EXPLAINS by jizhen1947

VIEWS: 12 PAGES: 9

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                                                    EXPLAINS
                                                                                                                 A CRITICAL
                                                                                                                 ELEMENT
                                                                                                                 OFENGINE
                                                                                                                 LIFE



t




                           TEEH
                   ffisYsTEM
                                 BY SMOKEY YUNICK                    don't mean so we can make it, but so we can decide what
                                                   he lubrication    oilyou need for your application. Being familiar with the dif-
                                                   of     a  race    ferent systems (wet sump, dry sump, accumulators,
                                                   engine, espe-     splash) available to lubricate your engine for your type of
                                                   cially      the   racing is also part of what we'll discuss. Often, the rules you
                                                   50-year-o Id      race under force you to compete with a marginal lubrica-
                                production     passenger       car   tion system, and I can tell you what the limits of that system
                           engines that are used in stock car rac-   are. Filtration and cleanliness need to be achieved because
                           ing, has always been and continues to     they directly affect engine reliability. Oil is contaminated by
                            be tackled in an expensive and time-     many substances besides dirt, like water, air, and fuel, so
                                consuming cut-and-try method.        understanding how these substances get in the oil and how
                                   Time and time again, racers       to stop them is critical to durability.
                                     apply shortsighted fixes,           Clearances and oil hole sizing, along with the overall
                                      hot track tips, aftermarket    routing of the oil through the engine, directly affect the abil-
                                                                     ity of the oiling system, so they need to be addressed here.
                                   ! Parts, Producer recommen-
                                   ' dations, and high-perform-      Optimum oil temperature and the venting of the oiling sys-
                                    ance parts offered by the        tem are critical to extracting all the performance from the
                              OEMs to keep their engines oiled.      oil. Also, you need some basics to follow when trou-
                         For new racers, this learning curve is      bleshooting an oiling problem, like how to examine engine
              especially expensive and frustrating, which hurts      remains and figure out a fix. And finally, being able to deter-
      racing in general. I'm going to help you new racers avoid      mine what products you don't need will be discussed.
    the SGyear engine oiling learning curve you face by explain-     Some oil, additives, filtration systems, and other gadgets
    ing what the common lubrication problems are and how             might not help you, but they could possibly hurt your
    you as a racer can handle them.                                  engine, so being able to determine what will help your oil-
        To start, we need to understand what oil itself is. And I    ing system is something that needs to be discussed.

                                                                                                   E N G I N E M A S T E R S. W I N T E R 2 O O 6
                  NG R
       C H O O S IY O U O I L
           To pick the oil you use basedon cost (whether you pay
       for it or get it for nothing) is a big mistake.One failedengine
       can be more expensive      than payingfor the oil for five years.
       In racing today, the biggestenemy is heat, so you need an
       oil that can maintain its properties at extreme tempera-
      tures.The three types of oil availableto racersare bean oil,
       mineraloil, and synthetic oil. All of these oils dealwith heat
      very differently.Beanoil, surprisingly,is probably the best                                                                         o
                                                                                                                                          G

      lubricant for five minutes,but it can't hack it in a lAminute                                                                      o
                                                                                                                                          o
                                                                                                                                         J
      race,so it's out'cept for use in the draggers.     Mineraloil is                                                                   o
                                                                                                                                          o
                                                                                                                                          J


      what you've been raised on. This is what most oils are, a                                                                          o



      straight petroleum-basedoil with an additive package,                                                                               o
                                                                                                                                         o

      either as a singleviscosity or multi-viscosity(SAE50versus
      SAEl5W-50)oil. For years,racersfearedthe multi-viscosity
      lubes, but the truth is that the multi-viscosity has some
      advantagesand no negativesI know of.                                          is
                                                                           0i[ choice oneof the important
                                                                                                        considerations the success an
                                                                                                                      to         of
           I've said this many times, to quote Ketteringwho was a          oilingsystem.
                                                                                       Speciatty maderacingoils haveprovenmore hearty
                                                                           thanpassenger oil whenconsidering demands a racing
                                                                                         car                    the       of
      famous GM engineer,"The price of progress is trouble."               en9rne.
      This was very true in early Indy and other forms of racing
      with regard to oiling. Bean oil or castor oil were the only
      lubes a racer could use.You could smell Indy from 5 miles
      out in May.It was an odor I really liked. Hell,we might have
      gotten high from it.
          While the bean oil was the best for that time, it really
      wasn't good enough.Even so, it took the mineral oil com-
      panies years at Indy to win a race. They had to furnish
      enginesto competitorsto use their products.Hell, some
                                                                                                                                         0

      racers stayed on bean oil20 more years,long after it was a                                                                         e
      secondclass       lube!l mentionthat because
                                                                                                                                         -
                                                                                                                                         o


                                                     we'vebeenin the                                                                     o


      sametype of transition since 1975.        Man-madeor synthetic                                                                     o

                                                                                                                                         )
                                                                                                                                         t
                                                                                                                                         o
      oil, which is made of reformed hydrocarbonsor even fats                                                                            c
                                                                                                                                         o

      and acid, is now a much better lube than mineraloil. All the                                                                       6

