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					TOPIC 5- Reducing Disaster Risk and Vulnerability

   1. Strongly encourages the creation of land-based OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy
      Conversion) plants with the coordination of the UNDP (United Nations Development
      Programme) with funding from NGOs such as but not limited to the ADB by 2013 for
      the following advantages but not limited to:
          a. The use of clean, abundant, renewable and natural resources to produce
              electricity,
          b. There are little or no adverse environmental effects from discharging,
          c. Produces fresh water and cold water for agricultural and cooling purposes,
          d. Cuts energy import bills and manages the economic impacts of climate
              change,
          e. Reduces the dependence on fossil fuels to produce electricity;

The idea of using thermal energy from the oceans was first thought of by a French scientist,
J. D’Arsonval, more than a century ago. It was only since early 1970 when research on this
technology started to take shape.

The Oceans cover more than 70% of the earth’s surface. This makes them the largest solar
energy collector and energy storage system on this planet. The 60 million square kilometres
(23 million square miles) of tropical seas absorb an amount of solar radiation equal in heat
content to about 29 billion kilolitres (250 billion barrels) of oil.

If needed, they take a loan from the IMF because in the long-run, it will be much more
beneficial. It’s very expensive.

Though diesel generators may have to be used, it’s much less fossil fuel than would be used
otherwise.

Land-based OTEC plants do not require a sophisticated mooring system, lengthy power
cables and more extensive maintenance as required with open ocean environment. In
addition, the land-based sites allow OTEC to be associated with industries such as
agriculture and those needing cooling and desalinated water.

The Basic Process
OTEC systems rely on the basic relationship between pressure (P), temperature (T) and
volume (V) of a fluid, which can be expressed by the following equation:

PV/T= a constant (where pressure, temperature and the volume of a fluid can be closely
controlled by manipulating the other two variables.)

Hence the differential in temperature of the fluid can be used to create an increase in
pressure in another. The increase in pressure is utilised to generate mechanical work.
OTEC or Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion is an energy technology, which uses the ocean’s
natural temperature gradient to drive a turbine, which is connected to a generator. It is
desirable that the temperature difference between the warm surface water and the cold
deep water be at least 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit).

Good Afternoon Honourable Deputy President, Fellow Experts, and Appreciated Admins.

The Oceans cover more than 70% of the earth’s surface. This makes them the largest solar
energy collector and energy storage system on this planet. The 60 million square kilometres
of tropical seas absorb an amount of solar radiation equal in heat content to about 29 billion
kilolitres of oil. Using Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plants are extremely effective
solutions as renewable resources, especially in the Pacific Islands, as they’re located in the
middle of water. Converting the solar energy into kinetic energy, would be ideal for this
situation. Some experts may question the action taken in this clause but the expert of the
IPCC feels that everything needing to be done will be, by the UNDP. As one can see in the
sub clauses, there are numerous advantages to this action and the Pacific Islands will
definitely prosper in the long-run. Therefore, the expert of the IPCC highly encourages the
whole humanitarian committee to vote FOR this clause.

Thank you.
   2. Recommends the use of Agroforestry, a sustainable land management system that
      integrates the production of crops and forest plants and/or animals simultaneously
      or sequentially, on the same land, by 2012, in ways such as but not limited to:
          a. Traditional uses such as but not limited to:
                   i. Timber,
                  ii. Fuelwood,
                 iii. Fruit farming,
          b. Nitrogen-fixing trees (NFTs) through the act of Rhizobia bacteria for the
             following advantages but not limited to:
                   i. Providing the nitrogen needs of agricultural crops,
                  ii. Creating sustainable, year-round food production,
                 iii. Increasing yields by 89-100%,
                 iv. Controlling soil erosion,
                  v. Decreasing deforestation;

Agroforestry applies management practices that are compatible with the cultural practices
of the local population, with the intent of increasing the overall yield of land through
production of a variety of products, improving the local standard of living, and improving or
protecting the quality of the environment.

The Rhizobia are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen and then releasing it to the plant in
a usable form. The plant absorbs the nitrogen, and some is incorporated into the leaves.
Fallen leaves can then be collected and used as mulch to provide nitrogen to crops or as a
protein rich fodder for livestock. Of the nitrogen in the leaves, 60% is generally lost to the air
(though renitrification) or washed into streams. The other 40% is available as green manure
to crops. This quantity is adequate to provide all of the nitrogen needs of most crops and is
sufficient to increase yields by 89-100% (in controlled tests).

