
Forest Boundary above Blue Mt. Hot Springs. Opportunities for additional irrigation return water cooling projects exist above and below the town of John Day. Low
stream flows during the hottest part of the year exacerbate the already warm water temperatures. Opportunities for increasing stream flow through leasing of water
rights, which often results in cooler water over a longer stream reach, are being pursued by Oregon Water Trust and US Bureau of Reclamation. Constraints for future
projects include acceptance by landowners and a secure, long term funding source.



Strategy 7. Restore degraded upland processes.

                                                               Restore degraded upland processes
            Substrategies                  Factors Addressed           Threats Addressed             VSP               Life Stages                  Discussion
                                                                                                  Parameters            Affected
                                                                                                  Addressed
a. Restore native upland plant        Many factors, including     Livestock overgrazing,         Productivity      Eggs, fry and       Upland improvements such as
   communities                        altered flow regime,        high sediment from dry         and               0+                  restoring native plant communities
b. Upgrade or remove problem forest   channel stability,          land grain fields,             abundance                             will improve precipitation infiltration
   roads                              sediment load, water        changes in upland plant                                              rates and ultimately improve
c. Employ BMPs to minimize            quality, key habitat        communities, forest                                                  watershed health, including the
   unnatural rates of erosion and     quantity, habitat           roads, unnatural fire                                                hydrograph.
   runoff from upland sources.        diversity                   regime
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Bear, Grub, Beech, Belshaw, Cummings, Pine, Indian, Strawberry, and Laycock creeks

Key Programs
                    Agency                                                   Program Name                           Sufficient                  Needs Expansion
NRCS/Farm Service Agency                                  CRP                                                     No
SWCDs                                                     Juniper control                                         No
ODFW                                                      Green Forage                                            No                   Very small program



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Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
All three programs above are relatively small, with the CRP program the largest and best funded. CRP has been in existence for 20 years and has been one of the better
farm subsidy programs for watershed restoration. Juniper control programs have focused on areas where extensive juniper encroachment has occurred. Juniper control
can be completed using several different methods, including controlled burns, cutting with chainsaws, or by removing with bulldozers or trackhoes. Although controlled
burns are probably the most effective at controlling the spread of juniper, they are the most difficult to implement because of the threat of the fire getting out of control and
costs. Another drawback to controlled burns is that livestock grazing should be excluded from burned areas for at least two growing seasons after the burn to ensure full
recovery of desirable perennial grasses. There are opportunities to expand the juniper control program but the lack of a pasture to put livestock into for two years after
burning has limited its acceptance. The ODFW Green Forage program provides a wildlife seed mixture of native grasses and desirable forage to landowners who have
recently completed juniper clearing projects, logging projects or other ground disturbing activities. The primary purposes are to provide additional forage for deer and elk
and to reduce deer and elk damage complaints, however it also has benefits to watershed health by providing grasses that provide perennial ground cover.

The limitations to all the programs are funding and, to a lesser extent, acceptance by landowners.


Strategy 8. Protect/restore habitat through public education and outreach.

                                                   Protect/restore habitat through education and outreach
            Substrategies                    Factors           Threats Addressed                  VSP               Life                        Discussion
                                            Addressed                                        Parameters           Stages
                                                                                              Addressed          Affected
a. Educate, landowners, land                Potentially     Potentially addresses           Productivity,       All             Topics of education include the
   management agencies, and others          many            many threats including          abundance,                          importance of healthy riparian zones;
b. Initiate demonstration projects of       limiting        stream channelization,          distribution,                       impacts of activities on uplands,
   good land management.                    factors         stream bank armoring,           and spatial                         floodplains and stream corridors on
c. Outreach to government officials.                        water withdrawals,              structure                           erosion rates and how it affects survival of
                                                            changes in upland plant                                             steelhead eggs and other habitat
                                                            communities, obstructions                                           parameters; impacts of heavy metals and
                                                                                                                                mine waste on fish; scarcity of flow during
                                                                                                                                critical periods for fish; fish passage
                                                                                                                                needs; the relationship between shade
                                                                                                                                and water temperature; and how many
                                                                                                                                fish are diverted by unscreened irrigation
                                                                                                                                diversions.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Basinwide

Key Programs
                  Agency                                         Program Name                               Sufficient                      Needs Expansion
ODFW                                             Outreach                                            No                         Yes
SWCDs                                            Outreach                                            No                         Yes
NRCS                                             Outreach                                            No                         Yes
CTWSRO                                           Outreach                                            No                         Yes
CTUIR                                            Outreach                                            No                         Yes
USFS                                             Outreach                                            No                         Yes
BLM                                              Outreach                                            No                         Yes

Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Educating landowners, other agencies, and the public about fish life history and habitat needs is a long, ongoing process and it will be very difficult to measure
tangible results. Current activities include field days with school groups, agencies, and landowners, as well as presentations about life history and species of fish
present in the John Day River basin. The formation of Watershed Councils and SWCDs that are active in watershed restoration has increased awareness about fish
needs throughout the entire basin, but landowners, educators, and the public are eager for additional information. Current personnel cannot meet the demand for
education and outreach and still complete their other assigned duties.




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Habitat Actions for Recovery of Upper John Day River Steelhead Population
Actions                Status      Implementing          Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                   Implementation             Expected        Certainty of
                                   Entity               Addressed                                       Timeframe                  Biophysical     Outcome3
                                                                                                                                   Response2
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing     NRCS, USFS,            3, 4, 6   Riparian recovery will be           Intermediate               5-15 years      Moderate,
livestock grazing                  BLM, ODFW,                       localized, but water quality                                                   depending upon
practices                          Private                          effects (sediment and                                                          compliance and
                                   landowners,                      temperature) will have high                                                    monitoring
                                   CTWSRO,                          dispersal downstream
                                   Watershed
                                   Councils, NRCS
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing     USFS, Oregon           3, 4, 7   Large wood recruitment will         Intermediate               Up to 5 years   High, dependent
forest practices                   Dept. of Forestry,               be localized, but water quality                                for water       upon compliance
                                   BLM                              effects (sediment and                                          quality         and monitoring
                                                                    temperature) will have high                                    impacts,
                                                                    dispersal downstream                                           longer for
                                                                                                                                   large wood
                                                                                                                                   recruitment
Restore wet            Ongoing     TNC, USFS,             3, 5, 6   Benefits of improved channel        Intermediate               5-15 years      Moderate
meadows                and         CTWSRO                           morphology will be localized,
                       planned                                      improved water table and the
                                                                    resulting increased stream
                                                                    flow and lower water
                                                                    temperatures will have high
                                                                    dispersal downstream
Vegetation             Ongoing     USFS, BLM,             7, 5      Effects of higher precipitation     Juniper control can be     5-30 years      Moderate
management                         NRCS, SWCD‟s,                    infiltration rates will have high   done quickly, other
                                   Watershed                        dispersal downstream                strategies such as
                                   Councils                                                             control of invasive
                                                                                                        plants may take more
                                                                                                        than 20 years
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing     USFS, Oregon            7, 6     Reduced sediment and                Long term                  Immediate for   High; funding on
road system                        Dept. of Forestry,               improved hydrologic function                                   sediment,       public lands and
management                         ODOT                             will have high dispersal                                       other           landowner
                                                                    downstream                                                     parameter 5-    cooperation on
                                                                                                                                   15 years        private lands will
                                                                                                                                                   determine rate of
                                                                                                                                                   treatment
Apply measures to      ongoing     USFS, BLM,              6, 7     Reduced sediment and                Long term, many forest     5-15 years      Moderate,
reduce erosion                     Oregon Dept of                   improved hydrologic function        roads have legacy                          although funding
from forest roads                  Forestry                         will have high dispersal            issues with regard to                      on public lands
(including                                                          downstream                          sediment transport and                     and landowner
closing/decommissi                                                                                      routing of runoff.                         cooperation on
on)                                                                                                     Decommissioning may                        private lands will
                                                                                                        take many years                            determine rate of
                                                                                                                                                   treatment
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing     NRCS, SWCD‟s,           7, 6     Reduced sediment and                Long term, dependent       0-20,years,     Moderate,
agricultural                       Private                          improved hydrologic function        on implementation of       depending       dependent upon
practices to control               landowners,                      will have high dispersal            Agricultural Water         upon            voluntary
erosion and runoff                 Farm Service                     downstream                          Quality Management         treatments      landowner
                                   Agency                                                               Plans                      applied         participation
Apply BMPs to          Not         County Planning        7, 4, 6   Reduced sediment and                Immediate, depending       Immediate       Moderate,
municipal and          currently   departments                      improved hydrologic function        on how aggressive                          dependent upon
residential land       identifie                                    will have high dispersal            county planning                            county
management to          d as a                                       downstream                          departments are with                       compliance with
control runoff         concern                                                                          enforcing existing                         land use planning
                                                                                                        county planning rules                      goals
Remove push up         Ongoing     Soil and Water           2       Provide access to upstream          Ongoing, but all push      Immediate       High, if comply
dams                               Conservation                     habitat                             up dams not expected                       with fish passage
                                   Districts                                                            to be corrected for at                     design criteria
                                                                                                        least 15 years
Replace culverts       Ongoing     USFS, BLM,               2       Provide access to upstream          Ongoing, replacing all     Immediate       High, if comply
                                   Watershed                        habitat                             culverts blocking fish                     with fish passage
                                   Councils, ODOT                                                       passage expected to                        design criteria
                                                                                                        take 20 years
Construct ladders      Ongoing     Soil and Water           2       Provide access to upstream          Ongoing, providing         Immediate       High if comply
over existing                      Conservation                     habitat                             passage at all diversion                   with fish passage
permanent                          Districts, ODFW                                                      and pond barriers will                     design criteria



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Actions                 Status    Implementing        Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation             Expected          Certainty of
                                  Entity             Addressed                                     Timeframe                  Biophysical       Outcome3
                                                                                                                              Response2
concrete or earth                                                                                  take many years
fill dams
Screen unscreened       Ongoing   ODFW                   2       At point of diversion             Approximately 80           Immediate         High, if comply
diversions                                                                                         diversions need to be                        wit fish screening
                                                                                                   screened. Should take                        criteria
                                                                                                   about 4 years
Replace screens         Ongoing   ODFW                   2       At point of diversion             Approximately 80-100       Immediate         High if comply wit
that do not meet                                                                                   screens need to be                           fish screening
criteria                                                                                           replaced. Should take                        criteria
                                                                                                   about 4-5 years.
Obtain additional       On hold   ODFW                  5, 6     Point of diversion downstream     Unknown, ODFW is           Long term         High, although
instream water                                                   to mouth of John Day River        reluctant to file for      because           dependent upon
rights                                                                                             additional ISWRs until     senior water      cancellation of
                                                                                                   pending applications       rights still      unused senior
                                                                                                   are approved by            have priority     water rights
                                                                                                   Oregon Water
                                                                                                   Resources Department
Monitor and             Ongoing   ODWR                  5, 6     Point of diversion downstream     Long term, dependent       immediate         High if water use
regulate water                                                   to mouth of John Day River        upon ODWR enforcing                          reporting and
withdrawals                                                                                        the requirement to                           requirement for
                                                                                                   measure water useage                         measuring
                                                                                                                                                devices is
                                                                                                                                                enforced
Lease/acquire           Ongoing   Oregon Water         1, 5, 6   Point of diversion downstream     Long term and highly       immediate         High, if the
instream water                    Resources Dept.,               to mouth of John Day River        dependent upon                               leased water is
rights                            Oregon Water                                                     landowner willingness                        protected from
                                  Trust                                                            to lease.                                    being
                                                                                                                                                appropriated to a
                                                                                                                                                downstream user
Irrigation efficiency   Ongoing   Soil and Water        5, 6     Point of diversion downstream     Long Term and              Immediate         High, if the saved
projects                          Districts, NRCS                to mouth of John Day River        dependent upon                               water is protected
                                                                                                   landowner willingness                        from being
                                                                                                   to participate and                           appropriated to a
                                                                                                   availability of projects                     downstream user
Floodplain aquifer      Planned   CTWSRO, Soil          5, 6     Potentially high dispersal from   Long term, although        Immediate         High, if the
recharge projects       and       and Water                      recharge project site             opportunities for pilot                      additional water
                        some      Districts                      downstream for many miles         projects is dependent                        is protected from
                        ongoing                                                                    upon willing landowner                       being
                                                                                                                                                appropriated to a
                                                                                                                                                downstream user
Off-stream storage      Planned   Soil and Water         5       Potentially high dispersal from   Long Term and              Physical          Benefits to fish
basins                  and       Districts                      project site downstream for       dependent upon             response will     will be hard to
                        ongoing                                  many miles                        properly designed and      take several      quantify and may
                                                                                                   monitored storage          years and is      be offset by
                                                                                                   basins                     dependent on      reductions in
                                                                                                                              the number of     channel forming
                                                                                                                              storage basins    flows
                                                                                                                              completed
Add large woody         As        ODFW, USFS,            3       For the immediate stream          Once identified, short     Immediate         High
debris                  needed    Watershed                      reach                             term
                                  Councils,
                                  SWCD‟s
Restore natural         Planned   Watershed              3       For the treated stream reach      Short term, once           Physical          High
channel form and                  Councils, Soil                                                   identified                 response will
reconnect to                      and Water                                                                                   be immediate,
floodplain                        Districts, ODFW,                                                                            biological
                                  USFS, BLM                                                                                   response may
                                                                                                                              take 5-10
                                                                                                                              years
Stabilize and           Ongoing   Soil and Water        3, 6     For the treated stream reach,     Passive stabilization      With passive      Medium to high,
protect                           Districts, USFS,               with physical benefits            techniques are             restoration the   depending upon
streambanks                       BLM, ODFW,                     dispersed to downstream           preferred and take         response may      the extent of the
                                  Watershed                      reaches                           longer to implement        take 15 years     treatments
                                  Councils
Manage grazing in       Ongoing   NRCS, AFS,            4, 6     Riparian function will be         Long term because of       5-15 years,       High, based upon
riparian areas                    USFS, BLM, Soil                limited to specific reach but     widespread need            depending         experience with




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Actions               Status    Implementing        Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation            Expected         Certainty of
                                Entity             Addressed                                     Timeframe                 Biophysical      Outcome3
                                                                                                                           Response2
                                and Water                      water quality improvements                                  upon grazing     existing grazing
                                Districts, ODFW,               will have high dispersal                                    plan adopted.    management and
                                Watershed                      downstream from site                                        Riparian         riparian recovery
                                Councils                                                                                   corridor         projects
                                                                                                                           fencing and
                                                                                                                           removal of
                                                                                                                           riparian
                                                                                                                           grazing has
                                                                                                                           the fastest
                                                                                                                           recovery rate.
Restore riparian      Ongoing   ODFW,                 4, 6     Riparian function will be         Long term because of      5-15 years,      High, based upon
vegetative cover                Watershed                      limited to specific reach but     widespread need           (see above)      experience with
                                Councils,                      water quality improvements                                                   existing grazing
                                SWCDs, USFS,                   will have High dispersal                                                     management and
                                BLM, CTUIR                     downstream from site                                                         riparian recovery
                                                                                                                                            projects
Reconnect             Ongoing   ODFW,                  3       Effect on physical habitat        Long term, because of     5-15 years,      Moderate,
floodplain habitats             Watershed                      features will be localized, but   widespread need           depending        depending upon
                                Councils,                      effects on water quality will                               upon             how extensive
                                SWCDs, USFS,                   have high dispersal                                         frequency and    the project is and
                                BLM, CTUIR                     downstream                                                  duration of      frequency and
                                                                                                                           channel          duration of
                                                                                                                           altering flows   channel altering
                                                                                                                                            flows
Reintroduce beaver    ongoing   ODFW,                 3,4      Effect on physical habitat        Long term, due to         Within 5 years   Moderate-high,
                                CTWSRO, USFS,                  features will be localized, but   acceptance by             once the dams    dependent upon
                                BLM                            effects on water quality will     landowners and            are built        acceptance by
                                                               have high dispersal               widespread need                            landowners
                                                               downstream
Apply BMPs for        ongoing   ODA, NRSC,            6, 3     Water quality improvement         5-15 years                5-15 years       Moderate,
development and                 counties                       would have high dispersal                                                    although not
waste management                                               downstream                                                                   identified as a
                                                                                                                                            significant
                                                                                                                                            problem
Apply BMPs to         ongoing   ODA                    6       Water quality improvement         Some treatments could     5-15 years       High, once a
animal feeding                                                 would have high dispersal         be done immediately.                       treatment has
operations                                                     downstream                        There are few animal                       been agreed
                                                                                                 feeding operations                         upon
                                                                                                 within the basin, only
                                                                                                 one of which has been
                                                                                                 identified as a problem
Manage return flow    ongoing   SWCDs,                 6       Water quality improvement         Less than 5 years,        Immediate        High, reduced
to reduce extreme               Watershed                      would have high dispersal         once the project has                       temperatures has
stream                          Councils                       downstream                        been identified                            been well
temperatures                                                                                                                                documented
Acquire/manage        Ongoing   CTUIR, TNC,           4, 3     Water quality improvement         Existing conservation     5-15 years       High, based on
stream corridor                 RMEF, John Day                 would have high dispersal         agreements are            with passive     previous
through                         Basin Trust                    downstream, stream corridor       complete. Full            restoration      cooperative
conservation                                                   and function improvements         implementation of         approaches       agreements
easements                                                      would be confined to the          conservation measures
                                                               specific site                     will take 5-15 years or
                                                                                                 more
Adopt and manage      ongoing   ODFW, SWCDs            3       Water quality improvement         Agreements are for 10-    immediate        High, although
Cooperative                                                    would have high dispersal         15 years                                   not in perpetuity
Agreements                                                     downstream, stream corridor
                                                               and function improvements
                                                               would be confined to the
                                                               specific site
Special               ongoing   USFS, BLM             1, 3     Water quality improvement         Complete, potentially     immediate        High, although
Management                                                     would have high dispersal         subject to change in                       subject to change
Designations on                                                downstream, stream corridor       Forest Plan revisions                      from forest plan
public lands                                                   and function improvements                                                    or management
                                                               would be confined to the                                                     plan revision
                                                               specific site
Designate             Ongoing   USFS, BLM,            1, 3     Water quality and flow            Unknown                   5-15 years       Unknown, subject
additional            as        Oregon State                   improvement would have high                                                  to availability of




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Actions                Status       Implementing           Strategy       Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation         Expected       Certainty of
                                    Entity                Addressed                                         Timeframe              Biophysical    Outcome3
                                                                                                                                   Response2
wilderness or wild     identifie    Parks                                 dispersal downstream, stream                                            areas that meet
and scenic status      d                                                  corridor and function                                                   criteria
                                                                          improvements would be
                                                                          confined to the specific site
Conduct outreach       Ongoing        ODFW, NOAA                   8      Entire basin                      Long term              Variable lag   Unknown,
to resource users                     Fisheries,                                                                                   time           depends upon
and managers                          USFWS, USFS,                                                                                                action taken as a
                                      BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                                result of being
                                      Watershed                                                                                                   more informed
                                      Councils,
                                      SWCD‟s
Initiate                  Ongoing ODFW, NOAA                       8           Entire basin                 Long term              Variable lag   unknown,
demonstration                         Fisheries,                                                                                   time           depends upon
projects                              USFWS, USFS,                                                                                                action taken as a
                                      BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                                result of being
                                      Watershed                                                                                                   more informed
                                      Councils,
                                      SWCD‟s
Conduct outreach          ongoing     ODFW, NOAA                   8           Entire basin                 Long term              Variable lag   unknown,
to government                         Fisheries,                                                                                   time           depends upon
officials                             USFWS, USFS,                                                                                                action taken as a
                                      BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                                result of being
                                      Watershed                                                                                                   more informed
                                      Councils,
                                      SWCD‟s
Implement                 Ongoing ODFW, NOAA                       8           Entire basin                 Long term              Variable lag   Unknown,
outreach program                      Fisheries,                                                                                   time           depends upon
for general public                    USFWS, USFS,                                                                                                action taken as a
                                      BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                                result of being
                                      Watershed                                                                                                   more informed
                                      Councils,
                                      SWCD‟s
Support regional          Ongoing ODFW, NOAA                       8           Entire basin                 Long term              Variable lag   Unknown.
outreach efforts                      Fisheries,                                                                                   time           depends upon
                                      USFWS, USFS,                                                                                                action taken as a
                                      BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                                result of being
                                      Watershed                                                                                                   more informed
                                      Councils,
                                      SWCD‟s
1
  Geographic scale of effect (relative amount of basin affected by action)
2 Expected response of action implementation ─ including how long for a specific action to achieve the desired biological effect
3 Relative certainty that expected results will occur as a result of full implementation of action




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                    Recovery Strategies and Actions for South John Day Steelhead Population

            Primary limiting factors: 1) sediment load, 2) key habitat quantity, 3) habitat diversity, 4) flow,
            5) temperature, and 6) obstructions.

            Primary threats: Riparian disturbance, stream channelization and relocation, grazing, timber
            harvest, road building, fish passage barriers (culverts, and other seasonal barriers), and
            irrigation withdrawals.