                                                                                                                                         =
      hot dogs in high-buckracing useit now.But many good rac-
      ers are still resisting.Not all synthetic oils are good for rac-         is
                                                                           This a simple        ofthe
                                                                                       explanation routing a dry-sump
                                                                                                         of         system.
      ing, and they have given syntheticsa bad namein racing.If
      I were to race anything today,I'd use Mobil I l5W-50,and I              Now if you have to run a wet sump, it can be done suc-
      want you to know Mobil has never given me so much as I               cessfully.Your main enemy is oil starvation during corner-
      quart of synthetic oil free or paid me a dime. Mobil has             ing,acceleration, braking.
                                                                                              and          The secondenemyis oiltem-
      given me mineral oil free and one time a racing jacket, but          perature.You can run an oil cooler and fight the heat, but
      that's it. I'm sure there are other syntheticsthat are just as       you deal with less oil compared to a dry-sump system.A
      good, but I haven't tested them. Basically,synthetics will           dry sump hasthe oil coolerand the sump itself,which also
      continue to become the standard, so as a racer, learn as             acts as a cooler.In running a wet sump, if the rules allow,
      much as you can about them so you can make the switch.               you should run an oil accumulator.If you do uncover the
                                                                           pickup, the automatic intervention of the accumulatorres-
            AN
      CHOOSING {}ILING
                     SY$TEM                                                cues you. Regardless what oil systemyou use, don't try
                                                                                                    of
         When you are deciding which system you are going to               to cobble up oil pan sump tanksor oil pumps by yourself.
      use to lubricate your engine,you should first check the              Man, my learningcurve on that took years and cost a for-
      track rules where you are goingto race.There are two gen-            tune.As cheapas those parts are comparedto the material
      eral classifications oiling systems:wet sump and dry
                           of                                              and man-hoursit takes to make 'em, you should at least
      sump. I doubt anyonedisagrees    that a dry-sump system is           buy your first one from a leading aftermarketvendor like
      by far the best, but you do what you have to do. The initial         Moroso.Then you can attempt duplicationand/or improve
      cost of the dry sump is higher,but in a seasonit would be            ments if you still feel the need.
      cheaperbecauseof better oil control and management.
         If you are allowed a dry sump, you should use a pump              FILTHATIilN CLTANLINISS
                                                                                   ANt}
      with an air separatorsection.Every high-buckenginerun-                  Good filtration is a must, but this topic is loaded with
      ning Indy or Formula I usesan oil separationsystem.                  bull and falseclaims.Assumingyou have built your engine

38   E N G I N E A s r E R so W T N T E R o o 6
                M                        2
 clean, all the plumbing and oiling system parts are clean,
 add clean oil, and have a good air cleaner @aper type)
 installedleakproof, how the hell much dirt is there in a race
 to hurt an engine?The only thing that can eat up bearings
 are pieces wearing or breaking off of inner engine guts.
 There is very little wear in a good engine,even in a S0Gmile
 race. Most racers and filter manufacturers filter the oil too
 finely. OK what does that hurt, you ask?Just this: the finer
 the filtration, the larger the pressure drop you get and also
 a reduction in flow rate. Well, you can make that up by
 increasingthe oil pump pressure.What happens next is the
 added pressure heats the oil further and more oil is
 bypassed.This also uses (wastes) horsepower.
     The filter construction and its area size and fitting size
 haveto be considered.     You can't get too big here.Youdamn
 sure can get too small. Too small means a big pressure
 drop. Try to do the job with one proper size filter, not two
 parallel filters. Never plumb filters in series-that causesa
 double pressure drop.
     Look at the big filter. The best filter is one where you can
                                                                    There many
                                                                         are       types oitfilters, youcan
                                                                                         of        and          get
                                                                                                           often whatyou
remove a door and look at the collected residue,or some             payfor.Thisis nota ptace cutcorners costsakeuntess
                                                                                            to         for           you
thing like that where you can examine the filter element            wantto replace engine.
                                                                                   an
Qike a System 2 or Oberg). Take it apart and look at the fil-
ter after practice and before a race. It'll saveyou money and       The shape of the oil pickup is very important, as is its dis-
surprise race failures. I don't care how good an engine             tance from the pan bottom. You need at least aKinch diam-
builder is-he has had some blown engines.           The better an   eter pickup tube. If the pickup is the wrong shape or too
enginebuilder is, the lower his enginefailure rate is. When         close to the pan bottom, you can end up with enough neg-
you use a can-type filter, cut it apart and look at it. This is     ative pressure-in that area to pull through the oil that's
just a little more involved and occasionally spills a little        above and suck in the air that's above the oil. The best
blood. In my adventures,I'm sure various types of filters are       pickup shapeis similar to the best shapeof an air entrance
better than others in the amount of air they put into oil. It's     with a screen looking like about a third of a ball.
not uncommon for oil to be half air after 20 or 30 minutes             If you can't have the ideal setup, use a vendor with a
of racing. So then you are running half air and half oil for        good reputation to get started. Remember that stock
lube. Air ain't worth a damn for cooling, bearing lubrica-          pumps were designedto go 6,000rpm. That was the end of
tion, or for pressure.I believewiremesh filters put less air        their work. So some modifications such as stiffer relief
into oil than paper filters. It's possible paper takes finer        springs and different sizing and routing of oil passages
particles out of the oil, but the question is, do we need to        make these pumps work better. Most stock pumps will get
filter that fine? Which is the lesser of the two evils? I use       the job done to 7,000  rpm with the biggerpickup and more
wiremesh.                                                           pressure relief spring without anything else.

