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					Chapter 7
  Memory
                    Memory

 WE ARE STILL LEARNING!!!
 Information Processing Approach
       Encoding
       Storage
       Retrieval
 Long Term Memory
 Sensory Memory
 Short Term Memory (Working Memory)
                The Box Model

                                                  Conceptual
                          Rehearsal               processing
Data from
outside.
              Attention               Retrieval
         SM               STM*                         LTM     Top
Bottom                                Encoding



                                           Output
*Working Memory
                Sensory Store

   Different sensory stores for each sense.
       Visual Sensory Store      Iconic Memory
       Auditory Sensory Store    Echoic Memory
       Olfactory Sensory Store   Aromatic Memory
       Touch Sensory Store       Tactile Memory
       Taste Sensory Store       Taste Memory
                Sensory Store

   Duration:
       A fraction of a second
   Capacity:
       Large
   Lost:
       Time dependent forgetting
   Encoding:
       Corresponds to physical properties of the
        stimulus.
               Attention

 The process of transferring information
  from sensory store to short term store.
 May filter out things to which we are not
  attending.
             Short Term Store

   Duration:
       About 30 seconds.
   Capacity:
       Small – 7 +/- 2 items.
   Lost:
       Displacement / Decay / Interference.
   Encoding:
       Corresponds to physical properties of the
        stimulus.
             Short Term Store

 Scratch pad memory (working memory).
 Where we consciously work on the data.
 We can rehearse to keep the data
  refreshed.
 We can output it to the outside world.
       Speech.
       Writing.
       Action.
                   Rehearsal

 Practicing your part in a play!
 Refreshing short term store.
       Keeps the data active so we can work with it.
       Holds the data so we can decide what to do
        with it.
                    Encoding

 Process of transferring data to long term
  store.
 We add information to the raw data before
  it goes to long term store.
       Semantic – meaning.
       Iconic – physical properties.
               Long Term Store

   Duration:
       Forever.
   Capacity:
       No known limit.
   Lost:
       Loss of retrieval route.
   Encoding:
       Semantic and iconic data added.
   But Nothing happens without CONSOLIDATION
               Retrieval

 Process of transferring data from long term
  store to short term store.
 Remembering.
                    Memory

   Episodic Memory
       Memorization
   Semantic Memory
       Abstract…over a length of time, general
    How Good is our Memory?

   Primacy:
       Increased memory for items at the beginning
        of a list.
       Due to more rehearsal.
       Proactive interference is involved.
            The rehearsed items tend to interfere with the
             items that follow.
    How Good is our Memory?

   Recency:
       Increased memory for items at the end of a
        list.
       Items are still in STM and are easily retrieved.
       Retroactive interference is involved.
            The items in STS tend to interfere with the items
             that preceded them.
              Levels of Processing

 Competing memory model.
 Theoretical Framework:
       Needs only one system to explain memory.
            Box model needs 3.
       Posits that memory is an active process.
       Cognition -> process -> Memory Trace
       Memory Trace – Evidence that a process has
        occurred.
           Levels of Processing

   3 levels of processing.
       Shallow – encodes physical information.
       Middle – encodes phonological information.
       Deep – encodes semantic meaning.
     Neural Network Model

 Connectionist – Parallel Distributive
  Processing (PDP).
 Derived from neuroscience and computer
  science.
 Uses both top down and bottom up
  processing.
            Memory Problems

 Distortions
 Constructions
 Amnesia
       Infantile
       Retrograde
       Anterograde
       Alzheimer's…Mood dependant?
        Repression/Suppression

   Repression
       Unconscious – pushing out of “awareness”
   Suppression
       Conscious - pushing out of “awareness”
           Improving Memory

   Recitation
   Rehearsal
   Selection
   Organization
   Position Order
   Cues
   Sleep
   NURTITION
                    False Memory

 Elizabeth Loftus
 We have the tendency to remember the
  gist of things rather than specific details.
 We make:
       Errors of omission.
            Leaving out incompatible information that really was
             there.
       Errors of commission.
            Including compatible information that really was not
             there.
The End

				
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