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					XXXX Drummond Street, XXXX
Montreal, QC
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michael@eljiz.com

07/June/2011

Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec
P.O. Box 19600, Terminus
333, boulevard Jean-Lesage
Québec QC
G1K 8J6

Subject: Driving aid instalment in new cars

Sirs, Ladies:

I am a student at Concordia University and I wrote a report to propose an addition to
today’s windshields, transparent organic light-emitting device (TOLED) screens that can
assist the driver and reduce accidents by about 70%. I trust that this report enlightens
you to a new method of driving, awareness and public safety.

Sincerely,

SIGNATURE

Michael El-Jiz
A NEW WAY OF DRIVING: TOLED WINDSHIELDS



              Michael El-Jiz
                                      ABSTRACT



                  A NEW WAY OF DRIVING: TOLED WINDSHIELDS



                                     Michael El-Jiz



       A TOLED driving-aid windshield is proposed to be implemented by car

manufacturers as a new safety measure. Regular windshields have the sole purpose of

protecting the driver from wind, dust particles and insects. Drivers also expend time and

concentration power to verify their “driving checklist” such as speed, engine oil, fuel

level and other parameters. The TOLED windshields is a revolutionary safety display

system, which can protect the driver by only showing necessary information. This

includes data that was never readily available in previous cars. A gradual transition is

proposed to implement Heads-Up Display (HUD) as a standard in every newly released

car.
A NEW WAY OF DRIVING: TOLED WINDSHIELDS




                Michael El-Jiz




             Concordia University

Technical Writing and Communication, ENCS 282

               June 7th, 2011
                            TABLE OF CONTENTS



1. INTRODUCTION

2. CURRENT SITUATION

3. DESIGN
      3.1 OLED
      3.2 TOLED
      3.3 Implementation in automobiles
      3.4 Difference between LED and OLED

4. FUNCTIONALITY

5. PREVIOUS STUDIES

6. CONCLUSION

APPENDICES
    A. Memorandum
    B. History of TOLEDs
    C. Wavelength and colours of TOLEDs

INDEX

REFERENCES
                                   1. INTRODUCTION




        The windshield is a necessary part of all vehicles moving at high speeds. It is

a necessary part of an automobile. Its shape has changed drastically from the first

designs of cars, due to studies in the field of aerodynamics. We must note that almost

all technologies are being reinvented: the phone is now an agenda, a camera, an e-mail

manager and a game console; the ball-point pen is now a digital camera and a USB

flash drive. The examples are endless. However, the windshield’s functionality has not

changed since it’s invention.

        “Lack of attention to relevant driving events is one of the main factors in traffic

accidents”. (1) From 1990 to 2009, the total number of collisions in Canada went from

182,000 down to 125,000 collisions. (2) The TOLED windshield provides easy access

to information, increasing the driver’s concentration on relevant driving events. Our

estimates indicate that the numbers could be as low as 80,000 collisions by the end of

2013.
                                   2. CURRENT SITUATION




      The increased workload required by several mental tasks was reflected in

a significant pupil size increment, and several measures of visual search behavior

were also affected by mental tasks. Among the general effects were a spatial gaze

concentration and reduced inspection frequency of mirrors and speedometer. (3)




Figure 1. Direction of sight without distractions (left) compared to direction of sight with

                                   some distraction. (4)
                                     3. DESIGN IDEA

       Before discussing the practicality of the idea, let us discuss the technical design

implementation of the TOLED windshield.




3.1 What is OLED



       An organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which

the luminant layer is a film of organic compounds which emit light, depending on the

electric current. (6) This layer of organic material is situated between two electrodes.




                                  Figure 2. OLED structure(7)

       OLEDs are used in television screens, computer monitors, small, portable
system screens such as mobile phones and PDAs, watches, advertising, information,

and indication. OLEDs are also used in light sources for space illumination and in large-

area light-emitting elements.

       An OLED display functions without a backlight. Thus, it can display deep black

levels and can be thinner and lighter than liquid crystal displays. In low ambient light

conditions such as dark rooms, an OLED screen can achieve a higher contrast ratio

than an LCD. (6)



       3.2 Transparent OLED (TOLED)



       Transparent OLEDs only have transparent components (substrate, cathode and

anode). When turned off, they are up to 85 percent as transparent as their substrate.

When a transparent OLED display is turned on, it allows light to pass in both directions.

A transparent OLED display can be either active- or passive-matrix. This technology

can be used for heads-up displays.
                                 Figure 3 TOLED structure (7)

      3.3 Implementation in Windshields

      There are two ways the TOLED windshields can be implemented.