Can buy Rhizobia strains.

http://www.greenstone.org/greenstone3/nzdl?a=d&c=hdl&d=HASH0146612580adf3f3021a
212f.8&sib=1&p.a=b&p.sa=&p.s=ClassifierBrowse&p.c=hdl

Good Afternoon Honourable Deputy President, Fellow Experts, and Appreciated Admins.

Agroforestry applies management practices that are compatible with the cultural practices
of the local population, with the intent of increasing the overall yield of land through
production of a variety of products, improving the local standard of living, and improving or
protecting the quality of the environment. As the expert of the ADB has stated in previous
debate, we are now in a state where science is necessary to advance. This clause combines
science and natural ways in a very effective manner. The IPCC strongly encourages the
humanitarian house to vote FOR this clause.

Thank you.
     3. Requests that governments hold a session teaching farmers how to maximize their
        planting as to plant the most trees and receive the most nutrients by the end of 2010
        including the following but not limited to:
            a. Site preparation through the following ways, but not limited to:
                     i. Clear the land of all unwanted vegetation, such as roots,
                    ii. Plant a ground cover such as green manure or mulch, which add
                        nutrients to the soil and avoid overexposure of the soil before
                        planting,
                   iii. String out the rows ahead of time and space the holes along the line
                        properly, so trees grow evenly and productivity is increased,
            b. Seedling preparation through the following ways, but not limited to:
                     i. Harden them for four to six weeks by gradually removing them from
                        the shade and reducing the amount of water, to help accustom them
                        to variable water supplies,
                    ii. Water the seedlings heavily three to four days prior to planting, to
                        ensure that the nursery soil surrounding the seeds is completely moist
                        and will provide adequate water for moving,
            c. Transportation, in the following ways, but not limited to:
                     i. Move plants as quickly as is safely possible to the planting site,
                    ii. Outfit the vehicles that will be used with wind and sun guards to
                        minimize plant drying,
                   iii. Water the plants at the nursery immediately before loading and after
                        unloading at the planting site,
                   iv. Create as many shelves as possible in the vehicles, as it will increase
                        the number of pots that can be carried in one trip,
            d. Planting, in the following ways, but not limited to:
                     i. Plant as soon as possible after transport,
                    ii. Don’t expose seedlings to the sun just before they are put into the
                        ground,
                   iii. Place the seedling and the soil surrounding it in the hole so that the
                        collar of the seedling is at the same level as it was in the nursery;
The collar is the point where the stem met the soil in the pot or the seed bed. This point is often visible by the first small roots on the stem.


Spacing of holes               Trees per Hectare (ha)


2 x 2 meters                   2,500

3 x 3 meters                   1,100

4 x 4 meters                   600

10 x 10 meters                 100

http://www.greenstone.org/greenstone3/nzdl?a=d&c=hdl&d=HASH0146612580adf3f3021a212f.7.2&sib=1&p.a=b&p.sa=&p.s=ClassifierBr
owse&p.c=hdl
Good Afternoon Honourable Deputy President, Fellow Experts, and Appreciated Admins.

Nowadays, land and time are both extremely precious. We are running out of them at great
extents. They need to be more taken care of and respected. This clause will make sure that
each and every piece of land is used to its fullest while planting. The status quo is that we
could be planting twice as many plants in the same amount of time. This clause will ensure
that that doesn’t happen. Farmers will be completely aware of the proper ways of planting.
Some experts may be thinking that the end of 2010 is too soon but the expert of the IPCC
has considered this and she feels that this is merely one session and the sooner it happens,
the better it is. This is not very difficult to enforce and therefore will not take much time to
be actuated. Not only will nations as a whole prosper from this clause, but even the farmers
themselves because there are more crops for them to sell and more money. Therefore, this
clause will also lead to economic growth while improving sustainable development. Fellow
experts, this clause is killing two birds with one stone. Hence, the expert of the IPCC strongly
encourages the humanitarian house to vote FOR this clause.

Thank you.
   4. Urges the government to focus on installing irrigation equipments to be coordinated
      by the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) to use rainfall as an
      advantage rather than the following, but not limited to, disadvantages by 2013:
          a. Causing surface runoff, because the high intensity of rains in the wet climate
             exceed the receptive or absorptive capacity of the soils,
          b. Leaching of soil nutrients, impacting growth and health of trees,
          c. Preventing penetration of water and air into the soil, due to the driving or
             pelting of raindrops against the soil, which will lead to the following, but not
             limited to:
                  i. Runoff,
                 ii. Erosion,
                iii. Flooding,
                iv. Landslides;

Rainfall is perhaps the most important climatic factor affecting agriculture and forestry in
the tropics and subtropics. It can be a limiting factor even in regions with high total annual
precipitation rates if the rainfall is unevenly distributed throughout the year. Understanding
rainfall patterns and availability of water throughout the year is crucial for forest projects, as
farmers must plan planting around adequate water supplies.

