Effects of Omega 3 Supplements on Weight Loss

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Effects of Omega 3 Supplements on Weight Loss Powered By Docstoc
					  Colleen Flynn
  Cheryl Mackie
Stephanie Mattern
   Marie Moran
    Ngoc Uong
 Introduction
 Orlistat/ Alli - Marie
 Omega 3 Supplements – Colleen
 Green tea - Cheryl
 Guarana - Stephanie
 Chromium Supplements – Ngoc
 Conclusion
 Obesity in the United States is a problem of increasing
  concern.
 Many people use over the counter weight loss drugs,
  supplements, and herbs in hopes to lose weight fast &
  quick!
 Many of these weight loss supplements make false
  claims, and can be harmful to your health.
 Orlistat is a prescription drug that promotes loss of
  weight by preventing the digestion and absorption of
  fat in food.
 In the intestine, an enzyme called lipase breaks apart
  fat in food so that it can be absorbed into the body.
  Orlistat blocks the action of lipase and thereby
  prevents the breakup and absorption of fat.
 Orlistat blocks absorption of about 25% of the fat in a
  meal. The unabsorbed fat is excreted in the stool. Alli,
  a lower dose formulation of orlistat can be bought over
  the counter.
 “ Three Month Tolerability of Orlistat in Adolescents with
 Obesity-Related Comorbid Conditions” McDuffe et al.

Objective- To study the safety, tolerability, and potential
          efficacy of orlistat in adolescents.

Design-Studied 20 adolescents in an open-label pilot trial.
 Subjects were evaluated before and after taking orlistat and
 a multivitamin for 3 months. Subjects were simultaneously
 enrolled in a 12-week program emphasizing diet, exercise,
 and strategies for behavior change.
 20 obese white and African-American adolescents
  aged 12-17 years old (10 boys/ 10 girls)were recruited
  through newspaper advertisements and letters to local
  physicians for participation in a weight-loss study.
 Inclusion criteria: BMI>30, and possess at least one of
  the following obesity related comorbidities…
   Hypertension
   Type 2 diabetes or glucose intolerance
   Hyperinsulinemia
   Total cholesterol > 200mg/ dL
   LDL-cholesterol > 130 mg/ d L
   Hepatic Steatosis, or sleep apnea
 All subjects had two baseline evaluations under the
  supervision of a guardian. One prior to the study and
  one after 3 months of orlistat treatment.
 Subjects were given orlistat, 120 mg, and instructed to
  take it 3 times daily with a meal.
 Subjects were also supplied with and instructed to take
  a multivitamin every night before bed. (Vitamin
  A,D,E,K)
 Subjects also participated in a 12-week comprehensive
  behavioral program that was aimed to reinforce
  dietary principles, encourage physical activity, and
  provide psychosocial support.
 85% of participants who completed the treatment
    reported taking 80% of the orlistat medication.
   Adverse effects were generally mild, limited to
    gastrointestinal effects, which decreased overtime.
   3 subjects required additional Vitamin D
   Weight, Cholesterol, & LDL-Cholesterol decreased
    significantly while other variables decreased not as
    drastically.
   Overall, the weight loss among white subjects was
    greater than the weight loss among African-American
    subjects.
First study to explore orlistat’s safety, tolerability, and efficacy
  in adolescent population.
Possible it will be necessary to monitor Vitamin D in African-
  American adolescents taking orlistat, since they may be at
  risk for low vitamin D even before orlistat administration
Obesity-related co morbid conditions improved
LIMITATIONS: Study was limited by its open-label design,
  short duration, and small sample size.
CONCLUSION: Orlistat appears to be a relatively safe weight
  loss therapy for obese adolescents. However, orlistat in
  individuals <16 years of age continues to be experimental
  and is not FDA approved for adolescents as it is FDA
  approved for adults.
 http://www.nature.com/oby/journal/v10/n7/full/oby2
 00287a.html

 http://www.medicinenet.com/orlistat/article.htm

 MsDuffie., J, Calis., & Uwaifo, G. (2002). Three-Month
 Tolerability of Orlistat in Adolescents with Obesity-
 Related Comorbid Conditions. Nature, 10, 642-650
•   Essential Fatty Acids, otherwise known as Omega 3 and
    Omega 6 Fatty Acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids found
    in the oil from oily fish and vegetable sources such as flax
    seeds, hemp seeds, walnuts, olive oil and canola oil.
•   Both types of EFAs are required for the production of
    hormones that are responsible for regulating the major
    body functions, including digestion, insulin production
    and the storage of fat.
•   Research shows that omega-3 fatty acids reduce
    inflammation and may help lower risk of chronic diseases
    such as heart disease, cancer, and arthritis. Omega-3 fatty
    acids are highly concentrated in the brain and appear to be
    important for cognitive (brain memory and performance)
    and behavioral function.
 In order to eliminate excess body fat, you need to make
  sure you're eating enough of the right fats

 Omega-3 fatty acids in the fish oil is thought to activate the
  enzymes responsible for burning fat, and combined with
  exercise and increased oxygen intake, they increase the
  metabolic rate, which has an effect of burning more fat and
  losing weight.

