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Civic Education

VIEWS: 12 PAGES: 57

									Civics Club
Workbook
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................ 4
   INTRODUCTION TO CIVICS AND DEMOCRACY ..................................................................................... 4
COMMUNICATION ........................................................................................................................... 5
   MURDER MYSTERY............................................................................................................................. 5
   LISTENING SKILLS .............................................................................................................................. 5
   FEEDBACK .......................................................................................................................................... 5
RIGHTS OF A CITIZEN IN A DEMOCRACY .............................................................................. 6
   BRAINSTORMING................................................................................................................................. 6
   RIGHTS GUARANTEED BY THE UKRAINIAN CONSTITUTION ................................................................ 6
RIGHTS DILEMMAS......................................................................................................................... 7
   DEBATING RIGHTS DILEMMAS ............................................................................................................ 7
   HOW “FREE” IS FREE SPEECH? ............................................................................................................. 8
CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS.................................................................................................... 9
   CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN RIGHTS ................................................................................................... 9
     What is Culture? ............................................................................................................................ 9
     Culture as an Iceberg..................................................................................................................... 9
     Welfare Rights at Home and Abroad: A Learning Process ........................................................ 10
RESPONSIBILITIES OF CITIZENS IN A DEMOCRACY ........................................................ 12
   RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE PERFECT CITIZEN ..................................................................................... 12
     Matching ...................................................................................................................................... 12
     Brainstorming .............................................................................................................................. 12
     The Search for the Perfect Citizen ............................................................................................... 13
     The Role of Citizens: Rights and Responsibilities ...................................................................... 14
VOTING, DEBATING, AND WRITING PUBLIC OFFICIALS ................................................. 15
   VOTING AND DEBATING.................................................................................................................... 15
    Voting ........................................................................................................................................... 15
    Debating the Issues ...................................................................................................................... 15
   WRITING ELECTED OFFICIALS .......................................................................................................... 16
    Five Points to Writing Elected Officials ...................................................................................... 16
    Sample Letter ............................................................................................................................... 17
POLITICAL PARTIES AND PLATFORMS ................................................................................. 18
   PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE .......................................................................................................... 18
     Creating a Political Party ............................................................................................................ 19
ELECTION CAMPAIGNS ............................................................................................................... 20
   ELECTION BALLOTS .......................................................................................................................... 20
   FAIRNESS IN ELECTIONS ................................................................................................................... 21
   THE MEDIA IN ELECTIONS ................................................................................................................ 22
     The Free Flow of Ideas: An Independent Press And The Public Sphere..................................... 22
COMMUNITY ACTION .................................................................................................................. 23
   PROTESTING AND CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE ............................................................................................ 23
     What the Law Allows ................................................................................................................... 23
     Case Study in Civil Disobedience – The American Civil Rights Movement ................................ 24


                                                                                                                                                       2
   VOLUNTEERING AND CIVIL SOCIETY ................................................................................................ 25
    What is Civil Society? .................................................................................................................. 25
    Understanding a Civil Society ..................................................................................................... 26
PROBLEM-SOLVING THROUGH ADVOCACY ....................................................................... 27
   WHAT IS ADVOCACY?....................................................................................................................... 27
   NINE QUESTIONS TO ANSWER WHEN PLANNING A PUBLIC ADVOCACY STRATEGY ......................... 29
   ADVOCACY IN ACTION ..................................................................................................................... 29
   ADVOCACY OF A PROBLEM IN CHERNIHIV ........................................................................................ 31
INTRODUCTION TO LEADERSHIP ............................................................................................ 32
   CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD LEADER ............................................................................................. 32
INTRODUCTION TO LEADERSHIP (CONTINUED)................................................................ 33
   THERE IS NOBODY LIKE ME ............................................................................................................. 33
WORKING IN A GROUP ................................................................................................................ 34
   LEADERS ........................................................................................................................................... 34
   TEAM PLAYERS ................................................................................................................................. 34
   GROUP INTERACTION PLAY .............................................................................................................. 35
COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT ........................................................................................................ 38
   DEFINING COMMUNITY ..................................................................................................................... 38
   IDENTIFYING COMMUNITY ASSETS ................................................................................................... 38
     Brainstorming Categories of Assets: ........................................................................................... 38
     Community Asset Inventory (Sample) .......................................................................................... 39
     Chernihiv Community Asset Inventory ........................................................................................ 40
   ASSESSING COMMUNITY NEEDS ....................................................................................................... 42
     Needs Assessment Chart (Sample) ............................................................................................... 42
     Chernihiv Needs Assessment Chart ............................................................................................. 43
PROBLEM-SOLVING...................................................................................................................... 45
   SEVEN STEPS TO FINDING A SOLUTION ............................................................................................. 45
   THE RIVER “SMELL” ......................................................................................................................... 47
   PROBLEM-SOLVING IN CHERNIHIV ................................................................................................... 48
   FEASIBILITY ...................................................................................................................................... 48
FINDING SUPPORT......................................................................................................................... 49
   TYPES OF SUPPORT ........................................................................................................................... 49
   ADVERTISING .................................................................................................................................... 49
     Rules for Preparing a Press Release ........................................................................................... 49
     Sample Press Release .................................................................................................................. 50
   FINANCING ........................................................................................................................................ 51
APPENDIXES .................................................................................................................................... 52
   APPENDIX A – EXCERPTS FROM THE UKRAINIAN CONSTITUTION..................................................... 52
   APPENDIX B – NARRATIVES.............................................................................................................. 55
     Snowflake Story ............................................................................................................................ 55
     Starfish Story................................................................................................................................ 55
     A Leader? ..................................................................................................................................... 55
   APPENDIX C – QUOTES ..................................................................................................................... 56




                                                                                                                                                       3
Introduction
Welcome! This workbook is yours for participation in Leadership Club. Please take notes and make active use
of it.

Introduction to Civics and Democracy

Vocabulary (Webster's New World Dictionary: Third Edition)
civics; n. study of citizen affairs
citizen; n. a member of a nation
government; n. the authority or power that rules on behalf of a group of people
ideal; a. thought of as
democracy; n. government in which the power is vested in all the people, government in which the people
         hold the ruling power either directly or through elected representatives

What is civics?

Why is it important to study?

What does civics have to do with my life?

Civics is the study of what it means to be a citizen of a nation. The word civics comes from the Latin civis,
meaning "citizen." The meaning of this word has changed since the ancient Romans first used it many
hundreds of years ago. At that time, only a small group of wealthy people who owned property could be
Roman citizens. Today, almost everyone is a citizen of a nation.

The importance of being a responsible citizen cannot be stressed too much. As a citizen of Ukraine, there are
many reasons to take pride in your nation. It is a land of great natural beauty and of hardworking, creative
people. Ukraine has taken on the ideals, or beliefs, of democracy.

Activity:

Demanding                                         D
Everyone                                          E
Making                                            M
Open                                              O
Critiques                                         C
Regarding                                         R
Anything                                          A
Concerning                                        C
You                                               Y
What is a democracy?

The 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln said, "Democracy is a government for the people
and of the people." At the most basic level, democracy follows the principle of equality of rights, opportunity,
and treatment. This principle must characterize any society calling itself democratic.




                                                                                                                4
Communication

Murder Mystery
Your job is to find out who killed Bobby Buffalobreath, what weapon was used, and where the murder
occurred. The murder was done by one of the six suspects you see on the poster in the room. The murderer
used one of the weapons listed. Each member of your group will be given two or three clues. Together, as a
group, you will use these clues to solve the murder.

Rules:
    1.   You may read your clues out loud to the group as often as you wish, but you may not, at any time, let other
         group members see your clues.
    2.   You may not write down the clues or anything else.
    3.   You may not use writing utensils for any purpose.
    4.   You must agree on your answer as a group, and you only get one guess.
    5.   Report your group‟s chosen answer whenever you are finished.



Listening Skills
    1. Make an effort to really hear what the speaker is saying. Try to put yourself in the speaker‟s shoes and
       see things from her perspective. Try not to make judgments.
    2. Let the speaker know you are listening. All those little signals such as eye contact, head nods, and
       brief encouragement can make a speaker feel more comfortable.
    3. When you don‟t understand what the speaker is saying, seek more information. Ask questions.
       Paraphrase what you think the speaker is saying. This will show if you do or do not understand.
    4. Ask supportive questions. Open-ended questions encourage the speaker to talk. For example: “How
       you feeling right now?” Closed-ended questions are not effective ways to get people to talk. For
       example, “Are you mad at me?” is a closed question because people can only respond “yes” or “no.”
    5. Wait quietly through pauses. Do not rush to fill all silences. The speaker might need more time to
       compose her thoughts and you might miss what is being said.


Feedback
Feedback is telling another person what you think about their ideas, proposals, work, or behaviors. It gives
people positive ideas about how they can do things better.

Questions to Ask Yourself Before Giving Feedback:
   1. Is this an appropriate time to discuss the issue?
   2. Is the person in a good emotional state to review this issue?
   3. Am I in a good frame of mind to give feedback, or am I just striking out at someone else because I
       feel frustrated?

Do’s and Don’ts For Giving Feedback
    Do ask the other person if this is a good time to talk.
    Do begin by being specific about exactly what you want to talk about.
    Do identify what is both good and bad. Be as detailed as possible.
    Do state what you think could be done differently.
    Do say why you think this would be a good change.
    Do be brief.
    Don‟t personalize the issue. For example: Don‟t say, “You aren‟t very organized.” Instead, say, “The
       project seems a bit disorganized because…”
    Don‟t use general statements like, “It‟s good,” or “it‟s not good.”
    Don‟t be judgmental.


                                                                                                                       5
Rights of a Citizen in a Democracy
Vocabulary (Webster's New World Dictionary: Third Edition)
brainstorming; it encourages people to think in many different directions. There are only two rules in
        brainstorming: 1) There are no right or wrong answers. 2) Think freely and creatively.
rights; n. powers or privileges
inalienable; a. that cannot be taken away
inviolable; a. not to be disrespected or injured
associate; v. join
assemble; v. gather in a group


Brainstorming
     1. In groups, make a list of things you could do with a sheet of paper. Make a long list of creative
        possibilities...




