ARROW TSA

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ARROW TSA Powered By Docstoc
					         Annual
  Forest Health Strategy
         for the
Arrow Timber Supply Area

              2009/2010




                 Updated by:
            Rick Mazzocchi, RPF
            Forest Health Forester
        Arrow Boundary Forest District


This is an update of the previous annual strategy
Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA




                                              Table of Content
1. Arrow TSA description ................................................................................................ 3
2. Arrow TSA Forest Health Objectives .......................................................................... 6
3. TSA Priority Ranking of Forest Health Agents ............................................................ 6
4. Description of the Priority Forest Health agent status .................................................. 7
  4.1.     Mountain Pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) ....................................................... 7
  4.2.     Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) .......................................................... 9
  4.3.     Spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) ............................................................ 9
  4.4.     Windthrow ........................................................................................................... 9
  4.5.     Amillaria Root Disease (Armillaria ostoyae)............................................................. 9
  4.6.     Western Balsam bark beetle (Dryocoetes confuses) ................................................... 10
  4.7.     Western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis) & .................................................... 10
  4.8.     Larch Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium laricis) & Lodgepole Pine Dwarf mistletoe
  (Arceuthobium americanum) ................................................................................................ 10
  4.9.     Engraver beetle (Scolytus ventralis) ........................................................................ 10
  4.10. Larch needle cast (Meria laricis) and blight (Hypodermella laricis) ............................ 10
  4.11. Black Stain Root Disease (Leptographium wageneri) ................................................ 11
  4.12. Hard pine rust: Western gall rust (Endocronartium harknessii), Stalactiform blister
  rust (Cronartium coleosporioides), Comandra blister rust (Cronartium comandra) ..................... 11
  4.13. Various defoliator on deciduous ......................................................................... 11
5. Management objectives for priority forest health agents ............................................. 11
  5.1.     Management objectives for bark beetles (IBM, IBD and IBS) ............................ 11
  5.2.     Integrated Forest Health Management objectives ............................................... 12
6. Provincial Ranking and BMU Strategy for IBM and IBD ........................................... 12
  6.1.     Mountain pine beetle ranking table..................................................................... 12
7. Proposed activities to manage IBM and IBD ............................................................. 14
  7.1.     Mountain pine beetle.......................................................................................... 14
     7.1.1.     Harvesting.................................................................................................. 14
     7.1.2.     Pheromone Use ......................................................................................... 14
     7.1.3.     Single tree treatment................................................................................... 14
     7.1.4.     Detailed Flight and Ground Surveys .......................................................... 14
  7.2.     Douglas-fir beetle ............................................................................................... 15
8. Priority Activities in non suppression BMUs ........................................................... 15
9. 2009 Fiscal Year Tactical Plan ................................................................................. 15
10.     Information Links .................................................................................................. 16




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Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA




                                 1.      Arrow TSA description

The Arrow Timber Supply Area (TSA) lies in the West Kootenay area in the southeastern
part of the province. The TSA covers 605,640 hectares (ha) which covers just over half the
Arrow Zone of the Arrow Boundary District. The remainder of the zone is covered by Tree
Farm Licences 23 and 3, Valhalla Provincial Park, Goat Range Provincial Park and Kokanee
Glacier Provincial Park. The main communities in the TSA are Trail, Castlegar, Nakusp, and
Rossland. Areas within TFLs are not covered by this Forest Health Strategy. The following
BMUs contain TFL area and are not covered by this strategy

                                      TFLs’ BMUs
                                      N510 - Johnston
                                      N516 - Hoder
                                      N517 - Koch
                                      N518 - Gladstone
                                      N526 – Vipond
                                      N527 – Fosthall
                                      N529 – Halfway

