English grammar - Receptive skills (reading and listening)

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					Teaching receptive skills
(TEFL worksheet) Reading and listening

Task 1 - What are the two receptive skills? The two receptive skills are: i. Reading ii. Listening Task 2 - Describe the different specialist skills needed for reading and listening successfully: i- Predictive skills This skill enable someone to predict the content of an article, dialogue etc. from a headline or introduction. ii- Specific information- Scanning We often like to hear or read a specific information. For example, we are only interested to know the result of a particular hockey match in the newspaper. We listen to the news, only concentrating when a particular story comes up. iii- General Idea- Skimming We read or listen to get general idea of a certain text/dialogue. We do not focus on each and every detail, but to get general understanding of the content. iv- Detailed information Sometimes we read or listen in order to know the details. For example, when reading or listening to detailed direction to get to some place. We have to read/listen to them carefully and give our full concentration to get the full benefit out of them. v- Deduction from text Sometimes we have to understand or deduce the meaning of individual words or phrases from the context in which we hear/read them. Sometimes we have to understand beyond the literal meaning of the words or phrases. For example, if we read that you are in non-smoking zone then its not just for information but it also warn us not to smoke in this zone.

Task 3 - Why is the choice of topic so important? How can the teacher generate interest in the topic? Choice of topic The topic of a text or dialogue also plays a vital role in the motivation of students. If the topic is not interesting then it is likely that students may not take interest in the activity. Therefore choice of topic should be carefully done. It will not be always true that the topic which is interesting for the teacher is also interesting for the students. Every student has his/her own interest, therefore a topic might be interesting for some students but not for all. It is important to select those topics which may be of interest for majority of the students. A good teacher always try to find out the inerest of the students, which may help in the selection of suitable material for the students. Create interest in the topic If the teacher can get the students motivated and engaged in the tasks, then there is greater possibility that the students may read and listen with interest and enthusiasm. There might be possibility that initially students may not have the interest in the topic. There are number of ways to create interest among the students. For example, the teacher may discuss about the topic, give some interesting information, show some pictures related to the topics, pridicting what the text will be about and other 'engage' phase activities. Task 4 - What does the teacher need to consider when selecting a text or dialogue? Selection of text or dialogue If the teacher is careful in the selection of reading and listening materials for the students then he/she can expose the students to the variety of authentic and non-authentic texts. Authentic texts are not designed for students whereas non-authentic are. Non-authentic text allows students to access materials that contains language which is more appropriate to the students abilities, whereas authentic texts will expose students to texts which will give them confidence in their skills. Authentic materials should be carefully selected, so as to focus what students know, rather than how much they don't know.

Task 5 - Look at the reading comprehension questions and the gap fill exercise on page 8 of the unit. Numbers 1 to 4 are already given. Provide four more of your own that would check your students understanding of the reading material: Reading Comprehension: 5) Which clothes men and women wear in offices in England? 6) What male swimmers wear during swimming? 7) What do all police officers carry in England? 8) What type of uniform police wear in France? Gap Fill Exercise (please list the ‘gap-words’ separately): Choose a word from the list: - America - uniform - nationalities - England

5) The clothes people wear in England vary in style because of the different ______________ living there. 6) Casual wear in England is influenced by ______________. 7) The Wimbledon tournament in ______________ has a very strict dress code. 8) Police in most countries must wear a _____________. Task 6 - Plan an ESA lesson that makes use of the reading text and sample comprehension exercises on pages 7 and 8 of the unit, giving as much detail as possible in all phases of the lesson: Example: Students are going to read text about 'what people wear'. The main objective for the students is to learn about wearing trends in various parts of the world and able to write similar sort of text. Engage- The teacher may ask questions to students regarding the clothes they like to wear. The class can discuss the latest trends and style in clothes, where and when to wear which type of dresses e.g. suits in offices, casual dresses at home or going for picnic, sports wearings, uniforms in schools etc. The teacher can also give a small text about to students for reading. For example, the teacher gives a text to students about wearing trends in England. The students and the teacher can

discuss the text. Study- The teacher may give a small text about to students for reading. For example, the teacher gives a text to students about 'What people wear'. The students and the teacher can discuss the text. The teacher can work on the pronouciation of difficult words and structure of language. The teacher can also ask the questions and ask to do gap-fill excercises related to the text to students to check the understanding of the students. For example: Answer the following questions 1) Which clothes men and women wear in offices in England? 2) What male swimmers wear during swimming? 3) What do all police officers carry in England? 4) What type of uniform police wear in France? Gap Fill Exercise (please list the ‘gap-words’ separately): Choose a word from the list: - America - uniform - nationalities - England 1) The clothes people wear in England vary in style because of the different ______________ living there. 2) Casual wear in England is influenced by ______________. 3) The Wimbledon tournament in ______________ has a very strict dress code. 4) Police in most countries must wear a _____________. Activate- The students in pairs or groups write brief texts about different wearing trends in their respective country or region. All the pairs or groups present their text in front of the whole class and the whole class will select the best text. The text of one of the pairs might be as follows: What to wear in Paris, France? Paris is the fashion capital of the world. Therefore, aside from the concerns of wearing something comfortable and weather appropriate, what to wear in Paris France often becomes driven by a fear of looking goofy in a city full of smartly dressed people. On any given day, you’re likely to spot someone wearing a sub-saharian African

