STUDY RATIONALE

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STUDY RATIONALE Powered By Docstoc
					HIV PREVENTION ATTITUDES,
   BEHAVIORS & BELIEFS
  AMONG A GROUP OF AT-
  RISK* NORTH DAKOTANS
                              Survey General Findings

                                 February 18, 2003

   Doreen Holding Eagle, LSW, BCJ, & Kyle Muus, PhD
 *substance use; unsafe sex




          STUDY RATIONALE
     800,000-900,000 people currently
     living with HIV in the US
     40,000 new HIV infections in the US
     per year

    Nationwide Studies
    Substance use is related to:
      –          Sex Partners
      –          Condom Use
                                       Source: CDC, 2002; Koopman et al., 1994
           STUDY PURPOSE

Learn more about members of this at-risk
ND population:
– Demographics
– Living Arrangement
– Attitudes, Beliefs & behavior ~ drugs, sex, HIV
– Need & Use of health/social services
– Health Status




STUDY METHODOLOGY
 In 2001, Respondents Recruited from
 Five ND sites: Fargo, Grand Forks,
 Minot, Jamestown, Bismarck*
 Respondents paid $10 for study
 participation
 Convenience Sample (N=356)
 *excluded from this analysis
CONVENIENCE SAMPLING
Advantages
– Very low cost
– No need for list of population elements
– Tough-to-Reach Subjects
– Hones research questions
Disadvantages
– Variability and bias cannot be measured or
  controlled
– Limited generalizability




   DEMOGRAPHICS
        RESPONDENTS’
       LOCATION (N=356)
  30     27.5                26.4                                      26.1
  25
                                                   19.9
  20

% 15

  10

   5

   0
                A                   B                     C                   D
                                            SITE




                                AGE
 30                 28.1                       27
 25
                                21.2
 20

% 15
       10.4                                                   10.1
 10

  5                                                                           3.2

  0
          <20        20-29          30-39          40-49       50-59              60+
                                            AGE

       (Range=18-72; Mean=35.2; Median=35)
                   GENDER


Female, 45.8

                                       Male, 54.2




                       RACE
                    Black, 3.9
               Hispanic, 3.1
          Native Am,
             23.9



                                 White, 65.4
                                           %
                                                                                                0
                                                                                                5
                                                                                               10
                                                                                               15
                                                                                               20
                                                                                             % 25
                                                                                               30
                                                                                               35
                                                                                               40
                                                                                               45
                                                                                               50
      8t
         h




                           0
                           5
                          10
                          15
                          20
                          25
                          30
                          35
                          40
             or                                                                Si
                l   es                                                            ng
                      s                                                              l   e
                                                                                                                   43.5




                            3.9
         9t
            h-
              12
   H              th                                                          M
     S                                                                         ar
       G




                                        12.1
          ra                                                                      rie
                                                                                     d
                                                                                                          20.8
             du
                 at                                                      D
     Tr             e                                                     iv




                                                      36.3
       ad                                                                   /S
           e/                                                                 ep
 So           Te
                  ch                                                             /   W
     m                                                                                id




                            3.4
                                                                                                            23.6




       e
          C
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                                                                              at




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      yr
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                                                                                   g
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                                                                                                   11.8




               le
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      yr
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                                  7.9
                                                                                      1+




                                                             EDUCATION
                                                                                             0.6




        at
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             W
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                           3.1
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         us                                                                     O
                                                                                                                          MARITAL STATUS




            ed                                                                       th
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                /D                                                                     er
                   K




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                                             %
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                                                                                                         5
                                                                                                               10
                                                                                                                         20
                                                                                                                              25
                                                                                                                                   30
      H
       om par




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                                  5
                                 10
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                                 20
                                 25
                                                                                           Ze
         el       tm                                                                         ro
                     en


                                                                                                             % 15 11.1
            es




                                 30 28
               s          t                                                             <$
                 Sh                                                                        5,
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                       te                                                                        0
                         r                                                         ,0
                                                                                                                                   27.9




                                                 16.3
                                                                                      00
            H       O                                                                    -$
             ou       th                                                                   6,
                           er                                                                 99




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           ou           w                                                                -$
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                             t




