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ATTITUDES _ VALUES

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									Organizational Behavior
               ATTITUDES &
               VALUES
                             1
Defining Attitudes
 Attitude is a hypothetical construct
 Cannot be directly observed – inferred from what
  people say and do
 Attitude objects are concrete, abstract, about people,




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  groups of people and inanimate objects
 Behaviour towards objects is dependent upon attitude
  towards objects
 Attitudes tend to persist unless something is done to
  change them
 Attitudes can fall anywhere along a continuum from
  very favourable to very unfavourable.
 Attitudes are directed towards some object about which
  a person has feelings or affect and beliefs
                                                       2
HOW   MUCH DO YOU SEE OF AN ICEBERG?




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                                       3
ONLY 10% OF
ANY ICEBERG




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IS VISIBLE.
THE
REMAINING
90% IS BELOW
SEA LEVEL.


               4
 KNOWN
                 BEHAVIOR




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TO OTHERS
                                             SEA LEVEL


UNKNOWN
TO OTHERS


            VALUES – STANDARDS – JUDGMENTS

                 ATTITUDE
               MOTIVES – ETHICS - BELIEFS
                                                5
     Evaluative statements or
      judgments concerning objects,
      people, or events.
     Three components of an attitude:




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                                                      The emotional
                                     Affective
                                                      or feeling
                    Cognitive                         segment of an
                                                      attitude
 The opinion or
belief segment of               Behavioral
                                                 An intention to
   an attitude                                   behave in a certain
                                                 way toward
                                                                 6
                                                 someone or
                        Attitude                 something
THREE COMPONENTS OF
ATTITUDES

 Cognitive Component – The opinion
  or belief segment of an attitude.




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 Affective Component – The
  emotional or feeling segment of an
  attitude.
 Behavioral Component – An
  intention to behave in a certain way
  towards someone or something.
                                         7
Festinger’s Cognitive Dissonance
 Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between
  two or more attitudes or between behavior and
  attitudes
 People’s attitudes or beliefs can be consonant (in line),




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  dissonant (at odds), or not related to each other
 If dissonant, we experience psychological discomfort
 Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or
  dissonance, to reach stability and consistency
 Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes,
  modifying the behaviors, or through rationalization
 Desire to reduce dissonance depends on:
       Importance of elements
       Degree of individual influence
                                                              8
       Rewards involved in dissonance
MODERATING VARIABLES
 The most powerful moderators of the attitude-
  behavior relationship are:
   Importance of the attitude




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 Correspondence to behavior
   Accessibility
   Existence of social pressures
   Personal and direct experience of the
    attitude.




                                                  9
                  Moderating
                   Variables
CHANGING ATTITUDES
    Barriers to changing attitudes:
1.   Prior commitment




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2.   Insufficient information
    Methods to overcome barriers and change
     attitudes:
1.   Providing new information
2.   Use of fear
3.   Resolving Discrepancies
4.   Influence of friends and peers
5.   The co-opting approach

                                           10
  WHAT ARE THE MAJOR JOB ATTITUDES?



 Job Satisfaction
   A positive feeling about the job resulting from an




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     evaluation of its characteristics
 Job Involvement
   Degree of psychological identification with the
     job where perceived performance is important to
     self-worth
 Psychological Empowerment
   Belief in the degree of influence over the job,
     competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy

                                                   11
  ANOTHER MAJOR JOB ATTITUDE
 Organizational Commitment
   Identifying with a particular organization and its
    goals, while wishing to maintain membership in
    the organization.




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   Three dimensions:
     Affective – emotional attachment to
      organization
     Continuance Commitment – economic value of
      staying
     Normative - moral or ethical obligations
   Has some relation to performance, especially for
    new employees.
   Less important now than in past – now perhaps
    more of occupational commitment, loyalty to
    profession rather than a given employer.        12
  AND YET MORE MAJOR JOB ATTITUDES            …
 Perceived Organizational Support (POS)
   Degree to which employees believe the organization values
     their contribution and cares about their well-being.