Strategy 1. Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes.

                                              Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes
            Substrategies                     Factors         Threats Addressed             VSP                 Life                          Discussion
                                             Addressed                                   Parameters           Stages
                                                                                         Addressed           Affected
a. Protect floodplain function and         Many factors,      Many threats              Productivity       Primarily       Protecting base stream flows from further
   channel migration                       including key      including livestock       and                fry and 0+      appropriations is a very important function of
b. Protect riparian function               habitat quality    overgrazing of            abundance                          protecting existing high quality habitats.
c. Protect access to key habitats          and diversity,     riparian area,
d. Protect existing high water quality     sediment load,     channelization,
e. Protect natural stream flow regime      water quality,     stream bank
f. Protect base flows through              flow               armoring,
   management of water withdrawals                            agricultural practices
g. Protect riparian function by                               (fertilizers,
   maintaining management                                     herbicides,
   objectives                                                 sediments, changes
h. Protect channel structure to                               in plant
   maintain quality and quantity of                           communities), water
   spawning grounds                                           withdrawals, loss of
                                                              beaver
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Lower Murderers Creek tributaries draining the south side of Aldrich Mountain (Todd, Cabin, Dry Cabin, Duncan and Dry Duncan creeks), Black Canyon Creek,
mainstem South Fork from the north boundary of PW Schneider WMA to Izee Falls.
Key Programs
                  Agency                                      Program Name                         Sufficient                     Needs Expansion
USFS and BLM                                      Wilderness Areas, Wilderness Study         For the areas          Yes
                                                  Areas, Wild and Scenic River corridors, designated
                                                  Special Management designations
ODFW                                              Cooperative Agreements                     No                     Yes, the agreements are for only 10-15 years
NRCS                                              CREP                                       No                     Yes, the agreements are for only 10 years

Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Protection of high quality habitats is the most cost effective way of ensuring fish have good quality habitat. It is much less expensive over the long term to protect high
quality habitat than it is to degrade the habitat and then try to restore it. Land acquisitions, easements, and cooperative agreements may also facilitate the
implementation of active restoration projects. The specific objectives addressed by each protection effort will vary, and must be assessed on a case-by-case basis.

The John Day River has 248.6 miles designated as Federal Wild and Scenic River and 317 miles designated as State Wild and Scenic. Federally designated reaches
include from Smokey Creek (RM 6.5) to the Malheur National Forest boundary (RM 52.5) on the South Fork. State designated reaches include the South Fork from the
PW Schneider Wildlife Management Area Boundary (RM 5.5) to County Road 63 (RM 35). Although wild and scenic designation does not preclude development, it
requires development to be consistent with protecting the Outstandingly Remarkable Values (ORV‟s) for which the river was designated, requires review of any activity
that may affect ORV‟s within the ¼ mile river corridor, and protects the free flowing condition of the river. Designation as W&S essentially precludes construction of any
major dam. A Management Plan was adopted by BLM and Oregon State Parks Department in 2001 for the designated rivers segments. Implementation of all the
actions identified in the plan will likely take many years, however, grazing management plans for most of the allotments within corridor are complete.

One of the reasons for purchase of ODFW‟s Philip W. Schneider Wildlife Management Area in the South Fork John Day River basin was for its value as a steelhead
spawning and rearing area. The mixture of BLM and ODFW owned lands, along with the adjoining Malheur National Forest lands are under a Coordinated Resource
Management Plan (CRMP). The mainstem South Fork John Day River, which runs through the CRMP lands has shown remarkable riparian recovery in the last 30
years, with 100% canopy closure on some reaches. Unfortunately several of the tributaries have not benefited as much from the same management strategy.

Wilderness designation essentially prevents any development and offers the greatest opportunity for protection of high quality habitat. Wilderness areas within the
South Fork population boundary include, Black Canyon Wilderness (13,400 acres). Other special designated areas include the Utley Butte and Dry Cabin wildlife
emphasis areas.




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Existing forest plans include special management designations for riparian habitat conservation areas (RHCA‟s). The forest plans and BLM plans have been amended
by PACFISH and INFISH, both of which require 300 foot buffers on any fish bearing stream for tree removal, as well as specific guidelines for livestock grazing and
riparian vegetation use. Compliance with the 300 foot buffer for timber harvest operations has been very good, however the interpretation of the grazing guidelines has
been inconsistent between National Forests. The RHCA‟s and PACFISH buffers have been useful tools for protection of a variety of riparian values, unfortunately the
rules were implemented in the mid-1990‟s after many trees within riparian areas had already been harvested. In those areas where trees were harvested before the
rules went into effect, it will take decades for them to grow big enough to function as large wood and contribute to habitat parameters. Forest practices rules for private
and state owned forest lands have guidelines for protection of riparian function, although they are not nearly as restrictive as those on federal lands. Adding additional
wilderness areas and wild and scenic river segments will require designation by Congress. Designating additional RMA or adding to the current restrictions within
RHCA‟s will revisited during the Forest Plan Revision process that is currently underway.

Cooperative and conservation agreements on private land are tools for protecting high quality habitats. ODFW has used cooperative agreements over the last 21 years
to protect riparian corridors that have been fenced to exclude livestock grazing. Unfortunately those agreements are for only 15 years and there have not been funds or
personnel needed to extend them for longer time periods. Over 120 miles of stream throughout the basin have been protected under this program. Additional
opportunities will be limited by availability of funds and by willingness of landowners to sign conservation easements and/or agreements.

NRCS programs that protect riparian areas and upland watersheds include the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and the Conservation Reserve Enhancement
Program (CREP). The CRP program pays landowners not to farm highly erodible soils and the CREP program pays landowners for setting riparian corridors aside from
grazing and farming. The long term effectiveness of both programs is limited by the relatively short duration of the contracts which ranges from 10 to 15 years.


Strategy 2. Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas.

                                                   Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas
          Substrategies                     Factors           Threats Addressed               VSP              Life                           Discussion
                                           Addressed                                     Parameters          Stages
                                                                                         Addressed           Affected
a. Restore access to isolated           Key habitat           Dams, culverts,           Distribution       Primarily       Push up irrigation dams, concrete diversions, in-
   habitats blocked by artificial       quantity, habitat     irrigation diversions,    Productivity       adults and      channel stock ponds, and road culverts are
   barriers, such as road culverts      diversity, channel    instream structures                          0+              located throughout the entire basin. Passage
   and irrigation structures.           stability, sediment                                                juveniles       problems at culverts are widespread throughout
b. Minimize use of push up dams.        load                  Maintenance and                                              all subbasins.
c. Provide screening at 100% of         Entrainment           construction of                                              Annual maintenance and construction of push
   irrigation diversions.                                     irrigation dams                                              up dams contributes to onsite and downstream
d. Restore channel and floodplain                                                                                          channel stability, loss of pools and other
   connectivity                                                                                                            structure, and increased sediment loads.
                                                                                                                           Screening of irrigation diversions began in 1950s
                                                                                                                           and most were screened by mid-1970s. Many
                                                                                                                           screens now need to be replaced to address
                                                                                                                           new criteria to reduce entrainment of emergent
                                                                                                                           fry and bull trout.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Push up dams in the South Fork mainstem are scheduled for replacement within the next year. Culverts on Deer, Murderers, SF Murderers, Tex and Thorn creeks, and
a head cut on SF Murderers Creek.

Key Programs
                Agency                                       Program Name                             Sufficient                          Needs Expansion
Soil and Water Conservation Districts        Irrigation dam improvements                        Yes in some areas,         The Grant Soil and Water District is constrained
                                                                                                no in others               by the construction window of opportunity.
ODFW                                         Fish Passage/Screening                             No                         The program completes a minimum of one
                                                                                                                           project per year, but is dependent upon
                                                                                                                           landowner cooperation and limited funding
USFS and BLM                                 Culvert replacement                                No                         Yes
Watershed Councils                           Road Crossing Passage improvements                 No                         Yes

BOR                                          John Day Basin Program                             Yes                       No
CTWSRO                                       John Day Basin Program                             No                        Yes, the tribe contracts with Soil and Water
                                                                                                                          Districts to assist with consultation, permits, and
                                                                                                                          monitoring
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Most of the mainstem passage problems have been addressed, but there are many tributaries where adult passage is blocked and more areas where juvenile passage
problems occur. Irrigation dams, stock ponds, and road culverts are the primary causes of passage issues. Soil and Water Districts are correcting passage at irrigation
diversions and improperly installed culverts, but are constrained by funding and by personnel needed for construction oversight. An inventory of road crossings on state
and county roads in 1999 indicated no culverts on state owned roads and 10 culverts on county owned roads did not meet fish passage criteria within the South Fork
population boundary. Some culverts have been replaced with structures that allow fish passage, but much work remains. Watershed councils and ODOT, who are the
principal entities working on culverts are constrained primarily by funding. An inventory of road crossings on federal lands indicates juvenile passage problems are
pervasive, particularly on National Forests, with approximately 300 culverts not meeting passage criteria on just the Malheur National Forest. The US Forest Service
and BLM are constrained primarily by funding and the personnel needed for NEPA analysis. At the current rate of culvert replacements it will take over 50 years to




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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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correct all passage problems on National Forests. Another constraint is that existing state laws do not require passage improvements at existing barriers unless there is
a major change in the structure, such as reconstruction or significant modifications, so landowner cooperation is critical for improving passage throughout the basin.

US Bureau of Reclamation is required in the Columbia River Biological Opinion to identify and assist with passage improvement design and flow restoration.

Currently, the ODFW Fish Passage and Screening program replaces about 20 irrigation diversion screens per year. Currently, highest priority is given to diversions that
are unscreened with lower priority given to diversions that have screens, but do not meet the criteria. The program is constrained primarily by funding and personnel.
Current law does not require water users to screen diversions less than 30 cubic feet per second and virtually all diversions in the John Day are less than 30 cfs, so
landowner cooperation is essential to success of the program.


Strategy 3. Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability.

                                              Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability
           Substrategies                       Factors             Threats Addressed             VSP               Life                         Discussion
                                              Addressed                                       Parameters          Stages
                                                                                              Addressed          Affected
a. Bring vertical and lateral stream  Channel stability,  Stream channelization,             Productivity            There has been a loss of off-channel and
                                                                                                                Eggs, fry
   movement in balance with           habitat diversity,  bank armoring, large               and                     side-channel habitats that once provided
                                                                                                                and 0+
   landscape and flow regime.         key habitat         wood removal, beaver               abundance               habitat for spawning and rearing, and
b. Increase role and abundance of     quantity,           removal, removal of                                        refugia from high flows.
   wood and large organic debris in   sediment load,      riparian vegetation,
   streambeds.                        flow, water         livestock overgrazing in                                   The upper South Fork from Indian Creek
c. Restore channel and floodplain     temperature         riparian areas                                             upstream to the Malheur NF boundary is
   connectivity.                                                                                                     no longer connected to its floodplain and
d. Restore off-channel and side-                                                                                     is deeply incised.
   channel habitat
e. Trap sediment on floodplain as
   appropriate
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Murderers Creek from Chickenhouse Gulch to Todd Creek, South Fork mainstem from Izee Falls upstream to Malheur NF boundary

Key Programs
                   Agency                                         Program Name                                Sufficient                    Needs Expansion
ODFW                                                BPA Habitat Program                                   No                    Yes
USFS, BLM                                           Stream enhancement program                            Yes in some           Possibly
                                                                                                          areas, no in
                                                                                                          others
Watershed Councils                                  Watershed restoration                                 Dependent upon        Only if specific needs cannot be
                                                                                                          need and funding      addressed by passive restoration
                                                                                                                                techniques
Soil and Water Conservation Districts               Watershed restoration                                 Dependent upon        Only if specific needs cannot be
                                                                                                          need and funding      addressed by passive restoration
                                                                                                                                techniques
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Instream activities have not been identified as a high priority by the recovery planning team or the subbasin plan team except when identified as a need for specific sites.
The planning team prefers that more passive approaches, such as riparian and upland improvements be emphasized. Typically, instream activities that would improve
floodplain function and channel migration processes would include placement of rootwads, whole trees, or boulder clusters to improved habitat complexity and habitat
diversity where those parameters are deficient and not expected to improve with passive restoration. Another structural activity would be to construct boulder or log
weirs to raise the water table, but only where a passive approach has not worked.


Strategy 4. Restore riparian function and condition.

                                                             Restore riparian function and condition
          Substrategies                     Factors             Threats Addressed               VSP               Life                        Discussion
                                           Addressed                                       Parameters           Stages
                                                                                            Addressed          Affected
a. Restore natural riparian plan        Channel stability,    Livestock overgrazing       Productivity,      Primarily       Primary methods of riparian enhancement
   communities                          key habitat           of riparian area,           abundance,         fry and 0+      include riparian corridor fences to exclude
b. Exclude livestock from riparian      quantity, habitat     channelization, stream      distribution                       livestock, changes in grazing management
   areas                                quality, flows,       bank armoring, cutting                                         that promote riparian recovery, and planting
c. Eradicate invasive plant species     high stream           of trees in riparian                                           of native shrubs.
   from riparian areas                  temperatures,         areas, changes in plant
d. Restore channel and floodplain       sediment load         communities (including
   connectivity                                               invasive plants), beaver
                                                              removal
Priority Locations (geographic areas)



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Some reaches of the mainstem South Fork John Day above Izee falls, Murderers, and Deer creeks

Key Programs
                Agency                                      Program Name                                   Sufficient                      Needs Expansion
ODFW                                         BPA Habitat Program                                     No                      Yes
SWCD‟s                                       Upland improvements, riparian improvements              Yes in some areas,      Yes
                                                                                                     no in others
Watershed Councils                             Upland improvements, riparian improvements            No                      Yes
USFS and BLM                                   Upland improvements, riparian improvements            No                      Yes
NRCS                                           Upland improvements, riparian improvements            Yes                     No
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
In the last 20+ years ODFW, Watershed Councils, NRCS and Soil and Water Districts have implemented hundreds of miles of riparian improvements on private lands,
primarily through construction of riparian corridor fences that exclude livestock grazing and development of off channel watering devices. Public land managers have
implemented PACFISH and INFISH standards for protection and restoration of USFS and BLM lands. Even though hundreds of miles of riparian improvements have
been completed there are nearly 2,800 miles of stream occupied by steelhead within the John Day River Basin and hundreds more miles of tributaries to these streams
If only 10% of the stream reaches are degraded (which is probably low), it will take over 35 years to treat them if agencies proceed at the current rate. Overgrazing of
riparian areas by livestock continues, however it is not as widespread as historically. Interest by private landowners and public land managers in riparian improvement
remains high.

Other projects that improve riparian condition by restoring historic cover types include removing juniper, reintroducing fire, enrollment into CRP, and control of
invasive/noxious plants. Primary constraints on implementing additional projects for more riparian improvements are funding and personnel needed for planning,
promotion, education of landowners, and implementation.


Strategy 5. Restore natural hydrograph to provide adequate flow during critical periods.

                                         Restore natural hydrograph to provide adequate flow during critical periods
          Substrategies                    Factors             Threats Addressed               VSP              Life                           Discussion
                                          Addressed                                       Parameters          Stages
                                                                                          Addressed          Affected
a. Enhance base flow                Altered stream      Water withdrawals                Productivity       All         Changes in the upland plant community due to fire
b. Restore natural hydrographic     flow regime, key     Changes in upland               Abundance                      suppression, invasive plants, and conversion of
   conditions where appropriate     habitat quantity,   plant community                  Distribution                   bunch grass prairies to wheat fields have resulted in
c. Increase pool habitat (beaver    habitat diversity,  Channelization                   Spatial                        lower precipitation infiltration rates, which results in
   ponds)                           sediment,           Removal of large wood            Structure                      higher peak flows and lower low flows.
d. Restore riparian vegetation and  Altered             Removal of beaver
   function                         temperature
                                    regime,
                                    Lack of channel
                                    forming flows
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
The lower and upper mainstem South Fork John Day is used extensively for irrigation purposes, small diversions are present on Wind and Murderers creeks.

Key Programs
                Agency                                        Program Name                             Sufficient                           Needs Expansion
ODFW                                         BPA Habitat Program, riparian improvements          No                        Yes
Oregon Water Resources Department            Stream Flow Monitoring and Regulation               No                        Yes
Oregon Water Trust and BOR                   Leasing and Purchase of Water Rights                No                        Yes
Soil and Water Conservation Districts        Improve irrigation efficiency, upland               Yes in some areas,        Yes
                                             improvements, riparian improvements                 no in others
Watershed Councils                           Upland improvements, riparian improvements          No                        Yes
NRCS                                         Upland improvements, riparian improvements          No                        Yes

Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Many landowners have converted from flood to sprinkler or gated pipe irrigation, which makes more efficient use of the water and grows more palatable forage but there has
not been an effective mechanism to protect saved water from being used by another irrigator downstream. Water measuring devices are just beginning to be required on
irrigation withdrawals and while progress is being made there is considerable resistance from irrigators. Flows are also improving because of projects that restore historic
cover types by removing juniper, reintroducing fire, enrollment into CRP, and control of invasive/noxious plants. Primary constraints on implementing additional projects are
funding, instream water rights that are junior to most irrigation rights, and water laws that sometimes conflict with conservation practices.

US Bureau of Reclamation, as required in the Columbia River Biological Opinion, is required to identify and assist with passage improvement design and flow restoration.




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Strategy 6. Restore degraded water quality.
                                                                   Restore degraded water quality
             Substrategies                       Factors            Threats Addressed                VSP               Life                         Discussion
                                                Addressed                                       Parameters           Stages
                                                                                                 Addressed           Affected
a. Exclude livestock from riparian areas.     Altered stream        Timber harvest in          Productivity,       Eggs, fry,       Elevated water temperature is a pervasive
b. Increase riparian shading                  temperature           riparian areas, riparian   abundance,          juveniles,       water quality problem for the South Fork
c. Reduce unnatural rates of erosion          regime, chemical      grazing, high road         distribution        adults           John Day River population, with 6 stream
   from upland areas                          contaminants,         densities, clearing of     and spatial                          reaches listed as water quality limited.
d. Decrease channel width-to-depth            depleted oxygen       riparian vegetation for    structure                            Additional reaches would probably be
   ratios                                     sediment load         agriculture and rural                                           listed if water temperature data was
e. Increase deep pool habitat                                       development, dry land                                           available.
f. Maintain existing high water quality                             grain fields left fallow
   with respect to chemical                                         during high                                                     Using more efficient irrigation methods,
   contamination                                                    precipitation periods                                           which reduces the amount of surface
g. Minimize unnatural factors that lead to                                                                                          water returning to the stream, should
   fluctuations in dissolved oxygen                                                                                                 result in fewer nutrients from pastures
   levels.                                                                                                                          reaching the South Fork John Day River
                                                                                                                                    and tributaries. Reducing nutrient loads
                                                                                                                                    will contribute to increased water quality
                                                                                                                                    by reducing biological oxygen demand
                                                                                                                                    and algae blooms.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Upper South Fork and tributaries above Izee Falls, and lower SF near the town of Dayville.

Key Programs
                   Agency                                         Program Name                                 Sufficient                        Needs Expansion
NRCS                                               CREP, CRP                                           No                           Yes
DEQ                                                Mine Waste Program                                  No                           Yes, limited by funding
ODA                                                Confined animal feeding operations (CAFO)           Yes                          Few CAFO operations exist within the
                                                                                                                                    basin

Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Low stream flows during the hottest part of the year exacerbate the already warm water temperatures. Opportunities for increasing stream flow through leasing of water
rights, which often results in cooler water over a longer stream reach, are being pursued by Oregon Water Trust and US Bureau of Reclamation. Constraints for future
projects include acceptance by landowners and a secure, long term funding source.

Reducing water temperatures through the use of improved riparian vegetation and more efficient methods of irrigation may take several years to provide measurable
results. Many projects that improve water quality by reducing irrigation return water have been completed.



Strategy 7. Restore degraded upland processes.