     2. Individually, write five rights you believe should exist in a democracy.




Rights Guaranteed by the Ukrainian Constitution
Review the Ukrainian Constitution (see Appendix A), and list five rights that you enjoy every day.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.




                                                                                                            6
Rights Dilemmas
Vocabulary (Webster’s New World Dictionary: Third Edition)
dilemma; n. perplexing situation
search; v. look through of examine to find something
seize; v. take suddenly or by force
censor; v. to remove things considered unsuitable


Debating Rights Dilemmas
Dilemma #1: Search and Seizure
At Hopetown University there is a large problem with illegal drug use. Students are coming to classes high
and under the influence of drugs. Drug use is affecting their studies and academic performance. The
administration of the University has started searching students and their bags as they enter the buildings where
classes are taught. Students are becoming very upset by the violation of their privacy, since they don't like
authorities going through their personal things.

Argue one side of the issue:




Dilemma #2: Censorship
At Hopetown University, the students have been publishing a weekly newspaper about student activities and
issues at the University. They have published several articles about the suspected corruption and bribery going
on at the University. Several teachers have become very upset about being accused of unfair practices. The
administration of the University wants to control the content of the newspaper and demands to review and
censor controversial articles. The student newspaper opposes this decision.

Argue one side of the issue:




                                                                                                              7
How “free” is free speech?
_____________________________________________________________________________
Article 34 guarantees Ukrainians the freedom of speech. But are there limits to this freedom? Supreme Court
Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes of the United States in 1919 determined in the case of Schenck v. United
States that at times personal freedom of speech must give way to the greater needs of society as a whole.
Holmes wrote:

        But the character of every act depends upon the circumstances in which it is done. The most
        stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a
        theatre and causing a panic... The question in every case is whether the words are used in
        such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they
        will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to protect...


Answer YES or NO: Does Article 34 protect someone who...

1.              makes a political speech in support of a candidate for mayor?
2.              publicly criticizes the president?
3.              makes a pro-Nazi speech outside a Jewish community center?
4.              uses a loudspeaker to broadcast his message in a residential area?
5.              pickets a university administration building in support of a demand for more black professors
                and increased black student enrollment?
6.              Wears an armband to school to show support for Chechens?
7.              telephones the school with a fake bomb threat?
8.              burned his draft letter to protest the army?
9.              writes a book praising the communists?
10.             attends a meeting of white supremacists?
11.             assembles a group to protest a city policy and in doing so blocks the sidewalks?
12.             places an ad in the school newspaper to criticize the school's administration?
13.             throws a rock that has a message tied to it reading "Free all political prisoners!" through a
                window of the county jail?
14.             urges an angry crowd to march on city hall and "teach those in power a lesson?"
15.             falsely shouts “bomb!” in a stadium while it is filled with people watching a soccer match.
16.             makes false claims in an ad for a product offered for sale?
17.             threatens verbally to kill you?
18.             carves obscene messages in desk tops at school?
19.             collects signatures on a petition opposing a road construction plan?
20.             damages your reputation by publishing lies about your private life?


What does this tell you about the limits on free speech?




                                                                                                                8
Cultural Considerations

Cultural Differences in Rights

Vocabulary (Webster’s New World Dictionary: Third Edition)
Welfare; n. health, happiness, and comfort; receiving government aid because of poverty, etc.


What is Culture?
What is your definition of culture?




Definition of Culture according to Culture Matters: The Peace Corps Cross-Cultural Workbook:




Culture as an Iceberg
Culture can be compared to an iceberg. Just as an iceberg has a visible section above the waterline, and a
larger, invisible section below the water line, so culture has some aspects that are observable and others that
can only be suspected, imagined, or intuited. Also like an iceberg, that part of culture that is visible
(observable behavior) is only a small part of a much bigger whole.

Determine whether or not the following features of culture are observable behavior. Draw an iceberg below
and write above the waterline those features that are observable and the others beneath the line.

   a.   facial expressions            n.   notions of modesty
   b.   religious beliefs             o.   foods
   c.   religious rituals             p.   eating habits
   d.   importance of time            q.   understanding of the natural
   e.   paintings                          world
   f.   values                        r.   concept of self
   g.   literature                    s.   work ethic
   h.   child raising                 t.   concept of beauty
   i.   concept of leadership         u.   music
   j.   gestures                      v.   styles of dress
   k.   holiday customs               w.   general world view
   l.   concept of fairness           x.   concept of personal space
   m.   nature of fairness            y.   rules of social etiquette




                                                                                                                  9
Welfare Rights at Home and Abroad: A Learning Process
by Mary Ann Glendon

Your Rights Ain't Like Mine
         A RENOWNED EUROPEAN LEGAL HISTORIAN recently compiled a "basic inventory" of rights
that have been accepted by most western countries at the present time. The list included, first and foremost,
human dignity, then personal freedom, fair procedures to protect against arbitrary governmental action, active
political rights (especially the right to vote), equality before the law, and society's responsibility for the social
and economic conditions of its members. It is hard to say what would strike most American readers of this list
as more strange -the omission of property or the inclusion (in a catalog of "rights") of affirmative welfare
obligations. Yet the list is an accurate one. Welfare rights (or responsibilities) have been accorded a place
beside traditional political and civil liberties in the national constitutions of most liberal democracies. It is the
eighteenth-century American Constitution that, with the passage of time, has become anomalous in this
respect.
         The fact that welfare rights have been accorded constitutional status in so many countries cannot be
attributed exclusively to the relatively recent vintage of their constitutions. To a great extent, it is a legal
manifestation of European attitudes toward the state that are traditionally less suspicious than American
attitudes. Continental Europeans today, whether of the Right or the Left, are much more likely than Americans
to take for granted that governments have affirmative duties to promote actively the well-being of their
citizens. The leading European conservative parties espouse openly and in principle what American
conservatives have only accepted grudgingly and sub silentio: a mixed economy and a moderately
interventionist state. A broad social consensus in Europe supports the subsidization of child-raising families,
and accepts the funding of health, employment, and old age insurance at impressive levels. American
politicians of both the Right and the Left, by contrast, find it almost obligatory to profess mistrust of
government.

The International Standard
        ARTICLE 25 OF THE UNITED NATIONS Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the
General Assembly in 1948, provides that "Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the
health and well-being of himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and
necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability,
widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control." To implement that
principle, the UN Covenant came into force a decade later after being ratified by nearly 90 countries. The
United States is the only one of the liberal democracies that has failed to ratify that instrument o fits
companion, the UN Covenant on Civil and Political Rights...

Welfare Rights in Practice
        WHEN CONSIDERING WELFARE RIGHTS in foreign constitutions, Americans may wonder,
"How have these rights worked out in practice? Does the experience of other nations shed any light on what
might have happened here if the Supreme Court had accepted arguments made in the late 1960s and early
1970s that welfare rights could and should be made part of our constitutional regime instead of remaining
purely legislative creations?"
         In practice, interestingly, the contrast between the United States and countries with constitutional
welfare rights is much less sharp than it appears on paper. For no liberal democracy has ever placed social and
economic rights on precisely the same legal footing as the familiar civil and political liberties...

The Utility of Cross-National Comparisons
        ...EVERY COUNTRY WITHIN THE DEMOCRATIC world is in its own way grappling with a
common set of problems: how to provide humanitarian aid without undermining personal responsibility, how
to achieve the optimal mix in a mixed economy, how to preserve a just balance between individual freedom,
equality, and social solidarity. The basic problem is nothing less than the great dilemma of how to hold
together the two halves of the divided soul of liberalism -our love of individual liberty and our sense of a
community for which we accept a common responsibility.



                                                                                                                  10
          Below the surface of that dilemma lies a long-neglected political problem. It is that neither a strong
commitment to individual and minority rights, nor even a modest welfare commitment like the American one
can long be sustained without the active support of citizens who are willing to respect the rights of others (not
just in the abstract but often at some cost to themselves), who are prepared to accept some responsibility for
the poorest and most vulnerable members of society, and who are prepared to take significant responsibility
for themselves and their dependents. Liberal democratic welfare states around the world are now asking me
and women to possess and practice certain virtues that, even under the best of conditions, are not easy to
acquire- self restraint, self- reliance, compassion, and respect for the dignity and worth of one's fellow human
beings.
          The question that seldom gets asked, however, is this: Where do such qualities come from? Where do
people acquire an internalized willingness to view others with genuine regard for their dignity and concern for
their well- being, rather than as objects, means, or obstacles? These qualities cannot be generated by
governments or instilled by fear and force. The fact is that both our welfare state and our experiment in
democratic government rest to a great extent on habits and practices formed within fragile social structures-
families, neighborhoods, religious and workplace associations, and other communities of memory and mutual
aid- structures that are being asked to bear great weight just at a time when they themselves do not seem to be
in peak condition.
          The question then becomes: what, if anything, can be done to create and maintain, or at least to avoid
undermining, the social conditions that foster our commitments t the rule of law, individual freedom, and a
compassionate welfare state?...
          Reflection on our own tradition, moreover, should give us pause concerning the disdain for politics
that underlies so much current American thinking about legal and social policy. For one of the most important
lessons of 1789 is the same one the world learned anew in 1989: that politics is not only a way of advancing
self- interest, but of transcending it. That transformative potential of the art through which we order our lives
together represents our best hope for living up to our rights, ideals and our welfare aspirations in coming
years.
_____________________________________________________________________________
Article taken from Democracy is a Discussion: Civic Engagement in Old and New Democracies. Sondra
Myers ed. Connecticut College. New London, Connecticut. 1997. Pgs. 12-13.

What rights are accepted by most western countries? Are these rights also accepted by Ukraine?




Why do welfare rights differ between the United States and Western Europe?




What does the author say is necessary in order to sustain a commitment to individual and
minority rights as well as welfare?




According to Mary Ann Glendon, an important responsibility is respecting the rights of others,
not just in the abstract sense, but often at some cost to us. What costs might be incurred in respecting others'
rights, and do you agree that we should have to pay?




What is the main idea of the article?