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                o          ty                                                                    9




                                       6.6
                                                                                  00
                                                                                                               9.7




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                                   4
                                                                                           4,
                up er                                                                         99
                                                                                                         4




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                                  3.4
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                     ou                                                          R              0+
                                                                                                             7.4




           Re             se                                                        ef
                                                                                                                                          ANNUAL INCOME




                                 0.9
                fu                                                                     us
                   se                                                                     ed
                     d/                                                                       /D
                        D                                                                        K
                            K
                                                                                                              8.2




                                 0.9
                                                        PRESENT RESIDENCE
LIVING ARRANGEMENT
      25
           19.7
      20
                     16.3    15.4
      15                                  12.1                                             11.5
%
      10                                            7.3                            7.9
                                                                 5.1
       5                                                               3.7

       0




                                                                                             er
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             s




                                    s




                                                                       y
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                                                             C




         LENGTH OF TIME IN
        PRESENT RESIDENCE
  45                 40.7
  40
  35
  30
  25
%                                                 17.7                      18.5
  20
  15                                9.4                          8.8
  10
     3.1                                                                                 1.7
   5
   0
                  s




                                                                                          K
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                                                 s



                                                                 s



                                                                            s
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                                             ye



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          m



                                              2



                                                             4



                                                                       5+



                                                                                  us
                                           1-



                                                          3-
       <6



      11
        H




                                                                                ef
                                                                               R
    7-
              BENEFITS and
               SERVICES




   BENEFITS RECEIVED IN
     THE PAST 2 YRS
 70
       57.9
 60
  50
  40
%
  30
                                                          19.2
 20                                    10.1
              6.5   8.2    7.1                                                     6.5
 10                              3.4          4.2   2.8          3.7   3.1   1.4
  0
                                                  er
                                                   A

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                                        ed




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                                     ke
                                      M




                                  ne

                                   or
                                 U
                             %
                                                                                                                                     %




                                0
                                5
                               10
                               15
                               20
                               25
                               30
                               35
                               40
                                                                                                                   0
                                                                                                                        10
                                                                                                                        20
                                                                                                                                       30
                                                                                                                                       40
                                                                                                                                       50
                                                                                                                                            60
                   N                                                                                     N
                    on                                                                                    on
              M          e                                                                                   e




                               45 39.7
                                                                                                                                                 70 66.6
                  ed                                                                                     TA
                     i
                     ca                                                                                    N
                         l                                                                                  F




                                                                                                                       3.1




                                       34.8
                 So
                    ci                                                                                     SS
                       al                                                                                     I

                                                                                                                         5.9
               C
                  l in                                                                                      SS
                       ic
              M                                                                                                          7.9




                                            17.3 16.4
                 en
                      t                                                                             M        V
                                                                                                                       3.1
            Al al                                                                                     ed A




                                                      13.3
      D         co
                                                                                                  M       ic
         ru          ho
            g            l                                                                          ed aid
                                                                                                                             8.5




               R                                                                                       ic




                                                           16.4
        Vo eha                                                                                    M are
  Fa        c           b                                                                           ed         A
    m




                                                                9.3
                                                                                                                        3.7




              R                                                                                Fo ica
      il y       eh                                                                               od       re
           Pl         ab




                                    4.8
                                                                                                                       2.6




              an                                                                                      St B
C Info nin                                                                                               a
 as                                                                                               Vo mp
           /R           g                                                                    U       c         s




                                   4
   e           e                                                                                        R
     M
                                                                                                                              12.2




                                                                                              ne
        an ferr                                                                                   m eh
                                                                                                                                                           RECEIVING




                                                                                                             ab
           ag al                                                                             W plo




                                       7.4
                                                                                                                       2.3




               em                                                                              or       ym
                     en                                                                          ke
                        t                                                                           r's ent




                                       8.5
                                                                                                                       0.8




                O                                                                                       C




                                                                         THE PAST 2 YRS
                   th                                                                                      om
                       er                                                                                      p




                                 1.7
                                                                                                                       0.8




                                                                                                         O
                      D                                                                                    th
                       K                                                                                      er




                                 1.1
                                                                                                                        4.5
                                                                                                                                                       BENEFITS CURRENTLY