The following 24 BMUs are included in the Arrow TSA Forest Health Strategy:
                  BMU #        BMU Name           BMU #      BMU Name
                   N501        Sheep               514       Perry
                   N502        Rossland            515       Lemon
                   N503        Bear                519       Eagle
                   N504        Pend Oreille        520       Whatsan
                   N505        Stagleap            521       Woden
                   N506        Erie                522       Caribou
                   N507        Glade               523       Hills
                   N508        Blueberry           524       Idaho
                   N509        Dog                 525       Wilson
                   N511        Cayuse              528       Kuskanax
                   N512        Ladybird            530       Trout
                   N513        Pedro               531       Fish



The TSA is situated in the Interior Wet Belt, and its forests are among the most productive
in the B.C. interior. Major biogeoclimatic zones include the Interior Cedar Hemlock,
Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir, and Alpine Tundra zones. A few small areas in the Lower


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Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA


Arrow Lakes are classified as Interior Douglas-fir zone. The dominant tree species are
Douglas-fir and western larch (occupying over 46 percent of the land base available for
timber harvesting); lodgepole pine (16 percent); and balsam (just over 10 percent). Western
white pine, ponderosa pine, Engelmann spruce, western redcedar, and western hemlock are
also found in the Arrow TSA. As a result of fires at the turn of the century, only 16 percent
of all stands are over 140 years. The majority of the stands in the TSA are between 60 and
120 years of age. The inventory data indicates many of the stands in the Arrow TSA
approaching age and diameter threshold which will make them more susceptible to attack
from insects such as bark beetles (rational for allowable cut determination, TSR2).

The Arrow TSA is characterized by steep, mountainous terrain in the north, with gentler
terrain and wider valleys and trenches in the south. Approximately half of the TSA is
productive forest land. A significant portion of the productive forest land area is unavailable
for timber harvesting for various reasons, including: operability, environmental sensitivity,
unstable soils and steep slopes, non-merchantable forest types. Consequently, approximately
202 000 hectares, or 27 percent, of the Arrow TSA's total land base is considered available
for timber harvesting under current management practices.
Of that area considered available for harvesting, approximately 47 percent is located within
watersheds that are licensed for domestic use and 36 percent is subject to forest cover
requirements for visual sensitivity. Ungulate Winter Range and Caribou Habitat, Old
Growth Management Areas and Connectivity Corridors are additional resource constraints
are placed on the land base. All the above land use values and constraints make
management of forest health agents in the Arrow TSA challenging. Balancing the social,
economical and ecological values of the Arrow TSA is a delicate act, especially during
outbreak levels, as the one currently experienced with Mountain pine beetle.
More information on the specifics detailed of the Arrow TSA can be found in the following
documents and web sites:

       West Kootenay-Boundary Land Use Plan

         http://ilmbwww.gov.bc.ca/lup/lrmp/southern/kootenay/

       Arrow TSA Website http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hts/tsa/tsa01/




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Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA




Map 1: Arrow TSA showing BMU Strategies, TFLs, Parks and Private Land.




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Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA




                        2.       Arrow TSA Forest Health Objectives

        1- Maintain detection program for forest health agents over the land base.
        2- Assess the potential impact of the identified forest health agents on resource
          values and timber supply.
        3- Implement ecologically sound, economically feasible and socially acceptable
          mitigating strategies and tactics to address forest health agents while considering
          constraints and limitations placed on the land base.
        4- Encourage and foster knowledge sharing on forest health agents amongst players
          of the Arrow Licensees and other stakeholders.
        5-Generate a Mountain pine beetle harvesting strategy that mitigates mid term timber
          supply impacts.