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   Higher when rewards are fair, employees are involved in
     decision-making, and supervisors are seen as supportive.
   High POS is related to higher OCBs and performance.
 Employee Engagement
   The degree of involvement with, satisfaction with, and
     enthusiasm for the job.
   Engaged employees are passionate about their work and
     company.


                                                          13
 OUTCOMES OF JOB SATISFACTION

 Job Performance
   Satisfied workers are more productive AND
    more productive workers are more satisfied!




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   The causality may run both ways.
 Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
   Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions
    of fairness.
 Customer Satisfaction
   Satisfied frontline employees increase customer
    satisfaction and loyalty.
 Absenteeism
   Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to
                                                  14

    miss work.
   MORE OUTCOMES OF JOB SATISFACTION

 Turnover
   Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.
   Many moderating variables in this relationship.
     Economic environment and tenure




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     Organizational actions taken to retain high
      performers and to weed out lower performers
 Workplace Deviance
   Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize,
    abuse substances, steal, be tardy, and withdraw.

Despite the overwhelming evidence of the impact
  of job satisfaction on the bottom line, most
  managers are either unconcerned about or
  overestimate worker satisfaction.            15
  VALUES

Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-
  state of conduct or end-state of existence is personally




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  or socially preferable to an opposite or converse
  mode of conduct or end-state of existence.
 Attributes of Values:
   Content Attribute – that the mode of conduct or end-
      state is important
   Intensity Attribute – just how important that content is.
 Value System
   A person’s values rank ordered by intensity
   Tends to be relatively constant and consistent          16
IMPORTANCE OF VALUES

 Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation,
  and behaviors




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 Influence our perception of the world around us
 Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong”
 Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred
  over others




                                                        17
  CLASSIFYING VALUES –
  ROKEACH VALUE SURVEY
 Terminal Values
   Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a




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     person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime
 Instrumental Values
   Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving
     one’s terminal values

 People in same occupations or categories tend to hold
  similar values
   But values vary between groups
   Value differences make it difficult for groups to negotiate
     and may create conflict                              18
VALUES IN THE ROKEACH SURVEY




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                               19
VALUES

  Values differ across cultures.
  Hofstede’s Framework for assessing




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   culture – five value dimensions:
      Power Distance
      Individualism vs. Collectivism
      Masculinity vs. Femininity
      Uncertainty Avoidance
      Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation

                                              20
  HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK:
  POWER DISTANCE
 The extent to which a society accepts that power in
  institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.




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   Low distance
       Relatively equal power between those with
         status/wealth and those without status/wealth
   High distance
       Extremely unequal power distribution between those
         with status/wealth and those without status/wealth


                                                         21
HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK:
INDIVIDUALISM
 Individualism
   The degree to which people prefer to act as




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     individuals rather than a member of groups
 Collectivism
   A tight social framework in which people expect
     others in groups of which they are a part to look
     after them and protect them




                                                         22
HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK:
MASCULINITY
 Masculinity
   The extent to which the society values work roles




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    of achievement, power, and control, and where
    assertiveness and materialism are also valued
 Femininity
   The extent to which there is little differentiation
    between roles for men and women




                                                          23
  HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK:
  UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE
 The extent to which a society feels threatened by
   uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to




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   avoid them
 High Uncertainty Avoidance:
Society does not like ambiguous situations and tries to avoid
   them.
 Low Uncertainty Avoidance:
Society does not mind ambiguous situations and embraces
   them.


                                                            24
HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK:
TIME ORIENTATION
 Long-term Orientation
   A national culture attribute that emphasizes the




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     future, thrift, and persistence
 Short-term Orientation
   A national culture attribute that emphasizes the
     present and the here and now




                                                       25
HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK: AN
ASSESSMENT
 There are regional differences within countries
 The original data is old and based on only one




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  company
 Hofstede had to make many judgment calls while
  doing the research
 Some results don’t match what is believed to be true
  about given countries
 Despite these problems it remains a very popular
  framework


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