djellaba, someone with a Texas cowboy hat, or someone wrapped in East Indian cloth with a red dot on their forehead. But in general, while there is no question that Parisians are very much a fashion oriented lot, it’s fair to say that what to wear in Paris France is increasingly being answered by casual styles, and the international language of American jeans. T-shirts, jeans and various jacket styles are definitely more common than ever before. You will surely also see a lot of young professionals dressed in chic business suits and designer outfits, but unless your trip is of a business nature, you probably won’t care to dress that way. Instead, you’ll most likely go for a vacation look. Parisians do not wear shorts. It’s simply not part of Paris fashion or Parisian style. Another contributing factor is that in Paris, you dress in layers. Generally speaking, temperatures can swing from cool to warm or vice versa in the course of a day. Therefore, people are used to preparing for either adding clothes on or stripping down as necessary. This would include jackets, sweaters, occasional raincoats, etc. Of course, layering is done with a keen eye on coordination. When selecting what to wear in Paris France during your trip, the one thing to keep in mind is that style and fashion in Paris are so diverse that with a few minor adjustments, you can easily get away with wearing whatever your usual favorites.

Task 7 - Plan an ESA lesson that would follow on from the lesson plan in task 6 that makes use of the grammar exercises on pages 9 and 10, giving as much detail as possible in all phases of the lesson: Example: The students will going to read text regarding 'What people wear'. The purpose behind in this reading would be to compare the clothes of one country with the clothes of other country. In realtion to this the students also have to do gap-fill exercise. Engage- The teacher may discuss with the students and try to find out their opinion regarding wearing trends or what they like to wear and what they don't like to wear. some students may say that they like to wear casual wear or some may say that they like to wear formal dresses like suits. Some students would say that they would like to wear according to the weather. The teacher can also ask the students to compare eastern clothes with western clothes. Study- The teacher may give a text concerning wearing trends to students for reading. After reading the text, the whole class discuss the content of the text in

detail. Some students may require explanation of some words e.g. truncheon and shawl. The teacher may give the explanation of these words as follows: Truncheon: A thick heavy stick used as a weapon by police officers. Shawl: A large piece of cloth worn especially by women or girls over their shoulders and/or head. The teacher can also work on the pronounciation of difficult words and grammar structure. The teacher can also give some sentences to complete with given words so as to have understanding of comparative sentences. For example: - Complete the sentences with as, not as, than, from . i- His shirt is different __________ mine. ii- Her shoes are same ________ mine. iii- Her dress is _______ beautiful ______ her sister. iv- Tom's jacket is different _______ mine. Activate: In this phase students in pairs write text in which they compare the clothes of their country with the clothes of other countries. In the end whole class will decide whose text is the best. One of the pair may compare Indian clothes with the American clothes in the following way: Comparison of Indian and American clothes The Indian clothes are more colourful than American clothes. Indian women usually wear sari and shalwar qameez. A sari is a wide strip of fabric that is several yards long, and draped around the body with pallu on the shoulder depending on the wearer's location, social status, and preference. The shalwar kameez is another form of popular dress for females. It consists of loose trousers (the shalwar) topped by a long loose shirt (the kameez). American women usually wear skirts or trousers with shirt. Indian women clothes usually have more embroidery as compared to the clothes of American women. American women like to wear clothes made of cotton and wool, whereas Indian women like to wear clothes made of silk. American clothes are famous all over the world, whereas Indian clothes are just famous in surrounding regions. Task 8 - What are some of the problems that students may encounter with the

lessons you planned in tasks 6 and 7? The students could face some of the problems with regard to lessons planned in task 6 and 7. The possible problems are mentioned below: i- Students might have less vocabulary on different type of clothes. ii- They may find difficult to pronounce some of the words like truncheon, baton, shawl etc. iii- They might have less knowledge on what people where in different parts of world. iv- They could make spelling mistakes in their text writings. v- The students can also make some grammatical mistakes like wrong usage of tense or wrong form of verb. vi- The all above mentioned problems will create hurdle in writing correct english text.


				
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Description: English language teaching and learning, TEFL learning, English grammar, past and future tense, receptive skills are reading and listening, conditionals and reported speech, ESL/EFL learning, English for young and adults.