                   3.        TSA Priority Ranking of Forest Health Agents

The following table covers the major forest health agents which can cause potential impact
on the timber supply.
Table 1: Ranking of forest health agents by potential Impact on Timber Supply
High                      Moderate                  Low
Mountain Pine beetle      Douglas Fir beetle        Dwarf mistletoe (pine and larch)
                          Spruce beetle             Engraver beetle
                          windthrow                 Animal damage
                          Armillaria root disease   Larch needle cast and blight
                          Western balsam bark       Western pine beetle
                          beetle
                          White pine blister rust   Red turpentine beetle
                                                    Black Stain root disease
                                                    Animal damage
                                                    Hard pine rusts (Western gall rust,
                                                    Stalactiform blister rust & Comandra
                                                    blister rust
                                                    Various insect defoliators on deciduous
                                                    Western Pine Beetle




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Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA


               4.      Description of the Priority Forest Health agent status

The following table provides an overview of the activity status of some of the priority forest
health agents which was reported during the 2008 provincial overview survey.



   Forest health       Area affected in             Trend           Current Impact      TSA
      agents              2008 (ha)                                   on Timber        Priority
                                                                        Supply
Mountain pine               66188                 Increasing             High             1
beetle
Douglas-fir beetle            527            Increasing Endemic          Low              2


Spruce bark beetle             0                  Endemic                Low              2


Western balsam               6015                Decreasing              Low              3
bark beetle                                   Chronic over TSA
Western Spruce                421            Not previously noted     unknown             2
budworm (not
verified)

        4.1.    Mountain Pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)

The area of current mountain pine beetle infestation increased from 34,286 ha in 2007 to
66,188 ha in 2008. The Mountain pine beetle has been active in the Arrow TSA since 2002.
There was a peak in 2005 of 89,000 ha. with subsequent annual drops in area until 2007.
The current infestation has previously been considered to be a local populations as opposed
to being part of the infestation spreading from the central interior and now infesting large
area in Okanagan Shuswap District to the North-West. However, the recent increase may be
caused by Okanagan populations spreading into the Arrow TSA.

Over the past several years Arrow TSA licencees and adjacent TFL holders have aggressively
responded to the beetle population with targeted harvesting and have significantly reduced
the area of susceptible pine on operable terrain. However, over the last two years harvesting
has been reduced as s response to poor markets. Much of the remaining infested or




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Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA


susceptible forest is on high inaccessible ridges probably resulting from past fire history and
subsequent regeneration to lodgepole pine.


                                 Arrow TSA Annual MPB Area

                100000
                 80000                                                          2008
    Area (ha)




                 60000                                                          2007
                 40000                                                          2006
                 20000
                                                                                2005
                     0
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                                           er
                         Tr




                                                     Se



                                                               Se
                                         od
                                         M




                                                             ry
                                                           Ve
                                                    Severity




Arrow TSA: MPB area by severity class.




Future Trends

The provincial level infestation is nearing or in the West portions of the TSA. The
Provincial-Level Projection of the Current Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak (BCMPB) May
2008 update, projects that Arrow TSA should have increased in 2008 and will peak in 2010
or 2011. The 2008 Overview Mapping documents the 2008 increase. BMU N519 (Eagle)
currently has a large area of mapped infestation and is probably a combination of local
populations as well as spreading infestation from the Okanagan. There is a great deal of
uncertainty on how the Provincial Level infestation will affect the Arrow TSA. Variables
such as topography, mixed species stands and past harvesting of infested and susceptible
timber may result in less than projected damage levels. However, the model remains the
best tool available so it should be concluded that all pine forests are at risk.




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Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA


        4.2.    Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae)

The Douglas-fir beetle population is endemic in Arrow TSA. The infested areas increased
from 45ha in 2007 to 527 ha. in 2008.        There are over 261,800ha of susceptible forest type
to Douglas-fir beetle in the Arrow TSA and Douglas-fir is one of the dominant tree species
in this TSA. In addition, the inventory data indicates many of the stands in the Arrow TSA
are approaching age and diameter threshold which will make them more susceptible to
attack from insect such as bark beetle. The Douglas-fir beetle has the potential to
significantly impact the Arrow TSA. Therefore, the management of Douglas-fir beetle and
Doulglas-fir leading stands remains a priority for the Arrow TSA.

        4.3.    Spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis)

No spruce bark beetle was identified in the aerial overview mapping. Spruce blowdown
when identified is a high priority for treatment. The Bark Beetle Guidebook will guide
treatments.

