Stairs_ Windows_ Doors_ and Roofs

					Stairs, Windows, Doors,
        and Roofs
• They are subject to detailed requirements
  under Building Regulations Approved Document K
  – in respect of pitch, width, headroom, guarding,
    landings and treads.
  – All stairs are required to have protection to
    prevent people falling from height.
     • This can be provided by traditional timber
       balustrading and handrails. ex:
• Most stairs are generally constructed
  in timber, steel or concrete, although
  there are some fantastic glass stairs
  around. See our page on glass stairs
  for some good examples.
• Spiral stairs are useful when you have
  restricted space, but can be
  complicated to set out. Small spiral
  and spacesaver stairs and ladders are
  useful for loft conversions.
• Stringer: the long, diagonal supports that run
  the entire length of the stairs.
  – The supports are blocked, cut or notched to accept
    the individual treads and risers.
  – There are usually two stringers, one on each side
    and occasionally a third in the middle.

• Tread: is the flat surface that is stepped on;
  the width of the tread is equivalent to the

• Riser: is the vertical component; the height of
  the riser is equivalent to the rise.

• Stairs without risers are called "open" stairs.
• The maximum height of the riser (or rise
  that a person needs to step up to the
  next stair) is 8 to 8-1/4 inches.
• The riser's height should not vary more
  than 1/2 inch between the shortest and
  tallest risers.
• The minimum width of the tread (or run)
  on which a person places their foot is 8
  1/4 to 9 inches.
  – If a stair is more than 44 inches wide, a
    handrail is required on both sides.
• Tread should be level with a maximum
  deviation of a 2% slope.
• To ensure stability, the minimum width at
  any point of stringer should be 3-1/2
• A vertical clearance of 6 feet 8 inches
  needs to be maintained between the stair
  and ceiling at all points.
• The stairwell must be a minimum of 36
  inches wide.
• Landings
  – Most fire codes do not allow stairs to rise more than
    12 feet without providing a landing.
  – The length of the landing should be at least equal to
    the width of the stair tread.
• Balustrade
  – According to the 1996 COBE code, the openings
    between balusters is to be no greater than 4
    inches. Smaller holes reduce injuries to young
  – The balustrade is topped by a handrail 30 to 38
    inches above the top of the stringer; the handrail's
    grip size is between 1¼ to 2 inches.
  – If the handrail is mounted on a wall, a space of at
    least 1½ inches must be left between the edge of
    the handrail and the wall.
  Example of Stairs in Homes:
–   Situation: internal/external
–   Opening: inward/outward
–   Types: single/double doors/folding/sliding/stable
–   Performance: fire rated/smoke seal
–   Material: timber/aluminium/steel/uPVC
–   Construction: ledge and
–   Finish: painted/stained/lacquered/self finish
–   Glazing: fully glazed/half glazed/solid also
–   Frame: doorset or loose assembled
–   Other: weatherstripped/water bar/letterbox/catflap

•   For examples of Doors and
•   Double or single hung windows
    – Opens virtically

•   Sliding windows
    – Opens horizontally

•   Casement or rollout windows
    – Hinged on sides and opens outward
• Awning or hopper windows
  – Hinged on top and opens outward
  – Usually found in basements

• Louvered windows
  – Several strips of glass that are tilted open to
    allow ventilation
  – The glass is maneuvered with a rollout type
    handle or a lever
• Bay           • Circle Bay

• Box bay
                • Label Mold

• Casement
• Ribbon Windows
                   • Hood Mold

• Oriel
                   • Palladian

• Paired windows
• Bonnet:

• Cross gabled: often used for Tudors and Cape
• Front gabled: Used for Cape Cods and Colonials

• Gambrel: Either front- or side-faced; used in
  Dutch Colonials
• Hipped: Used in 1 and 2- stories and four square

• Mansard: Often found in French colonial and
  Ranch styles
• Pavilion-hipped: Featured in Cape
 Cod, Colonial, and Ranch styles

• Side-gabled:

• Salt Box: Featured in two-story colonials;
 common in the eastern United States