     A PUMP
CHOO$IhIB                                                           OIt SUMP
                                                                           SOHSIOERATION$
    After you choose your oiling system (or are mandated                The oil pan on a wet sump has to be customizedfor the
by the rules with no choice), there are still many modifica-        specific kind of racing you do. The pan size, shape, and
tions you can do that can add up to successor failure in any        bafflingwill vary with circle track distance,shapeand bank
and all of 'em. First, choose a pump that's the correct size        of the track, length of the straights,amount of lateral trac-
for your application. For example, dry-sump systems are             tion you get in referenceto the banking, body shape,wings
usually too damn big for the job. Here'show it hurts: The           or no wings, track surface (dirt or pavement), tires, car,
bigger the pump, the more power it takes to turn, the more          and track rules. The name of the game is to get the engine
air it puts in the oil pickup line, and the higher the oil tem-     as low as possible in the car but have enough oil pan to
perature will b+same with a wet-sump oil pump. Those                keep the pickup under the oil 100percent of the time and
wet-sump big pumps bypass half the oil at high rpm and              then try to keep the oil off the crank. Now some circle
starve for oil because of the small pickup tube, which              trackers have run sports car tracks, which have lateral
allows bearing damage.For example,if you take the trouble           acceleration(turns) in both directions.This is a real bitch.
to put a Kinch inside diameterpickup tube in a good small-          You've 'bout got to have a swinging pickup and an accu-
block Chevy pump, it's better than a big-blockpump.                 mulator on this type of track becauseof the heavy accel-
   It takes 8 or 9 gallons per minute (gpm) to run a small-         eration, heavy braking, and lateral acceleration in both
block at 7,500rpm, and the stock pump can do that easily.           directions.

                                                                                                E N G T N E A S T E R S .W I N T E R2 0 0 5
                                                                                                          M
         As far as changing anything on oil pans, if you do any
     welding on a steel pan, get the procedure right. One of the
     biggest problems with modified oil pans is cracked welds.
     Wet sumps might needsome help, but dry-sumpoil systems
     are prettywell worked out. Whicheversystemyou are using,
                                                                                                                                             g
     you need a specific pan design to fit various tracks and rac-                                                                           c
                                                                                                                                             o
                                                                                                                                             E
     ing rules. In wet-sumpand dry-sump racing,the deeperthe                                                                                 L
                                                                                                                                             o

                                                                                                                                              o

     oil pan, the better it works, so consider that as you choose                                                                            d
                                                                                                                                             c

                                                                                                                                             P
     your pan design.With a dry sump, if you under-scavenge         for                                                                      E


     whatever reason, you get in a world of trouble. The crank                                                                               -
                                                                                                                                             o


                                                                                                                                             c
                                                                                                                                             o
     gets partially submergedin oil and eats power while heating                                                                             E
                                                                                                                                             E
                                                                                                                                             0

     the oil really badly-all this will eventually break the crank.                                                                          o


     The best deal is to get a pump that can pull 3 to 5 inches of                                                                           o
                                                                                                                                             t
                                                                                                                                             a
                                                                                                                                             o
     vacuum in the pan and keep it at a high rpm. That keepsthe                                                                              C)



     oil off the crank and reducesthe air content in the oil.              Oitpumpscancomein ditferentstages. Thisis a five-stage
                                                                                                                                mode[,
                                                                           whichwil[ provideincreased        and
                                                                                                    efficiency reduceoit temperature.
         Do all you can to pull a vacuum in the engine.It's best to
     run a sealed engine (no external vents) and plumb the dry
     sump so the oil sump tank does the venting for blow-by.Most
     sump tanks return scavengedoil to the top of the sump tank
     and have an arrimgement of balfles throughout the tank.
     These baffles are arranged in a spiral configuration with the
     idea being that as the oil travels the spiral, the air in the oil
     will be removed.This flat don't work. Oncethe air is beat into
     the oil, it takes three to four hours for it to get separated.The
     bestwayto handleaeratedoilis to return it directly backinto
     the oilin the sump.This doesn'ttakeair out, but it doesn'tget
     worse falling down from the top of the tank through air to the
     oil reserve.A dry-sump pump with an air separator section                                                                           :
                                                                                                                                         o

     and oil that is being returned to the oil in the sump, along                                                                        E
                                                                                                                                         -
                                                                                                                                         a



     with a mesh filter, will keep 90 percent of the air out of the oil,                                                                 o