                                                                 Restore degraded upland processes
           Substrategies                     Factors Addressed         Threats Addressed             VSP               Life Stages                     Discussion
                                                                                                  Parameters            Affected
                                                                                                  Addressed
a. Restore native upland plant          Many factors, including      Livestock overgrazing,      Productivity         Eggs, fry and       Upland improvements such as
   communities                          altered flow regime,         changes in upland plant     and                  0+                  restoring native plant communities
b. Upgrade or remove problem forest     channel stability,           communities, forest         abundance                                will improve precipitation infiltration
   roads                                sediment load, water         roads, unnatural fire                                                rates and ultimately improve
c. Employ BMPs to minimize              quality, key habitat         regime                                                               watershed health, including the
   unnatural rates of erosion and       quantity, habitat                                                                                 hydrograph.
   runoff from upland sources.          diversity
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
South Fork mainstem above Izee Falls, Deer and Murderers creeks

Key Programs
                    Agency                                                   Program Name                              Sufficient                Needs Expansion
NRCS/Farm Service Agency                                  CRP                                                        No                   Yes
SWCDs                                                     Juniper control                                            No                   Yes
ODFW                                                      Green Forage                                               No                   Very small program

Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
All three programs above are relatively small, with the CRP program the largest and best funded. CRP has been in existence for 20 years and has been one of the better




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farm subsidy programs for watershed restoration. Juniper control programs have focused on areas where extensive juniper encroachment has occurred. Juniper control
can be completed using several different methods, including controlled burns, cutting with chainsaws, or by removing with bulldozers or trackhoes. Although controlled
burns are probably the most effective at controlling the spread of juniper, they are the most difficult to implement because of the threat of the fire getting out of control and
costs. Another drawback to controlled burns is that livestock grazing should be excluded from burned areas for at least two growing seasons after the burn to ensure full
recovery of desirable perennial grasses. There are opportunities to expand the juniper control program but the lack of a pasture to put livestock into for two years after
burning has limited its acceptance. The ODFW Green Forage program provides a wildlife seed mixture of native grasses and desirable forage to landowners who have
recently completed juniper clearing projects, logging projects or other ground disturbing activities. The primary purposes are to provide additional forage for deer and elk
and to reduce deer and elk damage; however it also has benefits to watershed health by providing grasses that provide perennial ground cover.

The limitations to all the programs are funding and, to a lesser extent, acceptance by landowners.


Strategy 8. Protect/restore habitat through public education and outreach.

                                                   Protect/restore habitat through education and outreach
            Substrategies                    Factors           Threats Addressed                  VSP               Life                        Discussion
                                            Addressed                                        Parameters           Stages
                                                                                              Addressed          Affected
a. Educate, landowners, land                Potentially     Potentially addresses           Productivity,       All             Topics of education include the
   management agencies, and others          many            many threats including          abundance,                          importance of healthy riparian zones;
b. Initiate demonstration projects of       limiting        stream channelization,          distribution,                       impacts of activities on uplands,
   good land management.                    factors         stream bank armoring,           and spatial                         floodplains and stream corridors on
c. Outreach to government officials.                        water withdrawals,              structure                           erosion rates and how it affects survival of
                                                            changes in upland plant                                             steelhead eggs and other habitat
                                                            communities, obstructions                                           parameters; impacts of heavy metals and
                                                                                                                                mine waste on fish; scarcity of flow during
                                                                                                                                critical periods for fish; fish passage
                                                                                                                                needs; the relationship between shade
                                                                                                                                and water temperature; and how many
                                                                                                                                fish are diverted by unscreened irrigation
                                                                                                                                diversions.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Basinwide

Key Programs
                   Agency                                        Program Name                            Sufficient                       Needs Expansion
ODFW                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
SWCDs                                               Outreach                                       No                        Yes
NRCS                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
CTWSRO                                              Outreach                                       No                        Yes
CTUIR                                               Outreach                                       No                        Yes
USFS                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
BLM                                                 Outreach                                       No                        Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Educating landowners, other agencies, and the public about fish life history and habitat needs is a long, ongoing process and it will be very difficult to measure
tangible results. Current activities include field days with school groups, agencies, and landowners, as well as presentations about life history and species of fish
present in the John Day River basin. The formation of Watershed Councils and SWCDs that are active in watershed restoration has increased awareness about fish
needs throughout the entire basin, but landowners, educators, and the public are eager for additional information. Current personnel cannot meet the demand for
education and outreach and still complete their other assigned duties.




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Habitat Actions for Recovery of South Fork John Day River Steelhead Population
Actions                Status    Implementing          Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                   Implementation             Expected        Certainty of
                                 Entity               Addressed                                       timeframe                  Biophysical     Outcome3
                                                                                                                                 Response2
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing   NRCS, USFS,            3, 4, 6   Riparian recovery will be           Intermediate               5-15 years      Moderate,
livestock grazing                BLM, ODFW,                       localized, but water quality                                                   depending upon
practices                        Private                          effects (sediment and                                                          compliance and
                                 landowners,                      temperature) will have high                                                    monitoring
                                 CTWSRO,                          dispersal downstream
                                 Watershed
                                 Councils, NRCS
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing   USFS, Oregon           3, 4, 7   Large wood recruitment will         Intermediate               Up to 5 years   High, dependent
forest practices                 Dept. of Forestry,               be localized, but water quality                                for water       upon compliance
                                 BLM                              effects (sediment and                                          quality         and monitoring
                                                                  temperature) will have high                                    impacts,
                                                                  dispersal downstream                                           longer for
                                                                                                                                 large wood
                                                                                                                                 recruitment
Restore wet            Ongoing   TNC, USFS,             3, 5, 6   Benefits of improved channel        Intermediate               5-15 years      Moderate
meadows                and       CTWSRO                           morphology will be localized,
                       planned                                    improved water table and the
                                                                  resulting increased stream
                                                                  flow and lower water
                                                                  temperatures will have high
                                                                  dispersal downstream
Vegetation             Ongoing   USFS, BLM,             7, 5      Effects of higher precipitation     Juniper control can be     5-30 years      Moderate
management                       NRCS, SWCD‟s,                    infiltration rates will have high   done quickly, other
                                 Watershed                        dispersal downstream                strategies such as
                                 Councils                                                             control of invasive
                                                                                                      plants may take more
                                                                                                      than 20 years
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing   USFS, Oregon            7, 6     Reduced sediment and                Long term                  Immediate for   High; funding on
road system                      Dept. of Forestry,               improved hydrologic function                                   sediment,       public lands and
management                       ODOT                             will have high dispersal                                       other           landowner
                                                                  downstream                                                     parameter 5-    cooperation on
                                                                                                                                 15 years        private lands will
                                                                                                                                                 determine rate of
                                                                                                                                                 treatment
Apply measures to      ongoing   USFS, BLM,              6, 7     Reduced sediment and                Long term, many forest     5-15 years      Moderate,
reduce erosion                   Oregon Dept of                   improved hydrologic function        roads have legacy                          although funding
from forest roads                Forestry                         will have high dispersal            issues with regard to                      on public lands
(including                                                        downstream                          sediment transport and                     and landowner
closing/decommissi                                                                                    routing of runoff.                         cooperation on
on)                                                                                                   Decommissioning may                        private lands will
                                                                                                      take many years                            determine rate of
                                                                                                                                                 treatment
Apply BMPs to          Ongoing   NRCS, SWCD‟s,           7, 6     Reduced sediment and                Long term, dependent       0-20,years,     Moderate,
agricultural                     Private                          improved hydrologic function        on implementation of       depending       dependent upon
practices to control             landowners,                      will have high dispersal            Agricultural Water         upon            voluntary
erosion and runoff               Farm Service                     downstream                          Quality Management         treatments      landowner
                                 Agency                                                               Plans                      applied         participation
Remove push up         Ongoing   Soil and Water           2       Provide access to upstream          Ongoing, but all push      Immediate       High, if comply
dams                             Conservation                     habitat                             up dams not expected                       with fish passage
                                 Districts                                                            to be corrected for at                     design criteria
                                                                                                      least 15 years
Replace culverts       Ongoing   USFS, BLM,               2       Provide access to upstream          Ongoing, replacing all     Immediate       High, if comply
                                 Watershed                        habitat                             culverts blocking fish                     with fish passage
                                 Councils, ODOT                                                       passage expected to                        design criteria
                                                                                                      take 20 years
Construct ladders      Ongoing   Soil and Water           2       Provide access to upstream          Ongoing, providing         Immediate       High if comply
over existing                    Conservation                     habitat                             passage at all diversion                   with fish passage
permanent                        Districts, ODFW                                                      and pond barriers will                     design criteria
concrete or earth                                                                                     take many years
fill dams
Screen unscreened      Ongoing   ODFW                     2       At point of diversion               Approximately 80           Immediate       High, if comply
diversions                                                                                            diversions need to be                      wit fish screening
                                                                                                      screened. Should take                      criteria
                                                                                                      about 4 years



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Actions                 Status      Implementing        Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation             Expected          Certainty of
                                    Entity             Addressed                                     timeframe                  Biophysical       Outcome3
                                                                                                                                Response2
Replace screens         Ongoing     ODFW                   2       At point of diversion             Approximately 80-100       Immediate         High if comply wit
that do not meet                                                                                     screens need to be                           fish screening
criteria                                                                                             replaced. Should take                        criteria
                                                                                                     about 4-5 years.
Obtain additional       On hold     ODFW                  5, 6     Point of diversion downstream     Unknown, ODFW is           Long term         High, although
instream water                                                     to mouth of John Day River        reluctant to file for      because           dependent upon
rights                                                                                               additional ISWRs until     senior water      cancellation of
                                                                                                     pending applications       rights still      unused senior
                                                                                                     are approved by            have priority     water rights
                                                                                                     Oregon Water
                                                                                                     Resources Department
Monitor and             Ongoing     ODWR                  5, 6     Point of diversion downstream     Long term, dependent       immediate         High if water use
regulate water                                                     to mouth of John Day River        upon ODWR enforcing                          reporting and
withdrawals                                                                                          the requirement to                           requirement for
                                                                                                     measure water useage                         measuring
                                                                                                                                                  devices is
                                                                                                                                                  enforced
Lease/acquire           Ongoing     Oregon Water         1, 5, 6   Point of diversion downstream     Long term and highly       immediate         High, if the
instream water                      Resources Dept.,               to mouth of John Day River        dependent upon                               leased water is
rights                              Oregon Water                                                     landowner willingness                        protected from
                                    Trust                                                            to lease.                                    being
                                                                                                                                                  appropriated to a
                                                                                                                                                  downstream user
Irrigation efficiency   Ongoing     Soil and Water        5, 6     Point of diversion downstream     Long Term and              Immediate         High, if the saved
projects                            Districts, NRCS                to mouth of John Day River        dependent upon                               water is protected
                                                                                                     landowner willingness                        from being
                                                                                                     to participate and                           appropriated to a
                                                                                                     availability of projects                     downstream user
Floodplain aquifer      Planned     CTWSRO, Soil          5, 6     Potentially high dispersal from   Long term, although        Immediate         High, if the
recharge projects       and some    and Water                      recharge project site             opportunities for pilot                      additional water
                        ongoing     Districts                      downstream for many miles         projects is dependent                        is protected from
                                                                                                     upon willing landowner                       being
                                                                                                                                                  appropriated to a
                                                                                                                                                  downstream user
Off-stream storage      Planned     Soil and Water         5       Potentially high dispersal from   Long Term and              Physical          Benefits to fish
basins                  and         Districts                      project site downstream for       dependent upon             response will     will be hard to
                        ongoing                                    many miles                        properly designed and      take several      quantify and may
                                                                                                     monitored storage          years and is      be offset by
                                                                                                     basins                     dependent on      reductions in
                                                                                                                                the number of     channel forming
                                                                                                                                storage basins    flows
                                                                                                                                completed
Add large woody         As needed   ODFW, USFS,            3       For the immediate stream          Once identified, short     Immediate         High, large wood
debris                              Watershed                      reach                             term                                         has been
                                    Councils,                                                                                                     identified as a
                                    SWCD‟s                                                                                                        critical
                                                                                                                                                  component of
                                                                                                                                                  good quality fish
                                                                                                                                                  habitat
Restore natural         Planned     Watershed              3       For the treated stream reach      Short term, once           Physical          High, a
channel form and                    Councils, Soil                                                   identified                 response will     meandering,
reconnect to                        and Water                                                                                   be immediate,     diverse channel
floodplain                          Districts, ODFW,                                                                            biological        provides high
                                    USFS, BLM                                                                                   response may      quality habitat
                                                                                                                                take 5-10
                                                                                                                                years
Stabilize and           Ongoing     Soil and Water        3, 6     For the treated stream reach,     Passive stabilization      With passive      Medium to high,
protect                             Districts, USFS,               with physical benefits            techniques are             restoration the   depending upon
streambanks                         BLM, ODFW,                     dispersed to downstream           preferred and take         response may      the extent of the
                                    Watershed                      reaches                           longer to implement        take 15 years     treatments
                                    Councils
Manage grazing in       Ongoing     NRCS, AFS,            4, 6     Riparian function will be         Long term because of       5-15 years,       High, based upon
riparian areas                      USFS, BLM, Soil                limited to specific reach but     widespread need            depending         experience with
                                    and Water                      water quality improvements                                   upon grazing      existing grazing
                                    Districts, ODFW,               will have high dispersal                                     plan adopted.     management and
                                    Watershed                      downstream from site                                         Riparian          riparian recovery




                                                                          74
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Actions               Status       Implementing      Strategy   Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation            Expected         Certainty of
                                   Entity           Addressed                                     timeframe                 Biophysical      Outcome3
                                                                                                                            Response2
                                   Councils                                                                                 corridor         projects
                                                                                                                            fencing and
                                                                                                                            removal of
                                                                                                                            riparian
                                                                                                                            grazing has
                                                                                                                            the fastest
                                                                                                                            recovery rate.
Restore riparian      Ongoing      ODFW,               4, 6     Riparian function will be         Long term because of      5-15 years,      High, based upon
vegetative cover                   Watershed                    limited to specific reach but     widespread need           (see above)      experience with
                                   Councils,                    water quality improvements                                                   existing grazing
                                   SWCDs, USFS,                 will have High dispersal                                                     management and
                                   BLM, CTUIR                   downstream from site                                                         riparian recovery
                                                                                                                                             projects
Reconnect             Ongoing      ODFW,                3       Effect on physical habitat        Long term, because of     5-15 years,      Moderate,
floodplain habitats                Watershed                    features will be localized, but   widespread need           depending        depending upon
                                   Councils,                    effects on water quality will                               upon             how extensive
                                   SWCDs, USFS,                 have high dispersal                                         frequency and    the project is and
                                   BLM, CTUIR                   downstream                                                  duration of      frequency and
                                                                                                                            channel          duration of
                                                                                                                            altering flows   channel altering
                                                                                                                                             flows
Reintroduce beaver    ongoing      ODFW,               3,4      Effect on physical habitat        Long term, due to         Within 5 years   Moderate-high,
                                   CTWSRO, USFS,                features will be localized, but   acceptance by             once the dams    dependent upon
                                   BLM                          effects on water quality will     landowners and            are built        acceptance by
                                                                have high dispersal               widespread need                            landowners
                                                                downstream
Apply BMPs for        ongoing      ODA, NRSC,          6, 3     Water quality improvement         5-15 years                5-15 years       Moderate,
development and                    counties                     would have high dispersal                                                    although not
waste management                                                downstream                                                                   identified as a
                                                                                                                                             significant
                                                                                                                                             problem
Apply BMPs to         ongoing      ODA                  6       Water quality improvement         Some treatments could     5-15 years       High, once a
animal feeding                                                  would have high dispersal         be done immediately.                       treatment has
operations                                                      downstream                        There are few animal                       been agreed
                                                                                                  feeding operations                         upon
                                                                                                  within the basin, only
                                                                                                  one of which has been
                                                                                                  identified as a problem
Manage return flow    ongoing      SWCDs,               6       Water quality improvement         Less than 5 years,        Immediate        High, reduced
to reduce extreme                  Watershed                    would have high dispersal         once the project has                       temperatures has
stream                             Councils                     downstream                        been identified                            been well
temperatures                                                                                                                                 documented
Acquire/manage        Ongoing      CTUIR, TNC,         4, 3     Water quality improvement         Existing conservation     5-15 years       High, based on
stream corridor                    RMEF, John Day               would have high dispersal         agreements are            with passive     previous
through                            Basin Trust                  downstream, stream corridor       complete. Full            restoration      cooperative
conservation                                                    and function improvements         implementation of         approaches       agreements
easements                                                       would be confined to the          conservation measures
                                                                specific site                     will take 5-15 years or
                                                                                                  more
Adopt and manage      ongoing      ODFW, SWCDs          3       Water quality improvement         Agreements are for 10-    immediate        High, although
Cooperative                                                     would have high dispersal         15 years                                   not in perpetuity
Agreements                                                      downstream, stream corridor
                                                                and function improvements
                                                                would be confined to the
                                                                specific site
Special               ongoing      USFS, BLM           1, 3     Water quality improvement         Complete, potentially     immediate        High, although
Management                                                      would have high dispersal         subject to change in                       subject to change
Designations on                                                 downstream, stream corridor       Forest Plan revisions                      from forest plan
public lands                                                    and function improvements                                                    or management
                                                                would be confined to the                                                     plan revision
                                                                specific site
Designate             Ongoing as   USFS, BLM,          1, 3     Water quality and flow            Unknown                   5-15 years       Unknown, subject
additional            identified   Oregon State                 improvement would have high                                                  to availability of
wilderness or wild                 Parks                        dispersal downstream, stream                                                 areas that meet
and scenic status                                               corridor and function                                                        criteria
                                                                improvements would be




                                                                       75
Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Actions                Status          Implementing           Strategy       Spatial Coverage1                 Implementation      Expected       Certainty of
                                       Entity                Addressed                                         timeframe           Biophysical    Outcome3
                                                                                                                                   Response2
                                                                                 confined to the specific site
Conduct outreach       Ongoing           ODFW, NOAA                    8         Entire basin                  Long term           Variable lag   Unknown,
to resource users                        Fisheries,                                                                                time           depends upon
and managers                             USFWS, USFS,                                                                                             action taken as a
                                         BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                             result of being
                                         Watershed                                                                                                more informed
                                         Councils,
                                         SWCD‟s
Initiate                  Ongoing        ODFW, NOAA                    8         Entire basin                  Long term           Variable lag   unknown,
demonstration                            Fisheries,                                                                                time           depends upon
projects                                 USFWS, USFS,                                                                                             action taken as a
                                         BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                             result of being
                                         Watershed                                                                                                more informed
                                         Councils,
                                         SWCD‟s
Conduct outreach          ongoing        ODFW, NOAA                    8         Entire basin                  Long term           Variable lag   unknown,
to government                            Fisheries,                                                                                time           depends upon
officials                                USFWS, USFS,                                                                                             action taken as a
                                         BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                             result of being
                                         Watershed                                                                                                more informed
                                         Councils,
                                         SWCD‟s
Implement                 Ongoing        ODFW, NOAA                    8         Entire basin                  Long term           Variable lag   Unknown,
outreach program                         Fisheries,                                                                                time           depends upon
for general public                       USFWS, USFS,                                                                                             action taken as a
                                         BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                             result of being
                                         Watershed                                                                                                more informed
                                         Councils,
                                         SWCD‟s
Support regional          Ongoing        ODFW, NOAA                    8         Entire basin                  Long term           Variable lag   Unknown.
outreach efforts                         Fisheries,                                                                                time           depends upon
                                         USFWS, USFS,                                                                                             action taken as a
                                         BLM, CTWSRO,                                                                                             result of being
                                         Watershed                                                                                                more informed
                                         Councils,
                                         SWCD‟s
1
  Geographic scale of effect (relative amount of basin affected by action)
2 Expected response of action implementation ─ including how long for a specific action to achieve the desired biological effect
3 Relative certainty that expected results will occur as a result of full implementation of action




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       Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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                                  Habitat Strategies and Actions for Recovery of Umatilla Population

                    Primary limiting factors: high water temperature, sediment load, obstructions, key habitat
                    quantity, habitat diversity and flow.

                    Primary threats: Current land use practices that reduce habitat quality, quantity and disrupt
                    ecosystem functions.

       Table 1, behind the habitat strategy and action tables for the Umatilla, provides a cross reference of
       Geographic Areas and MaSAs/MiSAs. Table 2 identifies stream barriers to upstream steelhead passage
       in the Umatilla watershed.

       Strategy 1: Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes.