 Exactly how omega-3 fatty acids work to aid weight loss is
  not certain, although some experts suggest they increase
  fat burning or that they increase a feeling of fullness by
  impacting the levels of hormones associated with hunger
  and appetite.
 “Effects of Omega-3 supplementation in combination with
  diet and exercise on weight loss and body composition”

 Objective: To assess whether supplemental omega-3 fatty
  acids in conjunction with diet and exercise augment weight
  loss over a 6 month period

 Design: In a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial,
  128 subjects were assigned either a supplement or a placebo
  in conjunction with lifestyle modification
 Obesity epidemic in US has increased efforts to find ways
  to enhance weight loss

 Studies in animals suggest that long-chain omega-3 fatty
  acids can enhance weight loss

 Reasons for weight loss might include increases in body fat
  oxidation and energy expenditure, appetite-suppressing
  effects, decrease in body fat mass, decreased insulin
  resistance and decreased blood pressure
 Sedentary men and women aged 30-60 were recruited from
  the general population
 Participants were excluded for the following:
   Any medical condition or illness that could affect the
      outcomes
     Liver function test results >2 times normal
     Current use of weight-loss medication or hormone
      replacements
     High blood pressure
     High omega-3 consumption in regular diet
     Recent weight loss of >5% or current adherence to a diet
     Pregnancy
     Tobacco or drug use
 Participants were randomly assigned to receive either an
    omega-3 supplement (fish oil + omega-3) or placebo
   Pills were to be taken twice a day, two with the first meal
    and three with the second meal
   All received exercise and dietary counseling
   They were told to exercise aerobically for 150 min per week
    at 50-80% of their VO2 max
   Participants were given heart rate monitors and
    membership to a gym and told to complete exercise logs
   They were given dietary counseling and were told to
    complete a food diary to monitor calorie intake
 81 of the 128 participants completed the 24 wk study
 Reasons for dropouts included: problems with the time
    commitment, family conflict, and adverse effects of pill
   Both groups lost an average of >5% body weight, BMI,
    body fat and waist circumference
   Resting metabolic rate was similar for both groups
   An average decrease in triglycerides of >20% was seen in
    both groups
   Food cravings declined in both groups
 No significant weight-reduction benefit was seen with the
    addition of omega-3 fatty acids
   Supplement group had a statistically significant increase in
    important fatty acid concentrations
   Calorie consumption decreased in both groups
   >5% weight loss was obtained for both groups
   Limitations included:
     Significant withdrawal rate (27%)
     Missing data from patient reported exercise
     Self-reporting might result in inaccurate data
     Only healthy overweight or obese individuals were used
      without significant metabolic abnormalities, which could
      mask potential benefits of omega-3 fatty acids
 http://www.mind1st.co.uk/omega-3-fish-oil-weight-
  loss.asp

 http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/omega-3-
  000316.htm

 DeFina, L. , Marcoux, L., et al. (2011). Effects of omega-3
  supplementation in combination with diet and exercise on
  weight loss and body composition1,2. American Journal of
  Clinical Nutrition, 93(2), 455-462.
Effects of Green Tea
  on Weight Loss
   Green Tea originates from China, made from
    Camellia Sinensis leaves.
   Subject of many medical studies to determine
    extent of its health benefits
   Contains wide variety of vitamins and minerals
        Polyphenols
        Antioxidants
                              The antioxidants in green tea
                               is thought to increase your
                               metabolism, the problem lies
                               in how much in boosts it.

                              One glass of green tea will
                               increase calorie burn by 14-18
                               calories. That means
                               consuming 5 glasses burns up
                               to 90 calories.

   1 pound = deficit 3500 calories

   Tea alone cannot cause fat loss as extreme as the
    products claim
   “A Green Tea Extract High in Catechins Reduces Body Fat
    and Cardiovascular Risks in Humans.”

   Objective: The body fat reducing effect and reduction of
    risks for cardiovascular disease by a green tea extract high
    in catachins was investigated in humans with typical
    lifestyles.

   Design: Japanese men and women with visceral fat-type
    obesity were recruited for the trial. Following a 2 week diet
    “run-in” period, a 12-week double blind parallel trial was
    performed, subjects ingesting 583mg of catechins
    (catechin group) or 96mg of catechins (control group)
    each day. Randomization was stratified by gender and BMI
    at each medical institution.
   270 Japanese men and women aged 25-55 were recruited
    from the general population

   Participants all met the following conditions:

     BMI of 24-30 kg/m2 (waist circumference of 80-94 cm)

     Considered to be visceral fat-type obese

     Not been treated at an outpatient department

     No serious liver or renal disease
   Participants were assigned to receive either a GTE beverage high in
    catechins, or placebo. Randomized double-blind, controlled parallel
    multicenter trial was used.