             3.3.a. In the manufacturing process

                    The safest way to ensure all drivers use their Driver Aid is if it is

implemented in the windshield in the manufacturing process. Car manufacturers would

have to develop their own technology, or to rely on another brand to propose a design

and implement it. (5)

             3.3.b. A protective sheet

                    There is another type of OLED that has not been discussed.

Foldable OLEDs have substrates made of very flexible metallic foils or plastics.

Foldable OLEDs are very lightweight and durable. Their use in devices such as cell

phones and PDAs can reduce breakage. A standard windshield-sized sheet of Foldable

TOLEDs could be sold seperately and installed in a car. However, this option might be
problematic, as required hardware (such as infrared cameras and sensors) must be

bought later. The need of specific hardware will be explained in the following section.



      3.4 Difference between LCD and OLED

The LCD is currently the display of choice in small devices and is also popular in large-

screen TVs. Regular LEDs often form the digits on digital clocks and other electronic

devices. OLEDs offer many advantages over both LCDs and LEDs:

        ● The plastic, organic layers of an OLED are thinner, lighter and more

            flexible than the crystalline layers in an LED or LCD.

        ● OLEDs are brighter than LEDs.

        ● LEDs and LCDs require glass for support, and glass absorbs some light.

            OLEDs do not require glass.

        ● OLEDs do not require backlighting like LCDs. LCDs work by selectively

            blocking areas of the backlight to make the images that you see, while

            OLEDs generate light themselves. Because OLEDs do not require

            backlighting, they consume much less power than LCDs.

        ● OLEDs are easier to produce and can be made to larger sizes. Because

            OLEDs are essentially plastics, they can be made into large, thin sheets.

            It is much more difficult to grow and lay down so many liquid crystals. (9)

        ● OLEDs have large fields of view, about 170 degrees. Because LCDs

            work by blocking light, they have an inherent viewing obstacle from

            certain angles. OLEDs produce their own light, so they have a much

            wider viewing range. (8)
      3.5 Additional Hardware

      The TOLED windshield consists also of cameras to detect specific objects, a

built in GPS and a Blue-Tooth 2.0 connectivity.
                                    4. FUNCTIONALITY

       The TOLED windshield is basically a Heads-Up Display (HUD). This means that

it displays information on the windshield, similar to video games and fighter jets.



4.1 Speedometer

       One of the main uses of a dashboard is speed monitoring. The HUD displays the

car’s speed. The windshield will automatically switch from MPH to KPH, depending on

surrounding signs.




                          Figure 4. A transparent Speedometer (10)



4.2 Speed limit

       Thanks to night-vision cameras, the windshield can spot speed limit signs and

warn the driver if he or she is speeding. It will also light up the sign so that it may be

visible for the driver.
                            Figure 5. Speed limit detection (11)



4.3 Signs and reminders

        After detecting the speed limit, the TOLED windshield will alert the driver of

speed excess. It will also alert him to the presence of red lights, stop signs and

crossroads. If looking for a specific directive sign, the software should assist the driver

in finding it.



4.4 Environmental warnings

        Using the display, the driver will be increasingly wary of environmental hazards

such as pedestrians crossing, animals or an unlit obstacle. HUD will rely on night vision

camera, because of its longer vision range, compared to a car’s high beams. (12) Any

event that might cause trouble can trigger an alarm, such as a car coming in too fast

from behind.



4.5 Phone

        The phone will connect via bluetooth to the TOLED windshield. Callers will be
announced verbally through the car’s speakers, and text messages will be saved for

later.



4.6 Fuel Reminder

         When the car is out of fuel, the HUD will display a reminder.



4.7 Car malfunction

         In case of a car malfunction, the TOLED windshield will display the malfunction.

When the car is stopped, the windshield will show the specific “Troubleshoot” section of

the catalogue and instructions on fixing the problem.. It will also advise the driver of the

risks of driving with that specific problem.



4.8 Road Assist and GPS turn-by-turn Navigation

         In case of foggy weather, the HUD will detect the limits of the roads and

accentuate the lines.




                    Figure 6. Road Limit Detection in foggy weather (11)
       The HUD will also act as a GPS and will highlight the road that needs to be

taken. This will cause people to stop less and question the GPS’ directions, thus

eliminating traffic and accidents. The destination will also be highlighted.



