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1- Developing countries: also known as the south, less- developed countries
or the third world: developing countries are the poorer countries of the world.
Usually, their industrial bases in manufactured goods and services are not
well developed. there are problems associated with all these terms:
"developing countries" implies that some countries are developed and no
longer developing; the south is not geographically accurate as some
developed countries extend a long way north, and some developed countries,
such as Australia are definitely in the south: as for the third world, there is no
longer a second world (i.e. the former soviet union). Compare developed

2- index number : statistical technique to allow comparison of points in a set
of data and make trends more apparent one point or year is selected as the
standard or index against which other points or years are compared.

3- Proxy indicator: a measurement that can be used as an indication of some
other measurement. For example, the state of lichen growing on stonework
can be used to indicate local atmospheric sulphur dioxide levels.

4- Particulates: particles of dust or fine soot suspended in the air: the smaller
particles aggravate respiratory diseases with possible other health impacts.

5- Systems approach: an approach to problem solving that takes account of
an entity or situation within the context of a larger whole rather than focusing
just on one part.
This approach uses systems thinking- as in systemic (a property of the whole)
rather than just systematic (liner, step-by-step) thinking to inform action.

PART 2:Q1: (A):

A: discotheque: the ears seem to acclimatize and the noise level seems to fall,
this is because noise damages the hair cells in the cochlea.
The noise level/db (A) = 100-110.

 B: extremely loud and sudden noises, as well as causing pain and alarm, can
 result in either temporary deafness or permanent damage to the ear.
The level/db (A) = 89.

Q1: (B):

We have five steps for stander deviation:
1- Find the difference between each data value and the mean.
2- Square all the summed differences.
3- Sum all the squared differences.
4- Divide the total of the squared differences by the number of data items to
give the variance.
5- Take the square root of the answer obtained in 4 above, this gives the
standard deviation.

For the period 7:30-8:30am;
Sum of data items= 75
Mean =75/30=2.5 people per vehicle.
Step 1: subtract this from each of the values.
Step 2: square the results.
Step3: add them together, this gives 147.5.
Step 4: variance = 147.5/30 = 4.9 (people per car) to two significant figures.
Step 5: square root of 4.9 = 2.2 people per car.

A: the three most energy efficient forms of travel per seat kilometer:
Bicycle (0.03), walk (0.14), and light rail (0.18).

B: the three least energy efficient forms of travel per seat kilometers:
Air (3.6) moped (1.4) large petrol car (1.28).

A: about 53000 tones of type material are lost by road abrasion each year.
Of this, 85% is rubber = 45050tonnes.
The rubber compound 2% is zinc oxide,
45050x 2%= 901 tones per year.

B: the recycling process in some shape or form as possibly the disposal route
with the greatest potential for expansion, as well the purposes identified in
box 4,
Other possible uses include boat and dock fender, crash barriers at motor
racing circuits, children play surface and furniture, protection for young plants
and trees, compost heap containers, structural support for earth walls and
sea defenses, motorway embankments and road surfaces. For use in road
surfacing and repair, used dyers are ground up into a crumb and mixed with
bitumen and grit to produce a repair material that is both flexible and strong
(fibrescreed, undated).
  Type of Traffic        1952          1975            1997            Index
- Cars and taxis          30.6         181.6           367.8            12.0
- Motorcycles              6.0          5.1              4.0             0.7
- Large buses              4.2          3.2              4.9             1.2
- Light vans               8.7          21.3            40.5             4.7
- Good vehicles           11.3          20.5            31.8             2.8
Bicycles                  22.9          4.4              4.0             0.2
The analysis of the table 3.2 shows that the fuel consumed in driving a car
represents some 90% of the life cycle total (however, these also excluded
road construction).
The OECD study expressed the energy used in terms of emissions of climate
change gases (largely CO2). This estimated that for each kilometer traveled,
the average petrol car emits 338g of CO2 equivalent, of which only 9%was
from vehicle manufacturing, 76%from the fuel at point of use and a further
15%from emissions and losses in the fuel supply system. Diesel vehicles emit
fewer climate change gases, averaging 253g of CO2 equivalent, with a similar
distribution between the manufacturing sources and those from the use of a

There are some particular "hot spots" that may be associated with key issues,
such as the local impact of vehicle manufacturing, or of an industry's
consumption of a particularly scare resource (e.g. the rare elements in the
catalytic converter in cars exhaust system). The environmental impacts of
building and maintaining transport infrastructure (roads, airports, railways,
etc.) are also an important area, which were not included in the above LCAs.
Part 3: Report

The Ecological Footprint (EF) methodology, developed by Wackernagel and
Rees, has often been suggested as a
Sustainability indicator for the human impact on earth. Efs, expressed as
area, sum up the total productive area of
Land and water ecosystems required to sustain the resources, wastes, and
emissions of a population wherever.

