Docstoc

Types of Information Systems - PowerPoint

Document Sample
Types of Information Systems - PowerPoint Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 3

Information Systems


                      1
Chapter 3 Objectives

 • Understand the term information systems (IS)
 • Understand IS components:
    – Technology, people, organizations
 • Understand IS career opportunities
 • Understand types of information systems
 • Understand IS and organizational success or failure
 • Understand the future of IS management



                                                         2
Information Systems Defined

Combinations of hardware, software, and telecommunications networks
that people build and use to collect, create, and distribute useful data in
organizations




                                                                              3
Key Elements of Information Systems




                                      4
Knowledge as a Business Resource
• Knowledge Worker
   – A well-educated professional who creates, modifies, or
     synthesizes knowledge in one’s profession
• Knowledge Society
   – Also called digital society, new economy
   – Working with brains instead of hands
   – The importance of education
   – Digital divide



                                                              5
  Data
• Data: raw material, unformatted information

• Information: processed data (meaningful)
• Knowledge: understanding relationships between pieces of information
• Wisdom: knowledge accumulated and applied




                                                                         6
Technology and Information Systems
• Computer-Based Information Systems
   – One type of technology
   – Technology – any mechanical and/or electrical means to
     supplement, extend, or replace human activity
   – Information Technology (IT) – machine technology controlled
     by or using information

• The goal of IS is to provide useful data to users
   – IS can be local or global, organizational or enterprise-wide

                                                                    7
Careers: Operations Management
• Trends
   – Virtual Corporations
   – Network Infrastructure
   – How wired is your firm?




                                 8
The People Side of IS
• Despite economic ups and downs…
   – Labor shortages predicted
       • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
       • http://stats.bls.gov/emp/emptab3.htm
   – Ranked among best jobs available




                                                9
Careers in IS
•   Systems Analyst
•   Systems Programmer
•   Systems Consultant
•   Database Administrator
•   Webmaster
•   IS Director
•   Chief Information Officer
•   Professor
•   Government scientist

                                10
Chief Information Officer (CIO)
 • Responsible for organization’s IS
 • Executive level
 • Became prominent in 1980s
 • Challenges
    – Tightening budgets
    – Expectation management
 • Subordinates
    – Mid-level managers
    – IS directors
    – Project managers
                                       11
  IS Managerial Personnel
1.    CIO                   12. Systems Programming Manager
2.    IS director           13. Manager of Emerging
3.    Account Executive         Technologies
4.    Info Center Manager   14. Telecommunications Manager
5.    Development Manager
                            15. Network Manager
6.    Project Manager
7.    Maintenance Manager
                            16. Database Administrator
8.    Systems Manager       17. Auditing or Computer Security
9.    IS planning Manager       Manager
10.   Operations Manager    18. Quality Assurance Manager
11.   Programming Manager   19. Webmaster
                                                                12
The High Value of IS Personnel
• Supply and demand
   – Aggressive recruiting
   – High salaries
   – Broad demand
      • Large and small companies
      • Urban and rural




                                    13
Integrating Skills and Knowledge
• Technology
   – hardware, software, networking
• Business
   – business, management, social, communications
• Systems
   – Integration, development methods, critical thinking, problem solving




                                                                            14
Hot Skills in IS Workers
•   Office / E-mail
•   Languages
•   Applications
•   RDBS Administration
•   Development Tools
•   Internetworking
•   Operating Systems
•   NOS LAN Administration
•   Networking
                             15
The Organizational Side of IS
 1.    Transaction Processing System
 2.    Management Information System
 3.    Executive Information System
 4.    Decision Support System
 5.    Expert System
 6.    Functional Area Information System
 7.    Office Automation System (a.k.a. Personal Productivity Software)
 8.    Collaboration System
 9.    Customer Relationship Management System
 10.   Electronic Commerce System
 11.   Enterprise Resource Planning System
                                                                          16
IS for Competitive Advantage
• Strategic Systems
• Competition: doing things faster, better, cheaper
• How can systems gain one’s organization a competitive advantage?