     but this only works at high rpm. The air that gets trapped in         Anexploded ofa dry-sump
                                                                                       view           pump. a four-stage
                                                                                                          lt's           model from
     the oil on cold start and low rpm is gonnastay in the oil. All        Fast Times Fabrication. ofthesmallparts
                                                                                                Each              ptays criticat
                                                                                                                      a        role
     this assumes    you are running a sealedengine.                       for thefourstages thispump.
                                                                                            of
         In the last 30 years, there have been a thousand ideas
     tried to scavenge and keep the oil off the crank.The best
                          oil                                              other pulley (which includes the alternator). How many of
     deal is a directional,diamond-plated       windagetray as close       you have broken an alternator housing?There is 'bout 30 to
     to the crank as possible with a vacuum being pulled in the            35 hp feedingoff that stack of pulleys.
     oil pan. For those who run dry sump, a coggedbeltdrive is                 We still have a lot more to learn. Clearancesand oil hole
     best, running the oil pump about half the enginespeed,but             sizing along with the overall routing of the oil through the
     be careful about protecting the belt from track debris. A             engine will be explained. Also, topics like optimum oil
     favorite failure is a ruptured or thrown belt from track dirt.        temperature and the venting of the oiling system, what
                                                                           basics to follow when troubleshooting an oiling problem,
          PROBLEMS
     PULLEY                                                                how to examine failed engine remains and figure out a fix,
        For you high-rpm cats up to 8,000or 9,000rpm, watch                and how to determinewhat products you don't needwill be
     out for all those pulleys and junk you piled on the nose of           discussed.
     the crank coming loose. In the first place, the nose of the               Beforewe move on to the new topics, I would like to clar-
     Chevy crank needs another 4 inches on it for a dry sump.              ify one point I meant to mention. Concerningsynthetic oil,
     Then, all the drive parts would have the sarneinside diame            another advantage to synthetics is that they can be thor-
     ter, use the same keyway,and the fasteningbolt would be               oughly recycled after use. They don't wear out. The syn-
     short and simple. This way, the bolt could be in tension              thetics lose their additive package and pick up fuel and
     without fighting a jumble of unbalancedparts and the har-             water from the heat and shearingaction in the engine,mak-
     monic balancer(which is feedingtorsional frequenciesinto              ing thgm heavier,but the oil doesn't break down. This pro
                                   'bout
     the forward parts along with          three different belts and       tects the engine from failure better than mineral oil and
     their vibrations).                                                    helps to reducewaste.Now,let's move on.
        I think the front balancerand all that's in front of it should
     be put on a mandrel and all balanced together. If you run a                   C
                                                                            C H A N KR O S S . D R I L L I N G
     fan,it should be balancedas wellas the water pump and any                Becausethe stock block was not designedfor racing,as

40             M           r
     E N G T N E A S T E R S W I N T E R2 0 0 6
time passed, racers made changes to        in direction are a big load by them-
its oil routing and passagesizes; they     selves, considering the multiplication
pluggedsome oil passages  orrestricted     of weight in reference to rpm. Cross-
them, closed casting holes, and made       drilling is one of the good ideas racers
other modifications. Some of these         have come up with.
changeshelped, some were a waste of
time, and some hurt. Changes like          WRISTPIN
                                                 OILING
crossdrilling the crank work because         A bearing surface that has been
this is how the cam, rod, and main        ignored is at the wristpin. Whether it's
bearings are provided with oil to form    a floating or pressed-in pin doesn't
the oil wedge at the proper timing. All   matter,you have just three bearing sur-
operate in a full 360degree arc at high   facesdoin'the samejob as two bearing
speed with pressurized oil                surfaces. You would think that three
entering from a com-                            bearing surfaces would be bet-
mon point in the                                     ter, but in real life, the com-
                                                            bination of the wrist-      COMP Cams@Solid Roller Lifters Now
ThisCamaro    racingpan                                            pin turning in       Have a New Name and New Featurest
is a five-gatemodel                                                                    With todayk radical cam lobes and increased
with the gates                                                          the rod and
                                                                                       rpm rante, it takes an equally strong roller
controtling oit
            the                                                         in the pis-    lifter to withsand the abuse.Tomeet these
flow to the back
of the pan.                                                           ton getsthe      heightened requirements, COMP Camso has
                                                                    rod bushing        enhanced the durability of its industry stan-
                                                                                       dard roller lifter with a series of innovative
                                                                   in     trouble      upgrades.
 bearing. AII three                                               regarding heat
 (cam, rod, and main)                                        from combustion and       Endure-X" Solid Roller Lifters
 types of bearings see varying loads in petrochemical changes. This is espe            . EDM Oil Injection'Technology-
 their rotations. If you had a shaft at rest cially a problem in a longduty (long
                                                                                         This new sandard
 in a bearing with sealson both sides of term) solution. So for low-buckers,the          feature ensures the
 the bearing and it had, say, 0.002inch pressed-inpin is probablythe best wby            bearing assembly
 clearance when you pressurized it to go. For high-buck racers who are                   receives a constant
 with oil, it would lift off of contact at using bushed rods, you might as well          flow of pressurized oil.
 the bottom and be dead center in the start using.rods with oil holes (center-           This virtually eliminates
                                                                                         needle bearing oil
 bearing. Well, even 100 psi of oil pres- drilled rods). That bushing needs oil
                                                                                         starvation, historically a
 sure in a running en$ne wouldn't be pressure of some hnd to stand the                   "problem area" for
 enough to carry the firing loads on the rpm and horsepower loads of today's             solid roller lifters.
 main and rod bearings,but we got a big and tomorrow's en$nes. On wristpin
                                                                                       . Precision-Sorted Needle Bearing -To
 goody working for us for free. In the clearancefor either plan, it's 'bout the
                                                                                         further strengthen the bearing assembly,  the
 rotation of the journals, an oil wedge is same. You need at least 0.0010 to             Endure-X" Solid Roller Lifters also include
formed. The combination of the pres- 0.0015inch. Wristpins are designedto                needle rollers that are precision-sorted by
surized oil lrom the pump and the be oiled by splash and the "Good                       size;evenly distributing loads to avoid pre-
hydrostatic wedge can support all the Fairy"-yesterday's engines had rods                mature wear and failure.
loads in the en$ne except detonation. and mains lubed the same way . . .               . Tool SteelAxle -The COMP
    When tearing down a failed en$ne, splash and hope.                                   Camsoengineerswent one step
have you ever noticed rods and mains                                                     further by incorporating aTool Steel
that are cracked, burnt, scoured, or      ELIMINATEBYPASS
                                                 OIL                                     axle to withstand the constant high
chipped away? Detonation puts so                Changesto the oil passagesin an          rpm pounding.  The wear-resistant
much pressure on the piston that it en$ne block don't make a difference if               Tool Steelworks in conjunction with
                                                                                         the precision-sorted needle rollers
overcomes the hydraulic support, and you don't have properly machined-
                                                                                         to maintain tight bearing assembly
you have metal-tometal contact. which meansstraight and untwisted at                     tolerances for extended service life.
Crossdrilling is a good idea becauseit right angles-rods, cranks, cylinder
makes the lube job work. The position bores, and other critical pieces.                Endul)( Sofid Roffer Lifters orc walloble for a
                                                                                       voriety of oppllcattons,Includlng smoff bose    F
(timing) of the rod journal oiling hole Nothin'will work if the piecesdon't fit        circle and offset oppltcqtions.
                                                                                                                                       $
in the big end of the rod (in reference right. It's the same with detonation.
to the piston location) should be The oiling system can't overcome
placed properly to handle the varying these problems.
loads,consideringcompression,        firing,    I've seena hundred plans for chang
and return load when the piston is ing the oil homes in an engne block for
stopped at TDC and BDC.The changes improved oiling. Sometry bigger hples,
                                                                     a spray bar or flood the valvespringsto cool the springs.
                                                                     Shouldwe use restrictors to reducethe amount of oil to the
                                                                     top of the head, and external systems to flood the
                                                                     valvesprings?   You can see the plan is rather confused.I'd
                                                                     suggest restrictors from lifter galleries around 0.125 inch
          I                                                          then don't do anything to the cylinder heads for low-buck
                                                                     racing. For high-buckracing,put standpipesat each end of
                                                                     the cylinder heads (drainback holes) that are high enough
                                                                     to flood the bottom two to three coils of the valvespring.Put
                                                                     a 0.09Ginchhole in the bottom of the standpipes when   so
  E                                                                  you pull the valve covers off you don't have a quart of oil run
  P
 E
     o
                                                                     all over the exhaust system. Wait five minutes before you
     o