                                               Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes.
              Substrategies                      Factors          Threats Addressed         VSP Parameters       Life                     Discussion
                                                Addressed                                     Addressed        Stages
                                                                                                              Affected
a. Protect floodplain function and           Habitat quantity,    Cultivation, forestry,    Abundance,       All         Agreements could be put in place with private
   channel migration.                        habitat diversity,   urban development         productivity                 landowners in areas where priority habitats
b. Protect channel structure to maintain     channel stability,                                                          exist. Agreements in areas with priority
   quality and quantity of spawning          sediment, low                                                               habitats may include: Putting in no-cultivation
   grounds                                   flow, high                                                                  riparian buffers on agricultural lands that are
c. Protect existing high water quality       temperature                                                                 currently cultivated up to the channel‟s edge,
d. Protect access to key habitats                                                                                        increasing riparian buffer widths associated
                                                                                                                         with forested areas, protecting unstable
                                                                                                                         areas, or changing other types of
                                                                                                                         management in riparian areas.
 e. Easements with private landowners        Habitat quantity,    Cultivation, forestry,    Abundance,       All         Agreements could be put in place with private
                                             habitat diversity,   urban development         productivity                 landowners in areas where priority habitats
                                             channel stability,                                                          exist. Agreements in areas with priority
                                             sediment, low                                                               habitats may include: Putting in no-cultivation
                                             flow, high                                                                  riparian buffers on agricultural lands that are
                                             temperature                                                                 currently cultivated up to the channel‟s edge,
                                                                                                                         increasing riparian buffer widths associated
                                                                                                                         with forested areas, protecting unstable
                                                                                                                         areas, or changing other types of
                                                                                                                         management in riparian areas.
f. Increase protection of Federal lands      Habitat quantity,    Forestry                  Abundance,       All         Protection on Federal lands may be
g. Establish setbacks to protect             habitat diversity,                             productivity                 increased through the NEPA process or ESA
   waterways from forest management,         channel stability,                                                          consultation. Aquatic habitat issues are
   agricultural activities, and other land   sediment, low                                                               addressed through both processes. Priority
   use practices that would disrupt          flow, high                                                                  areas can be identified and appropriate
   ecosystem function                        temperature                                                                 protective action can be taken. Actions may
                                                                                                                         include increasing the size of riparian buffers,
                                                                                                                         changing management within or near riparian
                                                                                                                         areas, and identifying sensitive areas to avoid
                                                                                                                         during implementation.
h. Identify priority areas within county     Habitat quantity,    Cultivation, forestry,    Abundance,       All         Incorporate MCR steelhead priority habitat
   ordinances.                               habitat diversity,   urban development         productivity                 areas into the Natural Area Overlay Zone
i. Insure compliance of existing zoning      channel stability,                                                          provision of the Umatilla County Development
   ordinances pertaining to riparian and     sediment, low                                                               Ordinance. This would allow the priority
   floodplain management                     flow, high                                                                  habitat areas to be protected while providing
j. Modify land use zoning and flood          temperature                                                                 an expedient process for reviewing land uses.
   control plans to increase protective
   status of priority habitats.
k. Explore opportunities to incorporate      Habitat quantity,    Cultivation, forestry,    Abundance,       All         Determine potential for incorporating priority
   priority habitat areas into existing      habitat diversity,   urban development         productivity                 areas into state legislation. Look for
   Oregon state law                          channel stability,                                                          opportunities to make amendments that
                                             sediment, low                                                               would incorporate increased protection for
                                             flow, high                                                                  priority habitat areas.




                                                                                           77
       Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
       July 12, 2006 draft


                                               temperature
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
North Fork Umatilla R; Umatilla R., Meacham Cr. to forks; Buck Creek; North Fork Meacham Creek; East Meacham Cr; Thomas Creek; West Birch Cr., Bear Cr. to
he3adwqters; E. Birch Cr., California Gulch to headwaters; SF Umatilla R., mouth to Thomas Cr.; Umatilla R., Butter Cr. to Westland Dam and Stanfield Dam to McKay Cr.;
Umatilla R., Three Mile Dam to Butter Cr.
Key Programs
                    Agency                                           Program Name                          Sufficient                           Needs Expansion
CTUIR                                                CTUIR Umatilla River Basin Anadromous         No                            Yes, there is still potential for more
                                                     Fish Habitat Enhancement Projects –                                         conservation easements
                                                     Riparian Function
ODFW                                                 Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat          No                            Yes, there is still potential for more
                                                     Improvement Program                                                         conservation easements
USFS                                                 North Fork Umatilla River Wilderness          Yes                           No
US Army                                              Army Chemical Depot                           Yes                           No
USFWS                                                Umatilla Wildlife Refuge                      Yes                           No
BLM                                                  Horne Butte                                   Yes                           No
The Nature Conservancy                               Boardman Bombing Range and Boeing             Yes                           No
                                                     Lease Lands
BLM                                                  Lost Prairie Preserve                         Yes                           No
USFS                                                 Umatilla National Forest                      No                            Site-specific protections such as increased
                                                                                                                                 size of riparian buffers could be implemented
CTUIR, Oregon Duck Hunters Association,              Wanaket Wildlife Area                         Yes                           No
Duck‟s Unlimited, and Pheasants Forever
CTUIR                                                Iskuulpa Creek                                Yes                           No
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
CTUIR and ODFW conservation easement programs have been effective at protecting and improving riparian habitat condition in the Umatilla Subbasin. There is potential for
considerable expansion of these programs. Emphasis should be placed on priority habitat areas for establishing easements. In addition, the Umatilla National Forest should
emphasize protecting priority areas during project planning and implementation.


       Strategy 2: Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas.

                                                             Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas.
              Substrategies                        Factors           Threats Addressed        VSP Parameters           Life                         Discussion
                                                  Addressed                                     Addressed            Stages
                                                                                                                     Affected
a. Restore access to isolated habitats        Obstructions          Irrigation Diversions    Distribution          Adults          See Table 5 for list of known passage
   blocked by artificial barriers such as                           Road culverts            Productivity          0+              barriers. The most serious passage barriers
   dams, road culverts and irrigation                                                                              juveniles       on the mainstem of the Umatilla River have
   structures                                                                                                                      been addressed. The watershed with the
b. Restore access to isolated habitats                                                                                             greatest need for passage remediation is
   blocked by flow and temperature                                                                                                 Birch Creek.
   barriers

c. Restore access to isolated habitats        Water quantity,       Water withdrawals        Abundance             All             The primary tributary streams where water
   blocked by flow and temperature            temperature,                                   Productivity                          withdrawals are affecting migration and
   barriers                                   habitat quantity                               Spatial structure                     rearing of steelhead include the Birch and
                                                                                             diversity                             Butter Creek watersheds. Dewatering and
                                                                                                                                   passage barriers are so sever in Butter Creek
                                                                                                                                   that steelhead are currently not documented
                                                                                                                                   to occur. Birch Creek continues to support
                                                                                                                                   steelhead, but water withdrawals are
                                                                                                                                   significantly impacting rearing and migration
                                                                                                                                   habitats.
d. Provide screening at 100% of               Entrainment           Irrigation diversions    Productivity          All             There is only one gravity flow diversion
   irrigation diversions                                                                     Abundance                             known to not have inadequate screening in
                                                                                             Distribution                          areas that are occupied by steelhead.
                                                                                                                                   However, it is not known to what extent pump
                                                                                                                                   diversion are adequately screened.
e. Operate and maintain fish passage          Obstructions          Irrigation diversions    Productivity          All             There are cooperative projects in place in the
   and screening facilities                   Entrainment                                    Abundance                             Umatilla Subbasin to both physically maintain
                                                                                             Distribution                          the facilities and provide biological oversight
                                                                                                                                   so they are operated to maintain optimum fish
                                                                                                                                   passage conditions.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Areas currently utilized by steelhead. Top priority artificial barriers: Birch Cr. (RM 2.5, RM 5 and RM 15), West Birch Cr. (RM 3.5, RM 3.8, RM 5.5, RM 8.5), Bridge Cr. (RM 2).
Other passage barriers are listed in Table 2. Top priority flow and temperature barriers: lUmatilla River from Mckay creek to mouth, Birch Cr and Butter Cr
Key Programs



                                                                                            78
        Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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                    Agency                                        Program Name                                   Sufficient                          Needs Expansion
ODFW                                                BPA Habitat Program                                                                 More funding needed
CTUIR                                               BPA Habitat Program                                                                 More funding needed
ODFW                                                Fish Screening Program                                Yes for gravity               Need to inventory and address pump
                                                                                                          diversions                    screening
Westland Irrigation District                            Fish facilities O and M                           Yes
CTUIR/ODFW                                              Fish passage operations                           Yes
USFS                                                    Road Maintenance                                  No                          More funding needed
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
McKay, Butter and Willow creeks all historically supported summer steelhead, but steelhead are not currently present due to passage obstructions and low flow problems.
McKay Dam, constructed to store water for irrigation in the 1920‟s, completely blocks upstream passage of fish at RM 6. Until recent years, McKay Creek downstream of
McKay Dam was completely de-watered when the reservoir was being filled. Butter Creek has a series of large diversion dams that block upstream passage throughout the
basin. In addition, water withdrawal for irrigation is so severe that water flows out of the mouth for only a few days or weeks in any given year. Willow Creek Dam Was
constructed in 1980 on Willow Creek just upstream of Heppner (RM 56) for flood control. Willow Creek Dam completely blocks upstream passage of fish. In addition, to Willow
Creek Dam, numerous irrigation diversion dams exist throughout the Willow Creek watershed that block passage. The lowest barrier in Willow Creek that blocks anadromous
passage exists at RM 11. Steelhead are occasionally seen holding downstream of this dam.

While the general condition of passage in these streams (McKay, Butter and Willow creeks) is understood, a thorough inventory and assessment is needed. This information
can be used to pursue passage improvement for redband trout and to assess the feasibility of restoring passage for steelhead.

The USFS has identified passage barriers in addition to the ones listed in Table 2.




        Strategy 3: Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability.
                                                         Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability.
              Substrategies                        Factors             Threats Addressed          VSP Parameters             Life                           Discussion
                                                  Addressed                                         Addressed              Stages
                                                                                                                          Affected
 a. Bring vertical and lateral stream          Channel stability  Stream Channelization          Abundance              All               Stream channel reconstruction and instream
    movement in balance with landscape                            Stream bank armoring           Productivity                             structures can be designed to correct channel
    and flow regime                                               Gravel removal                 Diversity                                stability problems. Where appropriate,
                                                                  Bar scalping                                                            passive treatments are preferred.
                                                                  Channel modification
 b. Increase role and abundance of large       Habitat diversity  Removal of large wood          Productivity           All               Aside from riparian vegetation, removal of
    wood and other organic debris in           Key habitat        Removal of beaver              Abundance                                large wood debris is one of the most
    streambeds                                 quantity           Channelization                                                          pervasive habitat deficiencies in the Umatilla
                                                                  Streambank armoring                                                     subbasin, either from direct removal or from
                                                                  Removal of trees from                                                   removal of vegetation from riparian zones
                                                                 riparian areas                                                            and floodplains. In areas where direct and
                                                                  Livestock overgrazing                                                   immediate benefits to viability parameters can
                                                                 in riparian areas                                                         be addressed, large wood should be placed
                                                                                                                                           to improve overall ecosystem function. In
                                                                                                                                           areas where the lack of large wood is in
                                                                                                                                           addition to other habitat deficiencies such as
                                                                                                                                           flow and water quality, then restoration
                                                                                                                                           should focus on these over riding factors first.
 c. Decrease gradient; restore sinuosity       Temperature          Removal of beavers           Abundance              All               Watershed scale problems and riparian
 d. Restore channel and floodplain             Sediment             Channelization               Productivity                             management issues should be considered
    connectivity                               Habitat quantity     Stream bank armoring         Diversity                                before active stream channel restoration is
 e. Restore off-channel and side channel       Habitat diversity    Livestock overgrazing                                                 employed.
    habitat                                    Channel stability     in riparian areas


 f. Increase pool habitat quantity             Key habitat          Removal of wood              Productivity           Fry to adult      EDT has identified locations where significant
                                               quantity             Removal of beaver            Abundance                                benefit would occur if this feature were re-
                                                                    Channelization                                                        introduced. Pools should be constructed
                                                                                                                                           strategically where other alternatives are not
                                                                                                                                           likely to accomplish this need, or constraints
                                                                                                                                           will not allow natural processes to form them.
                                                                                                                                           Artificial enhancement of pools should only
                                                                                                                                           be performed in areas where other
                                                                                                                                           parameters, such as water quality, would
                                                                                                                                           allow immediate use/benefits to be realized.




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 g. Increase riffle habitats that have         Key habitat            Removal of large wood,      Productivity           Adult        Incised or over steepened stream channels
    appropriate sized spawning gravels         quantity               Removal of beaver           abundance              Egg          tend to have coarse substrates not suitable
                                                                      Channelization                                     Fry          for steelhead spawning. EDT identified some
                                                                      Streambank armoring                                             reaches where this is limiting. Passive and
                                                                      Removal of trees from                                           active approaches to reduce incision and
                                                                       riparian areas                                                  channel slope should be employed where
                                                                      Livestock overgrazing                                           water quality is currently adequate to support
                                                                       in riparian areas                                               spawning and rearing.
 h. Remove physical channel constraints        Habitat quantity       Channel and floodplain      Abundance              All          Many streams in the basin are bordered by
    such as levies and dikes.                  Habitat diversity     encroachment and              Productivity                        dikes and levies.
                                               Channel stability     development
 I. Moderate channel erosion rates             Temperature            Removal of beavers          Abundance              All          Stream that have been altered by human
                                               Sediment               Channelization              Productivity                        activities such as grazing, removal of riparian
                                               Habitat quantity       Stream bank armoring        Diversity                           vegetation, Channelization and bank
                                               Habitat diversity      Bar scalping                                                    armoring often have vertical and/or lateral
                                               Channel stability      Livestock overgrazing                                           erosion rates elevated above natural
                                                                       in riparian areas                                               conditions. Restoration of vegetation and
                                                                      Removal of riparian                                             channel form/function can moderate channel
                                                                       vegetation                                                      erosion rates.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Birch Cr., mouth to forks; Umatilla R., Mission Br. to forks; Meacham Cr., mouth to North Fork; West Birth Cr., mouth to top of gorge; NF Meacham Cr.; E. Birch Cr., mouth to
headwaters; Bear Cr.; Umatilla R., Butter Cr. to Westland Dam and Stanfield Dam to McKay Cr.; Umatilla R., Three Mile Falls to Butter Cr.; Iskuulpa Cr., mouth to Bachelor
Canyon
Key Programs
                     Agency                                           Program Name                               Sufficient                          Needs Expansion
ODFW                                                   BPA Habitat Program                                No                           Yes
CTUIR                                                  BPA Habitat Program                                No                           Yes
SWCD                                                   Watershed Restoration                              Yes                          Involvement is currently limited
Watershed Council                                      Watershed Restoration                              No                           There is a continuing need for landowner
                                                                                                                                       assistance to insure that issues are dealt with
                                                                                                                                       appropriately.
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Intensive land uses within Umatilla subbasin flood plains and upslope habitats have led to dramatic changes in waterway characteristics since arrival of Euro-American pioneers to
the area during the middle 1800‟s (Nagel 1997, unpublished; Beschta 1994). Channel alterations in the Umatilla Subbasin have resulted in 1) straight, incised channels with
minimal woody riparian vegetation, and 2) wide channels with increased dynamics and minimal woody riparian vegetation.


       Strategy 4: Restore riparian function and condition.

                                                              Restore riparian function and condition.
              Substrategies                        Factors                Threats Addressed             VSP             Life                      Discussion
                                                  Addressed                                         Parameters        Stages
                                                                                                    Addressed        Affected
 a. Restore native riparian plant              Channel stability           Livestock              Productivity     All             Historically, bank armoring with rock
    communities.                                                            overgrazing of         Abundance                            and channelization were used to
 b. Restore channel and floodplain                                          riparian area          Diversity                            stabilize stream banks at the
    connectivity                                                           Channelization                                              detriment of riparian vegetation
 c. Eradicate invasive plant species from                                  Stream bank                                                 growth. In the last 15 years the
    riparian areas                                                          armoring                                                    high economic and ecological cost
 d. Exclude livestock from riparian areas                                                                                               of bank armoring with riprap and of
                                                                                                                                        channelization has been
                                                                                                                                        recognized, so the emphasis has
                                                                                                                                        shifted toward a more passive
                                                                                                                                        approach for stabilization, primarily
                                                                                                                                        through riparian vegetation
                                                                                                                                        improvements.
 e. Establish riparian setbacks for            Temperature,                Removal of riparian    Abundance        All             Residential, industrial, commercial and
    structures and housing developments         sediment,                   vegetation             Productivity                         other development in riparian
    and other actvities that could disrupt      habitat quantity,          Removal of large       diversity                            areas and floodplains threatens
    riparian function                           habitat diversity,          wood                                                        water quality and habitat by
 f. Insure compliance with existing             channel stability          Channelization                                              interfering with ecological
    zoning ordinances concerning riparian                                  Stream bank                                                 functions. In areas where
    and floodplain management                                               armoring                                                    development is occurring, that
                                                                           Cutting of trees in                                         development should be adequately
                                                                            the riparian area                                           set back from streams so as not to
                                                                                                                                        interrupt natural stream processes.
 g. Maintain, relocate or eliminate forest,    Sediment, habitat           Roads                  Abundance        All             In many areas of the Umatilla
    public and private roads in riparian           diversity,                                      Productivity                         Subbasin, riparian roads have



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       Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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    areas.                                          channel                                       Spatial                                 reduced riparian vegetation,
                                                    stability                                        structure                            confined stream channels, and
                                                                                                                                          continue to deliver fine sediment to
                                                                                                                                          channels. Regular road
                                                                                                                                          maintenance, or road relocation or
                                                                                                                                          elimination will restore allow
                                                                                                                                          natural riparian processes.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Birch Cr., mouth to forks; Umatilla R., Mission Br. to forks; Meacham Cr., mouth to North Fork; West Birth Cr., mouth to top of gorge; NF Meacham Cr.; East Birch Cr.,
mouth to headwaters; Bear Cr.; Meacham Cr., Sheep Cr. to headwaters; SF Umatilla R., mouth to Thomas Cr.; Umatilla R., Butter Cr. to Westland Dam and Stanfield
Dam to McKay Cr.; Umatilla R., Three Mile Falls to Butter Cr.; Iskuulpa Cr., mouth to Bachelor Canyon
Key Programs
                      Agency                                          Program Name                              Sufficient                      Needs Expansion
ODA, SWCD                                              AgWQMAP                                            Partially                 See discussion below
Farm Service Agency, NRCS, SWCD                        CREP, CCRP, CSP, EQIP                              No                        Greater participation by landowners is
                                                                                                                                    needed. Many additional miles of
                                                                                                                                    stream to be treated
ODFW/CTUIR                                             BPA Habitat Program                                No                        Many additional miles of stream to be
                                                                                                                                    treated
USFS                                                   Grazing management                                 Yes
DEQ                                                    TMDL                                               No                        Has no rules or enforcement
                                                                                                                                    mechanisms.
municipalities                                         Land use planning ordinances                       No                        Yes
Umatilla County                                        Comprehensive plan                                 No                        Yes
State Land Conservation and Development                Statewide planning goals                           Yes
USFS                                                   Road management                                    No                        Yes, insufficient funds
ODOT                                                   Road maintenance
Umatilla County                                        Road maintenance                                   No                        Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
The Umatilla and Walla Walla Agricultural Water Quality Management (AgWQM) Area Rules require that management on agricultural lands allow the establishment,
growth and maintenance of riparian or stream-side vegetation, consistent with site capability, to promote habitat and protect water quality by filtering sediment, stabilizing
streambanks, naturally storing water, and providing shade. The AgWQM program is outcome-based rather than prescriptive, therefore allows landowners the flexibility to
achieve water quality goals using available equipment, technology and innovation. The rules for each Management Area provide the enforceable backstop to the
voluntary initiatives. The SWCDs are the local management agencies that provide the outreach, education and technical assistance. ODA is responsible for complaint
investigations and enforcement actions. Technical and financial assistance is available through state and federal programs to landowners for establishing adequate
riparian areas.

Continued development adjacent to waterways is not suitable to the recovery of Mid. Columbia steelhead. Fish managers need to review the issue with Umatilla County
and municipalities and identify ways to resolve problems with current regulations or their implementation.


       Strategy 5: Restore natural hydrograph to provide adequate flow during critical periods.