                                                                                                                   11
Responsibilities of Citizens in a Democracy

Responsibilities of the Perfect Citizen

Vocabulary (Webster's New World Dictionary: Third Edition)
responsibility; n. duty, obligation.
should; v. past tense of shall, used to express obligation
could; v. past tense of can, used to express ability
lobby; v. act of trying to influence


Matching
Match the duty of a citizen with the explanation as to why it is important. Write the matching letter in the
blank before the duty.

   Duty                                             Why is this important?

   1.      Obey Laws                                a. The government needs money to pay for services (for
                                                    example, police and military protection).

   2.      Vote                                     b. If there is a war, the military will need soldiers to protect
                                                    the country.

   3.      Pay Taxes                                c. In a representative democracy, all citizens should vote to
                                                    choose good people as leaders.

   4.      Register/Serve in the Military           d. Laws protect people. A basic right for all people is
                                                    protection.




Brainstorming
What are all of the ways a perfect citizen can participate in society?




                                                                                                                  12
The Search for the Perfect Citizen
Compare your list from the brainstorming section to the one below. Add any of you ideas that are missing
from this list. Then decide which ones every citizen should do and which they could do? Put a “S” for should,
and a “C” for could.


a.      Become informed

b.      Educate others about issues and leaders

c.      Debate issues

d.      Work in the community is support of a particular cause or to protest/support government action

e.      Form or join political parties or other community organization

f.      Attend political or community meetings

g.      Become a leader of a political party, labor organization or community organization

h.      Vote in elections

i.      Campaign for those running for office

j.      Run for office

k.      Pay taxes

l.      Serve in the military

m.       Use legal channels to challenge official action such as meeting with senior government officials,
        taking cases to court, etc.

n.      Lobby public officials

o.      Protest by demonstrations, boycotts, strikes, etc.

p.      Respect the rights of other citizens

q.      Be a productive member of society

r.

s.

t.

u.

v.

w.




                                                                                                             13
The Role of Citizens: Rights and Responsibilities
by William A. Galston

"The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men (and women) to do nothing."
                                                                                                      Edmund Burke

          As the twentieth century draws to a close, the debate over the role of citizens has assumed a new
complexity and urgency. In the long- established democracies of western Europe and North America,
declining political participation and trust in public institutions have become pervasive concerns. In nations of
central Europe and Asia emerging from communism's yoke, the task of citizens is to nurture institutions and
practices that are compatible with local conditions and conducive to democratic aspirations. In nations still
laboring under the burden of authoritarian regimes, the challenge is to expand the small arenas of liberty that
exist within the interstices of oppression.
          The basic rights of citizens are reasonably clear. They include freedom of speech and expression, of
association and assembly, and of participation; safe- guards against state arbitrariness in the administration of
law; and protections for personal privacy, individual conscience, faith and worship. Full citizenship also
required the right to marry, to travel freely, and to participate in economic and social life on fair and equal
terms. The responsibilities of citizens include, not only compliance with legitimate laws and institutions, but
also the willingness to do their fair share to create and sustain them. Perhaps the most important
responsibilities of citizens are to make appropriate use of their liberty and to respect the rights of others. For
history suggests that the abuse of liberty by some promotes the growth of government authority that can
restrict the liberty of all.
          The appropriate balance between the rights and responsibilities of citizens will vary in accordance
with local circumstances. In the United States, for example, the dramatic expansion of individual rights during
the past generation must now be matched by an increased willingness of citizens to take responsibility for one
another and for their common life.
          Post-communist regimes, by contrast, cannot take liberty for granted. They must construct institutions
that defend core individual and political rights. But this task cannot succeed unless individual citizens see
themselves as active participants in, not passive recipients of, the nurturance of liberty. At the same time,
citizens of these regimes must wrestle with profound issues of moral responsibility for past abuses, a task that
will require a sensitive balancing of justice, mercy, democratization and social reconciliation.
          One thing is clear: there is no one-size-fits-all account of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
Each nation must work out for itself the approach that comports best with its history and circumstances. Here
as elsewhere, a broad-based dialogue among citizens is the key to progress.
_____________________________________________________________________________
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
     1. Evaluate the rights granted to you by your political system. Which rights set boundaries and which are
          entitlements or "affirmative duties to promote actively the well-being" of citizens?




    2. Why can't we just sit back and let the government take care of things? What are the consequences of
       the absence of citizen participation in government? Might dictatorial forces fill the vacuum?




                                                                                                                   14
Voting, Debating, and Writing Public Officials

Voting and Debating

Vocabulary (Webster’s New World Dictionary: Third Edition)
debate; v. argue in a formal way
tolerate; v. 1. to put up with; endure 2. permit
privilege; n. a special right only for some people
candidate; n. a person who wants to be elected to a public office
issue; n. an important point that people vote on or discuss


Voting
        One of the most important rights for citizens is the right to vote. Voting is a duty in a representative
democracy. All citizens should vote to choose good people to be government leaders. Voting is also a
privilege because not everyone can vote.
        Everyone should also learn about the candidates and issues in the election. We can get information by
reading newspapers or listening to the news on television and the radio. We can go to political meetings.
Freedom of speech, the press, and assembly help us to learn about the candidates and issues.
        In a representative government, people must be active. They must work with organizations to make
their communities better. Voters must make good decisions. The people we elect will have a lot of power.
They will decide:
       What laws to pass,
       How much taxes we will pay, and
       What services we will receive.

How old do you have to be to vote? Is this a good age? Why or why not?


Why is it important to vote?

Do you think voting is fair in Ukraine?




Debating the Issues
Why is debate necessary to a democracy?




Important points about debating:
    We should be able to form arguments for a position we don‟t believe in. A popular quote is, “Those
      who do not know their opponent‟s arguments do not completely understand their own.”
       In a democracy, we must be tolerant enough to listen to our opponent‟s arguments, even if they are
        saying something we completely disagree with.



                                                                                                              15
Writing Elected Officials

Vocabulary (Webster's New World Dictionary: Third Edition)
address; v. to speak or write to n. place where one lives
closing; n. the end a letter, just before your name, such as “Sincerely yours,” or “Respectfully yours”
body; n. main part


Five Points to Writing Elected Officials

1. Include your return address. Make sure that your return address is on the letter. This will allow the
   official to respond to you.
2. Use the proper term of address. Always address a deputy as "The Honorable (name)." This applies to
   both the inside address and the address on the envelope.
3. Use the correct opening and closing. In the salutation, or greeting, use the person's correct title. End
   your letter with the proper closing, such as "Respectfully yours," or "Sincerely yours." Then add your
   signature.
4. Use your writing skills. Keep the body, or main part, of the letter as brief as possible. Clearly state your
   position or request in the first paragraph. Point out the relevant facts that will help your deputy understand
   your concerns.
5. Be considerate of your reader. Put yourself in the officials place. Be polite- even if you disagree with
   the persons policies.




                                                                                                              16
Sample Letter
Read the letter below. Then answer these questions.

    1. To whom is the letter addressed?




    2. What closing does the writer use?




    3. What issue is Peter Gill concerned about?




    4. Why might a letter be more convincing than a telephone call?




December 15, 2003

Peter Gill
32 Wadel Avenue
Elkhart, IN 46516

The Honorable Ann Downing
The State House
Indianapolis, IN 46204

Dear Representative Downing:

As you know, there is a bill currently before the legislature that would create 3,000 summer jobs for teenagers
in our state. I strongly urge you to support this bill.

Passage of the bill will give many teenagers the chance to earn money for school. It will also provide them
with experience for future jobs. Finally, the state stands to benefit from all the work these teenagers will be
doing in our parks, hospitals, and civic centers.

I would appreciate knowing you position on this very important issue.

Sincerely yours,
Peter Gill




                                                                                                                  17
Political Parties and Platforms
Vocabulary (Webster's New World Dictionary: Third Edition)
Motion; n. proposal made at a meeting
Second; v. support
Amend; v. change or add additions (author's definition)
Political; adj. of government, politics, etc.
Party; n group working together for a political cause
Platform; n. political party's stated aims


Name some of the political parties in Ukraine:




What is the role of political parties? What do they do?




Why are certain individuals drawn to certain political parties?




Parliamentary Procedure
Parliamentary procedure is used to keep discussions orderly and to the point. The basic rules of parliamentary
procedure are:
     Only one person at a time should speak.
     Everyone should have an opportunity to speak. (If time is an issue, you can ask that remarks be
       limited to 30 seconds or a minute).
     When an important policy is being decided, a party member should make a motion. The motion states
       the desired policy. For example
            o "I move that we add, '45-minute school lunches.' to our platform."
            o "I move that we change our party name to Activists."
     A motion should receive a second. If no one will support the motion with a “second,” there is no need
       to continue the discussion. If a motion has been made and “seconded,” it can be discussed.
       Remember, one speaker at a time!
     If someone wants to amend a motion, he or she may do so with the permission of the person who
       made the original motion. Otherwise, he or she must wait for the motion being discussed to be voted
       on and defeated.
     When most opinions have been heard, anyone can call for a vote. In most cases a simple majority of
       those present should be enough to pass or defeat a motion. On controversial issues, it is best to count
       actual votes. If it is clear from the discussion that most agree or disagree with the motion, a voice vote
       will do. For example, you may say, "All in favor say 'yea;' those opposed say, „nay‟."




                                                                                                              18
Creating a Political Party

What is the name of your party?




Do you have a target audience?




What is your platform?




What is your symbol or logo?




                                  19
Election Campaigns
Vocabulary (Webster's New World Dictionary: Third Edition)
Nominate; v. name as a candidate
Campaign; n. period before an election when candidates and parties try to gather support
Ballot; n. the paper a voter writes on to choose a candidate in an election



Election Ballots
How can a ballot be unfair?



How should a ballot be designed to be fair?




Draw an example below:




                                                                                           20
Fairness in Elections

Is it okay for candidates and/or their parties to stand next to ballot boxes? Why or why not?




How should ballots be distributed?




Can parties and/or candidates distribute ballots?




Where should voters fill in their ballots?




Is privacy important? Why or why not?




How do you make sure voters don't vote more than once?




Who should count ballots?




Should a candidate win with a simple majority, or is more than 50% of the votes necessary? What is the rule
in Ukraine?




Are there times a recount may be necessary?




