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					                              Personality Quiz 2003
1. From the behavioral perspective, motivation is best explained by:
    a. Classical conditioning
    b. Operant conditioning
    c. Classical conditioning of positive experiences
    d. Operant conditioning of positive experiences
    e. Second-order conditioning

2. Locus of Control was a personality construct developed by Julian Rotter. Since then
the Locus of Control construct has been widely investigated. Which of the following is
not true about Locus of Control:
    a. Rotter’s LOC work bridged the behavioral perspective and the cognitive
        perspective
    b. Rotter’s LOC work bridged the behavioral perspective and the biological
        perspective
    c. Rotter’s LOC work bridged the behavioral perspective and the social learning
        perspective
    d. Rotter’s LOC work bridged the behavioral perspective and the humanistic
        perspective
    e. Rotter’s LOC work bridged the social learning perspective and the cognitive
        perspective

3. Cattell used _____________ to determine important aspects of personality.

a.   A theoretical approach
b.   Case studies
c.   Language
d.   Census data

4. A person who is high on the dimension of love and high on the dimension of
   dominance would most likely be considered:

a.   Unassuming
b.   Introverted
c.   Extraverted
d.   Arrogant

5. The NEO (Costa & McCrae, 1985) measures which of the following personality
   traits?

a.   Neuroticism, activity, openness to experience, extraversion, confidence
b.   Neuroticism, extraversion, objectivity, adaptability, conscientiousness
c.   Extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism
d.   Neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, adaptability, conscientiousness
6. Which of the following is a reason why there is a fair amount of disagreement as to
   what the five dimensions of personality are?

a.   Different-looking factors emerge depending on the measures included in the study
b.   Different factors emerge from studies conducted with different samples
c.   Personality measures have low test-retest reliability
d.   All of the above

7. Compared to lower-level traits, superordinate traits seem to provide:

a.   Less predictive power
b.   More predictive power
c.   About the same amount of predictive power
d.   A more confusing depiction of the structure of personality

8. Interactionism suggests that:

a. Personality traits and situations interact with each other to produce behaviour
b. The interaction between the "actors" traits and the "observers" traits will determine
   how the observer perceives the behaviour
c. People elicit different responses from the different people with whom they interact
d. People do not choose the situations they enter

9. Murray distinguished between _____________ needs and _____________ needs.

a.   Primitive; advanced
b.   General; specific
c.   Manifest; latent
d.   Primary; secondary

10. According to twin studies, the average heritability of most personality traits is
    approximately:

a.   .40 to .50
b.   .60 to .70
c.   .20 to .30
d.   .16 to .20
11. According to the "sexy son hypothesis" (Gangestad, 1989):

a. From an evolutionary perspective, women are attracted to powerful and good-looking
   men because they will produce sexy sons
b. Some women mate with an attractive but unstable partner, leading to the possibility of
   producing a son who will be just like his father, and will impregnate a number of
   women
c. Women will try to maximize the reproductive viability of their offspring by mating
   with partners who will produce sexy sons
d. None of the above

12. According to Eysenck's theory of cortical arousal:

a.   Introverts should prefer lower levels of stimulation
b.   Extraverts should prefer higher levels of stimulation
c.   Introverts may become bored if the level of stimulation gets too low
d.   All of the above

13. Given the same amount of alcohol the _____________ gets more drunk than the
    _____________.

a.   Extravert; introvert
b.   High BIS; high BAS
c.   High BAS; high BIS
d.   Introvert; extravert

14. Research on hormones and behaviour suggests that early exposure to masculinizing
    hormones can influence the following:

a.   A child's potential for aggression
b.   The type of toys that children chose to play with
c.   A child's boldness
d.   All of the above

15. The purpose of the ego is to ensure:

a.   That tension is reduced immediately
b.   That parental and societal values are followed
c.   That instinctual drives are expressed appropriately
d.   All of the above
16. According to Freud, the child who becomes fixated at the oral stage of development
    will grow up to be an adult who is:

a.   Very clingy and dependent
b.   Very independent
c.   Either very dependent or very independent
d.   Very cautious


17. _____________ refers to the replacement of an impulse with its opposite in
    consciousness.

a.   Denial
b.   Sublimation
c.   Reaction formation
d.   Displacement

18. According to Freud, parapraxes:

a.   Are random occurrences
b.   Are part of conscious awareness
c.   Reveal unconscious dynamics
d.   All of the above

19. Jung postulated a series of dichotomies in human functioning. Which of the following
    pairs is not one of Jung’s dichotomies?

a.   Thinking/feeling
b.   Judging/tolerating
c.   Sensing/intuiting
d.   Introversion/extraversion

20. Higher order conditioning occurs when:

a. A US and a UR induce classical conditioning
b. An established CS-CR combination becomes a US-UR pair in a subsequent
   conditioning cycle
c. The responses in question are non-biological in nature
d. A positive CS induces a negative CR
21. The conditioning approach suggests that personality assessment should:

a.   Focus on what a person is generally like
b.   Focus on the individual's general responses to general situations
c.   Take the form of direct observation and measurement
d.   Comprise measurement and interpretation of behaviour

22. Vicarious emotional arousal:

a.   Occurs when you feel the same emotion as another person
b.   Occurs when you feel guilty for an imagined transgression
c.   Is the same as sympathy
d.   Is likely to occur only when you are modelling another's behaviour

23. According to instrumental conditioning theory, when something good is removed
    from an individual, this is known as:

a.   A negative reinforcer
b.   A negative punisher
c.   A positive punisher
d.   A reinforced punishment

24. Research by Bandura and Mischel (1965) regarding the effect of modelling on delay
    of gratification has shown that:

a. Modelling does not influence delay of reward
b. The effects of modelling are short lived
c. Children who show a preference for immediate reward are not influenced by a model
   who shows a preference for delayed gratification
d. Modelling can either increase or decrease the tendency to choose immediate reward,
   depending on what is modelled and the child's initial preference

25. According to Bandura, efficacy perceptions are affected most strongly by:

a.   Performance accomplishments
b.   Vicarious experience
c.   Vicarious emotional responses
d.   Outcome expectancies
26. A criticism of the learning perspective is that:

a. It does not reveal much about how a given behaviour becomes more or less probable
b. It does not address the subjective sense of what it means to have a personality i.e., of
   "personhood"
c. It applies only to certain types or domains of behaviour
d. None of the above


27. The function of the self-actualizing tendency is to:

a.   Promote wholeness
b.   Minimize disorganization
c.   Enhance integration
d.   All of the above

28. According to Maslow's hierarchy, the correct order of needs, beginning with the most
    basic, is:

a.   Physiological - love - safety - esteem - self-actualization
b.   Physiological - esteem - safety - love - self-actualization
c.   Physiological - safety - love - esteem - self-actualization
d.   Physiological - safety - esteem - love - self-actualization

29. The cognitive perspective emphasizes the processes by which information:

a.   Creates expectancies
b.   Is processed, organised, stored and retrieved
c.   Is transferred through universal symbols
d.   Is encoded in genetic makeup

30. Which of the following is not a similarity between the self-actualization and the self-
    regulation approaches?

a. Both emphasize the importance of goals
b. Both use concepts referring to an idealized self
c. Both emphasize the fact that people compare their different elements of self to each
   other
d. Both place emphasis on conscious experience