                                                Restore natural hydrograph to provide adequate flow during critical periods
              Substrategies                        Factors         Threats Addressed     VSP Parameters          Life                                 Discussion
                                                  Addressed                                 Addressed           Stages
                                                                                                               Affected
a. Improve flows for migration and             Water quantity      Water withdrawals     Abundance           Parr to                 Agricultural water diversions constructed on
   rearing on the Umatilla Mainstem            Temperature                               Productivity        Adult                   the lower Umatilla in the early 20th century
                                               Habitat quantity                          Spatial Structure                           lead to dewatering of the channel throughout
                                                                                         Diversity                                   the spring, summer and fall. Implementation
                                                                                                                                     of the Umatilla Basin Water Exchange project
                                                                                                                                     has resulted in restoration of flows in the
                                                                                                                                     mainstem of the Umatilla River so that
                                                                                                                                     migration and rearing of steelhead is better
                                                                                                                                     supported, but conditions are not fully
                                                                                                                                     restored. Continued implementation and
                                                                                                                                     maintenance of this project is critical for
                                                                                                                                     providing migration and rearing.
b. Improve flows for migration and             Water Quantity         Water withdrawals        Abundance             All             The primary tributary streams where water
   rearing on tributary streams                Temperature                                     Productivity                          withdrawals are affecting migration and
                                               Habitat Quantity                                Spatial Structure                     rearing of steelhead include the Birch and
                                                                                               Diversity                             Butter Creek watersheds. Dewatering and
                                                                                                                                     passage barriers are so sever in Butter Creek
                                                                                                                                     that steelhead are currently not documented
                                                                                                                                     to occur. Birch Creek continues to support
                                                                                                                                     steelhead, but water withdrawals are
                                                                                                                                     significantly impacting rearing and migration




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       Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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                                                                                                                                   habitats.
c. Restore peak flows to natural levels        Sediment             Channelization            Productivity          All            Management of upland vegetation and soils,
                                               Habitat diversity    Loss of upland water      Abundance                            and drainage networks can lead to increased
                                                                    storage capacity          Diversity                            magnitude of peak flow events. Winter time
                                                                                                                                   withdrawal of water from streams and rivers
                                                                                                                                   can reduce the magnitude and frequency of
                                                                                                                                   peak flow events.
d. Minimize artificial fish passage            Obstructions         Passage barriers          Productivity          Parr to        Many streams that historically flowed year
   barriers                                                         caused by                 Abundance             Adult          long are now intermittent, creating fish
                                                                    intermittent flow         Diversity                            passage barriers in the dewatered reach.
                                                                                              Spatial Structure                    Many of these are due to water withdrawals
                                                                                                                                   for agricultural, industrial, municipal and
                                                                                                                                   domestic uses.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Umatilla R., Mission Br. To Meacham Cr.; W. Birch Cr., mouth to Bear Cr.; E. Birch Cr., mouth to California Gulch; Umatilla R., Butter Cr. to Westland Dam and Stanfield Dam to
McKay Cr.; Umatilla R., Three Mile Falls Dam to Butter Cr.; Butter Cr.
Key Programs
                       Agency                                           Program Name                             Sufficient                          Needs Expansion
BOR/BPA                                                 Umatilla Basin Project                            No                           Additional water is needed to meet target
                                                                                                                                       flows established for the basin project
Oregon Water Resources Department                       Stream Flow Monitoring and Regulation             No                           Yes
Oregon Water Trust and BOR                              Leasing and Purchase of Water Rights              No                           Yes
SWCD, ODFW, CTUIR, Watershed Council                    Improve irrigation efficiency                     No                           Yes
Watershed Councils                                      Upland improvements, riparian improvements No                                  Yes
NRCS                                                    Upland improvements, riparian improvements No                                  Yes
USFS                                                    Forest Management                                 Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Phase I and II of the Umatilla Basin Project are currently meeting critical flow needs in the mainstem of the Umatilla River. This program should be continued to support
migration and rearing of steelhead. Target flows for the Umatilla River mainstem were established as part of the Basin Project to the life history needs of Chinook and coho
salmon and steelhead. The Basin Project as currently implemented does not provide adequate water to meet the target flows throughout the times needed by these species,
and fails to provide any flow mitigation for a significant length of the river in July and August. BOR, CTUIR and WID are currently seeking to expand the Basin Project (Phase
III) to better meet flow needs for migration and rearing. As Phase III of the Basin project is developed, priority should be given to providing additional flow at the time and
locations to meet the needs of MCR steelhead.
Significant efforts have been made in the lower Umatilla Basin to use more efficient means of applying water to agricultural crops. There has been less emphasis on irrigation
efficiency in other areas of the subbasin. Efforts should be taken to improve irrigation efficiency in areas such as the Birch Creek watershed where flow is a primary limiting
factor.
The Oregon Water Trust has put significant effort into gaining instream water leases in the Umatilla Subbasin, with limited success. While it is unlikely that this approach could
make a significant difference on the lower Umatilla River, tributary habitats could benefit substantially from water leasing. The Oregon Water Trust should maintain a “presence”
in the subbasin to be in a position to capitalize on opportunities as they arise.
While instream water rights have been established on many of the important spawning and rearing stream in the subbasin, some have not. Where important spawning and
rearing streams have not been protected by instream water rights, appropriate instream flow studies should be conducted and instream water rights applied for. In addition,
consideration should be given to protecting and restoring flows in the Butter Creek drainage, where steelhead are currently extinct.
Projects to improve summer and fall streamflow and temperature by recharging shallow aquifers have been proposed, but none have been implemented to date. These types
of projects are highly experimental in nature and should be accompanied by rigorous monitoring and evaluation to determine the net benefits of the action.


       Strategy 6: Restore degraded water quality.

                                                                     Restore degraded water quality.
              Substrategies                        Factors           Threats Addressed        VSP Parameters            Life                         Discussion
                                                  Addressed                                     Addressed             Stages
                                                                                                                     Affected
 a. Setback agricultural activities from       Habitat Quantity     Channelization            Abundance             All            Due to deleterious impacts to waterways,
    waterways                                  Habitat Quality      Bank armoring             Productivity                         agricultural activities need to be set back.
                                               Channel Stability    Vegetation removal        Diversity
                                               Sediment             Ag chemicals
                                               Low Flow             Soil erosion
                                               Temperature
 b. Modify grazing practices along             Habitat Quantity     Channelization            Abundance             All            Grazing management strategies need to be
    waterways                                  Habitat Quality      Bank armoring             Productivity                         modified to reduce impacts to waterways.
                                               Channel Stability    Vegetation removal        Diversity
                                               Sediment             Soil Compaction
                                               Low Flow             Soil erosion
                                               Temperature
 c. Address point sources of water             Temperature          Water pollution           Abundance             All            Point sources of water pollution are direct
    pollution                                                                                 Productivity                         impacts that should be corrected through
                                                                                              Diversity                            implementation of the TMDL and associated
                                                                                                                                   water quality management plan.




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 d. Establish appropriate waterway              Habitat Quantity      Tree/vegetation           Abundance             All             Implementation of the Oregon Forest
    setbacks from forest management             Habitat Quality       removal                   Productivity                          Practices Act and PACFISH and INFISH
    and agricultural activities                 Channel Stability     Soil disturbance          Diversity                             standards on national forest lands provide for
                                                Sediment              Channel degradation                                             buffers from forest management activities
                                                Low Flow
                                                Temperature
 e. Reduce sedimentation and unnatural          Sediment              Grazing, vegetation       Productivity          All             Upland vegetation conversion has reduced
    rates of erosion from upland areas                                clearing or alteration    Abundance                             soil stability.
                                                                                                Spatial structure
                                                                                                Diversity
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Umatilla R., Three Mile Dam to Butter Creek; Umatilla R., Mission Br. to Meacham Cr.; Umatilla R., Meacham Cr to Forks; Meacham Creek, Mouth to North Fork; North Fork
Meacham Creek; Meacham Creek, Twomile Creek to headwaters including Twomile Cr; Birch Creek, mouth to forks; West Birch Creek, mouth to top of gorge; Bear Cr (West
Birch trib); East Birch Creek, mouth to headwaters including tributaries
Key Programs
                       Agency                                         Program Name                              Sufficient                        Needs Expansion
NRCS/FSA                                              CREP, CCRP, CRP, EQIP, CSP                        No                          The potential coverage of these programs has
                                                                                                                                    not been realized in Umatilla County
ODFW                                                  BPA Habitat Program                               No                          There is a need for additional buffers
CTUIR                                                 BPA Habitat Program                               No                          There is a need for additional buffers
DEQ                                                   TMDL, NPDES                                       No                          More emphasis needed on implementation of
                                                                                                                                    TMDL/WQMP
ODOF                                                  Forest Practices Act                              Yes
USFS                                                  Pacfish, Infish                                   Yes
SWCD                                                  Landowner cost share programs for                 Yes                         More landowners could be included if funds
                                                      conservation farming practices                                                were available
ODA, SWCD                                             Ag WQ Mgmt Plan                                   No                          See comments below
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Although this threat is partially addressed by the Umatilla River Water Quality Management Areas Plan (WQMAP), the guidance provided to landowners on management of
riparian areas is fairly general. There is also some uncertainty regarding the implementation of this plan‟s requirements, as enforcement is based on a complaint-driven system.
There is a continuing need to establish more riparian buffers. Achievement of the TMDL targets is dependent of determination of system potential vegetation. During TMDL
development, the best professional judgment of the team described the potential streamside shade-producing vegetation broadly, as continuous tree-belts on each side of the
river.

The Umatilla and Walla Walla AgWQM Rules require control of sediment delivery to streams to acceptable levels, control of irrigation runoff, management of livestock grazing to
prevent runoff of waste and sediment, and establishment and maintenance of riparian and streamside vegetation. Beginning in 2008, these land conditions will be enforceable
by ODA. SWCD provides technical and financial assistance to private landowners.

The SWCD, in partnership from OSU Extension Service and NRCS, has been a leader in promoting adoption of high tech conservation farming practices. They have received
grants to provide cost share for farmers to adopt direct seeding, variable rate fertilizer placement and selective weed control. This technology reduces tillage that results in less
erosion and healthier soils, applies only the needed amount of fertilizer to crops and reduces the application of herbicides.




       Strategy 7: Restore degraded upland processes.

                                                                    Restore degraded upland processes.
              Substrategies                         Factors           Threats Addressed         VSP Parameters            Life                          Discussion
                                                   Addressed                                      Addressed             Stages
                                                                                                                       Affected
 a. Improve upland water storage              Loss of upland        Livestock                Productivity,           All          There are cooperative projects in place in the
     capacity                                 water storage           overgrazing in          abundance,                           Umatilla Subbasin
 b. Restore native upland plant               capacity,               riparian areas          distribution
     communities                              sediment load         Channelization
 c. Upgrade or remove problem forest                                Changes in upland
     roads                                                            plant communities
 d. Employ BMPs to minimize unnatural                               Cutting tress in
     rates of erosion and runoff from                                 riparian areas
     upland
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
The following watersheds: Birch Cr., mouth to forks; Umatilla R., Mission Br. to forks; Meacham Cr., mouth to North Fork; West Birth Cr., mouth to top of gorge; NF Meacham
Cr.; East Birch Cr., mouth to headwaters; Bear Cr.; Meacham Cr., Sheep Cr. to headwaters; SF Umatilla R., mouth to Thomas Cr.; Umatilla R., Butter Cr. to Westland Dam and
Stanfield Dam to McKay Cr.; Umatilla R., Three Mile Falls to Butter Cr.; Iskuulpa Cr., mouth to Bachelor Canyon
Key Programs
                     Agency                                         Program Name                             Sufficient                         Needs Expansion
NRCS                                                 EQIP, CRP, CREP, CCRP                              No                        Additional acres should be treated
USFS                                                 Forest Management                                  Yes




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       Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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ODFW/CTUIR                                     BPA Habitat Program                            No                         Additional implementation is needed
SWCD, Watershed Council                        Watershed Restoration, OWEB                    No                         Additional implementation is needed
ODA                                            AgWMP                                          No                         See comments above
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
The degree to which upland vegetation management issues are being addressed has not been summarized subbasin-wide so sufficiency is currently not well understood.

The AgWQM Area Plan addresses upland conditions, both on rangeland and cropland that must be met to prevent and control erosion and improve overall watershed health to
achieve water quality goals. The Area Rules require control of soil erosion to acceptable levels, allowing riparian and stream-side vegetation to establish for bank stability,
filtering and shade, and management of livestock to prevent runoff of sediment and animal wastes. SWCD and NRCS programs are providing incentives to landowners to
adopt farming practices that are more environmentally protective.


       Strategy 8: Protect/restore habitat through education and outreach.

                                                         Protect/restore habitat through education and outreach.
                   Substrategies                  Factors           Threats Addressed                  VSP             Life                       Discussion
                                                 Addressed                                        Parameters         Stages
                                                                                                   Addressed        Affected
       d. Educate, landowners, land              Potentially      Potentially addresses          Productivity,     All             Topics of education include the
          management agencies, and others        many             many threats including         abundance,                        importance of healthy riparian zones;
       e. Initiate demonstration projects of     limiting         stream channelization,         distribution,                     impacts of activities on uplands,
          good land management.                  factors          stream bank armoring,          and spatial                       floodplains and stream corridors on
       f. Outreach to government officials.                       water withdrawals,             structure                         erosion rates and survival of steelhead
                                                                  changes in upland plant                                          eggs and other habitat parameters;
                                                                  communities,                                                     impacts of heavy metals and mine waste
                                                                  obstructions                                                     on fish; scarcity of flow during critical
                                                                                                                                   periods for fish; fish passage needs; the
                                                                                                                                   relationship between shade and water
                                                                                                                                   temperature; and how many fish are
                                                                                                                                   diverted by unscreened irrigation
                                                                                                                                   diversions.
       Priority Locations (geographic areas)
       Basinwide

       Key Programs
                  Agency/Stakeholders                                     Program Name                          Sufficient                       Needs Expansion
       ODFW                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
       CTWSRO                                              Outreach                                       No                        Yes
       USFS                                                Outreach                                       No                        Yes
       BLM                                                 Outreach                                       No                        Yes
       SWCDs                                               Outreach                                       No                        Yes
       ODA                                                 Agricultural Water Quality Program             No                        Yes
       Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
       Educating landowners, other agencies, and the public about fish life history and habitat needs is a long, ongoing process and it will be very difficult to measure
       tangible results. Current activities include field days with school groups, agencies, and landowners, as well as presentations about life history and species of fish
       present in the Umatilla River basin. The formation of Watershed Councils and SWCDs that are active in watershed restoration has increased awareness about fish
       needs throughout the entire basin, but landowners, educators, and the public are eager for additional information. Current personnel cannot meet the demand for
       education and outreach and still complete their other assigned duties. ODA funds SWCDs to provide water quality information to landowners.




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         Habitat Actions for Recovery of Umatilla River steelhead.

Action                  Status           Implementing Entity       Strategy      Spatial Coverage1       Implementati     Expected           Certainty of
                                                                   Addressed                             on               Biophysical        Outcome3
                                                                                                         timeframe        Response2
Implement Umatilla      Ongoing          BOR, OWRD, WEID,          5, 6          From McKay              Long Term        Immediate          High
Basin Project Phase I                    HID, SID, CTUIR,                        Reservoir to mouth
and II                                   ODFW                                    of the Umatilla River
File for additional     On hold          ODFW                      5, 6          Specific to the         Unknown          Long term          High
ISWR‟s                                                                           stream reach
Monitor and regulate    Ongoing          OWRD                      5,6           From the point of       Long term        Immediate          High
water withdrawals                                                                diversion
                                                                                 downstream to the
                                                                                 mouth of the
                                                                                 Umatilla River
Instream water leases   Ongoing          OWRD., Oregon Water       5,6           From the point of       Long term        Immediate          High
and acquisitions                         Trust                                   diversion upstream
Irrigation efficiency   Ongoing          SWCD, ODFW,               5,6           Depends on means        Short Term       Immediate          Moderate – depends
projects                                 Watershed Council                       use to protect                                              on how saved water
                                                                                 instream flows                                              is protected, if any.
Downstream water        ongoing          OWRD                      5,6           Reach between old       Long Term        Immediate          High
right transfers                                                                  and new point of
                                                                                 diversion
Review land use         unknown          Municipalities Umatilla   4,8           Mid and lower basin;    Ongoing -        Slow response      It is unknown to what
planning documents                       County                                  High dispersal          unknown                             extent governments
and ordinances                           LCDC                                    downstream                                                  will address this
                                                                                                                                             need.
Revise land use         unknown          Municipalities Umatilla   1,4,5,6,7,8   Mid and lower basin;    Ongoing -        Slow response      It is unknown to what
regulations to better                    County                                  High dispersal          unknown                             extent governments
address habitat and                      LCDC                                    downstream                                                  will address this
water quality issues                                                                                                                         need.
Enforce compliance of                    Municipalities Umatilla   1,4,6,7,8     Mid and lower basin;    Ongoing -        Slow response      It is unknown to what
existing zoning                          County                                  High dispersal          unknown                             extent governments
ordinances                               LCDC                                    downstream                                                  will address this
                                                                                                                                             need.
Place large wood        Ongoing,         ODFW/CTUIR                3             Reach affected          Short term       Immediate          High, but there is
debris and boulders     based on site                                                                                                        more risk with active
                        specific needs                                                                                                       restoration
                                                                                                                                             approaches in
                                                                                                                                             experiencing
                                                                                                                                             undesirable
                                                                                                                                             outcomes
Management of           Ongoing          ODA, NRCS, USFS           3,4,6         High dispersal          Long term        5 years to         High
riparian grazing                                                                 downstream from                          decades
                                                                                 site
Riparian exclosure                       ODFW, CTUIR,              3,4,5,6       High dispersal          Long term        5 years to         High
fencing                                  NRCS/FSA, SWCD,                         downstream from                          decades
                                         Umatilla Basin                          site
                                         Watershed Council
Riparian vegetation     Ongoing          ODFW, CTUIR,              3,4,5,6       High dispersal          Long term        5 years to         High
planting                                 NRCS/FSA Watershed                      downstream from                          decades
                                         Council, SWCD                           site
Channel restoration     Some need        ODFW                      3             Within the stream       Once specific    Some benefits      High, but there is
                        identified in    CTUIR                                   reach and reaches       action           will be realized   more risk with active
                        ODFW/CTUIR       Watershed Council                       downstream for          planned, short   immediately and    restoration
                        five year                                                temp and sediment       term             others will        approaches in
                        action plan                                                                                       develop over       experiencing
                                                                                                                          years              undesirable
                                                                                                                                             outcomes
Removal of dikes and    When a           ODFW, CTUIR,              3             Within the stream       Once specific    Some benefits      High
levies                  specific         SWCD, Watershed                         reach and reaches       action           will be realized
                        opportunity is   Council                                 downstream for          planned, short   immediately and
                        identified                                               temp and sediment       term             others will
                                                                                                                          develop over
                                                                                                                          years
Large woody debris      When a           ODFW, CTUIR,              3             Within the stream       Once specific    Some benefits      High
placement               specific need    SWCD, Watershed                         reach                   action           will be realized
                        is identified    Council                                                         planned, short   immediately and




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                                                                                                      term             others will
                                                                                                                       develop over
                                                                                                                       years
Bank                       When a           ODFW, CTUIR,           1,4       Within the stream        Once specific    Immediately          High, but there is
protection/stabilization   specific need    SWCD, Watershed                  reach and reaches        action                                more risk with active
                           is identified    Council                          downstream for           planned, short                        restoration
                                                                             temp and sediment        term                                  approaches in
                                                                                                                                            experiencing
                                                                                                                                            undesirable
                                                                                                                                            outcomes
Construct rock or log      Ongoing –        ODFW, CTUIR            3,5,6     Treatment site           Short, once      Pool habitat will    High
weirs to create pool       Current                                                                    specific need    be created
habitats or elevate        actions                                                                    identified       immediately.
incised channels           planned for                                                                                 Recruitment of
                           Meacham                                                                                     appropriate
                           Creek                                                                                       spawning
                                                                                                                       substrate will
                                                                                                                       require multiple
                                                                                                                       high-flow events.
Road grading and           Ongoing          USFS, ODOT, Umatilla   4,6       All riparian areas       Long term        Immediate            High
ditch cleaning                              County, private                  within the subbasin
                                            landowners                       containing roads
Debris removal from        Ongoing          USFS, ODOT, Umatilla   4,6       All road crossings of    Long term        Immediate            Moderate
culverts                                    County, private                  streams within
                                            landowners                       subbasin
Replace riparian           When a           USFS, ODOT, Umatilla   3,4,5,6   Riparian areas           Once             Immediate with       High
roads by constructing      specific road    County, private                  within the subbasin      identified,      continued
new roads outside          for relocation   landowners                       where potential for      short term       response for up
riparian areas and         is identified                                     riparian road closure                     to 50 years
restoring road prism                                                         and removal exists
within riparian area
Close, remove, and         When a           USFS, ODOT, Umatilla   4,6       Riparian areas           Once             Immediate with       High
restore riparian road      specific road    County, private                  within the subbasin      identified,      continued
prisms                     for closure      landowners                       where potential for      short term       response for up
                           and removal                                       riparian road closure                     to 50 years
                           is identified                                     and removal exists
No-cultivation riparian    When a           CTUIR, ODFW,           4,6,8     Cultivated land in       Long term        Immediate with       High
buffer on agricultural     potential                                         close proximity to                        continued
lands that are             easement is                                       priority habitat areas                    improvement for
currently cultivated up    identified                                        within the Umatilla                       up to 50 years or
to the channel                                                               Subbasin                                  until easement
                                                                                                                       ends and
                                                                                                                       management
                                                                                                                       changes. After
                                                                                                                       50 years habitat
                                                                                                                       effectiveness will
                                                                                                                       be maintained.
Increasing riparian        When a           CTUIR, ODFW, USFS      4,6,7,8   Forested land in         Long term        Immediate with       High
buffer widths              potential                                         close proximity to                        continued
associated with            easement is                                       priority habitat areas                    improvement for
forested areas             identified                                        within the Umatilla                       up to 50 years.
                                                                             Subbasin                                  After 50 years
                                                                                                                       habitat
                                                                                                                       effectiveness will
                                                                                                                       be maintained.
Protecting unstable        When a           CTUIR, ODFW, USFS      1,4,7,8   Unstable areas in        Long term        Immediate and        High
areas                      potential                                         close proximity to                        lasting as long as
                           easement is                                       priority habitat areas                    protection is in
                           identified                                        within the Umatilla                       place
                                                                             Subbasin
Changing                   When a           CTUIR, ODFW, USFS      4,6,8     Riparian areas           Long term        Immediate with       High
management in              potential                                         associated with                           continued
riparian areas             easement is                                       priority habitat areas                    improvement for
                           identified                                                                                  up to 50 years.
                                                                                                                       After 50 years
                                                                                                                       habitat
                                                                                                                       effectiveness will
                                                                                                                       be maintained.
Incorporate priority       When funding     Umatilla County,       1,4,7,8   All priority areas       Short term       Immediate with       High