                                                                                                          21
The Media in Elections


The Free Flow of Ideas: An Independent Press And The Public Sphere
by Jay Rosen

         "We hold these truths to be self-evident..." wrote the authors of the Declaration of Independence. That
democracy requires a free press and free expression is a truth of that kind: self-evident to all who understand.
So let us be clear: government cannot control what is written or broadcast, and it cannot throw people into jail
for their views. The most obvious sign of an undemocratic regime is the violation of these fundamental rights.
         Not as obvious are the conditions that make freedom of the press and the free flow of ideas matter in a
society where such freedoms are legally established. If ideas flow freely but do not touch people's lives, if the
press is independent of government but consumed by trivia, if the public square is open but also empty, then
democracy can corrode just as surely as it collapses when fundamental rights are violated. This is important to
think about whenever we discuss the need for the free press and free speech. Formal guarantees are essential.
But it is the informal and unofficial life of the people that turns essential freedoms into unshakeable facts.
         Free expression as a political good requires thinking citizens willing to do the work of democracy:
people who will pay attention, participate in public life, argue with each other and, through a thousand small
decisions, create the kind of conversation that keeps democracy alert as well as alive. It is the business of
culture- a democratic culture- to produce such citizens, for they are the only real guarantee that political
freedom will survive.
_____________________________________________________________________________
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

1. Freedom of expression and a public sphere where citizens can discuss and debate issues of common
   concern are highly revered in democratic societies. How important do you think they are?



2. Has the press in Ukraine or in your oblast been under the control of any one group? If so, what has been
   the effect of this control? What changes have occurred in recent years?



3. Do you consider the autonomy of the press a luxury or a necessity? Why?



4. What is the point of an independent press, if it has nothing worthwhile to report? Is Ukraine's media
   cluttered with trivia? What are the possible remedies?




5. Jay Rosen writes that public journalism is not neutral on certain questions, but helps people to develop
   views. What do you think are the limits of responsibility for journalists? How can the press help create a
   public discourse that engages more people than it repels?



_____________________________________________________________________________
Article from Democracy Is A Discussion: Civic Engagement in Old and New Democracies. Sondra Myers ed.
    Connecticut College. New London, Connecticut 1997. Pg. 14.




                                                                                                              22
Community Action

Protesting and Civil Disobedience

Vocabulary (Webster's New World Dictionary: Third Edition)
Protest; v. 1. to object 2. assert
Assert; v. 1. declare 2. defend, as rights
Civil Disobedience; n. non-violent refusal to obey a law on the grounds of one's conscience
Segregate; v. set apart. n Segregation
Boycott; v. refuse to deal with

If previous methods don't work, you can take even further action to change your society. Protesting does not
have to have negative connotations. It is a method of raising awareness on issues.

Henry David Thoreau justified civil disobedience when he spent a night in jail after refusing to pay taxes
because he didn't want his money to go to a government that supported slavery; civil disobedience must be
peaceful, and activists must accept the consequences (i.e. being arrested).


What the Law Allows
Identify which of the following methods of protest or civil disobedience are legal and illegal. Write the
activity in the appropriate column below.

Obstructing fishing boats to protect dolphins          Burning oneself
Hunger Strikes                                         Obstruction of traffic
Boycotts                                               Sit-ins
Throwing paint on fur coats for animal rights          Marches
Strikes                                                Destruction of property
Rioting                                                Demonstrations
Court Action                                           Chaining oneself to trees to protest logging
Media or print materials                               Petitions/letters
Blocking the entrance to an abortion clinic            Sabotaging equipment

Legal                                                    Illegal




                                                                                                             23
Case Study in Civil Disobedience – The American Civil Rights Movement
Slavery was abolished in the United States after their civil war in 1865, yet even into the middle
of the 20th century America was not ready to treat black people as equals. Blacks were denied
political rights, and public accommodations were segregated. Blacks were barred from "white"
hotels, restaurants, schools, and theaters. Trains and buses were also segregated.

From 1900 to World War II conditions for blacks seemed almost hopeless. Dissatisfied with the absence of
racial equality, a group of black intellectuals began to agitate for civil rights. W.E.B. Du Bois became the
most prominent black spokesman of this group. In 1909 he helped found the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The NAACP campaigned against all forms of segregation using
tactics of agitation and court decisions. Interracial reform moved slowly, but the NAACP won victory after
victory. However in the 1950s racial equality still had many obstacles and citizens took the next step on the
responsibility ladder.

In December 1955, Rosa Parks sat down in the front of the bus after a long day of work in Montgomery,
Alabama. She was tired and just wanted to rest until she got home. However the laws of Alabama at that time
gave whites the preference for the seats in the front of the bus. So when a white male boarded the bus, the
driver asked Mrs. Parks to move to the rear. Mrs. Parks was fed up with such racial inequality and said, "I
don't think I should have to move." The driver had her arrested by the police and this started the modern-day
civil rights movement.

Blacks organized a boycott of the Montgomery bus company under the leadership of Reverend Martin Luther
King Junior. The boycott was successful and on June 5, 1956, a federal district court ruled that bus
segregation violated the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. constitution which forbids states from denying
equal rights to any citizen. The boycott put Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. into national prominence, and his
method of nonviolent protest lead the civil rights movement.

A successful form of nonviolent protest that was used during the civil rights movement is the “sit-in.” Blacks
would sit in segregated places, especially cafes, until they were served. In 1961, white and black interracial
activists called "freedom riders" rode buses through the South to test segregation laws by occupying the
segregated places they came to. They were often attacked by angry segregationists.

Frustrated at the slow pace of desegregation, civil rights leaders organized a march on Washington to
dramatize the issue and mobilize support from all parts of the United States. On August 28, 1963 more than
250,000 Americans converged on Washington, staging the largest demonstration in the history of the nation's
capital. Here King gave is famous I Have a Dream speech saying in one passage:

    When we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state
    and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all God's children, black men and white men,
    Jews and gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old
    Negro spiritual: "Free at last. Free at Last. Thank God Almighty, we are free at last."

The result of the movement and the hardships suffered through nonviolent civil disobedience was the passage
of the Civil Rights Act in 1964. It gave the federal government more power to protect citizens from
discrimination and segregation in voting, education and the use of public facilities. It outlawed discrimination
in most places, and allocated financial aid to assist communities in desegregating schools.

In 1964, King won the Nobel Peace Prize and said in his acceptance speech, "Sooner or later, all the people of
the world will have to discover a way to live together in peace, and thereby transform this pending cosmic
elegy into a creative psalm of brotherhood."

Martin Luther King Jr. and the United States civil rights movement is a perfect example of how citizens used
the steps of responsibility to improve their communities and their nation.
____________________________________________________________________________
The Civil Rights Movement and the Legacy of Martin Luther King Jr. Gary A. Puckrein. United States
Information Agency, 1993.


                                                                                                              24
Volunteering and Civil Society

Vocabulary (Webster's New World Dictionary: Third Edition)
Volunteer; v. offer, give of one's own free will
Civil; a. of citizens


What is Civil Society?
“In post-communist countries it has been clear that civil society is what makes democracy work” (Myers
Discussion in Democracy, p. 31).

Civil society refers to all organizations or groups that work for or against the government, but are not directly
connected with the government; they may be based at school, at work, in church, or other institutions; even
families. Some examples are Greenpeace, volleyball clubs, and student groups.



What is the advantage of having such groups as Greenpeace?




What are some problems facing your community?




Could they be solved by volunteering or forming another organization? Describe.




"Democracy is not just a way of selecting leaders: it is a mode of life that grows out by a thousand individual
initiatives" (Myers Discussion in Democracy II, Pg. 23).



                                                                                                               25
Understanding a Civil Society
by David Mathews

          Public Politics is more than volunteering to serve Thanksgiving dinner at a shelter for the homeless. It is not the
same as charity or service and goes deeper than voting, obeying laws, and paying taxes. It includes but involves more
than serving in advisory bodies and participating in government hearings. Public politics is citizens acting themselves-
acting to gain greater control over their future. It is citizens working with citizens for the larger public good. It is
organizing a neighborhood watch or creating an ad hoc group to preserve a historic site or joining in a forum on what to
do about a community- wide issue such as saving the American family.
          Public politics really isn't a secret; it isn't rare or hidden. It just doesn't fit the conventional definition of politics
as only those things that politicians or governments do. Public politics contradicts Walter Lippmann when he said that the
public was a phantom, a political myth. The public is not the voice of the Almighty, but it is a real (and necessary)
political force. And though they don't intend to, the people practicing public politics aren't just "taking the system back";
they are changing the system by redefining politics as something that citizens do.
          The conventional wisdom about politics continues to block our view of a public that has a strong sense of civic
duty, a public that can do more than vent its anger and voice its cynicism. While the power of citizens to affect politics
may be most visible in the support for candidates, public politics is not reducible to popular protests. Citizen
organizations collaborate often and happily with governments. However, they usually insist on a different relationship
with office holders, breaking with the conventional wisdom, which would have citizens merely listen to solutions
officials had already chosen. Now civic organizations are trying to get officeholders into a prior dialogue on what the
issues are and how they should be framed.
          We need more public politics. Public politics is a necessary additive. Without a public, politics is not just a
contest of "us" versus "them." It is worse: politics degenerates into an endless war of "them" versus "them."
          But what turns a mass of people into a body of citizens, a public? How do people become, in the richest sense,
political?
          Our research at the Kettering Foundation suggests that people who become part of a responsible public start
with the doorway into politics- a dialogue of citizens talking to each other eye-to-eye as they struggle to act together on
the problems that invade their lives and dim their futures.
          Not just any kind of talk will do the job of creating a public. In the Kettering research, we have been asking
people what kind of conversations they look for as they are sizing up problems and deciding whether to become
involved. They say they want more dialogue than debate. They want to be able to weigh carefully all the options for
action as well as the views of others. They want to explore, to test ideas, not just score points. They want to look at the
shades of gray in issues that are often presented in extremes of black and white. They want all the emotions to come out-
but without the acrimony that characterizes partisan debate. In a word, they want more public deliberation in the political
debate. Deliberation is not just talking about issues or understanding one another. It is making decisions together about
how to act as a public.
          As we have learned from the National Issues Forums, deliberation moves people from first reactions to more
reflective and shared public judgments. People who don't inform their opinions by carefully weighing the consequences
of possible actions are prone to faulty decisions. All of us, at one time or another, have despaired over popularly
applauded decisions that seem unwise and profoundly unjust. Any hope that popular reaction will change into sounder
judgments depends, in a large measure, on the way we reason together. Our common sense has to be refined in public
deliberation that is inclusive enough, goes on long enough, and probes deep enough for reflective judgment to emerge.
          If one is to change the way a system works, the public can't wait to be persuaded. It has to be active in making
up its own mind on the issues facing the country. More than the usual partisan debate, there needs to be a public dialogue
in which people hold counsel with one another.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

    1. Is politics only what politicians and governments do? Explain



    2. According to Mathews, what type of information and interaction does the public need to become an
       engaged citizenry? Do you agree? Why, or why not?