     o
                                                                     pull the valve covers. Usegood valve sealson the intake and
 t
 o
  a
  o                                                                  exhaustvalves.Yup, those sealswill hold the oil just fine.
                                                                         The path the oil takesfrom the oil galleryto the top of the
      Dry-sump   units requirethe useof a tank,andthesemust be built head is through the lifters and hollow pushrods.The hole in
      with care. Everyaspectof an oiting systemis expectedto perform the top of the pushrod lines up with the hole in the rocker
      at peak.                                                       for a certain amount of time (degrees of crank rotation) to
                                                                     provide the correct amount of oil to the head.If the pushrod
                                                                     is too short or long,you screwup the timing of the holesand
                                                                     you can burn up the rockers.The problem of trying to cool
                                                                     overheatedvalvesprings is that it's hard to get enough oil up
                                                                     there.
                                                                         With only so much oil flowing over a given amount of
                                                                     time, you need to determine where the oil is going. If you
                                                                     consider 16lifters in a cast block leakquite a bit, that is a lot
 o
 o                                                                   of oil pres'surebeing bled off. It's the same with bearing
 -
 c
                                                                                 on
                                                                     clearances the rod, main,and cam bearings.It used to be
 o
 h
 o                                                                   that 0.002to 0.003inch on rods and mains and 0.024inch
 =
 o
  o
                                                                     side clearance on the rods was what everybody ran, but
                                                                     now that is only used on enginesthat run to 7,000    rpm. Over
    Awetl.-designed  windage          hetp
                              traywil,l, keep otfthecrankshaft.
                                                oit                  7,000rpm, you cut the rod and main bearing clearancedown
                                                                     to 0.00175 0.002inch and the rod side clearances about
                                                                                to                                          to
    pluggingthe lifter galleries,grooving the main and cam bear- 0.0016inch. Also, your oil gallery restrictor size affects oil
    ing areas in the block, fully grooved bearings, halfgrooved pressure.Pluggingcastingholes in the lifter gallery is done
    bearings,increasingthe oil hole size in the bearings,and by many peoplein the battle to reducethe amount of oil that
    other ideas. If you are a low-buck racer or a pro using a drains down from the top of the engineonto the crankshaft,
    stock-type engine,the first action you should take is to elim- which costs power and heats and aeratesthe oil. This is a
    inate the oil bypass feature becauseit can open as low as 30 fact, but stopping that oil flow is a can of worms. The cam
    psi and dump a lot more oil back into the sump. Car manu- dependson splashoil-ain't that ridiculous?Hereit is,90 or
    facturers have that on the engineto combat a pluggedoil fil- so years into internal combustion engine development!If
    ter and to stop the oil filter from swellingand leakingon the you stop the oil from getting to the crank, the problem is
    fast-rpm cold starts, when the pressurecould jump to 100 that you short the cam of oil. For low-buckracing,you best
    psi for a tenth of a second.You can get racing oil filters now do nothing 'cept maybe epoxy a screen over the holes'to
    that can handle 300 to 400 psi, so don't worry about the fil- catch any broken valvetrain parts. For high-buck racers, put
    ter plugging up the works-get rid of the bypass.                 standpipeson the right-sidedrain holes (numberstwo, four,
        There's no way we can describe what oiling schematic to six, and eight) 'bout lX inches tall. Just screen the left-side
    follow on all enginesused in racing today, so I'm just going drain holes.But for everyonewhere there is a big hole bored
    to use a small-block Chevy as an example. If you didn't do in the lifter valley behind the cam gear for oil drainageQike
    one damn thing to any of the oiling system(cept removethe on the small-blockChevy),put a freezeplug in on the right
    bypass), including not restricting the lifter gallery oil flow, side (if you're looking at the engine from the rear). Don't
    you could make 500 hp and turn 7,000rpm.                         bother with the hole on the left side. That right-side hole
                                                                     shoots an oil stream I inch in diameterright back to the dis-
         OIL     HE$TRICTIOH
           GAIIERY                                                   tributor.
        Let's look at restricting the oil gallery flow. Most engine
    builders go down around 0.100inch for a restrictor jet, jug-           h!on$ Ttp$
                                                                      st(}01(  AHn
    gle that 0.010or 0.015inch to the left or right, and then add        There are a few things that should only be done with the