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habitat areas into the    is available       CTUIR, ODFW                                 within the Umatilla                         continued
Natural Area Overlay                                                                     Subbasin                                    improvement for
Zone provision of the                                                                                                                up to 50 years.
Umatilla County                                                                                                                      After 50 years
Development                                                                                                                          habitat
Ordinance                                                                                                                            effectiveness will
                                                                                                                                     be maintained.
Determine potential       When funding       ODFW                        1,4,7,8         All priority areas        Long term         Immediate with       High
for incorporating         is available                                                   within the Umatilla                         continued
priority areas into       and                                                            Subbasin                                    improvement for
state legislation.        amendment is                                                                                               up to 50 years.
                          possible                                                                                                   After 50 years
                                                                                                                                     habitat
                                                                                                                                     effectiveness will
                                                                                                                                     be maintained.
Implement CREP and           Ongoing            NRCS, FSA                     4,7,8          High dispersal       Depends on         5 to 10 years        Moderate
CCRP buffers                                                                                 downstream           fun availability
Implement water              ongoing            ODEQ                          4,6,8          High dispersal       ongoing            immediate            High
quality management                                                                           downstream
plans
Implement Forest             Ongoing            ODF                           4,7,8          High dispersal       ongoing            immediate            High
Practices Act and                               USFS                                         downstream
PACFISH/INFISH
standards
Provide passage at           ongoing            ODFW, CTUIR, USFS             2              Access upstream of   Within 5 years     immediate            High
culverts and bridges                                                                         obstruction
Construct fish ladders       ongoing            ODFW, CTUIR, USFS             2                                   5-10 years         immediate            High
over irrigation
diversions
Screen unscreened            ongoing            ODFW                          2              Point of diversion   10-20 years        immediate            High
diversions
Replace screens that         ongoing            ODFW                          2              Point of diversion   10-20 years        immediate            High
do not meet criteria
Maintain fish passage        ongoing            CTUIR, ODFW, WID              2              Facility site        ongoing            immediate            High
facilities to meet
criteria
         1
           Geographic scale of effect (relative amount of basin affected by action)
         2 Expected response of action implementation ─ including how long for action to achieve full effectiveness
         3 Relative certainty that expected results will occur as a result of full implementation of action




       Table 1. Umatilla Subbasin Geographic Areas

       GA          Stream                                 Segment                                                                    MaSA                   MiSA
       1           Umatilla River                         Mouth to Three Mile Dam
       2           Umatilla River                         Three Mile Dam to Butter Creek
       3           North Hermiston Drain                  All
       4           Butter Creek                           Mouth to Madison diversion                                                 Butter
       5           Butter Creek                           Madison Diversion to East Butter Creek                                     Butter
       6           Little Butter Creek                    All                                                                        Little Butter
       7           East Fork Butter and tributaries       All                                                                        Butter
       8           Butter Creek                           East Fork to Headwaters and Johnson Creek                                  Butter
       9           Umatilla River                         Butter Creek to Westland Dam and Stanfield Dam to McKay Creek
       10          Stage Gulch                            All
       11          Umatilla River                         Westland Dam to Stanfield Dam
       12          Birch Creek                            Mouth to forks including Stewart Creek                                                            Birch, Stewart
       13          West Birch Creek                       Mouth to Bear Creek                                                        West Birch
       14          Bear Creek                             All, including tributaries                                                 West Birch
       15          West Birch Creek                       Bear Creek to top of gorge, including tributaries                          West Birch
       16          West Birch Creek                       Gorge to headwaters                                                        West Birch
       17          East Birch Creek                       Mouth to California Gulch                                                  East Birch
       18          East Birch Creek                       California Gulch to headwaters, including tributaries except Pearson       East Birch
                                                          Cr.
       19          Pearson Creek                          All                                                                        East Birch
       20          McKay Creek                            Mouth to McKay Dam                                                         McKay
       21          McKay Creek                            McKay Dam to North Fork



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22        North Fork McKay                      All, including tributaries                                              McKay
24        McKay Creek                           North Fork to headwaters, including tributaries                         McKay
25        Umatilla River                        McKay Creek to Mission Bridge
26        Wildhorse Creek                       Mouth to Athena, including tributaries                                                      Wildhorse
27        Widlhorse Creek                       Athena to headwaters, including tributaries                                                 Wildhorse
28        Umatilla River                        Mission Bridge to Meacham Creek                                         Middle Umatilla
29        Umatilla Tributaries                  Mission, Cottonwood, Moonshine and Coonskin creeks                      Middle Umatilla
30        Buckaroo Creek                        All                                                                     Middle Umatilla
31        Iskuulpa Creek                        Mouth to Bachelor Canyon                                                Middle Umatilla
32        Iskuulpa Creek                        Bachelor Canyon to headwaters, including tributaries                    Middle Umatilla
33        Meacham Creek                         Mouth to North Fork                                                     Meacham
34        Meacham Creek                         Tributaries from mouth to North Fork                                    Meacham
35        North Fork Meacham                    All, including tributaries                                              Meacham
36        Meacham Creek                         North Fork to Twomile Creek, including Sheep Creek                      Meacham
37        East Meacham                          All including tributaries and Butcher Creek                             Meacham
38        Meacham Creek                         Twomile Creek to headwaters, including Twomile Creek                    Meacham
39        Beaver Creek                          All, including tributaries                                              Meacham
40        Umatilla River                        Meacham Creek to forks                                                  Upper Umatilla
41        Ryan Creek                            All                                                                     Upper Umatilla
42        North Fork Umatilla                   Mouth to headwaters, including tributaries                              Upper Umatilla
43        South Fork Umatilla                   Mouth to Thomas Creek                                                   Upper Umatilla
44        Buck Creek                            All, including tributaries                                              Upper Umatilla
45        Thomas Creek                          All                                                                     Upper Umatilla
46        South Fork Umatilla                   Thomas Creek to headwaters, including Shimmiehorn Creek                 Upper Umatilla
Note: Minor spawning areas within the Umatilla Subbasin not represented include Cold Springs, Alkali, Speare, Mud Spring and Little McKay


Table 2. Barriers to upstream passage on streams in the Umatilla River subbasin (NPCC 2004).

                                                                         Step Height
                              River
                                                                           Est. (m)                                                             Priority
Stream                        Mile         Barrier Type                                     Degree                   Recommended Action
Umatilla R.                      1.5       Channel Mod.                       0.7           Partial                 Modify                              L
Umatilla R.                      2.4       Irrigation Dam                     1.0           Partial                 Modify                              M
Umatilla R.                       49       Irrigation Dam                     1.2           Partial                 Remove                              M
Butter Creek                     7.9       Flash Boards                       2.3           Complete                Modify                              L
Butter Creek                     27.2      Irrigation Dam                     1.4           Complete                Modify                              L
Butter Creek                     43.0      Irrigation Dam                     1.2           Complete                Modify                              L
Johnson Cr. (Butter Trib)        0.3       Culvert                            0.8           Partial                 Modify                              M
Birch Creek                      0.5       Pipe Casing                        1.4           Partial                 Modify                              M
Birch Creek                      2.5       Irrigation Dam                     1.5           Partial                 Modify/Remove                       H
Birch Creek                      5.0       Irrigation Dam                     1.2           Partial                 Modify/Remove                       H
Birch Creek                      10.0      Irrigation Dam                     1.0           Partial                 Remove                              M
Birch Creek                      11.0      Irrigation Dam                     0.7           Partial                 Remove                              L
Birch Creek                      12.0      Irrigation Dam                     1.0           Partial                 Modify                              M
Birch Creek                      15.0      Irrigation Dam                     1.7           Partial                 Remove                              H
West Birch Cr.                   1.0       Irrigation Dam                      ?            Partial                 Modify                              M
West Birch Cr.                   3.5       Irrigation Dam                     2.1           Partial                 Modify                              H
West Birch Cr.                   3.8       Bridge                             1.2           Partial                 Modify                              H
West Birch Cr.                   5.5       Irrigation Dam                     1.4           Partial                 Remove                              H
West Birch Cr.                   8.5       Irrigation Dam                     1.5           Partial                 Remove                              H
Bridge Cr. (West Birch)          2.0       Culvert                             ?            Complete                Modify                              H
East Birch Cr.                   4.0       Irrigation Dam                     0.7           Partial                 Remove                              L
East Birch Cr.                   9.0       Irrigation Dam                     1.0           Partial                 Remove                              L
Jungle/Windy Spr.                0.1       Culvert                            0.15          Partial                 Modify                              L
(Pearson)
Wildhorse Cr.                    0.1       Irrigation Dam                      0.7          Partial                 Modify                              L
Wildhorse Cr.                    18.8      Bridge                              1.0          Partial                 Modify                              L
Greasewood Cr.                   0.4       Irrigation Dam                      0.6          Partial                 Modify                              L
Mission Cr.                      0.9       Bedrock Drop                        0.5          Partial                 Modify                              M
Mission Cr.                      3.3       Bridge/Culvert                      0.7          Partial                 Modify                              M
Coonskin Cr.                     0.3       Bridge                              0.5          Partial                 Modify                              M
Coonskin Cr.                     0.9       Pipe Casing                         1.1          Partial                 Modify                              M
Whitman Spr.                     0.1       Culvert                             0.5          Complete                Modify                              L
Red Elk Can.                     0.2       Culvert                             0.8          Partial                 Modify                              L
Minthorn Spr.                    0.1       Culvert                             0.5          Partial                 Modify                              L
Unnamed Trib to SF               0.1       Culvert                             0.5          Complete                Modify                              M



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Umatilla at RM 1.5
Camp Creek                 0.25     Irrigation Dam              1.3        Partial         Remove   M
Unnamed trib to Umatilla   0.1      Culvert                     0.6        Partial         Modify   L
R. at RM 81.2
Twomile Creek              1.25     Culvert                      ?         ?               Modify   L




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                               Habitat Strategies and Actions for Recovery of Walla Walla Population

                    Primary limiting factors: high water temperature, sediment load, obstructions, key habitat
                    quantity, habitat diversity and flow.

                    Primary threats: Current land use practices that reduce habitat quality and quantity and disrupt
                    ecosystem functions.

       Tables 1 and 2, behind the habitat strategy and action tables for the Walla Walla, show priorities for
       steelhead habitat restoration and protection. This prioritization was developed by applying the
       Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Model, which determined limiting factors and the areas where the
       greatest increase in fish production could be realized from restoration and protection actions. Table 3
       provides a cross reference of GA’s and MaSA’s/MiSA’s.

       Strategy 1 ― Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes.

                                            Protect stream corridor structure/function and upland processes
            Substrategies                       Factors            Threats             VSP            Life                           Discussion
                                               Addressed          Addressed         Parameters      Stages
                                                                                    Addressed      Affected
 l. Protect floodplain function and         Habitat quantity,    Cultivation,      Abundance,     All          Agreements could be made with private landowners in
    channel migration.                      habitat diversity,   forestry, urban   productivity                areas where priority habitats exist. Such agreements
 m. Protect channel structure to            channel stability,   development                                   include: no-cultivation riparian buffers on agricultural
    maintain quality and quantity of        sediment, low                                                      lands that are currently cultivated up to the channel‟s
    spawning grounds                        flow, high                                                         edge, increasing riparian buffer widths associated with
 n. Retain existing large woody debris      temperature                                                        forested areas, protecting unstable areas, or changing
 o. Protect existing high water quality                                                                        other types of management in riparian areas.
 p. Protect access to key habitats
 q. Increase protection of Federal          Habitat quantity     Forestry          Abundance      All          Protection on Federal lands may be increased through
    lands                                   Habitat diversity                      Productivity                the NEPA process or ESA consultation. Aquatic
 r. Establish setbacks to protect           Channel stability                                                  habitat issues are addressed through both processes.
    waterways from land management          Sediment                                                           Priority areas can be identified and appropriate
    practices that would otherwise alter    Low flow                                                           protective action can be taken. Actions may include
    ecosystem functions                     High temperature                                                   expanding riparian buffers, changing management
                                                                                                               within or near riparian areas, and identifying sensitive
                                                                                                               areas to avoid.
 s. Identify priority areas within county   Habitat quantity,    Cultivation,      Abundance,     All          Incorporate MCR steelhead priority habitat areas into
    ordinances.                             habitat diversity,   forestry, urban   productivity                the Natural Area Overlay Zone provision of the county
 t. Insure compliance of existing           channel stability,   development                                   development ordinance. This would allow priority
    zoning ordinances pertaining to         sediment, low                                                      habitat areas to be protected while providing an
    riparian and floodplain                 flow, high                                                         expedient process for reviewing land uses.
    management                              temperature
 u. Modify land use zoning and flood
    control plans to increase protective
    status of priority habitats.
 v. Explore opportunities to                Habitat quantity     Cultivation       Abundance,     All          Determine potential for incorporating priority areas into
    incorporate priority habitat areas      Habitat diversity    Forestry          productivity                state legislation. Look for opportunities to make
    into existing Oregon state law          Channel stability    Urban                                         amendments that would incorporate increased
                                            Sediment             development                                   protection for priority habitat areas.
                                            Low flow,
                                            temperature
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Walla Walla R.- Dry Cr to forks, McEvoy Cr and Springbranch; SF Walla Walla R.- mouth to presumed steelhead access limit; NF Wall Walla R.-mouth to Big Meadow
Canyon and Little Meadows Canyon and Big Meadows Canyon from mouths to presumed steelhead access limit; Lower SF Walla Walla tribs.- Flume Canyon and Elbow Cr.
mouth to presumed steelhead access limit; Upper SF Walla Walla tribs - Bear Cr, Kees Canyon Cr, Burnt Cabin Gulch, Swede Canyon, Table Cr, Husky Spring Cr, and Bear
Trap Springs from mouth to presumed steelhead access limit; Yellowhawk mainstem – mouth to source; Couse Cr – mouth to presumed steelhead access limit (GA‟s 27,
31, 35, 36, 37, 41, 39, 43, 45, 42, 44, 40, 17, 32, 38)
Key Programs
                    Agency                                      Program Name                     Sufficient                           Needs Expansion
CTUIR                                               CTUIR Walla Walla River Basin Anadromous  No                 Yes, there is still potential for more conservation



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                                                 Fish Habitat Enhancement Projects –                                    easements
                                                 Riparian Function
USFS                                             Roadless Areas                                  No                Additional protection should be sought
BLM                                              South Fork Walla Walla ACEC                     Yes               No
USFS, ODF                                        Umatilla National Forest and other forest land  No                Site-specific protections could be implemented
CTUIR                                            Rainwater                                       Yes               No
USACE/ODSL/WDFW                                  Waterway work permitting                        No                Yes, funding not adequate
ODA                                              Walla Walla Ag.WQM rules                                          Yes
SWCD/CDs                                         Watershed restoration                           No                Yes
municipalities                                   Land use ordinances                             No                Yes
Counties                                         Comprehensive plan                              No                Yes
Oregon Land Conservation and                     Statewide planning goals                        Yes
Development
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
CTUIR conservation easement programs have been effective at protecting and improving riparian habitat condition in the Walla Walla Subbasin. There is potential for
considerable expansion of this program. Emphasis should be placed on priority habitat areas for establishing easements. The Umatilla National Forest should emphasize
protecting priority areas during project planning and implementation.


        Strategy 2 ― Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas.
                                                    Restore passage and connectivity between habitat areas
          Substrategies                     Factors               Threats                VSP              Life                               Discussion
                                           Addressed             Addressed           Parameters         Stages
                                                                                     Addressed          Affected
a. Restores access to isolated           Obstructions         Irrigation            Abundance         Adults            A comprehensive survey of passage barriers in the
   habitats blocked by artificial                             Diversions            Productivity      0+                Oregon portion of the subbasin has not been
   barriers such as dams, road                                Road culverts         Spatial           juveniles         completed. All passage barriers in known steelhead
   culverts and irrigation structures                                               Structure                           habitat should be addressed in a prioritized fashion.
b. Restore access to isolated
   habitats blocked by flow and
   temperature barriers

c. Provide screening at 100% of          Entrainment          Irrigation            Productivity      All               In Oregon, all known gravity flow diversions are
   irrigation diversions.                                     diversions            Abundance                           screened to NOAA criteria. It is not known to what
                                                                                                                        extent that pump diversions are screened in the
                                                                                                                        Oregon part of the subbasin. Pump diversions should
                                                                                                                        be inventoried and addressed as soon as possible.
                                                                                                                        The Little Walla Walla system is screened at the point
                                                                                                                        of diversion, but diversions within this system where
                                                                                                                        steelhead could be present, by swimming up the outlet
                                                                                                                        in Washington, are not currently screened.
 d. Operate and maintain fish            Obstructions         Irrigation            Abundance         Adults            There are cooperative projects in place in the Walla
    passage facilities                                        diversions            Productivity      0+                Walla Subbasin to both physically maintain the
                                                                                    Spatial           juveniles         facilities and provide biological oversight so they are
                                                                                    Structure                           operated to maintain optimum fish passage conditions.
 e. Operate and maintain fish            Entrainment          Irrigation            Productivity      All               There are cooperative projects in place in the Walla
    screening facilities                                      Diversions            Abundance                           Walla Subbasin to both physically maintain the
                                                                                                                        facilities and provide biological oversight so they are
                                                                                                                        operated to maintain optimum fish passage conditions.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Areas currently utilized by steelhead.

Key Programs
                  Agency                                       Program Name                                Sufficient                          Needs Expansion
CTUIR                                            BPA Fish Passage program                          No                            More funding needed
ODFW                                             Fish Screening Program                            Yes for gravity               Need to inventory and address pump
                                                                                                   diversions                    screening
WDFW                                             Fish Screening Program                            No                            More funding needed to complete screening
                                                                                                                                 of diversions and maintain existing screens.
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
It is currently unknown to what extent pump diversions in the Oregon portion of the subbasin are adequately screened. Pump diversion should be inventoried to determine
screening status and all diversions screened to NOAA criteria. Washington currently has an initiative underway to provide landowners with funding to screen their diversions.
This effort should be continued until all diversions are adequately screened.

A comprehensive list of passage barriers has not been developed for the Walla Walla Subbasin. Such a list should be developed. Then all remaining passage barriers
should be addressed in a prioritized fashion.




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       Strategy 3 ― Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability.

                                                       Restore stream corridor structure, function and channel stability.
           Substrategies                     Factors              Threats Addressed            VSP           Life                          Discussion
                                            Addressed                                      Parameters      Stages
                                                                                           Addressed      Affected
 a. Bring vertical and lateral stream    Channel stability       Channelization           Abundance      All            Stream channel reconstruction and instream
    movement in balance with                                    Streambank armoring      Productivity                  structures can be designed to correct channel
    landscape and flow regime                                   Gravel removal           Diversity                     stability problems. Where appropriate passive
                                                                Bar scalping                                           treatments are preferred.
                                                                Channel modification
                                                                Removal of riparian
                                                                 vegetation
 b. Decrease gradient; restore           Temperature             Removal of beavers       Abundance      All            Channel reconstruction, placement of instream
    sinuosity; decrease width to         Sediment                Removal of large wood    Productivity                  structures and large wood debris in concert with
    depth ratio                          Habitat quantity        Channelization           Diversity                     riparian restoration can be used to restore
 c. Restore channel and floodplain       Habitat diversity       Stream bank armoring                                   functionality of stream channels. Watershed
    connectivity                         Channel stability       Bar scalping                                           scale problems and riparian management issues
 d. Restore off-channel areas for                                Livestock overgrazing                                  should be considered before active stream
    high flow refugia                                            in riparian areas                                      channel restoration is employed. In areas where
 e. Increase role and abundance of                               Removal of riparian                                    direct and immediate benefits to viability
    wood and large organic debris                                vegetation                                             parameters can be addressed, large woody
    in streambeds                                                                                                       should be placed to improve ecosystem function.
 f. Retain existing LWD                                                                                                 In areas where other habitat deficiencies, such
 g. Increase in-channel structural                                                                                      as flow and water quality, also exist, restoration
    elements                                                                                                            should focus on these other factors first.
 h.
 i. Increase pool habitat quality        Key habitat         Same as above                Productivity   Eggs, fry to   Large, complex pools and riffle habitats with
 j. Increase riffle habitats that have   quantity                                         Abundance      adult          appropriate sized spawning gravels are missing
    appropriate sized spawning                                                                                          within many areas. The preferred approach is to
    gravels                                                                                                             allow natural processes to restore these habitat
 k. Insure compliance with existing                                                                                     elements. EDT has identified locations where
    rules governing instream work                                                                                       significant benefit would occur if pools were
    activities                                                                                                          introduced. Pools should be constructed
                                                                                                                        strategically where other alternatives are not
                                                                                                                        likely to accomplish this need, or constraints will
                                                                                                                        not allow natural processes to form them.
                                                                                                                        Artificial enhancement of pools should only be
                                                                                                                        performed in areas where other parameters
                                                                                                                        such as water quality would allow immediate
                                                                                                                        use/benefit to be realized. Further, incised or
                                                                                                                        over steepened stream channels that reduce
                                                                                                                        riffle habitat should be repaired through passive
                                                                                                                        and active approaches where water quality is
                                                                                                                        currently adequate to support spawning and
                                                                                                                        rearing.
 l. Moderate channel erosion rates       Temperature             Removal of beavers       Abundance      All            Streams that have been altered by human
                                         Sediment                Channelization           Productivity                  activities such as grazing, removal of riparian
                                         Habitat quantity        Stream bank armoring     Diversity                     vegetation, channelization and bank armoring
                                         Habitat diversity       Bar scalping                                           often have vertical and/or lateral erosion rates
                                         Channel stability       Livestock overgrazing                                  elevated above natural conditions. Restoration
                                                                 in riparian areas                                      of vegetation and channel form/function can
                                                                 Removal of riparian                                    moderate channel erosion rates.
                                                                 vegetation
 m. Remove physical channel             Habitat quantity         Channel and floodplainAbundance         All            Many streams in the basin are bordered by dikes
    constraints such as levies and      Habitat diversity        encroachment and      Productivity                     and levies.
    dikes.                              Channel stability        development
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Walla Walla R.– Mill Cr. to forks, McEvoy Cr and Springbranch; SF Walla Walla R.– mouth to Elbow Cr.; NF Walla Walla R.– Mouth to Little Meadow Canyon and Little
Meadow Canyon, mouth to presumed steelhead access limit (GA‟s 27, 31, 35, 36, 37, 41, 39)
Key Programs
                    Agency                                      Program Name                         Sufficient                         Needs Expansion
CTUIR                                               BPA Habitat Program                        No                       Yes
SWCD, CD‟s                                          Watershed Restoration                      Yes                      Involvement is currently limited
WWBWC                                               Watershed Restoration                      No                       There is a continuing need for landowner
                                                                                                                        assistance to insure that issues are dealt with
                                                                                                                        appropriately.
ODOT, WDOT, County road dpts                        Bridge maintenance                         No                       Yes



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CTUIR                                               BPA habitat program                           No                      Yes, more funding needed
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Intensive land uses within Walla Walla subbasin flood plains and upslope habitats have led to dramatic changes in waterway characteristics since arrival of Euro-American
pioneers to the area during the middle 1800‟s. The common outcomes of intensive land use activities in the Walla Walla Subbasin include: 1) straight, incised channels with
minimal woody riparian vegetation, and 2) wide channels with increased dynamics and minimal woody riparian vegetation.