Article from Democracy is a Discussion: Civic Engagement in Old and New Democracies. Sondra Myers ed.,
Connecticut College. New London, Connecticut. 1997.


                                                                                                                                 26
Problem-Solving Through Advocacy
Vocabulary (Building a Civil Society)
evaluate; v. to judge or determine the worth or quality of something
revenue; n. income, for example from sales, taxes or services
in conjunction with; together with
behavior; n. the way a person behaves or acts
attain; v. to achieve, to reach, to accomplish

Vocabulary (Webster's New World Dictionary: Third College Edition)
advocacy; n. - the act of advocating, or speaking or writing in support (of something)
advocate; n. - 1) a person who pleads another's cause; specific. a lawyer. 2) a person who speaks or writes in
support of something (an advocate of clean air) vt. To speak or write in support of; to be in favor of; to
support



What is Advocacy?
Advocacy is a process whose objective is to achieve desired changes in society.

How does advocacy work?
Advocacy begins with identifying a concern that may be held by a number of people. It continues with the
   gathering of facts about that concern, and the identification of others who share the concern. Together
   these people can identify a solution to their concern, and ways to arrive at that solution. The final steps are
   to take action to arrive at the solution, and then to evaluate what worked, and what did not along the way.

Why should I want to learn more about advocacy?
You might have a concern that you cannot effectively address on your own.

Say you do not like the fact the brook behind your house is filled with trash. You might clean it up yourself,
    but chances are, someone is going to put trash in it again.

But if instead of tackling the problem alone, you used the tools of advocacy, you might:

       Find facts: Start gathering information about why there is trash in the brook.
       Identify allies: Ask around in your village to see who else is disturbed by the trash in the brook.
       Develop solutions and a plan of action, and decide whose opinion or behavior you want to change.
       Maybe you discover that one reason people put trash in the brook is because garbage disposal is
        expensive. Maybe a recycling program would also reduce the amount of trash the village produces
        would help eliminate the problem. And the recycling program might bring in enough revenue to not
        only support itself, but also provide some revenues.
       Or perhaps people put trash in the brook because they don't think they have any responsibility for
        public space. Your group might want to begin a public educational campaign to teach people to take
        ride in public space. This campaign might be brought into the village school so that children could
        learn from an early age to take pride in their environment and to condemn littering and illegal
        dumping.
       Perhaps the village mayor seems uninterested in the problem. She says she can't do anything about it.
        Your group might gather signatures on a petition supporting a particular solution. You would then
        request a meeting with the mayor and village council to present the petition and press for changes.
       And, in conjunction with one or more of the above actions, you and your group might decide to hold a
        clean up day. You could ask for someone to donate bags to hold the trash, and for people to donate
        food and drink for a celebration after the brook has been cleaned up.
       Evaluate what you did and decide on future activity:
       What worked? What didn't?


                                                                                                                 27
        Do more people now think it is important to keep the brook clean? Does the village hall feel more
         responsibility for helping the public keep the brook clean?
        Six months later is the brook still clean? If no, what else should group do? If yes, would the group like
         to undertake other projects?

By using the tools of advocacy, you were able to spread concern for the status of the brook to a wider group.
You were able to determine whose opinion and behavior you wanted to change. Together, you came up with
ways to clean up the brook and to keep it clean. Finally, you were able to establish a group of fellow residents
who are not only concerned about a common problem, but who are willing to work together to develop and
implement solutions to the problem.

Advocacy can be used by anyone interested improving the quality of life in her
community. Advocacy can be used to address local, national, or international issues.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

    1. What is the problem described in the text?



    2. What are the possible causes of the problem?



    3. What are the different ways in which the problem can be solved?



    4. Which of the solutions takes the least amount of time?



    5.   Which solutions take the most time?



    6. Which solutions have immediate impact? (make a difference immediately)



    7. Which solutions have long-term impact? (will last a long time)



    8. Which solution(s) seem to be the most effective?



    9. Which solutions do you think people would be most likely to choose? Why?




                                                                                                               28
Nine Questions to Answer When Planning a Public Advocacy Strategy
Look Ahead:
   1. What do you want to attain?
   2. Toward which audience is the action directed? Which audience do you want to affect?
   3. What message do you want the audience to hear?
   4. Who will send the message?
   5. How do you want to deliver the message?

Look Back:
   6. What have you already achieved? What resources do you have?
   7. What do you still need to develop? What are your weak points?
   8. How will you begin?
   9. How will you evaluate your work? How will you know if your work was successful?

“Nine Questions” from Public Policy Advocacy: Women for Social Change in the Yugoslav Successor States,
Meriam Kervatin ed., Zagreb: STAR Project, Delphi International, Strategies, Training and Advocacy for
Reconciliation, 1998.



Advocacy in Action
Read this case study and answer the questions that follow it.

Topic:           The Youth Network in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Location:        Bosnia and Herzegovina
Date:            1997
Implementer:     Helsinki Citizens Assembly of Banja Luka and Tuzla
Case study by:   Aleksandra Petric

Prior to the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, there were many youth organizations in Yugoslavia that enabled
youth from Bosnia and Herzegovina to meet each other and participate in activities together.

After the war, however, organizations no longer brought youth together from the two new entities of Bosnia
and Herzegovina. Indeed, youth from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to meet each other when they
visited other countries. However, when they returned home, they lost contact with each other.

Why was this a problem? The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina resulted in a lot of hatred among people for
each other. The media published articles and editorials that encouraged hatred and mistrust. Further,
communication and travel became more difficult between Bosnia and Herzegovina. This meant that people
did not have direct contact with each other but instead only ugly reports. This was particularly dangerous for
youth, as they were being taught at a young age to distrust each other. Unless something was done to open up
communication, they might live their whole lives hating each other out of ignorance.

In response to this situation, the offices of the Helsinki Citizens Assembly in Banja Luka and Tulza decided to
organize meetings for youth from Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1997, 30 youth met first in Tuzla, then in Banja
Luka to talk about their hopes and the problem of hatred.

Despite difficult political conditions, a three-day meeting was then held in October 1997 in Laktasi, a small
town near Banja Luka. Sixty youth from all over Bosnia and Herzegovina attending the meeting, representing
45 youth organizations. Many of them came from small, isolated villages. The meeting was divided into two
workshops.




                                                                                                            29
In the first workshop, the youth learned how to develop project proposals and received information on
possible funding organizations and how to contact them. The idea was to encourage the youth to create their
own projects, and to let them know how to explore funding possibilities.

The second workshop was devoted to opening a dialogue across ethnic, political, gender and other differences.
The youth talked about differences among them, such as gender, social status, living in cities versus living in
villages, and religion. They decided that differences need not be seen as negative.

At the end of the meeting, the youth decided to send a statement to newspapers, radio stations, and television
stations. Most of the radio and television stations broadcast the statement, which can be summarized with this
sentence:

        Despite the fact that the current political situation in both entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina
        forces youth to the margins of social life, they (youth) have sufficient strength and will to
        resist these politics and to create mutual cooperation and association.

Following these meetings, the Helsinki Citizens Assembly offices in Banja Luka and Tuzla decided to publish
a youth magazine with the title That's Not You, But It Could Be. They also planned to continue to hold
meetings bringing youth together.

Assignment:
   1. Identify the problem that motivated this advocacy action.

    2. Why do you think the organizers of the meetings chose the two workshop topics?

    3. Suggest additional solutions to the problem.

    4. Suggest activities that could be undertaken in connection with this project to influence decision-
       makers.

    5. Answer the “nine questions” regarding a solution to this problem.

        1.   What do you want to attain?

        2. Toward which audience is the action directed? Which audience do you want to affect?

        3. What message do you want the audience to hear?

        4. Who will send the message?

        5. How do you want to deliver the message?

        6. What have you already achieved? What resources do you have?

        7. What do you still need to develop? What are your weak points?

        8. How will you begin?

        9. How will you evaluate your work? How will you know if your work was successful?




                                                                                                            30
Advocacy of a Problem in Chernihiv
Think of a problem you would like to help solve in Chernihiv. Then answer the “nine questions” to begin
developing a public advocacy strategy.

        1. What do you want to attain?




        2. Toward which audience is the action directed? Which audience do you want to affect?




        3. What message do you want the audience to hear?




        4. Who will send the message?




        5. How do you want to deliver the message?




        6. What have you already achieved? What resources do you have?




        7. What do you still need to develop? What are your weak points?




        8. How will you begin?




        9. How will you evaluate your work? How will you know if your work was successful?




                                                                                                          31
Introduction to Leadership
“Leadership is the process of persuasion and example by which an individual induces a group to take action
that is in accord with the leader’s purposes or shared purposes by all.” – John W. Gardner

Characteristics of a good leader
Make a list of as many characteristics of a good leader as you can think of:




                                                                                                         32
Introduction to Leadership (continued)

There is Nobody Like Me
On a blank sheet of paper, draw yourself while abstractly completing the following instructions.
   1. Begin by drawing a simple representation of yourself.
   2. Draw an object in your hand that represents you.
   3. Where have your feet taken you?
   4. Where do you want your feet to take you?
   5. What makes you really want to listen?
   6. What can you see in yourself that others cannot?
   7. What is something that others usually see about you?
   8. Where is the most peaceful place for you to be?
   9. What is your heart set on?

Show and discuss pictures in small groups.