42            M      r
         ENGTNE ASTERS WINTER 2006
                                                carefullyfollow the hole angle.Open it
                                                to take a -8 fitting and send all your oil
                                                in here. Ninety-five percent of the
                                                Nextel Cup guys use this deal.

                                                  OILPHESSURE
                                                           AND
o                                               TEMPERATURE                                         Composite         Dlstributor         Gears
-                                                    I still think l0 psi of oil for every
o
                                                                                                                Made from Carbon Ulrra-Poly,the
                                                  1,000rpm is the /rot oil pressureyou                           new COMP Cams@       Composite
     One to gettheoitgoing theright
         way                   in                should run. Some racers run a little                              Distributor Gears represent a
              is
     direction through useof oil squirters
                       the                   in                                                                    major advancementin distribu-
    thevalve  coyers. oitis pumped
                     The             through     more,but that's just lost horsepower.lt
                                                                                                                   tor gear durability.Make
    thealuminum    tubing squirts ina fine takes 10 or more horsepower at 7,000
                         and       out                                                                             bronze distributor gear wear a
    spray          the
          through hotes    near rai[.
                                the              rpm to turn the oil pump. The more                               thing of the past!

                                                 pressureyou run, the more horsepower                            . NASCAR-proven technology
                                                                                                                yieldsprecisetiming and
    high-buck engines.It's a good idea to you lose. Some Nextel Cuppers drop                                   extended durability
    drill a small hole 0.025to 0.030 inch the oil pressure to 50 psi when they                             . 300% more durability versus bronze
    from the front main to oil the cam qualify. I don't recommendthat, but I                       distributor gears when used with steel
    thrust area.The timing chain gets way guessa pole position is worth a lot of                   camshafu

    too much oil, so don't encourageit in money,for various reasons.                         . Precision manufacturedand quality checked for
                                                                                               exact gear pattern and shaft diameter
    that direction (on the high-buckjobs).           Just as you need to maintain oil
                                                                                             . Available in a variety of shaft diameters for
    Do what you can to reduce oil on the pressure,you must also maintain oil
                                                                                               all popular Chevrolet & Ford applications
    lower sprocket or the gear and chain. temperature. As for an oil cooler, you
    Now the holes in the Chevy small- need to determine if that's what your
    block, especiallyon the center gallery engineneeds.The oil should be run at                           Valve Train Assembly Spray
    in particular, should be re-drilled. 200 degreesE at least,and 240 degrees                             Initial start-up is the most critical time
                                                                                                           in the life of any newly built engine!
    Chevygoesin from either end now and F to 250 degrees F is the desirable                                Protect your valve springs,rockers and
    the intersection is off. It's not an easy upper limit. Mineral oil is in deep trou-                    pushrods againstharmful wear with
                                                                                                           COMP Camso new valve train spray.
    process, but a 0.50Ginchdrill is long ble at 290 degreesF becauseI believe
                                                                                                           . Specialformula clingsto vital valve
    enough to go clear through, and that the oil temperatureat the rod bearing                               train components during critical
    helps oiling. Evena 0.47Ginch     drill will is 30 degrees F higher than any loca-                       entrne sErt-uP
    get the job done. If you want to groove tion we desire to measure.                                     . High viscosity protecrion in a
    behind the cam bearing and mains, I              NoW synthetic oil can run 380                           convenient spray for easy, no-mess
                                                                                                             application
    don't think it does much but I don't degreesF in the sump and not be in
                                                                                                          . Compadble with all petroleum,
    think it hurts, either. I don't think trouble. But at those temperaturesthe                             synthetic and blended engine oils
    increasingthe hole size in the main or bearingsare in trouble. The oil cooler                          . Part#106,6o2.     Aersol Spray
    cam bearingsis any help, but some of you choose must have enoughoil pas-
    the very best engine men open up sage surface area and line size so it                           Lifter Bore Grooving Tool
    these holes. They have their theories doesn't restrict oil flow at all. It must          Developed by one of the top NASCAR engine
    and they win, but so do those who have accessto ambient air and a good                   builders,this innovativerool preciselygrooves the
                                                                                             lifter bore to ensure that pressure fed oil is routed to
    don't do this.                               exit path for the hot air as it passesout   the cam and lifter conract area.
        Stock engines usually have the oil of the cooler back to the atmosphere.             . Protects againstpremarure camshaftfailure during
    flowing from the back to the front in The area of the cooler transfer surface              flat tappet break-in