4.9 Eye Movement Tracking (EMT)

       Cameras inside the car will scan the driver’s face and find his or her direction of

glaze, along with pupil dilation. By analyzing this information, the windshield can

determine his concentration level. If it is too low (because of drowsiness or alcohol), the

car will force him to park the car and will create a thirty (30) minutes block on the car.

Also, the windshield will recognize the driver and will load his settings, such as seat

adjustment and screen widget disposition.

       The EMT will also remind the driver to look at widgets he might not pay attention

to, such as the rear-view mirror.
                  Figure 7. Eye Movement Tracking representation (11)

       The EMT is a necessary tool for the TOLED windshield to be functional. Without

it, the screen will not know where to draw specific lines on the screen. This is based on

the basic principles of geometry: two dots form a line, and two lines create a vortex. The

two lines will be from each eye to the actual object, and the vortex will be the object.

the line is then displayed on the screen at specific intersection points between those

calculated lines and the windshield plane.
                               5. PREVIOUS STUDIES



      General Motors began using head-up displays in 1988 with the first color display

appearing in 2001 on the Corvette. (13) Toyota, for domestic market only, in 1991

released this system in Toyota Crown Majesta. In 2003, BMW became the first

European manufacturer to offer HUDs. The displays are becoming increasingly

available in production cars, and usually offer speedometer, tachometer, and navigation

system displays. Night vision information is also displayed via HUD on certain General

Motors, Honda, Toyota and Lexus vehicles. Other manufactures such as Citroën, Saab,

and Nissan currently offer some form of HUD system. Motorcycle helmet HUDs are also

commercially available. (14)
                                   6. CONCLUSION




      In a world where human beings depend on technology, HUDs in cars is the

future. It was previously stated that distractions cause accidents. These causes can be

minimized so that car drivers only concentrate on the road, thus creating a safer

environment for drivers, passengers and pedestrians. It is the SAAQ’s duty to ensure

that when a safer way exists, it must be adopted. The TOLED windshield HUD should

therefore be implemented, as a necessary safety precaution.
                                         REFERENCES



1.    Rumar, K. (1990). “The basic driver error: Late detection.” Ergonomics, 33, 1281–
1290.


2.      “Transport Canada: Canadian Motor Vehicle Traffic Collision Statistics: 2009”
http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/roadsafety/tp-tp3322-2009-1173.htm

3.     Recarte, M. A., & Nunes, L. M. (2000). “Effects of verbal and spatial- imagery
task on eye fixations while driving.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 6, 31–
43.

4.    Recarte, M. A., Nunes, L. M., & Conchillo, A. (1999). Attention and eye-
movements while driving: Effects of verbal versus spatial-imagery and comprehension
versus response production tasks.In VIII International conference on Vision in Vehicles,
August, 1999, Boston, USA.


5.   Tsujimura, Takatoshi; (2003). "4.1: A 20-inch OLED Display Driven by Super-
Amorphous-Silicon Technology". SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 34: 6

6.     Holmes, Russell; Erickson, N. (27). "Highly efficient, single-layer organic light-
emitting devices based on a graded-composition emissive layer". Applied Physics
Letters 97: 083308.

7.     “How Stuff Works: OLED” http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/oled1.htm

8.    S. Janietz, R. Friedrich, A. Wedel "Synthesis and electrochemical
characterisation of new sulfur containing polymers and their application in LED's"
European Conference on Molecular Electronics, ECME 97, 07.-10.09.97, Universität
Cambridge

9.     A. Wedel, S. Janietz, R. Danz "Light-emitting diodes with new sulphur containing
polymers and their characterization" Proceedings Conference "Electrooptical Properties
of Polymers and Related Phenomena", Varenna, Italien, 13.-17. September 1998

10.   “Transparent electroluminescent display” Ralf Jurrien : September 23th 2007 -
19:29 CET http://www.letsgodigital.org/en/16930/transparent-display/

11.   “General Motors Augmented Reality Windshield”, http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=J0xn1BA4mQc
12.     K. Rumar, “Adaptive illumination systems for motor vehicles: Towards a more
intelligent headlighting system”, Report no. UMTRI-97-7. Ann Arbor, MI: The University
of Michigan Transport Research Institute, 1997.

13.    "Head-Up Displays (HUDs) Put the Essentials in Your Line of Sight—Progressive
Auto Insurance Articles & Blogs". Progressive.com.

14.   "Mike, Werner. "Test Driving the SportVue Motorcycle HUD". Motorcycles in the
Fast Lane. 8 November 2005. Accessed 14 February 2007". News.motorbiker.org

Note: Cover picture was found online at www.newtechnlogies.com

				
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