XXXX Drummond Street, XXXX
Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec
P.O. Box 19600, Terminus
333, boulevard Jean-Lesage
Subject: Driving aid instalment in new cars
I am a student at Concordia University and I wrote a report to propose an addition to
today’s windshields, transparent organic light-emitting device (TOLED) screens that can
assist the driver and reduce accidents by about 70%. I trust that this report enlightens
you to a new method of driving, awareness and public safety.
A NEW WAY OF DRIVING: TOLED WINDSHIELDS
A NEW WAY OF DRIVING: TOLED WINDSHIELDS
A TOLED driving-aid windshield is proposed to be implemented by car
manufacturers as a new safety measure. Regular windshields have the sole purpose of
protecting the driver from wind, dust particles and insects. Drivers also expend time and
concentration power to verify their “driving checklist” such as speed, engine oil, fuel
level and other parameters. The TOLED windshields is a revolutionary safety display
system, which can protect the driver by only showing necessary information. This
includes data that was never readily available in previous cars. A gradual transition is
proposed to implement Heads-Up Display (HUD) as a standard in every newly released
A NEW WAY OF DRIVING: TOLED WINDSHIELDS
Technical Writing and Communication, ENCS 282
June 7th, 2011
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2. CURRENT SITUATION
3.3 Implementation in automobiles
3.4 Difference between LED and OLED
5. PREVIOUS STUDIES
B. History of TOLEDs
C. Wavelength and colours of TOLEDs
The windshield is a necessary part of all vehicles moving at high speeds. It is
a necessary part of an automobile. Its shape has changed drastically from the first
designs of cars, due to studies in the field of aerodynamics. We must note that almost
all technologies are being reinvented: the phone is now an agenda, a camera, an e-mail
manager and a game console; the ball-point pen is now a digital camera and a USB
flash drive. The examples are endless. However, the windshield’s functionality has not
changed since it’s invention.
“Lack of attention to relevant driving events is one of the main factors in traffic
accidents”. (1) From 1990 to 2009, the total number of collisions in Canada went from
182,000 down to 125,000 collisions. (2) The TOLED windshield provides easy access
to information, increasing the driver’s concentration on relevant driving events. Our
estimates indicate that the numbers could be as low as 80,000 collisions by the end of
2. CURRENT SITUATION
The increased workload required by several mental tasks was reflected in
a significant pupil size increment, and several measures of visual search behavior
were also affected by mental tasks. Among the general effects were a spatial gaze
concentration and reduced inspection frequency of mirrors and speedometer. (3)
Figure 1. Direction of sight without distractions (left) compared to direction of sight with
some distraction. (4)
3. DESIGN IDEA
Before discussing the practicality of the idea, let us discuss the technical design
implementation of the TOLED windshield.
3.1 What is OLED
An organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which
the luminant layer is a film of organic compounds which emit light, depending on the
electric current. (6) This layer of organic material is situated between two electrodes.
Figure 2. OLED structure(7)
OLEDs are used in television screens, computer monitors, small, portable
system screens such as mobile phones and PDAs, watches, advertising, information,
and indication. OLEDs are also used in light sources for space illumination and in large-
area light-emitting elements.
An OLED display functions without a backlight. Thus, it can display deep black
levels and can be thinner and lighter than liquid crystal displays. In low ambient light
conditions such as dark rooms, an OLED screen can achieve a higher contrast ratio
than an LCD. (6)
3.2 Transparent OLED (TOLED)
Transparent OLEDs only have transparent components (substrate, cathode and
anode). When turned off, they are up to 85 percent as transparent as their substrate.
When a transparent OLED display is turned on, it allows light to pass in both directions.
A transparent OLED display can be either active- or passive-matrix. This technology
can be used for heads-up displays.
Figure 3 TOLED structure (7)
3.3 Implementation in Windshields
There are two ways the TOLED windshields can be implemented.
3.3.a. In the manufacturing process
The safest way to ensure all drivers use their Driver Aid is if it is
implemented in the windshield in the manufacturing process. Car manufacturers would
have to develop their own technology, or to rely on another brand to propose a design
and implement it. (5)
3.3.b. A protective sheet
There is another type of OLED that has not been discussed.
Foldable OLEDs have substrates made of very flexible metallic foils or plastics.
Foldable OLEDs are very lightweight and durable. Their use in devices such as cell
phones and PDAs can reduce breakage. A standard windshield-sized sheet of Foldable
TOLEDs could be sold seperately and installed in a car. However, this option might be
problematic, as required hardware (such as infrared cameras and sensors) must be
bought later. The need of specific hardware will be explained in the following section.
3.4 Difference between LCD and OLED
The LCD is currently the display of choice in small devices and is also popular in large-
screen TVs. Regular LEDs often form the digits on digital clocks and other electronic
devices. OLEDs offer many advantages over both LCDs and LEDs:
● The plastic, organic layers of an OLED are thinner, lighter and more
flexible than the crystalline layers in an LED or LCD.