    the oil galleries. There are three theo      (fins) controls the amount of heat          . Significantly
                                                                                                           increasescam face oiling to prevent
                                                                                               wear and friction
    ries that can be followed when making removed from the oil. You can get too
                                                                                             . Replaceable
                                                                                                         carbide cutters for extended service life
    changesto this flow pattern. This oil small on a cooler, but it's hard to get
    can come from the rear, from the cen- too big.
    ter, or from the front of the engine.In a        An important part of the oiling is
    Chevy,it is best to oil from the front. plumbing. You have to limit the line
    The center is not really doable. distance. Check the fittings for pres-
    Actually, there is another choice. You sure drop. Avoid the 90-degree
    could oil from the front and rear. I did machined fittings-each one costs                                                                           o
                                                                                                                                                        o

    that a lot. I would run a-6line from the about 5 psi in pressuredrop. Use long
    back to the front. For low-buckers,oil sweeping bends and a maximum of
    from the standard position. For high- 4Sdegreetube fittings.
    buck deals,there is a Kinch pipe hole            Once you know you're maintaining
    drilled to the main oil supply center the temperature throughout the
    gallery. Put the block on a mill and engine, the pressure needs to be
     checked at both ends of the system. You need l0 psi per
     1,000rpm with hot oil at the end of the system.With two
     gauges,you'll be able to think out ways to reduce the pres-
     sure drop, save some horsepower, and lower the oil tem-
     perature.The higher the pressure,the higher the rpm and
     the hotter the oil. When you have oil lines close to an
     exhaust heat source, insulate the lines.

             LOCATION
     OILFILTER
         Regardingwhere to put the oil filter-you don't want dirt
     in the oil pump. You don't want dirt in the engine.You don't
     want dirt in the oil cooler.You don't want dirt in the sump                                                                          -
                                                                                                                                          .U
     tank. So,where are you supposedto put the filter?On a dry                                                                            o
                                                                                                                                          o

     sump, my choice is to filter the oil coming back from the                                                                            o


     sump; then cool it pulling with the suction side of the pump                                                                         o
                                                                                                                                           !
                                                                                                                                           o



     and then filter it on the pressureside of the pump so that it        Anotherway to keepoil temperature checkis throughthe useof
                                                                                                           in
     is clean going into the engine.Now,this setup ain't perfect.         cooters.  Companies B&M makeptentyof options coolingftu-
                                                                                            tike                        for
     We don't want dirt in the cooler, and we don't want dirt             ids in a racecar.
     through the pressureside of the pumh but most impor-
     tant-we don't want the engine to see any dirt. When you
     buy a cooler, you want a takeapart version you can clean in
     a sonic cleaner. You should use an oil pump (dry sump) with
     an iron pressure section and gears so if some dirt gets in
     there it can't grind up the gears and housing. Aluminum
     makes it worse.
         In a wet sump, filter the oil beforeit goesinto the oil cooler
     and back into the engine.Again, watch for a pressure drop
     from undersize fittings, too many g0degree fittings, and
     small lines.Smallfilters and smallcoolersare bad,too.lf you
     use an accumulator,make sure line size is not restrictive.

     BREATHING
          Engineoiling system breathing can be a mess,yet it is
     simple. In circle track racing, you turn left and oil in the
     right, so the rocker cover can fill up. If you have vents there,
     it can come out to a catch tank or out the breather caps. If
     your engine is in good shape,you can get all the venting you
     need on the left side only and the problem of oil out the
     breathers is not nearly as bad. What causesoil to blow out?
     If the rings didn't leakand we could sealthe engineup as the
     pistons went up and down, no pressurewould build. In real
     life, the rings do leak. They leak an average of 8 to l0 per-                                                                             o


     cent. So,if you are using 800cubic feet of air a minute (cfm),
                                                                                                                                               o
     there could be 80 cfm going into the pan. If there was no
     vent, pressure would build and air and oil would eventually          Breathers        to
                                                                                    attached thevatve    are
                                                                                                     cover a common efficient
                                                                                                                     and
                                                                          setup. gives
                                                                                This     adequatecrankcase
                                                                                                         ventilation oil is pushed
                                                                                                                   white
     get pushed out. Rememberthat the oil pan and rocker cov-             to therightbycentrifugal
                                                                                                force.
     ers are all in the same cavity. Soyou not only have to handle
     the crankcasepressure but also the forces of gravity, accel-         more options to solve them. You can use the sump tank for
     eration, and deceleration.Left-sidevents should handle it,           a vent and you can add an auxiliary tank to catch it. Oil and
     but if you are detonating or the engine is leaking compres-          condensingvapor get put back in the sump tank. You can
     sion, you may need both left- and right-side vents on the            scavenge directly from the right rocker area and/or oil
     valve covers and, in extreme cases, tie the left and right           gallery,removingboth air and oil. As simple as this sounds,
     together with a tube. The better the lateral traction a race         many racers make a few changesor shortcuts and have one
     car has and the higher you wind the engine,the more cen-             hell of a time getting these systemsto work. When you get
     trifugal force and more blow-by you get. All this applies to         involved in your first dry-sump system, buy the complete
     wet+ump engines.                                                     setup, read the instructions, and follow them to the letter.
         Dry-sump engines have the sirme problems but with                Onceyou get it working, you can try your inventions.If you