In areas with high rainfall and steep slopes, the soil is especially prone to erosion. Therefore,
the combined effects of slope and rainfall may determine the feasibility of a project or may
influence species selection on a particular site.

On the other hand, evapotranspiration (evaporation of moisture from the soil surface) may
be much higher than precipitation in some tropical areas. As the water evaporates from the
soil surface, a higher than normal concentration of salts will be deposited. These salts can be
detrimental to plant growth; some plants may not be able to tolerate high salt conditions at
all.

It is widely believed that the destruction of forests and reduction of forest areas leads to a
reduction in local rainfall, but most evidence indicates that, in fact, the decreased forest
area causes more of a change in rainfall distribution patterns than in total amount of
precipitation

http://www.greenstone.org/greenstone3/nzdl?a=d&c=hdl&d=HASH0146612580adf3f3021a
212f.4.3&sib=1&p.a=b&p.sa=&p.s=ClassifierBrowse&p.c=hdl

Good Afternoon Honourable Deputy President, Fellow Experts, and Appreciated Admins.

Rainfall is perhaps the most important climatic factor affecting agriculture and forestry in
the tropics and subtropics. It can be a limiting factor even in regions with high total annual
precipitation rates if the rainfall is unevenly distributed throughout the year. Understanding
rainfall patterns and availability of water throughout the year is crucial for forest projects, as
farmers must plan planting around adequate water supplies.
Therefore, irrigation is a very effective method of supplying dry land with water through the
use of ditches. As one can see in the subclauses, if this method is not actuated, numerous
negative consequences shall result. Experts may be questioning the action taken in this
clause but there is, in fact, plenty of action because the process will be carried out by the
UNDP. The expert of the IPCC encourages any constructive amendments to strengthen this
clause and hopes that the whole humanitarian house votes FOR the clause.

Thank you.
   5. Suggests that the Pacific Islands take more forceful action on reducing greenhouse
      gases, as greenhouse gas emissions have increased though they have signed and
      ratified the Kyoto Protocol, in ways such as, but not limited to:
          a. The use of alternative energy sources rather than fossil fuels,
          b. Setting a maximum amount of electricity to be used by household
              (depending on size) and a fine for excessive use,
          c. Timber harvesting, by creating a paper recycling programme;

The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at fighting global warming. The UNFCCC is an international
environmental treaty with the goal of achieving "stabilization of greenhouse gas
concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic
interference with the climate system."[1]

The objective of the Kyoto climate change conference was to establish a legally binding
international agreement, whereby all the participating nations commit themselves to
tackling the issue of global warming and greenhouse gas emissions. The target agreed upon
was an average reduction of 5.2% from 1990 levels by the year 2012.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyoto_Protocol

Good Afternoon Honourable Deputy President, Fellow Experts, and Appreciated Admins.

The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change), aimed at fighting global warming. Its objective is to establish a legally binding
international agreement, whereby all the participating nations commit themselves to
tackling the issue of global warming and greenhouse gas emissions. Now many Pacific Island
nations have signed this protocol but haven’t been living up to it. The target of the protocol
is to have an average reduction of 5.2% by the year 2012. This will not end up happening if
action is not taken. This clause provides few methods, along with the previous clauses
passed. The expert of the IPCC also feels that this would be a strong clause when debating in
Plenary because, as the expert of the ADB has stated, the Political committee wants a lot to
be in favour of themselves, and the majority of them have actually signed the Kyoto
Protocol. Therefore, this would make a positive and firm addition to the proposal and the
expert of the IPCC strongly encourages the Humanitarian house to vote FOR this clause.