    First, the object you drew in #2 above:
        1. What is the object in your hand?
        2. Why is it important?
        3. Why does it represent you?
        4. What relevance does it have to your past or future?
        5. Are there any similarities in your group‟s objects?

    Next, the other questions:
       1. Where are your feet taking you?
       2. What can you see in yourself that others cannot?
       3. What is something others usually see?
       4. What do you have your heart set on?
       5. Are there any group similarities?




                                                                                                   33
Working in a Group

Leaders
When working in a group…
A good leader:                                        A bad leader…
    Assists in establishing structure                    Dictates how things must be done
    Guides the group in accessing their needs            Never listens
    Guides the group toward obtaining objectives         Never asks for others‟ opinions
    Delegates authority                                  Belittles group members
    Is sensitive to group and individual needs and       Leads the group in confusing directions
       desires                                           
    Is the key communicator; summarizes ideas           
       and moves the group forward                       
    Maintains a friendly environment for new            
       ideas
    Is open to everything and takes initiative
       when necessary
   
   
   
   



Team Players
When working in a group…
A good team player:                                   A bad team player:
    Asks questions                                       Feels upset or angry
    Contributes ideas                                    Will not share ideas/opinions
    Asks for others‟ opinions                            Ridicules others
    Gives encouragement                                  Acts impatient
    Admits to error                                      Shows a lack of interest in the group
    Makes suggestions about the group‟s                  Distracts the group
       progress                                           Is not committal
    Shares his or her feelings                           Does not participate
                                                         Has no loyalty to the group
                                                        
                                                        
                                                        
                                                         




                                                                                                     34
Group Interaction Play

Scenario: Six members of a large club have agreed to plan a program for an open house to attract new
members. They have decided to meet on campus at four o‟clock on Monday. It is now that time and five of
them are there, sitting around a table in a small classroom.

Felix:     Okay, it‟s four-ten. Let‟s start.
Cliff:     But wait. Sheila isn‟t here yet.
Felix:     Tough. She knows the meeting‟s at four.
Carmen:    I think we ought to wait for her. I‟m sure she‟s coming.
Felix:     Well, where is she then?
Carmen:    I don‟t know.
Dena:      Look, why don‟t we wait five minutes, and then if she isn‟t here. let‟s start.
Cliff:     That‟s fine with me.
Dena:      How about you, Peter?
Peter:     (sleepily) What?
Dena:      Should we wait five minutes?
Peter:     I don‟t care.
Carmen:    Well, I think we should wait „til she gets here. Otherwise, we‟ll just have to repeat ourselves.
Felix:     (impatiently) Oh, all right!
           (Shelia enters)
Sheila:    (breathlessly) Hello, everyone. Am I late?
Felix:     Yeah. We were about to start without you.
           (Sheila goes over and sits by Cliff)
Cliff:     (enthusiastically) Hey, Sheila. How are you doing?
Sheila:    Fine. (Looks towards the others) I…
Cliff:     You‟re looking great.
Sheila:    Thanks.
Felix:     (impatiently) Come on, come on, let‟s go!
Sheila:    Right. (Excitedly) I‟ve got the greatest idea for the program. I…
Felix:     Wait a minute. Listen to this. Did you know there‟s a whole bunch of VanDamme films we could
           borrow from the library? We could organize a film festival to get people interested in the house.
Dena:      VanDamme?
Sheila:    But listen. I…
Felix:     Yeah, films. I was telling Cliff about this before the meeting and he liked the idea too, didn‟t you,
           Cliff?
Cliff:     Yeah, sounds good.
Dena:      I love VanDamme.
Sheila:    But…
Felix:     We can rent a projector. Show movies.
Cliff:     Yeah.
Carmen:    But do you think movies would be the right thing for this?
Felix:     Sure, why not?
Carmen:    Well, I thought we were supposed to convey an image, you know, of serious, hard-working
           students.
Cliff:     Yeah, like me! (laughs)


                                                                                                              35
Carmen:   No, really. We don‟t want them to think we‟re just another party group, do we?
Dena:     Well, we do have parties.
Felix:    (to Carmen) So you don‟t like the movie idea? What else have you got in mind?
Carmen:   I was thinking we could get Ammon or somebody to come and give a talk.
Dena:     Who‟s Ammon?
Carmen:   She‟s that philosophy teacher everybody says is so fascinating.
Cliff:    Yeah, I‟ve heard of her. She‟d be great!
Felix:    Wait a minute, Cliff. You just got through saying you liked the movie idea. You‟re not going to
          change your mind, are you?
Cliff:    Well, I like your idea, but I like Carmen‟s too.
Felix:    Who‟s going to want to sit around and listen to some boring lecture? We get enough of that in
          school.
Cliff:    That‟s for sure.
Carmen:   She doesn‟t really lecture, from what I‟ve heard. It‟s more of a discussion.
Dena:     Oh, that lady. I‟ve heard of her!
Felix:    Well, anyway, I don‟t think many people would be interested in that kind of thing. On the other
          hand, everyone likes movies.
Cliff:    True.
Felix:    What do you think, Peter?
Peter:    Huh?
Felix:    What do you think of the movie idea?
Peter:    Doesn‟t make a difference to me.
Felix:    Wouldn‟t you rather have a movie than a boring lecture?
Peter:    I guess so.
Felix:    See! Peter likes the movie idea!
Dena:     Why don‟t we take a vote?
Cliff:    That‟s a good idea.
Carmen:   But we haven‟t heard all the ideas yet. (looking suddenly at Sheila) In fact, you were going to say
          something, weren‟t you, Sheila?
Sheila:   (sullenly) It doesn‟t really matter.
Carmen:   Sheila, I‟m sorry you got interrupted. And you were all excited, weren‟t you? Come on, tell us
          your idea.
Sheila:   Well, my father is really good friends with –
Felix:    Oh no! Not another speaker idea!
Carmen:   Let her finish.
Sheila:   (discouraged) Never mind. It was just another speaker idea. Someone my father knows.
Felix:    See what I mean? Nobody else can think of anything but having these people nobody‟s heard of
          come and speak. Everyone‟s heard of Van Damme.
Cliff:    That‟s for sure.
Carmen:   Sheila, who‟s your father‟s friend?
Sheila:   VanDamme.




                                                                                                            36
Your task is to rate the six characters in this play on how effectively they interact with one another. Do their
actions contribute to, or detract from, the accomplishment of the group‟s goal. You will be using these criteria
in rating each person:

    1. The extent to which each person takes personal responsibility for getting the job done by a) presenting
       his or her ideas, b) making sure others understood, and c) sticking to the point.

          Felix:

          Cliff:

          Carmen:

          Dena:

          Peter:

          Sheila:



    2. The extent to which that person pays attention to others by a) listening to others‟ ideas, and b) making
       sure he or she understood those ideas.

          Felix:

          Cliff:

          Carmen:

          Dena:

          Peter:

          Sheila:



Roles in a Group
Takes notes about the characteristics of each role the emerges when people work as a group.

Leader



Harmonizer



Blocker




Follower




                                                                                                             37
Community Assessment

Defining Community
    1. All the people living in a particular district, city, etc.
    2. The district, city, etc. where people live
    3. A group of people living together as a smaller social unit within a larger one, and having interests,
       work, etc. in common
    4. A group of nations loosely or closely associated because of common traditions or for political or
       economic advantage
    5. Society in general; the public

According to anthropologist Neil Postman, the danger of these definitions is that community comes to simply
mean people with similar interests. He points out that in an older meaning, “community is made up of people
who may not have similar interests, but who must negotiate and resolve their differences [so they can have]
social harmony.”

List communities you belong to? What makes them communities?




Identifying Community Assets
Vocabulary (Webster’s New World Dictionary: Thrid Edition)
Asset; n. valuable thing


Brainstorming Categories of Assets:




                                                                                                               38
Community Asset Inventory (Sample)
Type and Quantity   Location           Ownership        Employees                 People Served                Services                   Status
Park (1)            Next to train      City             City maintenance          Young people (35 per         Trees and shrubs, grass,   Natural resources:
                    station                             department (occasional)   evening in summer);          benches                    moderately good;
                                                                                  pedestrians and bicyclists                              benches: poor (wooden
                                                                                  passing through (300                                    slats missing or broken)
                                                                                  daily); People walking
                                                                                  dogs (20 daily)


Tennis courts (4)   1 at each of two   City             School maintenance        A few kids on occasion       Asphalt surface, marked    Surface uneven, no nets
                    elementary                          department (occasional)                                court boundaries, posts
                    schools                                                                                    to support net


                    2 near park        Private          Full-time (2)             300 members                  Court maintenance,         Excellent
                                                                                                               hourly rentals to
                                                                                                               members, fee-based
                                                                                                               group and individual
                                                                                                               instruction, locker
                                                                                                               rooms with showers,
                                                                                                               snack bar

Gardener‟s League   Meets at Village   Informal group   None                      League members;              Members meet to            Currently inactive though
(1)                 Hall                                                          sometimes whole village      exchange gardening         members are discussing
                                                                                                               tips; they used to hold    revitalizing it
                                                                                                               an annual “best flower
                                                                                                               garden” competition


Soccer Club (1)     Uses village       Part of area     Volunteer coach           Team members (20); fans      In season, weekly          Team: active; Field:
                    soccer field       league                                     (100)                        practice, weekend          decent; Fence: needs
                                                                                                               games at home and          repair; Changing
                                                                                                               away; helps organize       facilities: too small for
                                                                                                               annual village sports      current team size
                                                                                                               day
Chernihiv Community Asset Inventory
Type and Quantity   Location   Ownership   Employees   People Served   Services   Status




                                                                                           40
Chernihiv Community Asset Inventory
Type and Quantity   Location   Ownership   Employees   People Served   Services   Status




                                                                                           41
Assessing Community Needs

Vocabulary (Webster’s New World Dictionary: Third Edition)
Asses; v. set a value on