                                                                     17
International Outsourcing
• Round-the-clock productivity
• Cost savings




                                 18
IS Within the Firm
 • Traditionally a love/hate relationship
    – “Techies” vs. mere “users” (us vs. them)
    – Poor service, lousy attitudes
 • Now: progress toward better customer service
    – Better relationships within the company
    – Cooperation, not rivalry




                                                  19
Staying Current with IS News
• Great sources for IS current info:
   – informationweek.com
   – computerworld.com
   – cio.com




                                       20
The Spread of Technology in Organizations
• Technology infiltrates business units
• Dual role for IS workers:
   – Work with IS technical group
   – Work with business unit (marketing, finance, etc.)




                                                          21
The Spread of Technology in Organizations

• Benefits of centralized IS function
   – Coordinated planning
   – Consistent management
   – Systems compatibility and connectivity




                                              22
Human Resource Planning for IS
• The human resource challenge:
   – Tech workers need to understand business
   – Business workers must understand technology
• Fluctuations in hiring tech workers
   – Downsizing issues
   – Recruiting issues




                                                   23
Career Prospects and Opportunities
• IS applies to nearly every functional area within a firm
• One may become indispensable in a firm through mastering tech skills
• Anticipated growth in tech hiring




                                                                         24
Coming Attractions:
Is it a phone or computer?
• Wireless Pocket PC
   – Merging mobile phones with personal digital assistant (PDA)
     technology
• Communicate, collaborate, and coordinate




                                                                   25
Information System Categories That Apply in Any Functional Area
of Business

•   Difficult to categorize
     – Not mutually exclusive

     – Features keep changing as the technology changes




                                                                  26
Office Automation Systems (OAS)

•   Help people perform personal record keeping, writing, and calculations
    efficiently
•   Main types of tools include:
     – Spreadsheet programs

     – Text & image processing systems

     – Presentation packages

     – Personal database systems and note-taking systems




                                                                             27
Communication
     Systems
      Sharing information in many
                   different forms




                                     28
Teleconferencing

•   The use of electronic transmission to permit same-time different-place
    meetings
     – Audio conferencing = a single telephone call involving 3 or more
       people
     – Audiographic conferencing = an extension of audio conferencing,
       permitting the participants to see graphical material
     – Videoconferencing = interactive meeting involving groups of people
       that can see each other using display screens


                                                                             29
E-mail, Voice Mail, and Fax
•   Issues:
     – Social context

     – Danger of misrepresentation

     – Power relationships

     – Privacy & confidentiality

     – Electronic junk mail

     – Information overload




                                     30
    Instant Messaging and Chat Rooms
•   INSTANT MESSAGING = real time exchange of messages
•   CHAT ROOM = informal computer conference
     – Voice chat

•   Both are part of the Internet culture, and have developed into business
    tools




                                                                              31
Groupware

•   Software and related procedures that help teams work together by
    sharing information and by controlling internal workflows.
     – Lotus Notes




                                                                       32
Intranets and Extranets
•   INTRANETS:
     – Private networks

     – Use the same interface as the Web

     – Accessible only to company employees

     – Examples of applications:

        • Corporate news

        • Employee manuals

        • Corporate policies

        • Telephone directories, etc.


                                              33
•   EXTRANETS:
     – Similar to intranets, but geared towards customers

     – Examples of applications:

        • Detailed product descriptions

        • FAQs

        • Maintenance information, etc.