Thank you.
   6. Asks governments and other institutions to help educate communities and citizens
      regarding the environmental situation in the Pacific Islands in such ways but not
      limited to:
          a. The media advertising the future of the Pacific Islands and ways to resolve
              the matter starting 2011 in ways such as but not limited to:
                    i. News programs,
                   ii. Newspapers,
                  iii. Television shows,
                  iv. Billboards,
                   v. Radios,
                  vi. The Climate TechBook,
                 vii. Pamphlets,
                viii. Brochures,
                  ix. Posters,
          b. Schools teaching their students and faculty starting the new 2011 school year
              in ways such as but not limited to:
                    i. Adding the consequences and solutions to greenhouse gas emissions
                       into their curriculums,
                   ii. Getting guest lecturers related to stabilizing greenhouse gas
                       concentrations to speak about the consequences and possible
                       solutions;
          c. Educating citizens on the following solutions, but not limited to:
                    i. If possible, they should try to take environmental-friendly methods of
                       transport such as walking, or cycling, rather than driving cars,
                   ii. Use reusable bags rather than plastic bags while shopping or for other
                       situations,
                  iii. Buying wood that has been used, or certified to be sustainably
                       harvested,
                  iv. Replace all incandescent light bulbs with efficient ones,
                   v. Unplug gadgets and appliances such as televisions, stereo equipment,
                       computers, and battery chargers when not using as they actually use
                       up more electricity when they’re off,
                  vi. Switch off all lights and fans when not needed;


The Climate TechBook serves as a new information resource on technologies to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions from across the economy. It is online resource for information on
reducing greenhouse emissions from all sectors. The TechBook is comprised mostly of
technology summaries that include how the technology works, how it can reduce
greenhouse gas emissions, and what policy options exist to help promote it.

Good Afternoon Honourable Deputy President, Fellow Experts, and Appreciated Admins.

As many experts have previously said, education is one of the primary factors in progress.
People need to know what is happening in their own nation because that is the first step to
action. This clause provides detailed ideas of how people will be educated on the status quo
and what they will be educated on. In the last sub clause, these are not radical, implausible
ideas. These are ideas which everyone can do, even us. But the problem is that many people
don’t even know about these measures. This clause will ensure that people are aware of the
possible measures. The expert of the IPCC strongly encourages the humanitarian house to
vote for this clause.

Thank you.
   7. Encourages the government to prevent construction in high risk areas with the
      assistance of experienced construction companies in ways such as, but not limited
      to:
          a. High risk areas including:
                   i. Low-lying areas,
                  ii. Coastal areas,
          b. Using methods such as but not limited to:
                   i. Constructing abundant housing and/or buildings in low-risk areas,
                  ii. Constructing public buildings, where mass numbers of people
                      congregate, in low-risk areas,
                 iii. Reconstruction of damaged buildings in high-risk areas shall not
                      occur,
                 iv. Urban planning be used by government agencies to determine the
                      maximum congestion of housing while maintaining sanitation,
          c. For incentives such as, but not limited to:
                   i. Money won’t be lost considering natural disasters won’t affect the
                      construction and won’t be wasted,
                  ii. The improvement of cultural ties would occur among citizens since
                      there are more citizens in a single area;

Good morning Honourable Deputy President, Fellow Experts, and Appreciated Admins.

One of the top reasons of damage is because the areas are located in areas prone to
damage. If they weren’t located in these areas, the damage wouldn’t occur and people
wouldn’t be in danger. This clause is very detailed and wholesome as it defines the issue,
states numerous methods, and provides incentives.

Thank you.
TOPIC 3 OR 4- Cultural Identity of Pacific Islands

   1. Encourages the creation of an annual festival through the corporation of all
      governments of the Pacific Islands and the PICA (Pacific Islands Cultural Association)
      to be held in Papua New Guinea on May 1st which will be initiated in Papua New
      Guinea and rotate around the Pacific Islands on an annual basis in which Pacific
      Islanders from all around the Pacific Islands are encouraged to attend and the
      following shall occur:
          a. Traditional dances shall be performed,
          b. Traditional music shall be played,
          c. National food shall be served,
          d. This shall be a chance for islanders to gather, communicate with one another,
             and reunite;

Papua New Guinea is the largest state in the Pacific Islands.

Reasonably good economy, from tourism mainly.

Good Afternoon Honorable Deputy President, Fellow Experts and Appreciated Admins.

This clause is a very strong one because its primary aim is to improve cultural ties among
Pacific Islanders. Though it may seem somewhat comical, it is actually a very effective
solution to retaining the cultural identity of the Pacific Islands. Some experts may wonder
though, why Papua New Guinea? It has been chosen because it is the largest state in the
Pacific Islands and has a reasonably good economy, from tourism actually which is why this
festival will only improve it further. The expert of Papua New Guinea has agreed that Papua
New Guinea could host this festival which is why there should be no problems with that. The
expert of the IPCC welcomes constructive and positive amendments to enhance this clause
and strongly encourages the humanitarian house to vote FOR this clause.

