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English language teaching and learning, TEFL learning, English grammar, past and future tense, receptive skills are reading and listening, conditionals and reported speech, ESL/EFL learning, English for young and adults.
English grammar Conditionals and reported speech TEFL worksheet Task 1 - Identify the following conditionals, and for each one: i) indicate whether it is a zero, first, second, third or mixed conditional ii) state its usage iii) give TWO activate stage teaching ideas, and iv) give examples of sentences you would expect students to produce in your activate stage teaching ideas a) If it rains tomorrow, I’ll buy an umbrella. i) It is first conditional sentence ii) This talks about a real situation in the future which is possible, probable or even certain if the condition has been satisfied. iii) 1- Split Sentences Take the first conditional sentences and cut them in half. Mix them up so that the students have to put them again in right order. - If you go there you will become sick - If you touch that dog your parents will be happy - If you eat that it will bite you 2. Chain conditional Students take it in turn to continue a conditional sentence. For example: If I have money, I will buy a new house. If I buy a new house, I will decorate it with beautiful paintings. If I decorate it with beautiful paintings, it will make my wife happy. iv) - If I run fast, I will win the race. - If you work hard, you will win the award. - If he helps her, she will be thankful to him. b) If I had studied harder, I would have passed the test. i) It is third conditional sentence. ii) It refers to a hypothetical past action (non- action) and a hypothetical past result/consequence. As the action was purely hypothetical, the condition could never have been satisfied, and therefore the result is or was impossible to gain. iii) 1. Complete the conditional. For example: - If I had run faster, .................... - I you had worked harder, .................. 2. Students write down three things that they wish they had done in the past in the third conditional form. e.g. If I had worked harder, I would have got a better job. iv) - If I had run faster, I would have won the race. - If I had not selpt, the thief would have not stolen the gold. - If I had not wasted time, I would have become rich. c) If I had studied medicine, I would be a doctor. i) It is mixed conditional sentence ii) It refers to a hypothetical past action or state, and a hypothetical present result/consequence. Many other mixes, though not so commom, are possible. iii) 1. Complete the conditional. For example: - If I had visited there, .................... - I you had worked harder, .................. 2. Split Sentences Take the mixed conditional sentences and cut them in half. Mix them up so that the students have to put them again in right order. - If you had gone there you would become sick - If you had touched that dog your parents would be happy - If you had eaten that it would bite you iv) - If I had run faster, I would win the race. - If I had not selpt, the thief would not steel the gold. - If I had not wasted time, I would become rich. d) If I inherited a million dollars, I would buy a new house. i) It is second conditional sentence ii) Communicates a present or future unreal, hypothetical situation that is presently not true and is unlikely ever to be true. iii) 1. What would happen......? For example: - What would happen if everone become rich? - What would happen if you go to Mars? 2. Complete the conditional For example: - If you became superstar, she would be very happy. iv) - If he worked honestly, he would get the promotion. - If I helped them, they would give me million dollars. - If you ate this, you would become sick. e) If water freezes, it turns to ice. i) It is zero conditional sentence ii) It refers to actions and facts that are irrefutable. You can use if or when with no change in the meaning. iii) 1. Complete the conditional. For example: - when you boil water, .................... - When you freeze water, .................. Split Sentences 1. Take the first conditional sentences and cut them in half. Mix them up so that the students have to put them again in right order. - When you freeze water you get steam - When you boil water they grow in size - When you give water to plants it turns into ice. iv) - When sun sets, there is darkness. - When sun rises, there is light. - When you eat food, you grow. Task 2 - Complete the table below with the appropriate tense changes for reported speech, when the reporting verb is in the past: Direct speech Present simple Present continuous Present perfect Present perfect continuous Past simple Past continuous Will Past perfect Past perfect continuous To Reported speech Past simple Past continuous Past perfect Past perfect continuous Past perfect Past perfect continuous Would Past perfect Past perfect continuous Task 3 - Use the table you completed in task 2 to change the verb tense, and re-write these sentences in reported speech: Example: John said “I’m going out for a few minutes” ↓ John said he was going out for a few minutes. a) Paul said “I go swimming on Tuesdays”. ↓ Paul said he went swimming on Tuesdays. b) Jamie said “John has never been to London”. ↓ Jamie said that John had never been to London. c) “Do you want fish or chicken?” she asked. ↓ She asked whether I wanted fish or chicken. d) “How are you?” she asked. ↓ She asked whether I was fine. e) Keith said “I went fishing before lunch”. ↓ Keith said that he had gone for fishing before lunch. f) Fred said “I will be arriving after dinner”. ↓ Fred said that he would be arriving after dinner Task 4 - Report these spoken remarks to a friend, making the necessary changes. The first one has been done for you: 1) “I love it!” She… She said that she loved it. 2) “I am leaving in half an hour.” He… He said that he was leaving in half an hour. 3) “The rain has stopped.” You… You said that the rain had stopped. 4) “I’ve been playing it for 2 hours!” He… He said that he had been playing it for 2 hours! 5) “I had breakfast earlier”. She… She said that she had breakfast earlier. 6) “Were you living in London in ’96?” She… She asked wether I had been living in London in '96. 7) “I have bought 3 pizzas”. He… He said that he had bought 3 pizzas. 8) “I’d been waiting for 30 minutes”. You… You said that you had been waiting for 30 minutes. 9) “We’ll be in Bangkok in July”. They… They said that they would be in Bangkpk in July. 10) “Will you be coming back?” She… She asked wether I would be coming back. Task 5 - In part a) below, today changes to that day in reported speech. What would the following time expressions change to in reported speech? Write a sentence in direct speech followed by one in reported speech to illustrate each change. The first one has been done for you as an example. a) today - that day Direct speech - He said “I feel great today!” Reported speech - He said that he felt great that day. b) tomorrow - next day Direct speech - He said "I will go to school tomorrow". Reported speech - He said that he would go to school next day. c) yesterday - 'previous day' or 'the day before' Direct speech - You said "I had finished the job yesterday". Reported speech - You said that you had finished the job previous day. d) next week - following week Direct speech - You said "I am inviting all my friends at my home next week". Reported speech - You said that you were inviting all your friends at your home following week. e) last week - previous week Direct speech - She said "I visited doctor last week". Reported speech - She said that she had visited doctor previous week. f) this week - that week Direct speech - He said "I am going for shopping this week". Reported speech - He said that she was going for shopping that week. Task 6 - Give 3 activate stage teaching ideas for reported speech, giving examples of sentences you would expect your students to produce during each activity. i- In a group of three persons one says something which is then reported to third person. For example, a role-play where two friends have stopped speaking and will communicate through a third party. For example: Direct speech:Tom said " I will talk to John if he apologize me". Reported speech: Tom said he would talk to John if he apologize him. Direct speech: John said " I will not going to apologize Tom". Reported speech: John said he would not going to apologize Tom. ii- The teacher can ask students to tell three secrets to a partner. Then this partner goes and tells these secrets to other people in the class (gossip). In this way, students practice reporting but in a fun way. For example: Direct speech: Mathew said "I have found treasure yesterday". Reported speech: Mathew said he had found treasure the day before. iii- Job evaluation for an underachiever For example: Boss: In our interview, you said that you could speak Japanese well, but our clients have expressed frustration communicating with you. You also said that you were proficient with xyz software, but you haven't yet been able to complete a program...etc."
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