                                                                      SERVICES RECEIVED IN
                                            0
                                                10
                                                          20
                                                                        % 30
                                                                               40
                                                                                    50
                                  N
                                   on
                             M          e
                                                                                         60 55
                                 ed
                                    i
                                    ca
                                        l
                                                                       21.3
                                So
                                   ci
                                      al
                              C
                                 l in
                                      ic
                             M
                                en
                                     t
                           Al al
                     D         co
                        ru          ho
                           g            l
                              R
                                                    9.7 12.9 12 11.1




                       Vo eha
                 Fa        c           b
                   m
                                                 6.3




                             R
                     il y       eh
                          Pl         ab
                                                4.6




                             an
               C Info nin
                as        /R           g
                  e
                                                3.7




                    M         e
                       an ferr
                                                                                                      RECEIVING


                                                4




                          ag al
                              em




 BEHAVIORS
                                    en
                                       t
                                                  7.7




                               O
                                  th




HELP-SEEKING
                                      er
                                                2




                                     D
                                      K
                                            0.6
                                                                                                 SERVICES CURRENTLY
               TO WHOM YOU FEEL
                MOST CONNECTED
         25
              20.5
                        19.3
         20
                                            15.6
         15                       13.4
%                                                   10.5
         10                                                    8.5
                                                                          6.5     6.5
          5                                                                                  3.1

          0
                                                   er




                                                                                  f
                   se




                                                                                             d
                    n




                                                                         g
                  dy
                    e




                                                               w




                                                                                af
                ti v




                                                                                          se
                 re




                                                                      in
                                                           no
                                                   th
              ou




                                                                                St
             bo




                                                                     bl
            il d




                                                                                       fu
            la




                                                  O

                                                         tK
          Sp




         No




                                                                   Si
         Re




                                                                                     Re
         Ch




                                                        n’
     n-




                                                   Do
    No




               TO WHOM YOU FEEL
               SOME CONNECTION
         35
              29.4
         30
         25
         20
%                                     14                13.4
         15             11                                                 11.9         11
         10                                                        7.4
                                             3.9                                                   2.4
         5
         0
                                                                er
                        se




                                            ild




                                                                                                 d
                                                     dy
                                    n




                                                                                      g
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                                                                          no
                                                              th
                     ou




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                                                                                  bl
                               il d




                                                                                             fu
          la




                                                             O

                                                                     tK
                   Sp




                                                No




                                                                                Si
     Re




                                                                                          Re
                          Ch




                                                                     n’
     n-




                                                               Do
    No
  WHEN ILL, FROM WHOM
   DO YOU SEEK HELP?
 60                                                    52.7
 50
 40
% 30                  23.7
         20.8
 20                                          14.6
 10                                5.4                              5.4       3.7         1.4
  0




                                                                                        er
                              es




                                             s




                                                                                        K
                                                        s
                               y




                               s




                                                                    rs
                                                      er
                                             nd
                             er
       od




                                                                                       D
                                                                            th
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                                                                                    d/
                                                      id
                          al


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  ob




                                                                or
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                                                    ov
                                         Fr




                                                                W
                     Re
 N




                                                                               fu
                                                  Pr
                    al




                                                           SS




                                                                             Re
                 tu




                                               th
             iri




                                            al
          Sp




                                          He




WITH A HEALTH PROBLEM,
   WHAT DO YOU DO?
  70                                                       62
  60
  50
  40
%                                  24.6
  30
  20 13.6              9.1                   9.1                    12.5
  10                                                                          2.8         2.3
   0
                                                                                 r
            i   ng          t it  nd         alk   he
                                                      lp         ate           he          /D
                                                                                              K
       o th          bo
                        u      rie        y t rof.           dic            Ot          ed
   N
          dA           i ve
                            /F
                                     bo
                                        d      P         -M
                                                            e                      fu s
     R ea         l at            me               S elf                        Re
               Re              so
            to            to
         lk         t en
      Ta       Lis
                                                                                                                                                                    %


                                                                                                                                                      0
                                                                                                                                                          5
                                                                                                                                                               10
                                                                                                                                                                    15
                                                                                                                                                                          20
                                                                                                                                                                                25
                                                                                                          Do