Thank You.
TOPIC 3 OR 4- Autonomy and Independence of some Pacific Islands

   1. Suggests that in order to ensure that not only voices of state representatives are
      heard, but voices of individual communities are heard, the following measures
      should be taken:
         a. A head of community should be nominated who is able to receive
             information from the residents about general suggestions and aspects that
             are doing well in ways such as, but not limited to:
                  i. Creating surveys to be given to households on a monthly basis,
                 ii. Interviewing heads of households on a monthly basis,
         b. The heads of all the communities should meet together with the state
             representative biannually to discuss all their findings and information
             gathered whereby the state representative has a more wholesome and in-
             depth knowledge of the state,
         c. When the state representatives meet, they shall discuss all views on each
             state and come up with big decisions that could prosper each state and fix
             their individual problems;

In order to facilitate this, culture should be incorporated at a second level, through the
rethinking of a governance framework, or, as Grynberg and his co-authors refer to it,
through the development of a ‘political track’ for the region (ADB 2005: xxvi). A political
track that is cognisant of culture would seek not to create new ‘mega-institutions’, which
further bureaucratise and centralise regional decision-making, but rather provide the means
for enhancing dialogue between communities and the region (understood as regional
institutions and regional leadership), and bringing regionalism to local communities.

How to do this was one of the questions raised in a report by William Sutherland and others
entitled Strengthening Regional Cooperation through Enhanced Engagement with Civil
Society. This report was based on a project that aimed to ‘seek community views on
whether and how regional co-operation could be strengthened through enhanced
community engagement’, in which two-day community dialogues were held in Suva,
Lautoka, Apia and Honiara (Sutherland 2005: 6). Participants were asked to find strategies to
increase community engagement in regionalism. Four forms of engagement were
suggested: ‘direct engagement’ where ‘community representatives … engage directly with
regional organizations’; ‘engagement through Regional Representatives’, that is, ‘through
representatives of national associations of community groups or through regional umbrella
organizations’; ‘engagement through Regional Liaison Units, i.e., ‘the formation of “regional
liaison units” through which the community could work’; and ‘engagement through a Pacific
parliament’ (Sutherland 2005: 26–7).

Although our focus here is not on strengthening regional cooperation but on encouraging
the region and its institutions to better integrate cultural norms and practices, the
suggestions listed above provide some ideas about implementing a ‘political track’. Which of
these would be most likely to promote the valuing of cultural identity at the regional level?
The simple answer for present purposes is: all or any of the above.
This is because the main objective would be that, whatever form of engagement is put
forward, community voices, rather than solely those that are representative of the State,
are heard directly. Any of the above suggestions can most likely help to achieve this if
implemented with that objective in mind. If the purpose of regionalism is to enhance the
lives of people, it must have the means to understand and connect directly with those
people. In the Pacific, communities rather than the State are the regulatory agents of
society. People are protected from the destructuring or disintegrating effects of the
market in large part by their cultural values and practices, including emphasis on solidarity
and reciprocity, attachment to land, and focus on obligations and duties to others. In
many countries of the Pacific, the State has limited capacity to regulate the impact of
globalisation and the market as well as limited legitimacy. The community is in large part
responsible for making sure that economic imperatives do not overwhelm society, rather
that they are framed within a social structure that moderates them. (This is not to deny
that it is becoming increasingly difficult for communities to do this as demands for
consumerism grow.)

http://epress.anu.edu.au/ssgm/global_gov/mobile_devices/ch03s06.html

Good Afternoon Honourable Deputy President, Fellow Experts, and Appreciated Admins.

At the moment, only heads of states are being heard. As all of you know, states are big.
There are hundreds, if not thousands, of people in each state. Also, communities are much
more involved in their individual problems and their impacts. Therefore, it is extremely
important that the smaller groups are heard. Now, it is impractical for every single person to
meet up to discuss problems occurring within states. Therefore, this clause proposes that a
community representative be elected who can voice the opinions of the people within the
committees to the state representative. It would be the community representative’s job to
gather information on the issues through, as stated in the clause, surveys and interviews.
Hence, the issues would be carried on with the State representative to the State meeting.
The expert of the IPCC highly encourages amendments that could strengthen this clause and
hopes that the humanitarian committee vote FOR this clause.

Thank you.

				
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