Health Triangle Introduction to Health, Life Skills, and Practical Living Critical Vocabulary: Decision making process: Refusal skills: Fight or flight response: Adrenaline: Resilience: Anxiety: Values: Critical Vocabulary: Assertive: Peer-pressure: Mediation: Conflict resolution: Compromise: Eustress: Distress: Critical Vocabulary: Stress: Stressor: Self-concept: Self-esteem: Personality: Empathy: Would you agree or disagree with the following statement, AND WHY? – “Although being physically fit and being free from illness are important, there is much more to having good health or total wellness.” TOTAL HEALTH There is more to health and wellness than just being physically fit and being free from disease – For example, how well a person gets along with others shows they can adapt socially. – Being able to handle and express one’s emotions properly, shows signs of good mental/emotional health. Health: a combination of physical, mental/ emotional, and social well-being Why are your personal choices so important? They indicate whether or not you truly care about total health and wellness. – Examples: What types of activities you participate in What types of food you ingest into your body (or eat). What types of people you spend your time with. What are some healthy ways to spend your time? The Health Triangle Physical Health: – Physical health involves taking care of your body. This includes: eating well-balanced meals and snacks being physically active avoiding diseases getting enough rest having regular medical and dental checkups The Health Triangle Mental/ Emotional Health: – Mental and emotional health involves liking and accepting yourself for who you are. This includes: – Finding healthy solutions to problems – Expressing emotions in healthy ways – Finding positive ways to manage stress The Health Triangle Social Health: – Social health involves getting along with other people. This includes: – Being a caring family member – Making and keeping friends – Giving and receiving support when it’s needed – interacting effectively with many different types of people, including both males and females and members of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds The three sides are inter-related Examples include? Balancing the triangle What do you think it means to BALANCE your health triangle? – Showing that each side of your triangle is equally important to you. – Doing things that promote each element of health Physical health Mental/ emotional health Social health WELLNESS Once you have achieved balance for your own health triangle, then you can achieve total wellness. – Wellness: an overall state of well-being What does it all mean Total health or WELLNESS depends on a persons… – DECISIONS – CHOICES DECISIONS CHOICES Teen Years: changing times: Grow taller Mood swings New friends Pay attention to health triangle: Physical: – Be active, eat nutritious meals, get enough sleep, avoid tobacco, alcohol and other drugs. Mental/ emotional: – Use your critical thinking skills, find positive ways to express feelings and manage stress. Seek advice from trusted adults in your life. Social: – Do your best to get along with others, keep others’ needs in mind and offer support. Adolescence: The time of life between childhood and adulthood. – Growing taller – More hair growth – More perspiring – These changes are due to the release of HORMONES: chemical substances, produced in glands, that help to regulate many body functions. Physical Development: Begin to develop the physical traits of adults of your gender. (changes begin at different ages for different people). – Boys – voices getting deeper – Girls – figures are developing Mental/ Emotional Development: Changes in the way you think and feel – ability to think logically. Emotional changes: – Mood swings – due to release of hormones – New feelings toward others Recognizing the needs of others – Increased romantic interest Normal part of growing up – Increased interest in what is important to you Realizing how important family, friends, physical activity and educations are. Growing sense of responsibility Mental/ Emotional Health What are some causes, symptoms, and prevention strategies for the following mental/ emotional problems? – Depression – Anxiety – Eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia, binge eating) Depression: A mood disorder in which a person loses interest in life and can no longer find enjoyment in anything. – Causes: genetic causes – family members have suffered from depression; life changing event; chemical imbalances in a person’s brain; chronic pain. – Symptoms: difficulty concentrating; fatigue, decreased energy; feelings of guilt, worthlessness, and helplessness; being hopeless and/or pessimistic; insomnia; irritability; loss of interest in activities or hobbies – Prevention/ treatment: medication; psychotherapy; electric shock treatment (in the case of severe depression and other treatment options have not worked). anxiety A condition in which intense anxiety or fear keeps a person from functioning normally. – Causes: chronic stress (school, work, financial, emotional); mental disorders (anxiety disorder, phobic disorders, stress disorders); side effect of medication; drug use (ex. Cocaine); symptom of a medical illness (heart attack) – Symptoms: racing heart; feeling weak, faint or dizzy; tingling, numbness in hands and fingers; sense of terror or impending doom; feeling sweaty or chills; chest pains; breathing difficulties; feeling a loss of control. – Prevention/ treatment: medications; psychotherapy Eating Disorders: Anorexia nervosa: an eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and/or excessive exercising leading to extreme weight loss. – Causes: psychological factors such as low self- esteem, unrealistic body image, depression – Symptoms: low body weight, excessive exercising, thinning hair, dry skin, brittle nails, no menstrual cycle - prevention/ treatment: hospital stay, psychological counseling. Eating disorders Bulimia: a condition in which a person eats large amounts of food and then tries to purge, by either forcing themselves to vomit or by taking laxatives to force the food quickly through the body. - Causes: a person is extremely concerned with being thin, they have an overwhelming need to maintain control over their body. – Symptoms: Repeatedly eating large amounts of food in a short period of time, then purging the food; being secretive about eating and seldom eats in front of other people; frequent weight changes, irregular menstrual cycles – Prevention: focuses on catching the eating disorder early Eating disorders: Binge eating: compulsive overeating – Causes: results from a combination of psychological, biological and environmental factors; history of depression; anger, sadness, boredom, anxiety or other negative emotions can trigger an episode. – Symptoms: frequently eating large amounts of food; feelings of being unable to control what or how much is being eaten; eating more rapidly than usual; eating until uncomfortably full; eating a large amount even when not hungry – Prevention: beginning treatment as soon as a person begins seeing symptoms of the disorder; teaching and encouraging healthy eating habits. Barriers to mental/emotional well- being Stress: your body’s reaction to change Eustress: positive stress – The type of stress that motivates a person to do better… Distress: negative stress – The type of stress that causes negative reactions for your body. Conflict: a disagreement between people with opposing viewpoints, ideas, or goals. Social Development: Affects the way you interact with others. Social growth involves relating to the people in your life in different ways: – Your family: Learning to act independently and make decisions – Your friends and peers: Might prefer to share thoughts and feelings with friends rather than family – Your community: Beginning to recognize your role in the larger community that includes your school and your neighborhood Social Health What are effective social interaction skills? – Respect: Showing respect means being considerate of others and tolerant of differences – Self-advocacy: Taking on or believing in a social cause. – Cooperation: Working together with others for a common goal. – Communication: Being able to express oneself in appropriate ways. – Identifying and being open to different perspectives and points of view – Empathy: Being able to put yourself in one’s shoes and understand what they might be experiencing. Sympathy: feeling sorry for someone else. – Friendship: Making sure you choose friends that are positive influences rather than ones that pressure you to participate in risky behaviors. Social and Mental/ Emotional Health Effective strategies for responding to stress, conflict, peer pressure, and bullying: – Communication: Expressing yourself effectively and appropriately. – Problem solving: Working through the issues to make a good decision, one that promotes wellness. – Decision making: Thinking about consequences before you choose to act. – Refusal skills: Saying no in risky situations. – Anger management: Being able to express your emotions in a healthful manner. – Conflict resolution: Coming to a solution to a problem without risking your health. – Relaxation techniques: Ways in which you choose to relax (examples include meditation, deep breathing, journal writing) – Time management: Effective use of your time – getting priorities done first. More ways to resolve conflict: Mediation: the process of having a third party help resolve a conflict Peer mediation: a program in which a student helps resolve other students’ conflicts Win-win mediation: an agreement that gives each party something they want. Compromise: to give up something in order to reach a solution that satisfies everyone. Social and Mental/ Emotional Health What are some changes that occur to physical, social and mental/ emotional health during adolescence? – Growth spurts – fastest growing period of your life. – Peer influence – friends become more influential. – Self confidence – gain/ and or loss self confidence. – Mood swings – due to the changes in hormones during adolescence, this can cause varying degrees of mood swings in a young person. Where should a student go for help for negative behaviors or addictions? Guidance counselors Drug counselors Parents Teachers Trusted adults Self-management and Coping strategies: Goal-setting – Short term goals: goals that you want to achieve in the next few days or weeks. – Long term goals: goals that you want to achieve in the next several weeks, months or even years. Time-management Personal learning styles and preferences Decision making procedures Ways to stay in “balance”: Choose healthy lifestyles: – Lifestyle factors: behaviors and habits that help determine a person’s level of health. Recognize risk behaviors: – Risk behaviors: actions or behaviors that might cause injury or harm to you or others. Abstain from risky behaviors: – Choose NOT to participate in risky behaviors. Take more responsibility: – Have a positive attitude; TAKE RESPONSIBILITY for your own actions; learn self-control. Stay informed: – Health education is essential for good health.