                   0
                       5
                           10
                                         % 20
                                                25
                                                     30
                                                          35
                                                               40
                                                                                                               n'                      A
     Fo                                                                                                          tk                        fra
          od                                                                                                             no                      id


                                                                                                                                                                        14.8
                                                                                                                              w




                           15 11.4
                                                                                                             He                       an
Ho                                                                                                              lp                         yo
   u                                                                                            He                 e     rs                   n
       si                                                                                          lp                                             e
                                                                                                                                                                8.8
         ng                                                                                           e   rs                  do




                                                 23.7
                                                                                                               do                     n'
Ph                                                                                                                                         th
                                                                                                                    n'                          el
     ys                                                                                                                  tu                       p
                                                                                                                                                              5.6
        ic
           a   l
                                                                                                                              nd




                                  12.8
                                                                                                                                   er
                                                                                                               He                    st
Fe                                                                                                                lp                        an
                                                                                                                                                                8



     el
       in                                                                                             Pr             e       rs                   d
          g   s                                                                                         ob                        ar
                                                                                                                                    e




                                         17.3
                                                                                                               le
                                                                                               Pr
                                                                                                 ob               m                        ru
  So                                                                                                  le               m                      d   e
                                                                                                                                                              6.4




     c                                                                                                   m                   ay
            ia                                                                                                                    go
               l




                            8.5
                                                                                                             us
                                                                                                                  ua                       aw
Sp                                                                                                                     lly                   ay
                                                                                                                                                                               20.8




     iri                                                                                                                     go
        tu
           a   l
                                                                                                                                  es




                             10.2
                                                                                                                                           aw
                                                                                                 Pr                                          ay
                                                                                                                                                                               20




     Le
                                                                                                   ob
                                                                                                          le                  No
          ga                                                                                                 m                         M
               l




                                    14.2
                                                                                                                  ca                    on
Fi                                                                                                                     n'                       ey
  na                                                                                                                        tb
                                                                                                                                                                                 23.2




       nc                                                                                                                         e
            ia                                                                                                                        he
               l                                                                                                                           lp




                                                               37.1
                                                                                                                                              e   d
                                                                                                                                                              5.6




     O
      th
         e    r                                                                                                                            O




                           7.4
                                                                                                                                            th
                                                                                                                                                                                          HEALTH PROBLEM, WHY?




                                                                       CANNOT GET ASSISTANCE
                                                                                                                                                 er
                                                                                                                                                                8.8




                                                                      PROBLEMS FOR WHICH YOU
                                                                                                                                                                                        IF YOU “DO NOTHING” FOR A
                     HEALTH




CONDITION SELF-RATINGS
    50
    45
    40
    35
    30
    25
%




    20
    15
    10
     5
     0
         Excellent   Good        Fair        Poor     Refused

                      Physical   Mental   Spiritual
                                                                                                         %
                                             Va
                                                  g.
                                                       Ca




                                                                                       0
                                                                                                 5
                                                                                                             10
                                                            nd                                                      15
                                                                   id
                                                                        ia
                                                   He                        si
                                                        pa                      s                             9.6
                                                          ti t
                                                                   is




             41.6
                                                                         A/
                                                        Ch                     B                       4.8
                                                               la
                                                                    m
                                                  G                     yd
                                                                               ia
                                                       en
                                                                                                  3.7


                                                            i ta




Yes
                                                                   lW




                    2
                                                                         ar
                                                        G                     ts
                                                                                                 3.1




No
                                                            on
                                                                   or
                                              G                         rh
                                                                           e




DK
                                                   en                          a
                                                                                             2.5




                                                        i ta
                                                               lH
                                                                    er
                                                                      pe




      56.4
                                                                                             2




                                                   Tr
                                                     ic                 s




                           BLOOD TEST
                                                            ho
                                                                   m
                                                                        an
                                                                                             2




                                                                              as
                                                                                                                         DIAGNOSED WITH:




                                                               Sy

                        HAS HAD A HIV/AIDS
                                                                    ph
                                                                             ili
                                                                                   s
                                                                                           0.8
NUMBER OF HIV/AIDS TESTS
    35 34.3