        4.4.    Windthrow

Windthrow is a main concern especially when located in Douglas-fir and spruce types.
Historically, spruce bark beetle and Douglas-fir beetle outbreaks have been closely associated
to windthrow events. Prompt removal of spruce and Douglas-fir windthrow trees are
imperative to avoid the build up of these two bark beetles. The direct impact of windthrow
on the TSA in usually minimal however, the indirect impact in the form of bark beetle
outbreak, can be serious.

        4.5.    Amillaria Root Disease (Armillaria ostoyae)

Armillaria root disease has been identified throughout the Arrow TSA. Management of
Armillaria in the TSA follows the “Armillaria root disease management guideline for the
Nelson Forest Region” Technical report TR-014, March 1998. Stocking Standards for Free
Growing Stands are contained in each licensee’s Forest Stewardship Plan and have been
developed to address this disease.




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Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA


        4.6.    Western Balsam bark beetle (Dryocoetes confuses)

There are large area of subalpine fir leading forest stands in the Arrow TSA that are
susceptible to western balsam bark beetle. Western balsam bark beetle has been chronically
causing mortality over the years. In 2008, over 6,000 ha have seen some level of mortality
due to the western balsam bark beetle in the Arrow TSA. Direct control action on that
insect is very difficult due to its attack dynamics and the scattered distribution of the stands.

        4.7.    Western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis) &

No Western pine beetle has been identified in the Arrow TSA but it is likely to be present in
low levels. Py stands are not extensive In the TSA but this insect is a serious problem in low
elevations in the Okanagan Valley. Normal overview monitoring should identify future
problems.

        4.8.    Larch Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium laricis) & Lodgepole Pine
                Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum)

The larch and lodgepole pine Dwarf mistletoes are causing losses in volume in some parts of
the TSA. The impact on the TSA is negligible. Refer to the Dwarf Mistletoe guideline for
management strategy and tactics.

        4.9.    Engraver beetle (Scolytus ventralis)

Past infestations were noted in BMU N504, Pend D’Oreille Valley. It was not detected in the
2008 Overview mapping.

        4.10.   Western spruce budworm

The overview mapping identified 421 ha. of an unknown defoliator tentatively identified as
Western spruce budworm. The District will verify the identity of the pest and determine
options.

        4.11.   Larch needle cast (Meria laricis) and blight (Hypodermella laricis)

This year, no infestations were mapped. These diseases infect Western larch of all ages.
Defoliation by these diseases may cause minor growth reduction in large trees and young
trees may be killed. No impact on the TSA in expected at this point and no management is
proposed except continuous monitoring of the occurrence.



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Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA


        4.12.        Black Stain Root Disease (Leptographium wageneri)

Black Stain root disease has been causing some level of mortality on the Nancy Green area.
The impact on TSA is insignificant and no management actions are planned.

        4.13.        Hard pine rust: Western gall rust (Endocronartium harknessii),
                     Stalactiform blister rust (Cronartium coleosporioides), Comandra
                     blister rust (Cronartium comandra)

The hard pine rusts are a minor concern in the Arrow TSA and often found in pine
plantations. The impact on the TSA is unkown. Stocking Standards have been designed
considering this pest.

        4.14.        Various defoliators on deciduous

Birch leafminer, Aspen leafminer and the satin moth on birch and aspen respectively, have
been causing defoliation in the Arrow TSA over many years. The impact on the TSA is not
significant. No management is planned.

        4.15.        Western Pine beetle

Western pine beetle has not been recorded by the Overview Survey but has been
observed in Syringa Creek Park and may be present in the adjacent Cayuse and Ladybird
BMU’s in the range of Yellow Pine. Yellow pine forests will be monitored for this insect
and appropriate action will be determined in the coming field season.