The life cycle analysis (LCA), a technique to pull together environmental
indicators. Life cycle analysis is a system approach in that it traces
environmental impacts at all stages of a product’s life cycle. It starts from the
impacts arising from extracting and processing raw materials; then it
identifies impacts from manufacturing and delivering a product, followed by
the impacts involved in using a product, and finally examines what happens
at the end of the product’s life-whether it is reused, the material from it is
recycled or, if it is dumped, the environmental impacts concerned. An LCA is
particularly useful if it is not immediately clear which are the major
environmental impacts or at which stage of the life cycle the impacts occur.

The aim of LCA is to identify where the greatest environmental impacts occur
in order to help decide the best approach to reduce them. Often a
comparative LCA is undertaken on two design options: for example, the use
of an electric vehicle to replace one powered by a conventional petrol engine.
An electrical engine will result in no emissions at point of use, but the
electricity has to be generated somehow, and so power station emissions
associated with the energy used by such a vehicle need to be taken into
account. An LCA can help to improve the design not only of a product (e.g. a
car or train) but also of a service or a system. An example of the latter would
be, if instead of traveling to a shop, you ordered shopping by the internet and
it was delivered in a van servicing several households.

Figure 3.1 & 3.2 show how these can be categorized in an LCA. The main
materials used in the manufacture of cars are steel, non-ferrous metals (such
as aluminum and copper), plastics and glass. Extracting and processing these
materials involves a large amount of energy and water, the production of
various emissions to air and water and the creation of a lot of solid waste.
During manufacture and assembly of the car, further energy, water and other
inputs are required and further emissions and solid wastes are produced.

After sale to the purchaser and during its useful life, the car will consume
large amounts of petrol or diesel fuel which produces emissions, such as
carbon dioxide (CO2), and air pollutants including carbon monoxide, un-burnt
hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, which are harmful to human health and/or
the environment. During its life, the car will also require the replacement and
disposal of many parts and components, particularly tires, batteries and
exhaust systems. At the end of its life cycle the car will normally be broken up
and many of its materials will be recycled. This may reduce energy
consumption and emissions compared with sourcing virgin materials. Finally,
non-recycled materials (glass, rubber and fabrics) are buried as solid waste or
may be burnt, producing further emissions.

In practice, a full LCA is a complex and expensive process and the results are
not always clear cut. A particular problem is deciding the relative importance
of different environmental impacts. For example, a number of packaging LCAs
have identified a dilemma: plastic packaging, made form oil, has one set of
environmental impacts, including depletion of a non-renewable resource and
emissions in manufacture, while cardboard packaging tends to involve water
pollution issues. Which of the two is the more important? Simply conducting
an LCA will not answer this question.

An LCA systematically creates a list (or 'inventory') of environmental impacts,
but comparing these impacts or deciding what to do once this information is
gathered can be tricky. Consequently, in practice, LCAs are used more often
to identify the main environmental impacts and at which stage in the life cycle
these occur. LCAs are particularly helpful in systematically identifying
environmental 'hot spots' and clarifying the decisions that need to be made.
In many cases it is obvious where the largest effects are and more detailed
studies can concentrate on where the situation is unclear. The LCA also
illustrates that point about trade-off between environmental issues.