                                                            34
Knowledge Management
•   Systems designed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge rather than
    information
•   Tacit knowledge – understood & applied unconsciously
•   Explicit knowledge – formally articulated, and often codified in databases




                                                                                 35
Group Support Systems (GSS)
•   Support communication by helping facilitate meetings
•   Directed at brainstorming and discussions




                                                           36
Transaction Processing
              Systems
                Structuring Repetitive
           Communication and Decision
                            Processes




                                         37
•   Transaction processing system (TPS) = system that collects and stores
    transaction data; may also control decisions made as part of the
    transaction
     – Transaction = an event that generates or modifies data

•   Some TPSs bypass clerks, and completely automate transactions
•   Data validation




                                                                            38
Batch vs. Real-time Processing
•   Batch processing = transactions are gathered and processed together
    later
     – Inherent time delays that may cause significant disadvantages

•   Real-time processing = transactions are immediately processed
    against an online database




                                                                          39
Management and Executive
     Information Systems
                 Providing Information for
                             Management




                                             40
•   Management information system (MIS) – provides information for
    managing an organization
•   Extract and summarize data from TPSs
     – Allow managers to monitor & direct the organization

     – Provide accurate feedback

•   Provide prespecified reports on a scheduled basis




                                                                     41
From MIS to EIS
•   Executive information system (EIS) = a highly interactive system that
    provides a flexible access to information for monitoring results and
    general business conditions
•   Use both internal and competitive information
•   User-friendly interface




                                                                            42
Decision Support
         Systems



                   43
•   Decision support system (DSS) – an interactive information system that
    provides information, models, and data manipulation tools to help make
    decisions in semistructured and unstructured situations
•   Support analytical work




                                                                             44
Simulation and Optimization – the Model-Oriented Approach to DSS

•   Simulation model – calculates the simulated outcome of tentative
    decisions and assumptions
•   Optimization model – determine optimal decisions based on criteria
    supplied by the user, mathematical search techniques, and constraints
•   Both are used iteratively by asking what-if questions




                                                                            45
    OLAP and Data Mining – the Data-Oriented Approach to DSS

•    Online analytical processing (OLAP) – the use of data analysis tools
     to explore large databases of transaction data
      – Motivation: intense data analyses slows down transaction
         processing
      – Data warehouses




                                                                            46
•   Data mining = the use of analysis tools to find patterns in large
    transaction databases
•   Potential problem: many patterns are random, and of no use as a basis
    for business decisions




                                                                            47
Expert Systems

•   Support professionals faced with complex situations requiring expert
    knowledge in a well-defined area
     – They represent human expertise in an explicit form      also called
       knowledge-based systems
     – Typically use if-then rules

•   Used as interactive advisors or as automated tools




                                                                             48
Figure 5.11




              49
Figure 5.12
•   Expert system logic combines:
     – Forward chaining – starts with the data and tries to draw
       conclusions from it
     – Backward chaining – starts with a tentative conclusion and looks for
       facts supporting it




                                                                              50
Neural Networks

•   An information system that recognizes objects and patterns based on
    examples that have been used to train it
     – Each training example is described in terms of a set of characteristics
       and a result
     – While it is being trained, the neural network uses a set of internal
       weights that relate each input to each of the possible results




                                                                                 51
•   Expert systems – explicitly represent expert knowledge as rules
•   Neural networks – used for tasks that have no predefined formulas or
    procedures
•   Especially applicable in situations where:
     – A large database of examples is available

     – There are no known rules for recognizing the patterns




                                                                           52
Fuzzy Logic

•   A form of reasoning that makes it possible to combine imprecise
    conditions stated in a form similar to the types of descriptive categories
    people use
•   Attempts to avoid the artificial cutoffs inherent in the if-then rules




                                                                                 53
Case-based Reasoning (CBR)
•   A decision support method based on the idea of finding PAST CASES
    most similar to the current situation
     – Maintain a history of past cases

     – Operate based on data, not on rules

         • Similar to neural networks




                                                                        54
Figure 5.15




              55
Intelligent Agents
•   An autonomous, goal-directed computerized process that can perform
    background work
•   Similar to the shop bots that search the Web to find the lowest price for a
    particular item




                                                                                  56
Enterprise Systems

•   Enterprise systems = firm-wide systems that serve as a common
    information infrastructure for basic business processes
     – Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems

•   Controversial
     – Expensive and very difficult to implement

     – Business processes may have to be modified to fit the software,
        instead of the other way around



                                                                         57

				
DOCUMENT INFO