● OLEDs are brighter than LEDs.
● LEDs and LCDs require glass for support, and glass absorbs some light.
OLEDs do not require glass.
● OLEDs do not require backlighting like LCDs. LCDs work by selectively
blocking areas of the backlight to make the images that you see, while
OLEDs generate light themselves. Because OLEDs do not require
backlighting, they consume much less power than LCDs.
● OLEDs are easier to produce and can be made to larger sizes. Because
OLEDs are essentially plastics, they can be made into large, thin sheets.
It is much more difficult to grow and lay down so many liquid crystals. (9)
● OLEDs have large fields of view, about 170 degrees. Because LCDs
work by blocking light, they have an inherent viewing obstacle from
certain angles. OLEDs produce their own light, so they have a much
wider viewing range. (8)
3.5 Additional Hardware
The TOLED windshield consists also of cameras to detect specific objects, a
built in GPS and a Blue-Tooth 2.0 connectivity.
The TOLED windshield is basically a Heads-Up Display (HUD). This means that
it displays information on the windshield, similar to video games and fighter jets.
One of the main uses of a dashboard is speed monitoring. The HUD displays the
car’s speed. The windshield will automatically switch from MPH to KPH, depending on
Figure 4. A transparent Speedometer (10)
4.2 Speed limit
Thanks to night-vision cameras, the windshield can spot speed limit signs and
warn the driver if he or she is speeding. It will also light up the sign so that it may be
visible for the driver.
Figure 5. Speed limit detection (11)
4.3 Signs and reminders
After detecting the speed limit, the TOLED windshield will alert the driver of
speed excess. It will also alert him to the presence of red lights, stop signs and
crossroads. If looking for a specific directive sign, the software should assist the driver
in finding it.
4.4 Environmental warnings
Using the display, the driver will be increasingly wary of environmental hazards
such as pedestrians crossing, animals or an unlit obstacle. HUD will rely on night vision
camera, because of its longer vision range, compared to a car’s high beams. (12) Any
event that might cause trouble can trigger an alarm, such as a car coming in too fast
The phone will connect via bluetooth to the TOLED windshield. Callers will be
announced verbally through the car’s speakers, and text messages will be saved for
4.6 Fuel Reminder
When the car is out of fuel, the HUD will display a reminder.
4.7 Car malfunction
In case of a car malfunction, the TOLED windshield will display the malfunction.
When the car is stopped, the windshield will show the specific “Troubleshoot” section of
the catalogue and instructions on fixing the problem.. It will also advise the driver of the
risks of driving with that specific problem.
4.8 Road Assist and GPS turn-by-turn Navigation
In case of foggy weather, the HUD will detect the limits of the roads and
accentuate the lines.
Figure 6. Road Limit Detection in foggy weather (11)
The HUD will also act as a GPS and will highlight the road that needs to be
taken. This will cause people to stop less and question the GPS’ directions, thus
eliminating traffic and accidents. The destination will also be highlighted.
4.9 Eye Movement Tracking (EMT)
Cameras inside the car will scan the driver’s face and find his or her direction of
glaze, along with pupil dilation. By analyzing this information, the windshield can
determine his concentration level. If it is too low (because of drowsiness or alcohol), the
car will force him to park the car and will create a thirty (30) minutes block on the car.
Also, the windshield will recognize the driver and will load his settings, such as seat
adjustment and screen widget disposition.
The EMT will also remind the driver to look at widgets he might not pay attention
to, such as the rear-view mirror.
Figure 7. Eye Movement Tracking representation (11)
The EMT is a necessary tool for the TOLED windshield to be functional. Without
it, the screen will not know where to draw specific lines on the screen. This is based on
the basic principles of geometry: two dots form a line, and two lines create a vortex. The
two lines will be from each eye to the actual object, and the vortex will be the object.
the line is then displayed on the screen at specific intersection points between those
calculated lines and the windshield plane.
5. PREVIOUS STUDIES
General Motors began using head-up displays in 1988 with the first color display
appearing in 2001 on the Corvette. (13) Toyota, for domestic market only, in 1991
released this system in Toyota Crown Majesta. In 2003, BMW became the first
European manufacturer to offer HUDs. The displays are becoming increasingly
available in production cars, and usually offer speedometer, tachometer, and navigation
system displays. Night vision information is also displayed via HUD on certain General
Motors, Honda, Toyota and Lexus vehicles. Other manufactures such as Citroën, Saab,
and Nissan currently offer some form of HUD system. Motorcycle helmet HUDs are also
commercially available. (14)
In a world where human beings depend on technology, HUDs in cars is the
future. It was previously stated that distractions cause accidents. These causes can be
minimized so that car drivers only concentrate on the road, thus creating a safer
environment for drivers, passengers and pedestrians. It is the SAAQ’s duty to ensure
that when a safer way exists, it must be adopted. The TOLED windshield HUD should
therefore be implemented, as a necessary safety precaution.
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Note: Cover picture was found online at www.newtechnlogies.com