Over the years, transport related environmental issues have risen up the
social and political agenda. There are certain issues that are seen as
important hot spot such as:
• local air pollution
• noise and other health impacts
• land takes (direct and indirect)
• road traffic casualties
• global warming (e.g.CO2) emissions
• Traffic congestion.
The following pollutants emitted by road vehicles are known to have harmful
effects on human health.
Level of impact Sources
Local (smell, air quality, health effects, accidents and noise PM, VOC, CO,
SO2, O3, vehicle noise
Regional (Land use and waste disposal) Land takes infrastructure, disposal of
scrap tires, engine oil, chemicals.
Continental (acid rain) Vehicle exhausts emissions, NOx, SO2
Global (climate change and ozone depletion) Vehicle exhaust emissions
(CO2), CFCs in air conditioning

Health effects
In recent years there has health effects of road trafficbeen a growing
awareness of the detrimental emissions, which is largely a local air pollution
The widespread in many countrieshealth effects of transport activities have
resulted developing policies to reduce traffic emissions. In UK, the National
Air Quality Strategy (NAQ) specifies “safe “targets for levels of eight
pollutants, which are: Benzene
• Poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
• 1, 3 –butadiene
• Carbon monoxide (CO)
• Particulates (PM10)
• Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
• Ozone (O3)
• Sulphur dioxide (SO2) Exposure to air pollution, much of which is due to
road traffic, can cause: child asthma, cancer, heat disease and premature
Life style health impacts
 the transport’s impact on health also involves subtle and cumulative
processes. This is because the rise in motorized travel has led to behavioral
and life style changes.
 AndIn areas where there is a lot of traffic, the old people children find it
hard to get out alone.
Land use effects
 forLand take trunk road developments was one of the most publicized and
emotive environmental issues of the late 20th century.
 TransportThe direct land takes of infrastructure by roads, parking spaces,
airports, railways, stations and parts can be a contentions issue.
Reducing air pollution from traffic
Making catalyticregulation for emission control on vehicles such as exhaust
converters and the phasing out of leaded petrol are a good way to reduce air
Noise pollution
 airport, mainthe noisiest areas may be near roads and railway lines.
 Noise is nowsuch lower level but widespread believed to contribute to
stress – related problems such as raised blood pressure and minor
psychoactive illness.
Climate change
the important thing in climate change is to reduce the emissions of carbon
dioxide CO2.
Air travel
Emissions from international air travel are often not obvious from national
 travelCO2 emissions from international air are excluded from the kyots
treaty as they cannot be assigned it a specific country
 though oftenthus emissions from air travel are emerging as a key, hidden,
environmental issue for the twenty-first century.
CO2 sectors are declining, emissions from the domestic industrial and
commercial and are projected to continue to decline further.
 The shift to a fuel with lower carbon content and more efficient generator
means that CO2 emissions for electricity production are dropping.
 Estimated that to halt theThe IPCC growth e.g.: CO2 in the atmosphere
and so limit the effects of climate change, emissions must be reduced
worldwide by at least 60 %.

The growth pattern from (table 2.1 UK motor vehicles licensed) is mirrored in
every industrialized (or developed) country, added to which car ownership in
developing countries is rising rapidly.
There are around 550 million vehicles in the world today, of which 400 million
are cars. These are presently heavily concentrated in the industrialized
nations: the 15% of the worlds population who live in the "mainly developed"
and industrialized OECD countries account for more than 80% of car
The growth of energy use in the developing world is a major issue. In UK the
increase in car ownership is reflected in an increase in road traffic. In 1952,
the 4.5million vehicles then on the roads traveled just over 60 billion
kilometers. By 1997, the number of vehicles had risen sixfold, to 27 million,
and motor traffic some sevenfold to 449 billion kilometers.
Not this involves travel within Great Britain only and not international trips.

Traffic growth:

This table shows that the amount of car traffic has increased to 12 times its
1952 level but the amount of bus traffic has hardly altered, motorbike traffic
has dropped somewhat and bicycle use declined significantly to only 20% of
what it was in 1952. There have also been large increases in light van and
nearly a tripling in goods vehicle traffic.


I see in this project the why have positive and negative impacts:

Positive impacts:
       Transport infrastructure connects people and increases the speed of
       communication; it contributes to community development and
       increases economic activity.

Negative impact:
Changes already established routes of communication (new routes may not
be convenient for the community); by expropriating the land, inevitably
damages existing business which causes loss to economy; induces,
sometimes undesired, urban development.

      And the impacts of health and safety:
       During construction: transmission of endemic, waterborne, and sexual
      diseases; noise
      During operation: air pollution, noise, vibration, and accidents.

Road transport is the major cause of human exposures to air pollution and
Total environmental costs of transport estimated on 8% of GDP in European
countries (road transport responsible for 92%).

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