                5.       Management objectives for priority forest health agents

All priority forest health agents will adhere to the following management objectives

        5.1.         Management objectives for bark beetles (IBM, IBD and IBS)

The following are the management objectives to be implemented for the three main bark
beetles in the Arrow TSA: mountain pine beetles, Douglas-fir beetle and spruce bark beetle.
Any reference to “bark beetles” in the following management objective refers to the three
bark beetles listed above.

    1. Reduce bark beetle populations to acceptable levels;

    2. Prioritize the harvesting of current infestation;

    3. Limit the amount of unsalvageable losses due to bark beetles;



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Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA


      4. Salvage beetle killed areas where economically feasible;

      5. Prioritize the forest management to higher hazard forest stands by harvesting or
         reducing the susceptibility of stands to bark beetles.



         5.2.        Integrated Forest Health Management objectives

The following principle for management objective commonly known as “Integrated Forest
Health Management” will be followed for all the priority forest health agents in the Arrow
TSA:

      1. Know the landbase and resource management objectives;

      2. Manage from an ecological perspective;

      3. Don’t make the situation worse;

      4. Practice adaptive management.

The Integrated Forest Health Management is a system that, in the context of specific
resource management objectives and knowledge of the associated environment and the
biology of the forest health agent and host species, applies all suitable techniques and
methods to maintain forest health agent populations at levels below those causing
unacceptable damage or mitigates such damage.

                6.      Provincial Ranking and BMU Strategy for IBM and IBD

Ranking for the two bark beetles with the highest potential impact on the TSA will be
covered in this section: Mountain pine beetle and Douglas-fir beetle. The two ranking tables
below follow the methodology outline in the Provincial Bark Beetle Strategy and also include
the bark beetle Strategy for each BMU.

         6.1.        Mountain pine beetle ranking table

BMU        BMU Name           # green           #       Susceptibility Provincial     BMU
  #                            attack        infested                  Ranking       Strategy
                                              spots

501        Sheep                High          High          Low            7        Hold


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Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA


502      Rossland             Low             Low           Low            8        Hold
503      Bear                 Low             Low           Low            8        Hold
504      Pend Oreille         Low             Low           Low            8        Hold
505      Stagleap             High            High          Low            7        Hold
506      Erie                 Low             Low           Low            8        Hold
507      Glade                High            High          Low            8        Hold
508      Blueberry            High            High          Low            7        Hold
509      Dog                  High            High          High           4        Hold
511      Cayuse               High            High          High           4        Hold
512      Ladybird             High            High          High           4        Hold
513      Pedro                High            High          High           3        Salvage
514      Perry                High            High          Low            8        Salvage
515      Lemon                High            High          Low            6        Hold
519      Eagle                High            High          High           4        Hold
520      Whatsan              Low             Low           Low            6        Hold
521      Woden                High            High          Low            7        Salvage
522      Caribou              High            High          Low            6        Hold
523      Hills                High            High          Low            6        Hold
524      Idaho                High            High          Low            7        Hold
525      Wilson               High            High          Low            4        Hold
528      Kuskanax             Low             Low           High           8        Monitor
530      Trout                Low             Low           Low            8        Monitor
531      Fish                 Low             Low           Low            8        Monitor


.


Douglas-fir beetle
BMU       BMU Name          # green             #       Susceptibility Provincial     BMU
    #                        attack          infested                  Ranking       Strategy
                                                           %TSA
                                              spots       Operable

501      Sheep                High            Low           Low            5        Suppression
502      Rossland             Low             Low           High           3        Suppression
503      Bear                 Low             Low           High           3        Suppression
504      Pend Oreille         Low             Low           High           3        Suppression
505      Stagleap             Low             Low           High           3        Suppression
506      Erie                 Low             Low           Low            8        Suppression
507      Glade                Low             Low           Low            8        Suppression
508      Blueberry            Low             Low           Low            8        Suppression
509      Dog                  Low             Low           Low            8        Suppression
511      Cayuse               Low             Low           High           3        Suppression