Implementation of site specific measures will be implemented within the context of an overall hierarchical strategy for prioritizing restoration actions. As implementation
actions are planned, consideration will be first given to actions that address watershed processes and passive techniques, but artificial enhancement methods will be used
where previous watershed assessment (2004) indicate that such work will lead to significant benefits for MCR steelhead and alternative approaches are not available.




       Strategy 4 ― Restore riparian function and condition.

                                                               Restore riparian function and condition
          Substrategies                     Factors             Threats Addressed              VSP               Life                           Discussion
                                           Addressed                                       Parameters          Stages
                                                                                           Addressed          Affected
 a. Restore native riparian             Channel stability    Livestock overgrazing       Productivity       All            Historically, bank armoring with rock and
    communities                                                of riparian area           Abundance                         channelization were used to stabilize stream
 b. Restore channel and floodplain                           Channelization              Diversity                         banks at the detriment of riparian vegetation
    connectivity                                             Stream bank armoring                                          growth. In the last 15 years the high economic
 c. Eradicate invasive plant species                                                                                        and ecological cost of bank armoring with riprap
    from riparian areas                                                                                                     and of channelization has been recognized, so
 d. Exclude livestock from riparian                                                                                         the emphasis has shifted toward a more passive
    areas.                                                                                                                  approach for stabilization, primarily through
                                                                                                                            riparian vegetation improvements and
                                                                                                                            bioengineering treatments
 e. Establish riparian setbacks for     Temperature,        Removal of riparian          Productivity       All            In areas where development is occurring, that
    structures and housing              sediment, habitat     vegetation and large        Abundance                         development should be adequately set back
    developments                        quantity, habitat     wood                        Diversity                         from streams so as not to interrupt natural
 f. Insure compliance with existing     diversity, channel  Channelization                                                 stream processes. Ordinances pertinent to fish
    zoning ordinances concerning        stability           Stream bank armoring                                           habitat and water quality must be enforced.
    riparian and floodplain                                 Cutting of trees in
    management                                                riparian area
                                                            Changes in plant
                                                              communities
 D. Insure compliance with existing     Temperature         Removal of riparian          Abundance          All            Rules are in place to protect waterways and
    rules governing instream work       Sediment              vegetation                  Productivity                      aquatic life from inappropriate stream alteration
    activities                          Habitat Diversity  Removal of large wood         Diversity                         activities. In order for these rules to be effective,
                                        Habitat Quantity  Channelization                                                   the public must be aware of the rules
                                        Channel stability  Stream bank armoring                                            (education), the responsible agencies should
                                                            Cutting of trees in the                                        monitor these activities, and where appropriate,
                                                              riparian area                                                 enforcement actions should be taken against
                                                           Direct mortality                                                 violators.
 g. Relocate or eliminate forest,       Habitat diversity,  roads                        Productivity       All            In many areas of the Walla Walla Subbasin,
    public and private roads in         channel stability,                                Abundance                         riparian roads have reduced riparian vegetation,
    riparian areas                      sediment                                          Spatial                           confined stream channels, and continue to
                                                                                          structure                         deliver fine sediment to channels. Relocating
                                                                                                                            roads outside riparian and sensitive areas or
                                                                                                                            eliminating roads from riparian and sensitive
                                                                                                                            areas has a positive effect on steelhead habitat
                                                                                                                            by allowing natural riparian processes to be
                                                                                                                            restored.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Walla Walla R.– Mill Cr. to forks, McEvoy Cr and Springbranch; SF Walla Walla R.– mouth to Elbow Cr.; NF Walla Walla R.– Mouth to Little Meadow Canyon and Little
Meadow Canyon, mouth to presumed steelhead access limit (GA‟s 27, 31, 35, 36, 37, 41, 39)
Key Programs
                Agency                                       Program Name                            Sufficient                         Needs Expansion
ODA, SWCD                                     AgWQM                                            Partially                See discussion below
Farm Service Agency, NRCS, SWCD,              CREP, CCRP, CSP, EQIP                            No                       Greater participation by landowners is needed in
CD‟s, WWBWC                                                                                                             Oregon. Many more stream miles to be treated.
CTUIR, ODFW, WDFW                             BPA Habitat Program                              No                       Many additional miles of stream to be treated
DEQ                                           TMDL                                             No                       Has no rules or enforcement mechanisms.
USFS, BLM                                     Grazing management, Forest Plan, PACFISH         Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
The Oregon Walla Walla River Water Quality Management Areas Plan (WQMAP) provides general guidance to landowners on management of riparian areas and there is




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some uncertainty regarding the implementation of this plan‟s requirements, as enforcement is based on a complaint-driven system. While there are ongoing programs to
restore riparian vegetation, determination of limiting factors through use of the EDT model indicates that additional coverage is necessary.

The Umatilla and Walla Walla Agricultural Water Quality Management (AgWQM) Area Rules require that management on agricultural lands allow the establishment, growth,
and maintenance of riparian or stream-side vegetation, consistent with site capability, to promote habitat and protect water quality by filtering sediment, stabilizing
streambanks, naturally storing water, and providing shade. The AgWQM program is outcome-based rather than prescriptive, therefore allows landowners the flexibility to
achieve water quality goals using available equipment, technology and innovation. The rules for each Management Area provide the enforceable backstop to the voluntary
initiatives. The SWCDs are the local management agencies that provide the outreach, education and technical assistance. ODA is responsible for complaint investigations
and enforcement actions. Technical and financial assistance is available through state and federal programs to landowners for establishing adequate riparian areas.




       Strategy 5 ― Restore natural hydrograph to provide adequate flow during critical periods.

                                          Restore natural hydrograph to provide adequate flow during critical periods.
            Substrategies                       Factors             Threats               VSP             Life                           Discussion
                                               Addressed           Addressed           Parameters       Stages
                                                                                       Addressed       Affected
 a. Maintain channel forming/flushing       Water Quantity      Water                 Abundance       All            High flow events are critical for maintaining quality
    flows                                   Water Quality       Withdrawals           Productivity                   instream habitat, and water quality. With increasing
                                            Habitat Quantity                                                         water demands for agricultural, industrial, municipal
                                            Habitat Diversity                                                        and domestic uses, the potential for mining of high
                                            Sediment                                                                 flow increases. It is important that planners realize
                                                                                                                     the importance of high flows for the maintenance of
                                                                                                                     aquatic habitats and water quality, and that these
                                                                                                                     flows are protected.
 b. Minimize Surface Water                  Water Quantity      Water                 Abundance       Fry to Adult   Surface water flows are over appropriated in many
    Withdrawals                             Water Quality       Withdrawals           Productivity                   areas of the Walla Walla Subbasin. The various
 c. Identify dewatered and flow limited                                               Spatial                        legal means available should be used to increase
    reaches and restore flows                                                         Structure                      streamflows where assessments indicate that there
                                                                                      Diversity                      is on-going take, or where steelhead production
                                                                                                                     could be increased.
 d. Minimize artificial fish passage        Obstructions        Passage barriers      Productivity    Parr to        Many streams that historically flowed year- long are
    barriers                                                    caused by water       Abundance       Adult          now intermittent, creating fish passage barriers in
                                                                withdrawals           Diversity                      the dewatered reach. Many of these are due to
                                                                                      Spatial                        water withdrawals for agricultural, industrial,
                                                                                      Structure                      municipal and domestic uses.
 e. Improve upland water infiltration       Water Quantity      Forestry              Abundance       All            Upland land management practices affect the
                                            Water Quality       Road Building         Productivity                   hydrologic function of the watershed, by causing
                                            Sediment            Grazing                                              rapid runoff rather than infiltration. BMP‟s should
                                            Habitat Quantity    Agricultural Pract.                                  be implemented to insure that the watershed
                                            Habitat Diversity                                                        functions to its potential, given the anthropogenic
                                                                                                                     influence in the watershed.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Walla Walla R.– Mill Cr. to forks, McEvoy Cr and Springbranch; NF Walla Walla R.– Mouth to Little Meadow Canyon and Little Meadow Canyon, mouth to presumed
steelhead access limit (GA‟s 27, 31, 35, 36, 37, 39); and areas identified through additional assessment.
Key Programs
                Agency                                        Program Name                            Sufficient                     Needs Expansion
COE/CTUIR                                     Flow Restoration Feasibility Study                 Unknown
Oregon Water Resources Department             Stream Flow Monitoring and Regulation              No                 Yes, funding is needed to support more staff
Oregon Water Trust and BOR                    Leasing and Purchase of Water Rights               No                 Yes
SWCD, Watershed Council, WWRID,               Improve irrigation efficiency                      No                 Yes
HBDIC, GFID
NRCS, Watershed Council                       Upland improvements, riparian improvements No                         Yes
USFS                                          Forest Plan, PACFISH                               Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)




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       Strategy 6 ― Restore degraded water quality.

                                                                    Restore degraded water quality
             Substrategies                        Factors           Threats Addressed             VSP              Life                         Discussion
                                                 Addressed                                    Parameters         Stages
                                                                                              Addressed         Affected
a. Implement actions to minimize water                                 Point Source         Productivity      All              Directed actions at known sources of thermal
    quality issues sourced from public                                    Pollution          Abundance                          pollution and sediment should be addressed
    infrastructures                                                    Stormwater           Diversity                          through BMP‟s and improvement projects.
b. Address point sources of water                                         management
    pollution.                                                         Roads
c. Moderate extreme stream                       Temperature           Removal of beavers   Abundance          All
    temperatures through improvement of          Sediment              Channelization       Productivity
    increased shade, decreased channel           Habitat quantity  Stream bank              Diversity
    width to depth ratios and floodplain         Habitat diversity      armoring
    connectivity.                                Channel stability  Bar scalping
d. Moderate channel erosion rates by                                   Livestock
    modifying grazing practices and                                     overgrazing in
    agricultural activities near waterways                              riparian areas
e. Reduce sedimentation and unnatural                                  Removal of riparian
    rates of erosion from upland areas                                  vegetation
f. Insure compliance with current laws
    regarding water quality
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Known point sources and the following reaches: Walla Walla R.– Mill Cr. to forks, McEvoy Cr and Springbranch; SF Walla Walla R.– mouth to Elbow Cr.; NF Walla Walla R.–
Mouth to Little Meadow Canyon and Little Meadow Canyon, mouth to presumed steelhead access limit (GA‟s 27, 31, 35, 36, 37, 41, 39)
Key Programs
                           Agency                                           Program Name                    Sufficient                        Needs Expansion
ODA, SWCD                                                        AgWQMP                               Partially                 See discussion below
Farm Service Agency, NRCS, SWCD, CD, WWBWC                       CREP, CCRP, CSP, EQIP                No                        Greater participation by landowners is needed
                                                                                                                                in Oregon. Many additional miles of stream to
                                                                                                                                be treated.
CTUIR, WWBWC                                                     BPA Habitat Program                  No                        Many additional miles of stream to be treated
USFS, BLM                                                        Grazing management, Forest Plan,     Yes
                                                                 PACFISH
Municipalities                                                   Public Works                         No
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Although this threat is partially addressed by the Oregon Walla Walla River Water Quality Management Areas Plan (WQMAP), the guidance provided to landowners on
management of riparian areas is fairly general. There is also some uncertainty regarding the implementation of this plan‟s requirements, as enforcement is based on a
complaint-driven system. While there are ongoing programs to restore riparian vegetation, determination of limiting factors through use of the EDT model indicates that
additional coverage is necessary.

The Umatilla and Walla Walla Agricultural Water Quality Management (AgWQM) Area Rules require that management on agricultural lands allow the establishment, growth
and maintenance of riparian or stream-side vegetation, consistent with site capability, to promote habitat and protect water quality by filtering sediment, stabilizing
streambanks, naturally storing water, and providing shade. The AgWQM program is outcome-based rather than prescriptive, therefore allows landowners the flexibility to
achieve water quality goals using available equipment, technology and innovation. The rules for each Management Area provide the enforceable backstop to the voluntary
initiatives. The SWCDs are the local management agencies that provide the outreach, education and technical assistance. ODA is responsible for complaint investigations
and enforcement actions. Technical and financial assistance is available through state and federal programs to landowners for establishing adequate riparian areas.

The TMDL‟s set loading capacity to achieve water quality standards. To address high summer water temperatures, near stream vegetation disturbance, channel widening
and low flows are the existing sources of increased solar radiation loading. Achievement of the TMDL targets is dependent of determination of system potential vegetation.
During TMDL development, the best professional judgment of the team described the potential streamside shade-producing vegetation broadly, as continuous tree-belts on
each side of the river.




       Strategy 7 ― Restore degraded upland processes.

                                                                  Restore degraded upland processes
             Substrategies                        Factors               Threats               VSP               Life                          Discussion
                                                 Addressed             Addressed          Parameters          Stages
                                                                                           Addressed         Affected
a. Improve upland water storage               Loss of water         Forestry             Abundance          All             Upland land management practices affect the
   capacity and infiltration                  storage capacity,     Roads                Productivity                       hydrologic function of the watershed, by causing
b. Restore native upland plant                sediment load         Overgrazing          Spatial                            rapid runoff rather than infiltration. BMP‟s
   communities                                                      Agricultural         structure                          should be implemented to insure that the
c. Upgrade or remove problem forest                                 practices                                               watershed functions to its potential, given the



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    roads                                                            Noxious weeds                                            anthropogenic influence in the watershed.
d. Employ BMPs to minimize unnatural
    rates of erosion and runoff from
    uplands
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Basinwide

Key Programs
                    Agency                                         Program Name                          Sufficient                          Needs Expansion
County Public Works                                  Weed Control                                  No                        Funding not adequate to meet the needs
ODA                                                  Ag water quality mgmt plan                    No                        Voluntary compliance
WDOE                                                 Forestry                                      ?
ODF                                                  Forestry                                      No                        Weeds?
SWCD/CD‟s                                            Watershed restoration                         No
NRCS                                                 CREP/CCRP                                     No                        Needs more coverage
WDOT/ODOT                                            Weed control                                  No                        Funding not adequate
Municipalities                                       ?                                             ?
USFS                                                 Forest Plan, PACFISH                          Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Control of noxious weeds is generally an issue that is not currently being addressed adequately at a regional scale. Additional effort is needed to protect native plant
communities and associated watershed functions. Vegetation management across the watershed varies in approach widely.


       Strategy 8 ― Protect and restore habitat through education and outreach.

                                                         Protect and restore habitat through education and outreach
              Substrategies                       Factors             Threats Addressed              VSP            Life                            Discussion
                                                 Addressed                                      Parameters        Stages
                                                                                                 Addressed       Affected
a.    Conduct outreach to educate              Channel           Potentially addresses many    Productivity     All                 Topics of education include the
      landowners about how stream              stability         threats including stream      Abundance                            importance of riparian zones; the
      channelization contributes to higher                       channelization, stream bank   Distribution                         relationships between activities on
      erosion rates, etc.                                        armoring, water withdrawals, Spatial                               uplands, floodplains and stream corridors
b.    Initiate demonstration projects                            changes in upland plant       structure                            and erosion rates, survival of steelhead
      showing benefits of good land                              communities, obstructions                                          eggs and other habitat parameters;
      management.                                                                                                                   impacts of heavy metals and mine waste
c.    Conduct outreach to government                                                                                                of fish; scarcity of flow during critical
      officials.                                                                                                                    periods for fish; fish passage needs;
                                                                                                                                    relationship between shad and water
                                                                                                                                    temperature; and how many fish are
                                                                                                                                    diverted by unscreened irrigation
                                                                                                                                    diversions.
Priority Locations (geographic areas)
Basinwide

Key Programs
                     Agency                                            Program Name                             Sufficient                        Needs Expansion
ODFW                                                   Outreach                                            No                        Yes
SWCD‟s/CD‟s                                            Outreach                                            No                        Yes
NRCS                                                   Outreach                                            No                        Yes
WDFW                                                   Outreach                                            No                        Yes
CTUIR                                                  Outreach                                            No                        Yes
USFS                                                   Outreach                                            No                        Yes
BLM                                                    Outreach                                            No                        Yes
WWBWC                                                  Outreach                                            No                        Yes
Program Sufficiency and Gaps (including current and near-term efforts, and additional efforts needed, constraints)
Educating landowners, other agencies, and the public about fish life history and habitat needs is a long, ongoing process and it will be very difficult to measure tangible
results. Current activities include field days with school groups, agencies, and landowners, as well as presentations about life history and species of fish present in the
subbasin. The formation of Washington Watershed Planning Units, Watershed Councils and SWCDs/CD‟s that are active in watershed restoration has increased awareness
about fish needs throughout the entire subbasin, but landowners, educators, and the public are eager for additional information. Current personnel cannot meet the demand
for education and outreach and still complete their other assigned duties.




