BRAIN MACHINE INTERFACE critical for the patient to take movements. ABSTRACT Such a condition can be recovered by this “No technology is superior if it approach. tends to overrule human faculty. The main objective of this paper is to In fact, it should be other way interface the human and machine, by doing this several objects can be controlled. This around” paper enumerates how Human and Machine Imagine that you are somewhere else and can be interfaced and researches undergone you have to control a machine which is in a on recovery of paralyzed person in their remote area, where human can’t withstand mind. for a long time. In such a condition we can move to this BRAIN -MACHINE 1. INTRODUCTION INTERFACE. It is similar to robotics but it The core of this paper is that to operate is not exactly a robot. In the robot the machines from a remote area . In the given interface has a sensor with controller but BMI DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS the here the interface with human and machine. brain is connected to client interface node In the present wheel chair movements are through a neural interface nodes . The client done according to the patient by controlling interface node connected to a BMI the joystick with only up, reverse, left and SERVER which controls remote ROBOTS right movements are possible. But if the through a host control. (fig.1) patient is a paralyzed person, then it is a 2. BRAIN STUDY By understanding the biological factors that control the brain's adaptability. In the previous research, it has been shown that a rat wired into an artificial neural The clinicians could develop improved system can make a robotic water feeder drugs and rehabilitation methods for people move just by willing it. But the latest work with such damage. The latest work is the sets new benchmarks because it shows how first to demonstrate that monkeys can learn to process more neural information at a to use only visual feedback and brain faster speed to produce more sophisticated signals, without resort to any muscle robotic movements. That the system can be movement, to control a mechanical robot made to work using a primate is also an arm including both reaching and grasping important proof of principle. movements. Scientists have used the brain signals from a 3.SIGNAL ANALYSIS USING monkey to drive a robotic arm. As the ELECTRODES animal stuck out its hand to pick up some food off a tray, an artificial neural system A brain-signal recording and analysis linked into the animal's head mimicked system that enabled to decipher brain signals activity in the mechanical limb. from monkeys in order to control the movement of a robot arm .In the xperiments, It was an amazing sight to see the robot in an array of microelectrodes each smaller my lab move, knowing that it was being than the diameter of a human hair into the driven by signals from a monkey brain. It frontal and parietal lobes of the brains of wo was as if the monkey had a 600-mile- (950- female rhesus macaque monkeys. They km-) long virtual arm. The rhesus monkeys implanted 96 electrodes in one animal and consciously controls the movement of a 320 in the other. The researchers reported robot arm in real time, using only signals their technology of implanting arrays of from their brains and visual feedback on a hundreds of electrodes and recording from video screen. It is said that the animals them over long periods. (fig.2) appeared to operate the robot arm as if it were their own limb. The technologies achievement represents an important step toward technology that could enable paralyzed people to control "neuroprosthetic" limbs, and even free- roaming "neurorobots" using brain signals. Importantly, the technology that developed for analyzing brain signals from behaving animals could also greatly improve rehabilitation of people with brain and spinal cord damage from stroke, disease or trauma. 1.Monkey Experiment ]]]]]]]]] 1.Monkey Experiment: The goal of Fig:2. Signal analysis using electrodes The frontal and parietal areas of the brain are chosen because they are known to be involved in producing multiple output commands to control complex muscle movement. (Fig:3) Fig 3 Placement of electrodes The faint signals from the electrode arrays Monkey Experiment: were detected and analyzed by the computer system and developed to recognize patterns The goal of the project is to control a of signals that represented particular hexapod robot (RHEX) using neural signals movements by an animal's arm. from monkeys at remote location. To explore the optimal mapping of cortical 4.EXPERIMENTS signals to Rhex’s movement parameters, a model of Rhex’s movements has been The experiments conducted for Brain- generated and human arm control is used to Machine Interface are: approximate cortical control. In preliminary investigations, the objective was to explore different possible mappings or control After a series of psychometric tests on strategies for Rhex. Both kinematic human volunteers, the strategy of controlling (position, velocity) and dynamic (force, a model of Rhex depicted above using the torque) mappings from hand space were human hand was determined to be the explored and optimal control strategies were easiest to use and fastest to learn. The determined. These mappings will be tested flexion/extension of the wrist is mapped to in the next phases of the experiment to angular velocity and the linear translation of ascertain the maximal control capabilities of the hand is mapped to linear (fore/aft) prefrontal and parietal cortices. velocity. The monkeys are being trained to use this technique to control a virtual model In the initial, output signals from the of Rhex (fig:5). monkeys' brains were analyzed and recorded as the animals