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Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA


512      Ladybird             Low            Low       High             3       Suppression
513      Pedro                Low            Low       High             3       Suppression
514      Perry                Low            Low       High             3       Suppression
515      Lemon                Low            Low       High             3       Suppression
519      Eagle                Low            Low       High             3       Suppression
520      Whatsan              Low            Low       Low              8       Suppression
521      Woden                Low            Low       Low              8       Suppression
522      Caribou              Low            Low       High             3       Suppression
523      Hills                Low            Low       High             3       Suppression
524      Idaho                Low            Low       High             3       Suppression
525      Wilson               Low            Low       High             3       Suppression
528      Kuskanax             Low            Low       High             3       Suppression
530      Trout                High           High      Low              7       Suppression
531      Fish                 Low            Low       Low              8       Suppression


                    7.      Proposed activities to manage IBM and IBD

        7.1.    Mountain pine beetle

                7.1.1. Harvesting

Harvesting is the most efficient short-term method of dealing with mountain pine beetle
populations and to prevent timber loss. In order to reduce mid term timber supply impacts
harvesting should be targeted at infested stands with significant hazard. Due to poor
markets for lodgepole pine, non salvaged loss may be significant.

                7.1.2. Pheromone Use

With no suppression BMUs, no pheromone us is planned.

                7.1.3. Single tree treatment

With no suppression BMUs, no single tree treatments are planned.

                7.1.4. Detailed Flight and Ground Surveys

With no suppression BMUs, no detailed mapping or ground surveys are planned.




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Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA


        7.2.      Douglas-fir beetle

A combination of sanitation and salvage harvesting for Douglas-fir beetle suppression
should be done in areas of current attack in order to reduce the existing population and
inhibit the infestation expansion.

Trap trees should be used to reduce overall beetle population levels and complete a post
logging mop-up where necessary. MCH anti aggregant may be used where conditions are
appropriate.



                       8.     Priority Activities in non suppression BMUs


With an upcoming Timber Supply Review process about to commence, the following
projects will be of value:
       Non recovered (unsalvaged) loss estimate.
       Growth losses in post Free Growing stands.


Infestation Dynamics Assessments.
       A reconnaissance level ground survey is proposed in dispersed locations
        throughout the TSA to determine infestation population statistics such as level of
        infestation and green to red ratios. Locations for these recces will be determined
        by heli GPS based on local knowledge and the 2008 overview mapping
               o This information is important to accurately rank treatment priorities and to
                 ensure that the appropriate bark beetle strategy is designated.


Other potential projects:
       Hazard ratings for areas with missing data. Several mapsheet areas do not have
        current hazard ratings for MPB, DFB or SBB due to lack of some component
        data.
       Field review of hazard ratings to determine accuracy.


                              9.       2009 Fiscal Year Tactical Plan




The tactical plan will be attached upon approval of the 2010 fiscal year financial
allocation.




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Forest Health Strategy 2009/10 – Arrow TSA


                                   10.       Information Links

Report: 2007 Overview of Forest Health in the Southern Interior Region
http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/ftp/RSI/external/!publish/Forest%20Health/Overview%20Surve
y%20Reports/
The above report is based on spatial data found at the location below for 2007 Annual
Overview Survey. The Report for the 2008 Overview is not yet available.


Spatial Data:
Bark Beetle Hazard Ratings
http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/ftp/RSI/external/!publish/Forest%20Health/Bark%20Beetle%2
0Susceptibility%20Ratings/


2007 Annual Overview Survey. (fixed wing based aerial mapping of all visible forest
pests).
http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/ftp/HFP/external/!publish/Aerial_Overview/2007/final_version/


2007 Detailed Mapping (Helicopter based aerial mapping of Beetle Management Units
with a Mountain pine beetle strategy of suppression.)
http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/ftp/HFP/external/!publish/Aerial_Overview/2007/Detailed_Sur
veys/DAB/




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