Needs Assessment Chart (Sample)
                                       Number of people      For how long?        Seriousness (very   Priority in                            Resources needed    Length of time
                 Who is affected
Problem/Need                           affected              (short-term, long-   serious, serious,   community (high,   Skills and assets   to address          needed to address
                 directly/indirectly
                                       directly/indirectly   term, recurring)     not very serious)   medium, low)                           problem             problem
Lack of youth    Youth (d);            2,000 (d)             Long-term            Serious             Medium             Existing groups,    Survey,             Several weeks
facilities for   families and          9,000 (i)                                                                         telephone           brochure
recreation       community (i)                                                                                           directory, Office
                                                                                                                         for Recreation
                                                                                                                         and Sport,
                                                                                                                         youth, NGO
                                                                                                                         with computer
                                                                                                                         equipment,
                                                                                                                         computer skills


Graffiti on      Students,             400 (d)               Recurring            Serious             High               School officials,   Volunteers,         2 days (one to
school           teachers, staff       1,000 (i)                                                                         students and        school officials,   clean and do
                 (d);                                                                                                    their families,     cleaning            initial painting
                 Students‟                                                                                               cleaning            solution,           and one day for
                 families,                                                                                               materials,          buckets, scrub      a second coat);
                 neighborhood                                                                                            materials           brushes, paint,     consider more
                 around school                                                                                           purchasable and     paint brushes,      time for
                 (i)                                                                                                     donatable,          paint cleaner,      organizing and
                                                                                                                         volunteers with     posters             recruiting
                                                                                                                         organizational                          volunteers
                                                                                                                         skills




                                                                                                                                                                      42
Chernihiv Needs Assessment Chart
                                     Number of people      For how long?        Seriousness (very   Priority in                            Resources needed   Length of time
               Who is affected
Problem/Need                         affected              (short-term, long-   serious, serious,   community (high,   Skills and assets   to address         needed to address
               directly/indirectly
                                     directly/indirectly   term, recurring)     not very serious)   medium, low)                           problem            problem




                                                                                                                                                                   43
Chernihiv Needs Assessment Chart
                                     Number of people      For how long?        Seriousness (very   Priority in                            Resources needed   Length of time
               Who is affected
Problem/Need                         affected              (short-term, long-   serious, serious,   community (high,   Skills and assets   to address         needed to address
               directly/indirectly
                                     directly/indirectly   term, recurring)     not very serious)   medium, low)                           problem            problem




                                                                                                                                                                   44
Problem-Solving

Seven Steps to Finding a Solution

STEP 1: Identify and Define the Problem
Be as specific as possible. If your problem is too general, or too broad, it may be difficult to address it.

    "Drug abuse."
    vs.
    "Drug abuse at school number 36 in grades 9 through 11."

How you define the problem will determine in large part how you address the problem. You may need to
think about the causes of the problem in order to define the problem more precisely.

    "There is trash all around the trash bin."
    vs.
    "The trash is picked up by the city so infrequently that the trash bins quickly fill up and people have no
    place to put their trash."

If your problem is very big, you may need to break it down into several problems, which can be addressed
individually or serially in order to eventually help address the big problem.

    "Women experience higher unemployment than men."
    vs.
    "Lack of access to childcare makes it difficult for mothers with young children to work outside the home."
    or
    "The local sewing factory where many women worked closed down, leaving them unemployed.
    They do not have the skills needed for other jobs."

STEP 2: Identify the Causes of Problem
Why does the problem exist? Who is contributing to it? In this step, you gather as much information as
necessary in order to understand the possible causes of the problem. You need to be careful to not limit your
thinking. A problem may seem to have just one obvious cause, but in fact may be more complicated. Because
your solution(s) will be based on the causes you identify, the effectiveness of the solution depends on how
correctly you determine the causes.

    "The fence is ugly because the metal is corroding."
    vs.
    "The fence is ugly because it is made of metal."

    "The young adults living in neighborhood X do not want to work because they are lazy."
    vs.
    "The young adults living in neighborhood X are not seeking work because when they grew
     up, they did not know adults in the neighborhood who worked."
STEP 3: Develop Alternative Solutions
In this step you make a list of possible solutions to the problem. Then you analyze the plusses and minuses
(strengths and weaknesses) of each solution. In analyzing the solutions, think about whether the solutions
offer short-term or long-term solutions. Is the solution affordable in terms of cost? Do you have the resources
to carry out the solution?



    "The brook is filled with trash. Solution: organize a clean-up day to remove the trash."
     vs.
     "The brook is filled with trash. Solution: develop a recycling program to reduce the amount of trash in
     the village."

    "People are dumping trash in an empty lot. Solution: post a sign forbidding the dumping of trash."
    vs.
    "People are dumping trash in an empty lot. Solution: turn the empty lot into a community garden."

    "The library's budget is not big enough to buy foreign language books. Solution: request a budget
    increase from the state."
    vs.
    "The library's budget is not big enough to buy foreign language books. Solution: create a book donation
    project to which individuals and institutions, such as libraries in other countries, can contribute."

    "The local castle is falling down. Solution: find a rich donor, who will provide all the money to repair the
    castle."
    vs.
    "The local castle is falling down. Solution: establish a planning committee to develop a plan for
    preserving the castle and create a fundraising plan."

STEP 4: Select the Best Solution
Select the best solution. If you want to pursue more than one solution, determine the sequence in which you
want to carry out the solutions. If you cannot carry out the 'best' solution now for particular reasons, perhaps
you can carry out a different solution. In choosing the solution you want to implement, think not only about
which solution would be quickest or easiest to implement. Think also about cost, time, the people who need to
be involved, and long-term vs. short-term impacts.

    "Skate boarders and in-line skaters want a skate park.”
    Solution: A public-partnership is established to develop a design for the skate park and raise funds.

    "The castle wall needs repairs.”
    Solution: Start a public campaign to ask people to return rocks they took that had fallen from the castle
    wall and investigate ways to properly repair the wall.

    "You received a grant to fix up a room to use as a youth center.”
    Solution: You and your friend teach a group of youth how to paint, lay tile and build benches, and you
    then supervise their work.

STEP 5: Design a Plan of Action
Carefully lay out step-by-step what needs to be done, who needs to be involved, and what funding you need to
ensure your project‟s success.

STEP 6: Implement the Solution
Implementation means taking action. Don‟t let your project plan sit and gather dust.




                                                                                                                46
STEP 7: Evaluate
Check to see that you have fulfilled your project‟s goals. Determine the impact you have made. Evaluation
can also be an on-going process during implementation. Correct any problems and reexamine issues if the
need arises.

The River “Smell”
People put a lot of garbage in the river “Smell.” There are many factories on the river too. Sometimes when
you walk by the river, it smells like a toilet. One old man remembers that when he was a young boy he could
catch five fish in one day. Now he says he is lucky to get one. Nobody can swim in the river anymore. It
would be nice to have a clean river that people and animals could enjoy.

Complete the first five steps to finding a solution to the problem of the river “Smell.”

STEP 1: Identify and Define the Problem




STEP 2: Identify the Causes of Problem




STEP 3: Develop Alternative Solutions




STEP 4: Select the Best Solution




STEP 5: Design a Plan of Action




                                                                                                            47
Problem-Solving in Chernihiv
Select a problem in Chernihiv. Then repeat the previous activity using this problem.

STEP 1: Identify and Define the Problem




STEP 2: Identify the Causes of Problem




STEP 3: Develop Alternative Solutions




STEP 4: Select the Best Solution




STEP 5: Design a Plan of Action




Feasibility
Feasibility refers to whether something is truly possible based on external limitations. It is an idea that
   problem solvers should always make sure the goal or task they set for themselves is something they are
   really able to accomplish.

Is it feasible that we could solve the problem of AIDS in the world?




                                                                                                              48
Finding Support

Types of Support
Brainstorm specific things needed in each of these areas:

    1. The group‟s commitment




    2. Community support and involvement




    3. Financial support




Advertising
One of the most important forms of community support comes from the media. If the public is not aware of
your project, it‟s difficult to get people involved. Even if no one else is needed to implement your project, it‟s
good to let the community know what you‟re working on. This can be done by generating a press release,
which is an article that gives information about the group‟s actions and activities before an event. You can
also write a press release after completing your project to let the public know the outcome.


Rules for Preparing a Press Release
    1. Press releases should be professional with the primary statement clear and simple.
    2. Write as if you were writing the newspaper article yourself. This way, the editor of a paper can use
        your release word-for-word, which saves him or her time.
    3. Provide the name of a contact person, usually the media contact or the leader of the project or
        organization, with his or her telephone number.
    4. Indicate “For immediate distribution” above the headline on the left side.
    5. Indicate the place where the news is being sent from. For example, “Chernhiv, September 29, 2003.”
    6. Use an interesting headline above the text to catch the editor‟s attention. Remember that the editor
        may have many news releases to look through.
    7. The most important facts should be summarized in the first paragraph. The first paragraph should
        answer the following questions: Who? What? When? Where? Why? Make sure this information is
        strong and accurate.
    8. The second paragraph should include a quote from a member of your organization so that the editor
        can use it in the article.
    9. Every paragraph should be less important in comparison with the previous one (the principal of
        reverse pyramid). In this case, the editor will be able to cut the story and not destroy its essence.
    10. A news release must be double-spaced with large margins. Do not print on the backside of the paper.
        If you must go to a second page, type “continued” at the bottom of the first page. Use page numbers.
        At the end of the press release, skip a line, and type “# # #” in the center of the line. This identifies, by
        international standards, the end of the press release.
    11. Be accurate and exact with dates, facts, and figures.
    12. Proofread you text to ensure no mistakes.




                                                                                                                  49
Sample Press Release


   Kyiv, March 19, 2001                                                   Contact: Prem Abramova
                                                                                   (044) 581-4762



   For immediate release

   AIDS Program Launched

               An international aid organization on March 19 launched an anti-AIDS program in

       Ukraine, where the disease is spreading swiftly but AIDS awareness remains low.

               The France-based Doctors Without Borders is undertaking the one-year educational

       project “aimed at increasing AIDS awareness and changing the public's attitude toward

       people with AIDS and HIV,” said Prem Abramova, the project's coordinator.

               The program was created after a survey showed that HIV-infected people suffer

       discrimination in Ukrainian society, and most people avoid everyday contacts with them, she

       said.

               As part of the program, at least 200,000 booklets about HIV and AIDS and its victims

       will be distributed in drug stores, clinics, and non-governmental organizations. The

       information will be also provided at an internet site and on television.