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         Recovery Actions for Walla Walla Steelhead

Action                    Status     Implementing          Strategy      Spatial Coverage1      Implementation   Expected              Certainty of
                                     Entity                Addressed                            timeframe        Biophysical           Outcome3
                                                                                                                 Response2
Apply BMPs to forest      Ongoing    USFS, ODF, WDOE       1,3,4,5,6,7   Mid to upper           Long term        Immediate             High
 practices to protect                                                    watershed
 soils and vegetation
    Apply BMPs to         Ongoing    NRCS, SWCD, CDs,      1,3,4,5,6,7   Mid watershed          Long term        1 year                High
agricultural practices               ODA
 to protect soils and
      vegetation
    Apply BMPs to         Ongoing    NRCS, SWCD, CDs,      1,3,4,5,6,7   Throughout             Long term        5 years to decades    High
       livestock                     ODA                                 watershed
   management to
  protect soils and
      vegetation
   Control noxious        Ongoing    County Public Works   1,4,5,6,7     Watershed-wide         Long term        5 years to decades    Uncertain. This is a
    weeds through                    Dept., public and                                                                                 broad landscape
physical removal and                 private landowners,                                                                               issue that is
     chemical and                    USFS                                                                                              currently under
  biological agents                                                                                                                    funded.
Investigate feasibility   Ongoing    COE/CTUIR             5,6           Mid and lower Walla    uncertain        Immediate             This is in planning
   of water storage                                                      Walla                                                         stages and actual
  and/or exchange                                                                                                                      implementation
                                                                                                                                       actions are unknown
                                                                                                                                       as is the potential to
                                                                                                                                       fund implementation
   Close areas to         On hold    OWRD, WDOE            5,6           Affected reaches       uncertain        Maintenance of        High
appropriation of new                                                     and downstream                          existing conditions
      water uses
Set criteria to protect   Ongoing    WDOE, WDFW            5,6           Affected reaches       uncertain        Maintenance of        Unknown
flows for fish habitat                                                   and downstream                          existing conditions
       from new
   appropriations
  File for additional     On hold    ODFW                  5,6           Specific reaches and   Unknown          Maintenance of        High, depends on
         ISWRs                                                           downstream                              existing conditions   how resource
                                                                                                                                       managers
                                                                                                                                       implement protection
Monitor and regulate      Ongoing    OWRD                  5,6           From point of          Long term        Immediate             Moderate, staffing
 water withdrawals                                                       diversion                                                     levels are
                                                                         downstream to                                                 inadequate
                                                                         mouth of Umatilla R.
Acquire/lease             Ongoing    OWRD, Oregon          5,6           From point of          Long term        Immediate             High
instream water                       Water Trust                         diversion
                                                                         downstream
Irrigation efficiency     Ongoing    SWCD, ODFW,           5,6           Depends on means       Short term       Immediate             Moderate, depends
projects                             watershed council                   of use to protect                                             on how saved water
                                                                         instream flows                                                is protected
Downstream water          Ongoing    OWRD                  5,6           Reach between old      Long term        Immediate             High
right transfers                                                          and new point of
                                                                         diversion
Shallow aquifer           Ongoing    WWBWC, HBDIC,         5,6           Down gradient          5 years          variable              Undetermined
storage                              others
Aquifer storage and       Ongoing    City of Walla Walla   5,6           Downstream of Mill     Long term        Immediate             Long term
recovery                                                                 Creek POD                                                     effectiveness is
                                                                                                                                       unknown
Construct ponds and       Ongoing    WWBWC, CD‟s           5,6           Down gradient          Short term       Variable/undetermi    Undetermined
wetlands                                                                                                         ned
Enhance hyporheic                    WWBWC, CTUIR,         5,6           On site and            Short term       Immediate             High
flows and spring                     CDs                                 downstream
inputs
Protect, enhance and      Ongoing    WWBWC, CTUIR,         5,6           On site and            Long term        5-15 years            High
restore wetlands and                 SWCD, CDs                           downstream
wet meadows
Implement riparian        Ongoing    CTUIR, NRCS,          1,3,4,5,6     Affected reach         Long term        decades               Depends on long
buffers and establish                SWCD, CDs,                                                                                        term management
easements                            WWBWC



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Action                     Status          Implementing         Strategy    Spatial Coverage1       Implementation    Expected              Certainty of
                                           Entity               Addressed                           timeframe         Biophysical           Outcome3
                                                                                                                      Response2
Monitor and regulate       Ongoing         OWRD                 5,6         Point of diversion      Long term         Immediate             Moderate
water withdrawals                                                           downstream to
                                                                            mouth of Walla
                                                                            Walla R.
Channel restoration        Ongoing         ODFW                 3,4,5,6     Within the stream       > 10 years        Some benefits will    High, but there is
                                           CTUIR                            reach and reaches                         be realized           more risk with active
                                           WWBWC, CD‟s                      downstream for                            immediately and       restoration
                                                                            temp and sediment                         others will develop   approaches in
                                                                                                                      over years            experiencing
                                                                                                                                            undesirable
                                                                                                                                            outcomes
Implement bridge           ongoing         USFS, ODOT,          2,3         Site specific           Short term        immediate             Moderate, depends
maintenance BMPs                           WDOT, County                                                                                     on compliance with
                                           Road Depts.                                                                                      BMPs
Address passage            Ongoing         ODFW, WDFW,          2           Fish access             Known issues      Immediate             High
problems at existing                       CTUIR, WWBWC,                    upstream of             addressed
culverts and bridges                       Cds, Tri-State                   obstruction             within 5 years
                                           Steelheaders, road
                                           depts.
Construct fish ladders     Ongoing         ODFW, WEDFW,         2           Fish access             Known issues      Immediate             High
over existing                              CTUIR, WWBWC,                    upstream of             addressed
permanent irrigation                       Cds, Tri-State                   obstruction             within 5 years
diversion                                  Steelheaders
Screen unscreened          Ongoing         ODFW, WDFW,          2           At point of diversion   Status of most    Immediate             High
diversions                                 CTUIR                                                    pump diversions
                                                                                                    unknown.
                                                                                                    Remediation
                                                                                                    could take 10-
                                                                                                    20 years
Replace screens that       Ongoing         ODFW, WDFW,          2           At point of diversion   Status of most    Immediate             High
do not meet criteria                       CTUIR                                                    pump diversions
                                                                                                    unknown.
                                                                                                    Remediation
                                                                                                    could take 10-
                                                                                                    20 years
Removal of dikes and       When a          CTUIR, WWBWC,        3,4,5,6     Within the stream       > 10 years        Some benefits will    High
levies                     specific        CD‟s                             reach and reaches                         be realized
                           opportunity                                      downstream for                            immediately and
                           is identified                                    temp and sediment                         others will develop
                                                                                                                      over years
Place large wood           Ongoing,        CTUIR, ODFW,         3           Within the stream       Short term        Some benefits will    High
debris and boulders        based on        WWBWC, CD‟s                      reach                                     be realized
                           specific                                                                                   immediately and
                           needs                                                                                      others will develop
                                                                                                                      over years
Bank                       When a          CTUIR, SWCD,         3,6         Within the stream       > 10 years        Immediate             High, but there is
protection/stabilization   specific need   CD‟s, WWBWC                      reach and reaches                                               more risk with active
                           is identified                                    downstream for                                                  restoration
                                                                            temp and sediment                                               approaches in
                                                                                                                                            experiencing
                                                                                                                                            undesirable
                                                                                                                                            outcomes
Management of              Ongoing         ODA, NRCS, USFS,     1,3,4,5,6   High dispersal          Long term         5 years to decades    High
Riparian Grazing                           CD‟s                             downstream from
                                                                            site
Riparian Exclosure         Ongoing         CTUIR, NRCS/FSA,     1,3,4,5,6   High dispersal          Long term         5 years to decades    High
Fencing                                    SWCD, Walla Walla                downstream from
                                           Basin Watershed                  site
                                           Council, CD‟s
Riparian Vegetation        Ongoing         CTUIR, NRCS/FSA      3,4,5,6     High dispersal          > 10 years        5 years to decades    High
Planting                                   Watershed Council,               downstream from
                                           SWCD, CD‟s                       site
Manage beaver pop‟s        Ongoing         ODFW, WDFW           3,4,5,6     Basin-wide              Long Term         Decades               High
and educate public




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Action                    Status           Implementing         Strategy    Spatial Coverage1        Implementation     Expected              Certainty of
                                           Entity               Addressed                            timeframe          Biophysical           Outcome3
                                                                                                                        Response2
Protect high quality      Ongoing          CTUIR, NRCS/FSA,     1,3,4,5,6   High dispersal           Long Term          Immediate             High
riparian habitats                          SWCD, USFS,                      downstream
                                           WWBWC, CD‟s

Construct rock and        Ongoing          CTUIR, CDs,          3           Treatment site           Short, once        Immediate to 5        High over short
log weirs to create                        WWBWC                                                     specific need      years                 term, however
pool habitat or elevate                                                                              identified                               structures often
incised channels                                                                                                                              require maintenance
Road grading and          Ongoing          USFS, ODOT,          4,6         All riparian areas       Long Term          Immediate             High
ditch cleaning in                          WDOT, counties,                  within subbasin
riparian areas                             private landowners               containing roads
Remove debris from        Ongoing          USFS, ODOT,          2           All road crossings of    Long Term          Immediate             Moderate
culverts                                   WDOT, counties,                  streams within
                                           private landowners               subbasin
Move roads in riparian    When a           USFS, ODOT,          1,3,4,5,6   Riparian areas           Once identified,   Immediate with        High
areas to appropriate      specific road    WDOT, counties,                  within subbasin          short term         continued
upland areas and          for relocation   private landowners               where potential for                         response for up to
restore road prism        is identified                                     road relocation                             50 years
within riparian area                                                        exists
Close, remove and         When a           USFS, ODOT,          1,3,4,5,6   Riparian areas           Once identified,   Immediate with        High
restore riparian road     specific road    WDOT, counties,                  within subbasin          short term         continued
prisms                    for closure      private landowners               where potential road                        response for up to
                          and removal                                       closure and removal                         50 years
                          is identified                                     exists
Protecting unstable       When a           CTUIR, ODA, USFS,    1,7         Unstable areas           Long term          Immediate and         High
areas                     potential        SWCD                             close in proximity to                       lasting as long as
                          easement is                                       priority habitat areas                      protection in place
                          identified
Incorporate priority      When             Counties, CTUIR,     1,4,6       All priority areas in    Short term         Immediate with        High
habitat areas into        funding          ODFW, WDFW                       subbasin                                    continued
Natural Area Overlay      available                                                                                     improvement for
Zone provision                                                                                                          up to 50 years.
County development                                                                                                      Habitat
ordinances                                                                                                              effectiveness
                                                                                                                        maintained after
                                                                                                                        50 years.
Determine potential to    When             ODFW, WDFW           1,3,4,6     All priority areas in    Long term          Immediate with        High
incorporate priority      funding                                           subbasin                                    continued
areas into state          available and                                                                                 improvement for
legislation               amendment                                                                                     up to 50 years.
                          possible                                                                                      Habitat
                                                                                                                        effectiveness
                                                                                                                        maintained after
                                                                                                                        50 years.
Improve municipal         Ongoing          municipalities       6           Within city limits.      Long term          Immediate             Uncertain
stormwater                                                                  High dispersal
management and                                                              downstream
treatment
Review planning           unknown          Municipalities,      1,3,4,6     Mid and lower            Ongoing,           Slow response         Unknown
documents and                              Umatilla County,                 subbasin; high           unknown
ordinances pertaining                      LCDC                             dispersal
to riparian/floodplain                                                      downstream
management
Enforce compliance of                      Municipalities,      1,3,4,6     Mid and lower            Ongoing,           Slow response         Unknown
existing zoning                            Umatilla County,                 subbasin; high           unknown
ordinances                                 LCDC                             dispersal
                                                                            downstream
Improve and               unknown          Municipalities,      1,3,4,6     Mid and lower            Ongoing,           Slow response         Unknown
implement ordinances                       Umatilla County,                 subbasin; high           unknown
to better address                          LCDC                             dispersal
habitat and water                                                           downstream
quality issues
Educate landowners        Ongoing          Stellar, WWBWC,      3           Basinwide                Long term          Long term             Moderate
on importance of                           ODFW, CTUIR
LWD
Permit waterway           ongoing          USACE, ODSL,         1,3,4,6     basinwide                ongoing            NA                    Current




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         Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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Action                    Status           Implementing             Strategy          Spatial Coverage1       Implementation   Expected            Certainty of
                                           Entity                   Addressed                                 timeframe        Biophysical         Outcome3
                                                                                                                               Response2
alteration activities                      WDFW                                                                                                    implementation of
                                                                                                                                                   permit requirements
                                                                                                                                                   area very specific
                                                                                                                                                   and conservative
Permit and enforce        Ongoing          ODEQ, WDOE               6                 basinwide               ongoing          NA                  Ability of agencies to
actions that could                                                                                                                                 enforce water quality
affect water quality                                                                                                                               violations appears
                                                                                                                                                   limited by staffing.
Monitor compliance        unknown          USACE, ODSL,             1,3,4,6           basinwide               ongoing          NA                  While current
with waterway                              WDFW                                                                                                    permitting actions
alteration permits                                                                                                                                 are very protective
                                                                                                                                                   of fish and aquatic
                                                                                                                                                   habitats, oversight of
                                                                                                                                                   permitted activities
                                                                                                                                                   and handling of
                                                                                                                                                   unpermitted actions
                                                                                                                                                   is inadequate
Conduct outreach to       Ongoing             ODFW, WDFW,                All               Entire basin         Long term      Variable lag time   Unkown
resource users and                            NMFS, USFWS,                                                                     depending on
managers                                      USFS, BLM, CTUIR,                                                                actions
                                              WWBWC
Implement                   Ongoing           ODFW, WDFW,                All               Entire basin         Long term      Variable lag time   Unkown
demonstration                                 NMFS, USFWS,                                                                     depending on
projects                                      USFS, BLM, CTUIR,                                                                actions
                                              WWBWC, WDOE,
                                              SWCDs, CDs
Conduct outreach to         Ongoing           ODFW, WDFW,                All               Entire basin         Long term      Variable lag time   Unkown
government officials                          NMFS, USFWS,                                                                     depending on
                                              USFS, BLM, CTUIR,                                                                actions
                                              WWBWC, WDOE,
                                              SWCDs, CDs
Conduct outreach to         Ongoing           ODFW, WDFW,                All               Entire basin         Long term      Variable lag time   Unkown
general public                                NMFS, USFWS,                                                                     depending on
                                              USFS, BLM, CTUIR,                                                                actions
                                              WWBWC, WDOE,
                                              SWCDs, CDs
Support regional            Ongoing           ODFW, WDFW,                All               Entire basin         Long term      Variable lag time   Unkown
outreach efforts                              NMFS, USFWS,                                                                     depending on
                                              USFS, BLM, CTUIR,                                                                actions
                                              WWBWC, WDOE,
                                              SWCDs, CDs
        1
          Geographic scale of effect (relative amount of basin affected by action)
        2 Expected response of action implementation ─ including how long for action to achieve full effectiveness
        3 Relative certainty that expected results will occur as a result of full implementation of action




         Table 1. Restoration priority geographic areas from the Walla Walla Subbasin Plan (NPCC
         2004).

         GA         Description
         27         Walla Walla River, Mill Cr. to East Little Walla Walla
         31         Walla Walla River, East Little Walla Walla to Tumalum Bridge
         35         Walla Walla River, Tumalum Bridge to Nursery Bridge
         36         Walla Walla River, Nursery Bridge to Little Walla Walla Diversion
         37         Walla Walla River, Little Walla Walla Diversion to forks
         41         South Fork Walla Walla, mouth to Elbow Creek
         39         North Fork Walla Walla, mouth to Little Meadows Canyon (plus Little Meadows Can.)
         3          Coppei Drainage



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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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4       Touchet River, Coppei to forks
10      South Fork Touchet Mainstem
11      South Fork Touchet Tribs
6       North Fork Touchet Mainstem
7       North Fork Touchet Tribs (excluding Wolf Fork)
8       Wolf Fork, mouth to Coates (plus Robinson and Coates)
9       Wolf Fork, Coates to access limit (plus Whitney)


Table 2. Protection priority geographic areas from the Walla Walla Subbasin Plan (NPCC
2004).

GA     Description
       All Priority Restoration Geographic Areas
43     South Fork Walla Walla, Elbow to access limit
45     Skiphorton and Reser Creek Drainages
42     Lower SF Wall Walla Tribs (Flume Canyon, Elbow)
44     Upper SF Walla Walla Tribs (excluding Skiphorton and Reser)
40     North Fork Walla Walla, Little Meadows to access limit (plus Big Meadows)
5      Patit Drainage
17     Walla Walla River, Dry to Mill
32     Yellowhawk mainstem (mouth to source)
       Headwaters**
38     Couse Creek Drainage
**Headwaters is an assemblage of reaches covering the bull trout bearing (present or potential) waters
upstream of the present reaches designated through the EDT process.


Table 3. Walla Walla Subbasin Geographic Areas.

GA      Stream                       Segment                                                          MaSA   MiSA
1       Walla Walla River            Mouth to Touchet River
2       Touchet River                Mouth to Coppei Creek                                            NA     NA
3       Coppei Drainage              Mouth to presumed Steelhead access limit                         NA     NA
4       Touchet River                Coppei to forks, including Whiskey Creek                         NA     NA
5       Patit Drainage               Mouth to presumed steelhead access limit                         NA     NA
6       North Fork Touchet           Mouth to presumed steelhead access limit                         NA     NA
7       North Fork Touchet tribs     Rodgers, Jim, Weidman, Lewis and Spangler creeks; all from       NA     NA
                                     mouths to presumed steelhead access limit
8       Wolf Fork                    Mouth to Coates Creek; also includes Robinson Cr and             NA     NA
                                     Coates Cr; mouths to presumed steelhead access limit
9       Wolf Fork                    Coates Cr to presumed steelhead access limit; also includes      NA     NA
                                     Whiskey Cr mouth to presumed steelhead access limit
10      South Fork Touchet           Mouth to presumed steelhead access limit                         NA     NA
11      South Fork Touchet tribs     Dry Fork SF Touchet, Griffin Fork, North Griffin Fork, Beaver    NA     NA
                                     Slide, Green Fork and Burnt Fork; mouths to presumed
                                     steelhead access limits
12      Walla Walla River            Mouth Touchet River to Dry Cr, including Mud Cr mouth to
                                     presumed steelhead access limit
        Pine Creek                   Mouth to presumed steelhead access limit and Swartz Cr           Pine
                                     mouth to presumed steelhead access limit
13      Dry Creek Drainage (Pine)    Dry Cr (trib to Pine) mouth to presumed steelhead access limit   Pine
14      Lower Dry Cr                 Dry Cr (trib to Walla Walla), mouth to Sapolil Rd crossing       Dry



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Strategies and actions for recovery of Oregon’s Mid-Columbia River steelhead populations
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15       Upper Dry Cr                      Dry Cr (trib to Walla Walla). Sapolil Rd crossing to confluence   Dry
                                           of NF and SF Dry creeks
16       Dry Cr tribs                      Mud Cr (trib to Lower Dry Cr) , Mud Cr (trib to Upper Dry Cr,     Dry
                                           NF Dry Cr and SF Dry Cr; mouths to presumed steelhead
                                           access limit
17       Walla Walla River                 Dry Cr to Mill Cr
18       West Little Walla Walla           West Little Walla Walla River Drainage and Walsh Cr drainage
19       Mill Cr                           Mouth to start of US Army Corps of Engineers project at Gose      Mill
                                           St near Walla Walla
20       Mill Cr                           Gose St to Bennington Dam                                         Mill
21       Mill Cr                           Bennington Dam to Blue Cr and Titus Cr drainage                   Mill
22       Blue Cr Drainage                  Mouth to presuemed steelhead access limit and Little Blue Cr      Mill
                                           mouth to presumed steelhead access limit
23       Mill Cr                           Blue Cr to City of Walla Walla water intake                       Mill
24       Middle Mill Cr tribs              Henry Canyon Cr, Webb Canyon Cr, Tiger Canyon Cr; mouth           Mill
                                           to presumed steelhead access limit
25       Mill Cr                           City of Walla Walla Water intake to presumed steelhead            Mill
                                           access limit
26       Upper Mill Cr tribs               NF Mill Cr, Low Cr, Broken Cr, paradise Cr; mouth to              Mill
                                           presumed steelhead access limit
27       Walla Walla River                 Mill Cr to East Little Walla Walla River and McEvoy Cr and
                                           Springbranch
28       Garrison Cr Draininage            Includes Bryant Cr and all Walla Walla Urban streams              Cottonwood
29       Stone Cr Drainage                 All                                                               Cottonwood
30       East Little Walla Walla           East Little Walla Walla Drainage; Unnamed Spring; Big Spring
         Drainage                          Cr, mouth to presumed steelhead access limit
31       Walla Walla River                 East Little Walla Walla To Tumalum Bridge                         Walla Walla
32       Yellowhawk mianstem               Yellowhawk drainage mouth to source                               Cottonwood
33       Cottonwood Cr Drainage            Including NF, MF and SF, mouth to presumed steelhead              Cottonwood
                                           access limit
34       Birch Creek Drainage              Mouth to presumed steelhead access limit                          Walla Walla
35       Walla Walla River                 Tumalum Br to Nursery Br                                          Walla Walla
36       Walla Walla River                 Nursery Br to Little Walla Walla Diversion                        Walla Walla
37       Walla Walla River                 Little Walla Walla Diversion to forks                             Walla Walla
38       Couse Cr                          Mouth to presumed steelhead access limit                          Walla Walla
39       North Fork Walla Walla            Mouth to Little Meadows Canyon and Little Meadows Canyon          Walla Walla
                                           mouth to presumed steelhead access limit
40       North Fork Walla Walla            Little Meadows Canyon to Big Meadows Canyon and Big               Walla Walla
                                           Meadows Canyon mouth to presumed steelhead access limit
41       South Fork Walla Walla            Mouth to Elbow Cr                                                 Walla Walla
42       Lower SF Walla Walla tribs        Flume Canyon Cr and Elbow Cr, mouth to presumed                   Walla Walla
                                           steelhead access limit
43       South Fork Walla Walla            Elbow Cr to presumed steelhead access limit                       Walla Walla
44       Upper South Fork Walla Walla      Bear Cr, Kees Canyon Cr, Burnt Cabin Gulch, Swede Canyon,         Walla Walla
         tribs                             Table Cr, Husky Spring Cr, Bear Trap Springs; mouth to
                                           presumed steelhead access limit
45        Skiphorton & Reser Creek         Mouth to presumed steelhead access limit                      Walla Walla
          drainages
Note: Minor spawning areas within the Walla Walla Subbasin not represented include: Woodward Canyon, Switzler, Vansyckle Canyon, Juniper, Spring Valley and Below
Spring Valley




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