    30

    25        25.3

    20
%
    15
                     12.9   12.9
    10

     5                                         5.6               4.8
                                                           2.8
                                      1.1            0.6
     0
         1      2      3       4          5      6     7     8   10+




          RESULT FROM LAST
         HIV/AIDS BLOOD TEST
                             4.8   2.7




                                   92.6



                 Positive   Negative          Refused/DK
        WHO USUALLY PAYS FOR
        HIV/AIDS BLOOD TESTS?
 60       55.6

 50

 40

% 30

 20                        18
                                                11.7                                 12.2
 10                                                                  5.9

  0
           Nobody -        Insurance                 Self              Other         Refused/DK
            It's free




    TESTED FOR HIV/AIDS & HAVE
     NOT SOUGHT THE RESULTS,
       WHY? (N=63) FEAR OF:
   40                                                                                   35
   35
   30
   25
 % 20
   15
   10     6.3                                             4.8        4.8
                     1.6        1.6          3.2                               1.6
    5
    0
                                            y




                                                                                         er
                             n




                                                                                 d
                                                       y


                                                                    it.
          g



                    b




                                          Sa


                                                     Sa
                           re




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                                                                  st




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                n




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                 Lo



                           Fr




                                                      ac
                                                   Pl
             INJECT DRUGS?
                                           Yes, 7.9




                                No, 92.1




 IF YOU INJECT DRUGS, DO
    YOU TYPICALLY USE:
        60 53.8
        50
        40
        30                          25.6
  %
        20
                          7.7               5.1       7.7           5.1
        10                                                  2.6
         0
                                                     ks
               ks



                         ks




                                                    ks
                                                    ks



                                                    ks




                                                                     er
                                                  or
             or



                       or




                                                  or




                                                  or
                                                 or




                                                                   th
                                                w




                                                                  O
            w



                      w




                                                w
                                                w



                                                w
                              es
        es



                    es




                                              s




                                            's
                                            's
                                           e'




                                          er
                                         nd
                             l
        l



                  l


                           ed



                                        iv
      ed



                ed




                                      ng
                                      ie
                                      at
                         ne
    ne



              ne




                                   Fr



                                   ra
                                   el
                                 R




                                 St
                      n
   an



           d


                    ow
         se
 le


        U
C




                    y
                M
MORE LIKELY TO ENGAGE
  IN SEX WHEN USING:
    35
         29.3                              29
    30
    25                                                             21.8
    20                       16.2
%
    15
    10
    5               1.2                              2.5
    0




                                                       er




                                                                   K
                                           er
                    s
         ol




                               h
                     g



                             ot




                                                                  D
                                                    th
                                           th
        oh




                  ru




                                                                    /
                            B




                                                                 ed
                                                   O
                                        ei
      lc




                 D




                                       N




                                                               us
     A




                                                             ef
                                                            R




  % INDICATING THE
FOLLOWING PROBLEMS:
    35                    31.2
                                            29.4
    30    26.9
    25
    20                                                        16.2
%
    15
    10
    5
    0
            Missed          User in       Legal problems      Continue to
          work/school     hazardous                              use
                          situations
                                              M
                                                  or
                                                       e
                                                           to




                                                                                                             %
                                         Sa                     ge
                                              m
                                               e                     tt
                                                                       he
                                                   am
                                                     ou                        sa
                                                                                    m




                                                                                                         0
                                                                                                         5
                                                                                                        10
                                                                                                        15
                                                                                                        20
                                                                                                        25
                                                                                                        30
                                                                                                        35
                                                                 nt                  e
                                                                                                        40
                                                                      ha                    hi
                                                                           s                  gh
                                                                               le
                                                                                  s
                                                                                                        45 39.7


                                                                                      s
                                                                                          ef
                                                  Us                  Se                    fe
                                                     e                        lf-              c    t
                                                           no                    M
                                                                                                                34.5




                                                                w                    ed
                                                                     m                      ic
                                                                      or                       a
                                                                           e                       te
                                                                                                                 23




                                                                                th
                                                                                   a




            No, 9.9
                                                                                       n
                                                                                            ev
                                                                          Tr                     er
                                                                               ie
                                                                                                                 21.8