were taught to use a joystick to both position a cursor over a target on a video screen and to grasp the joystick with a specified force. After the animal’s initial training, however the cursor was made a simple display – now incorporating into its movement the dynamics, such as inertia and momentum, of a robot arm functioning in another room. While the animal’s performance initially declined when the robot arm was included in the feedback loop, they quickly learned to allow for these dynamics and became proficient in manipulating the robot-reflecting cursor The joystick was then removed, after which the monkeys continued to move their arms in mid-air to manipulate and "grab" the cursor, Fig:5;Robotic-arm-movements thus controlling the robot arm(fig.4). The most amazing result, though, was that after only a few days of playing with the robot in this way, the monkey suddenly realized that it didn't need to move her arm at all. "The arm muscles went completely quiet, it kept the arm at side and controlled the robot arm using only its brain and visual feedback. Our analyses of the brain signals showed that the animal learned to assimilate the robot arm into her brain as if it was her own arm." Importantly the experiments included fig : 4 Hand movement both reaching and grasping movements, but The finding that their brain-machine derived from the same sets of electrodes. interface system can work in animals will have direct application to clinical The neurons from which we were recording development of neuroprosthetic devices for could encode different kinds of information. paralyzed people. It was surprised to see that the animal can learn to time the activity of the neurons to There is certainly a great deal of science and basically control different types of engineering to be done to develop this parameters sequentially. For example, after technology and to create systems that can be using a group of neurons to move the robot used safely in humans. However, the results to a certain point, these same cells would so far lead us to believe that these brain- then produce the force output that the machine interfaces hold enormous promise animals need to hold an object. for restoring function to paralyzed people. Analysis of the signals from the animal’s The researchers are already conducting brain as they learned revealed that the brain preliminary studies of human subjects, in circuitry was actively reorganizing itself to which they are performing analysis of brain adapt. signals to determine whether those signals correlate with those seen in the animal 5.ANALYSIS OF OUTPUTS: models. They are also exploring techniques to increase the longevity of the electrodes It was extraordinary to see that when we beyond the two years they have currently switched the animal from joystick control to achieved in animal studies. To miniaturize brain control, the physiological properties of the components, to create wireless interfaces the brain cells changed immediately. And and to develop different grippers, wrists and when we switched the animal back to other mechanical components of a joystick control the very next day, the neuroprosthetic device. properties changed again. And in their animal studies, proceeding to Such findings tell us that the brain is so add an additional source of feedback to the amazingly adaptable that it can incorporate system in the form of a small vibrating an external device into its own 'neuronal device placed on the animal's side that will space' as a natural extension of the body , tell the animal about another property of the actually, we see this every day, when we use robot. Beyond the promise of any tool, from a pencil to a car. As a part of neuroprosthetic devices, the technology for that we incorporate the properties of that recording and analyzing signals from large tool into our brain, which makes us electrode arrays in the brain will offer an proficient in using it, such findings of brain unprecedented insight into brain function plasticity in mature animals and humans are and plasticity. in sharp contrast to traditional views that only in childhood is the brain plastic enough We have learned in our studies that this to allow for such adaptation. approach will offer important insights into how the large-scale circuitry of the brain unit has a BMI development system . The works .Since we have total control of the brain is connected to (i.e. the system, for example, we can change the microelectrodes are connected to the frontal properties of the robot arm and watch in real and parietal lobes) client interface through time how the brain adapts. neural interface nodes which in turn is linked with BMI server which controls the 6.BRAIN MACHINE INTERFACE IN host device . HUMAN BEINGS In the present wheel chair, movements are The approach of this paper is to control the done according to the patient by controlling operations of a robot by means of an human the joystick with only up, reverse, left and brain without any links . right movements which are only possible. But if the patient is a paralyzed person, then The brain signals are taken by electrodes it is a critical for the patient to take from the frontal and parietal lobes .The movements because he is unable to control signals are conveyed with means of the wheel-chair. So this technology is a electrodes and processed by the unit .The marvelous gift to help them. 7.CONCLUSION: Thus this technology is a boon to this world. By this adaptation many Bio-medical difficulties can be overtaken and many of our dreams will come true . 8.BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bio-medical Engineering by Dr. Dan Koditschek. Neural Engineering by Karen Coulter and Rahul Bagdia Neural Networks by Patrick Davalo and Erick Naim.