   Subjects consumed one can of test beverage each day for 12 week
    period, within 1 hour of their evening meal.

   All supplemental food products or medications were prohibited.
    Subjects were instructed to maintain usual dietary intake and physical
    activity.

    Participants visited medical institution at 4-week intervals. Eating
    and drinking (exception of water) were prohibited from 9pm the
    evening before, until after measurements were completed.

   Participants recorded all eating habits an daily activity , which
    received feedback from investigators in order to ensure subjects kept a
    constant level of daily activity.
   210 of the 270 participants completed the 12-week study

   Reasons for dropouts included: moved, were not visceral
    fat-type obese, suspected of having hepatic dysfunction.

   Body weight, BMI, body fat mass, and waist
    circumference decreased significantly over time >5%

   Decrease of LDL-cholesterol was also observed
   Dietary fat intake and fat energy ratio decreased in both
    groups.

   >5% weight loss was obtained for catechins (GTE) group

   Limitations included:

     No diet or exercise plans were enforced

     Self-reporting might result in inaccurate data

     Only visceral fat-type obese individuals were used
 Nagao, T. , Hase, T. , & Tokimitsu, I. (2007). A green tea
  extract high in catechins reduces body fat and
  cardiovascular risks in humans.Obesity (19307381), 15(6),
  1473-1483. Retrieved from
  http://www.nature.com/oby/journal/v15/n6/full/oby20071
  76a.html
 It is a fruit from Brazil

 Contains about twice the amount of caffeine as a coffee
  bean
 It has been said to promise benefits such as:
       Suppress appetites
       Energy enhancement
       Mental focus
       All natural weight loss remedy



But is it proven effective…
 Objective: to examine in overweight humans the
 short-term safety

 Design: 8 week randomized, double-blind placebo
 controlled

 Subjects: Overweight men & women

 Measurements:
   1. body weight
   2. internal
 67 subjects were randomized to either placebo or
 active Ma Huang/Guarana.

 24 subjects in each group completed the study

 Active treatment produced significantly greater loss of
 weight than did placebo. (P <0.006)

 Also reduced greater reduction in hip circumference &
 serum triglyceride levels.
• Boozer, CN., Nasser, JA., Heymfield, SB., Wang, V.,
  Chen, G., Solomon, JL. (2001) . An herbal supplement
  containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a
  randomized, double-blind trial. International Journal
  of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders, 25(3), 316-
  24. Retrieved from
  http://web.ebscohost.com.libaccess.sjlibrary.org/ehos
  t/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=3014a6df-a06e-44a1-8381-
  66e58c4e80ba%40sessionmgr13&vid=2&hid=14

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guarana
• Essential nutrient requires for:
    Supporting fat metabolism
    Maintaining glucose and insulin
      levels

• Estimated safe and adequate daily
  dietary intake for Chromium is 50 to
  200 μg (~ 0.05 to 0.2 mg)

• Found in: tomatoes, oysters, whole
  grains, potatoes, etc
• Promoted as dietary supplement
  for weight loss and muscle gain

• From 1996-2003, sales of
  chromium supplements
  increased from $65 to $106
  million in the U.S.

• 80% of chromium supplements
  are sold in form of chromium
  picolinate (CrPi)
• Chromium picolinate supplementation in women: effects on
  body weight, composition, and iron status

• Gold standard experimental study
    double-blind
    randomized
    controlled trial

• Subjects: 83 premenopausal women (19-50 yrs old)
    - 29 subjects in placebo group
    - 27 subjects in picolinic acid group
    - 27 subjects in chromium picolinate group
                               Chromium   Picolinic acid
              Placebo           <2 μg           0
              200 μg CrPi       187 μg        13 μg
              Picolinic Acid      0         1720 μg
• 14-week experiment:
    Subjects consumed only the diet given to them
    Initial 14-day period, all subjects consumed the basal
      chromium diet
    12-week intervention – each subject was given a capsule
      containing placebo, chromium picolinate or picolonic
      acid with breakfast
    Skin-fold, bone & soft tissue composition measurements
      were taken at the end of the equilibration period and then
      at the end of each 4-week period during supplementation

• Results: All three groups experience a decrease in body
  weight and fat mass during the 12-week intervention

• Conclusion: Chromium Picolinate does not promote weight
  loss or change in body composition
• Lukaski, H. , Siders, W. , & Penland, J. (2007). Chromium
  picolinate supplementation in women: Effects on body
  weight, composition, and iron status. Nutrition, 23(3),
  187-195. Retrieved from
  http://ddr.nal.usda.gov/bitstream/10113/45969/1/IND438
  98221.pdf

• The World's Healthiest Food. (n.d.). Chromium.
  Retrieved from
  http://whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid
  =51
• Just because a product is
  popular doesn’t mean it’s
  effective

• Do research before buying
  any type of health related
  product

• The best way to lose weight
  is to eat healthy diet and be
  physically active

				
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