lA                   r
     EN GINEA s r E Rswt N T E R o o 6
           M                   2
goof, you can get back to safe.No mat-     poor machine work, or inferior parts.
ter how good you do everything, clean-        As with determining what caused
liness is gonna make you or break you.     engine failures,these short stories can
Most people do a good job on a new         be difficult. A problem I have is that we
engine and let the plumbing job get        are always trying to squeeze250 pages
dirty. It all needs to be hospital clean.  into four or five. A hell of a lot goes
Most people get in trouble reworking       unsaid.
                                                                                             Blllet Tlmlng Sets
an engine after a cam or bearing fail-        Take time to procure from the bear-
                                                                                             . Heat-treated & precision
ure. Once the oil has dirt or metal run    ing companies their small manuals of
                                                                                               machined, steel billet gears
through it, you must go all the way        photos and descriptions of failed bear-             for bullet proof durability
down to totally clean on every part of     ings, or look up previous bearing sto               . Pre-stretched, heat-treated
the oil system. There are no shortcuts.    ries. Start your own files by cutting out           chain with heavy-duty large
                                                                                               pin design
                                           various stories that pertain to prob
               AND
REBUILD DISASTER lems you are trying to solve and use                                         . Adiustable in 2-degree
                                                                                              increments, 8-degree mo<i-
READING                                    them as a reference.                              mum advance/retard
    When you pull an en$ne down for           In my entire racing life, there has            . Dynamicallybalancedfor
rework or after a maior disaster, you been a neverending barrage of new                      maximum perfortnance
have to operate like a detective work- miracle additives and new miracle                   . Available for Chevrolet       &
ing on a murder case. Examine every- lubes. At best, I percent of them help.              Ford applications
thing to do with oiling. In the case of a This is not to say none of them are any
rebuild, look for signs of trouble. If you good, but to caution you about looking
find something,think out solutions. If it for horsepower. The valvetrain is the
                                                                                         Ultimate Adfustable
all looks great, write down all your biggest mechanical power eater. Rings
                                                                                               Timing Scts
clearances and assembly tricks in a are nowhere near what you think they                  . Unique designyields maximum
notebook for future reference in case eat in power, and bearings even less.A               camshaft timing precision and
you get lost.                              good test for these miracles and fric-           durability

    For a failed en$ne, it's damn hard to tion reducers would be in Forn-rulal,              . Adjustable in two-degree
                                                                                             increments,maximum of six
tell what was the cause.It's kinda like, Indy Car, Nextel Cuppers, Sprinters,                degrees advance or retard
which came first, the chicken or the and Midgets. So who uses it? In most                   . High-strength billet gears,
egg?It could be (l) a broken rod with a cases,it don't hurt, but some do. Some              seamlessroller chain to deliver
good rod bearing and wristpin, (2) a help, but 5 hp or I percent improve                   years of reliable service
                                                                                          . Includesone-piece roller thrust
broken rod and burnt rod bearing, or ment would be a fair estimate.Today,it
                                                                                          bearing and custom adjustingtool
(3) a broken rod with a broken rod bolt seems there are more of these addi-
                                                                                        .Available for Chevrolet
and destroyed bearing. Number one is tives than ever, and some may have                                               &
                                                                                       Ford applications
caused by a weak rod, number two possibilities, but mostly in reliability-
from an oiling problem, and number 'course that in itself is important.
three is a can of worms. Number three         After all these suggestions, make           Belt Drlve SysCemo
could be bad bolts, an oiling problem, sure you follow some basic startup                   . Featuresunique belt idler
or you don't know.                         rules. Don't start en$nes cold. Don't              system to reduce belt flap
                                                                                               throughout RPM range
    Of all failures, 70 percent of them start engines without oil pressure.
are probably goofs on your part. Five Don't believe that if you run the starter                 . Adjust timing for maxi-
                                                                                                 mum performance with
percent could be a bad part or poor to get oil pressure then add ignition
                                                                                                 simpleVernier sprocket
part selection. Fifteenpercent could be that you are home free. You don't ever                  set-uP
an improper lubrication plan or deto       want to start with cold oil and no pres-            . Includesdouble lip seals
nation. Ten percent could be the use of sure. There is an affordable solution.                 for long life & maximum
the wrong lubricant. You have to be AII you have to do is add a block heater                  crankcase vacuum

honest with yourself. Our nature is to or an oil tank heater. They are cheap                  . Different diameter idlers
blame anything but ourselves. and weigh next to nothing. Then add a                          available for those racers
                                                                                            with align bored block
Unfortunately, that approach leads to disconnect to the pressure side of the
                                                                                         .Availa^ble for Chevrplet
the same failures again.You can tell if a oil system on the engine. Make a l- or                                       &
                                                                                       Ford applications
bearing is burnt, cracked, or chipped 2gallon tank strong enough to hold 60
or if you have uneven or irregular wear psi, safely. Pressurize the tank to 60
on components. These situations indi- psi, hook the tank up to the disconnect
cate misaligned parts, overheating, long enough to get the engineto 40 psi
wrong lubricant, detonation, fuel dilu- on the en$ne oil pressure gauge,and
tion, water intrusion, dirt in the oil, start. This will keep you from hurting
insufficient crush on the bearings, the en$ne on startup. EM

								
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