               Currently, 36,600 Ukrainians, including more than 2,000 children, have been

       officially registered as HIV-infected, but the actual number is believed to be six times greater

       than the official count.




Article from Kyiv Post. March 22, 2001. Volume 6, issue 12, page 4.



                                                                                                          50
Financing

For most projects, finding some outside funding will be necessary for the project‟s success. This is a
challenging task. Don‟t be discouraged if some people choose to not support your project. Simply ask other
people, find resources within the group, or make changes to the plan as needed.


Brainstorm some ideas of where you can obtain funds for your projects:




                                                                                                             51
Appendixes


Appendix A – Excerpts From the Ukrainian Constitution

Chapter I, Article 1
    Ukraine is a sovereign and independent, democratic, social, law-based state.

Chapter II, Article 21
    All individuals are free and equal in their dignity and rights. The rights and freedoms of the
       individuals are inalienable and inviolable.

Chapter II, Article 24
    Citizens have equal Constitutional rights and freedoms are equal before the law.
    There shall be no privileges or restrictions based upon race, color of skin, political, religious, and
       other beliefs, sex, ethnic and social origin, wealth, place of residence, on the basis of language or
       other characteristics.
    The equality of women and men is guaranteed.

Chapter II, Article 27
    Every person has the inalienable right to life.
    No one person may voluntarily deprive a person of his life.

Chapter II, Article 28
    Every person has the right to have his dignity respected.
    No person shall be subjected to torture, violent, inhumane, or degrading treatment or punishment that
       violates his personal dignity.
    No person shall be subjected to medical of scientific experiments without his free consent.

Chapter II, Article 29
    Every person has the right to freedom and personal inviolability.
    No person may be arrested or held in custody except pursuant to a court order and based only upon
       reasons and according to procedures established by law.
    At any time, every detained person shall have the right to challenge his detention in court.
    Relatives of an arrested or detained person shall be informed immediately of his arrest or detention.

Chapter II, Article 30
    Every person is guaranteed the inviolability of his domicile.
    Entry into a domicile or other personal property in order to conduct an examination or search is
       prohibited except in cases where so ordered by a court.

Chapter II, Article 31
    Every person is guaranteed privacy of mail, telephone conversations, telegraph, and other messages.
       Exceptions may be established only by the courts in cases, foreseen by law, with the purpose of
       preventing crimes or to determine the truth in conducting investigation of criminal cases, if it is
       impossible to obtain the information by other means.




                                                                                                               52
Chapter II, Article 34
    Every person has the right to the right and freedom of thought and speech, to the free expression of
       his views and convictions.
    Every person has the right to freely gather, use and disseminate information orally, in written form, or
       by other means – at his choice.
    The realization of these freedoms may be limited by law in the interests of national security, territorial
       integrity, or the public order with the purpose of preventing disturbances to crimes, to protect the
       health of population, to protect the reputation or rights of other individuals, to prevent the publication
       of information received confidentially, or to support the reputation or impartiality of justice.

Chapter II, Article 35
    Every person has the right to freedom of conscience and religion.
    The execution of this right may be limited by law only in the interests of the protection of the public
       order, the health and morality of the population, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of
       other individuals.
    The Church and religious organizations in Ukraine shall be separate from the State, and schools –
       from the Church. No religion may be recognized as mandatory by the State.

Chapter II, Article 36
    Citizens of Ukraine have the right to freely associate in political parties and public organizations for
       the realization and protection of their rights and freedoms and for the satisfaction of their political,
       economic, social, cultural, and other interests…
    Political parties in Ukraine promote the formation and expression of the political will of citizens…
    Citizens have the right to membership in professional unions in order to protect their employment and
       socioeconomic rights and interests.
    No person may be forced to join any public association nor have his rights restricted for membership
       or non-membership in any political party or public association.

Chapter II, Article 38
    Citizens shall have the right to participate in the administration of state affairs, in all-Ukrainian and
       local referenda, to freely elect and to be elected organs of state authority and organs of local self-
       government.
    Citizens enjoy the equal right of access to state service…

Chapter II, Article 39
    Citizens have the right to assemble peacefully, without arms, and to conduct assemblies, meetings,
       processions, and demonstrations, following the timely notification of organs of state authority or
       organs of local self-government.
    Restrictions of the exercise of this right may be prescribed on the basis of a court decision according
       to the law and only in the interests of national security or public order…

Chapter II, Article 41
    Every person has the right to control, use, and manage his property, as well as the results of his
       intellectual, creative work.
    The right to private ownership is obtained according to the procedure prescribed by law.
    No person may be illegally deprived of the right to ownership.
    The forced taking of private property may occur only for reasons of a societal necessity, for reasons
       and according to the procedure prescribed by law, and on the condition of the previous and full
       compensation of its value.
    The forced taking of private property with subsequent full compensation is permitted only under
       conditions of martial law or an emergency situation.




                                                                                                                 53
Chapter II, Article 44
    Those who work have the right to strike for the protection of their economic and social interests.
    No person may be forced to participate in or not participate in a strike.
    The prohibition of a strike is possible only on the basis of the law.

Chapter II, Article 45
    Every working person has the right to rest.
    This right is ensured by the provision of weekly rest days, and also annual paid vacation time, the
       shortening of daily business hours for certain professions and industries, shortened work hours at
       night.
    The maximum number of working hours, the minimum duration of rest and annual paid vacations, as
       well as non-working days and holidays, and other conditions for exercising this right shall be
       prescribed by law.

Chapter II, Article 46
    Citizens have a right to social security which includes their right of provision, in case of illness,
       partial or complete disability, loss of the provider, unemployment under circumstances unrelated to
       their fault, and in old age, and in other instances foreseen by law.
    Pensions, and other state expenditures and assistance, which are the primary sources of income, shall
       provide a standard of living not lower than a minimum living standard established by law.

Chapter II, Article 47
    Every person has a right to housing. The State creates the conditions for each citizen to have the
       opportunity to build housing, purchase, or lease it.
    No person can be forcible deprived of housing in any way other than by court decision on the basis of
       law.

Chapter II, Article 49
    Every person has the right to health protection, medical care, and medical insurance.




                                                                                                          54
Appendix B – Narratives


Snowflake Story
     “Tell me the weight of a snowflake.” A mouse asked a wild dove. “Nothing more than nothing,” the dove
answered. “In that case I must tell you a marvelous story,” the mouse said. “I sat on the branch of a fir, close
to its trunk, when it began to snow, not heavily, not a raging blizzard, no just like in a dream without any
violence. Since I had time, I counted the snowflakes setting on the twigs and needles of my branch. Their
number was exactly 3, 741,952, when the next snowflake dropped onto the branch- „nothing more than
nothing‟ as you say- the branch broke off.” Having said that the mouse went away. The dove, thought about
the meaning of the story and for a while and finally said to herself, “Perhaps there is only one person‟s voice
lacking for peace to come about in this world.”

Starfish Story
     One day a man was walking along the seashore. He noticed that during the night many seashells and
starfish had washed upon the shore. Thoroughly enjoying the morning sun, the man strolled for miles along
the sand.
     Far off in the distance, he saw a small figure dancing. The man was joyous that someone was celebrating
life in such a grand way. As he drew closer, however, it became apparent that perhaps the figure was not
dancing but repeatedly performing some action.
     Approaching the small figure, the man saw that it was a child. The little girl was methodically picking up
starfish from the shore and tossing them back into the surf. The man paused for a moment puzzled and then
asked, “Why are you throwing those starfish?”
     “If I leave these starfish on the beach,” she replied, “the sun will dry them and they will die. So I am
throwing them back into the ocean because I want them to live.”
     The man was thoughtful for a moment, impressed with the child, but then he motioned to the miles and
miles of beach and said, “There must be billions of starfish along here! How can you possibly expect to make
a difference?”
     The young girl pondered the man‟s words for a moment, then she slowly leaned over, reached down and
carefully picked up another starfish and threw it back into the water. She turned to the man smiled and said,
“You may be right, but I made a difference for that one!”

A Leader?
      I went on a search to become a leader. I searched high and low.
      I spoke with authority, people listened but alas, there was one who was wiser than I and they followed
him. I sought to inspire confidence, but the crowd responded, “Why should we trust you?”
      I postured and I assumed the look of leadership with a continence that glowed with confidence and pride.
But many passed me by and never noticed my air of elegance.
      I ran ahead of others, pointing the way to new heights. I demonstrated that I knew the route to greatness.
And then I looked and I was alone.
      What shall I do, I quarried? I‟ve tried hard and used all that I know. And I sat down, and I pondered long.
      And then I listened to the voices around me. And I heard what the group was trying to accomplish. I rolled
up my sleeves and joined in the work. As we worked, I asked, “Are we all together in what we want to do and
how to get the job done?”
      And we thought together, and we fought together, and we struggled towards our goal. I found myself
encouraging the fainthearted. I sought to praise the ideas of those to shy to speak out. I taught those who had
little skill. I praised those who worked hard. When our task was complete, one of the group turned to me and
said, “This would not have been done but for your leadership.”
      At first I said, “I didn‟t lead. I just walked with the rest.”
      And then I understood that leadership is not a goal. It‟s a way of reaching a goal.
      I lead best when I help others to go where we‟ve decided to go.
      I lead best when I help others to use themselves creatively.
      I lead best when I help others to use their leader and focus on my group, their needs and their goals.
    To lead is to serve, to give, to achieve together.

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Appendix C – Quotes

Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful committed people can change the world. Indeed, it‟s the
only thing that ever has.
– Margaret Mead

The destiny of human rights is in the hands of all citizens in all our communities.
– Eleanor Roosevelt

To be blind is bad, but worse is to have eyes and not to see.
– Helen Keller, 1880-1968

The creation of a thousand forests is in one acorn.
– Ralph Waldo Emerson

We make a living by what we get, we make a life by what we give.
– Sir Winston Churchill

Defeat is not the worst of failures. Not to have tried is the true failure.
– George E. Woodberry

Keep away from people who try to belittle your ambitions. Small people always do that, but the
really great make you feel that you, too, can become great.
– Mark Twain

Though no one can go back and make a brand new start, anyone can start from now and make a
brand new ending.
– Carl Bard




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