                                                                Sp                d
                                                                                      to
                                                                     en                      qu
                                                   Av                     d                        it
                                                      o                        m
                                                                                                                    27




                                                            id                  uc
                                                                 so                     h
                                                                      ci                    tim
                                                                        al
                                                                               si              e
                                                                                                             20.1




                                                            Ph                   tu
                                                                                    a




Yes, 90.1
                                                                 ys                       tio
                                                                      ic                      n
                                                                         a    lp                   s
                                                                                                                        29.3




                                                                                   ro
                                                                 So       bl
                                                                      ci     em
                                                                        al      s




                        INTERCOURSE
                                                           Em
                                                                                                             20.1




                                                                      pr
                                                             ot          ob
                                                                                                                                        % INDICATING THE




                                                               io           le
                                                                  na           m
                                                                     lp         s
                                                                                                                        28.2




                                                                        ro

                      EVER HAVE SEXUAL                                     bl
                                                                             em
                                                                                                                                      FOLLOWING PROBLEMS:




                                                                                 s
                                                                                                                               38.2
AGE WHEN FIRST HAD
SEXUAL INTERCOURSE
                 (Range=6-33; Mean=16; Median=16)
    25
                                           19.2
    20
                                                  16.1
    15                                                   12.3
%                                    9.9
    10                       8.9 9.6

                       4.5                                      5.1         4.8
    5 2.7                                                             3.1
            1    0.3                                                              0.7   1   0.6
    0
      0




                                                                                      +
          10

                11

                     12

                          13

                               14

                                    15

                                         16

                                              17

                                                    18

                                                           19

                                                                  20

                                                                         21

                                                                              22

                                                                                     23
    <1




                                                                                    25
                                              AGE




HAVE YOU OR YOUR PARTNER
   EVER USED A PENILE
        CONDOM?


            No, 43.1


                                                                      Yes, 56.9
  DO YOU INSIST ON
PENILE CONDOM USE?

                                            Yes, 34.3




         No, 65.7




       SEXUAL BEHAVIOR:
         CONDOM USE
 30                                                     28.4
                                          26.7
 25

 20                 18.2
       15.6
% 15
                              11.1
 10

  5

  0
        Always        Often   Sometimes    Seldom         Never
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: HAVE
  THE SAME PARTNER
 60
       53.4
 50

 40

% 30

 20              16.3
                           9.2                   9.2
 10
                                       3.9

  0
        Always     Often   Sometimes    Seldom     Never




   SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: I
  TALK ABOUT SAFE SEX
 30
       25.5
 25
                           20.8
 20
                 15.3                            14.5
% 15                                   13.3

 10

  5

  0
        Always     Often   Sometimes    Seldom     Never
 SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: I AM IN
        CONTROL
 50
            44.4
 45
 40
 35
 30
% 25                        22.4
 20                                    15.8
 15
 10
                                                     2.7         3.5
  5
  0
             Always           Often    Sometimes     Seldom          Never




SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: ALCOHOL USE
       30                              27.5
                                                              26.4
       25

       20
                                                   16.3
   % 15                      13.2

       10
               6.6
       5

       0
                   Always      Often   Sometimes    Seldom      Never
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: DRUG USE
     50                                            46.7
     45
     40
     35
     30
 % 25
     20                      15.3
     15                                  12.2
     10             8.2
          6.3
     5
     0
           Always    Often   Sometimes    Seldom     Never




SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: I FEAR
     PREGNANCY
     45
                                                   38.9
     40
     35
     30
     25
 %
     20                      16.4
     15   10.7                           11.9
     10             7.4
     5
     0
           Always    Often   Sometimes    Seldom     Never
   SEXUAL BEHAVIOR:
FEAR OF SEXUAL DISEASES
         30
                 27                                        27

         25

         20
                                      14.3
    % 15                   12.7

         10                                       8.9

         5

         0
                 Always      Often   Sometimes    Seldom    Never




SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: I KNOW
   PARTNER’S MEDICAL
        HISTORY
    45        42.2
    40
    35
    30
    25
%
    20
    15                    13.3       12.2
                                                 10.6      9.1
    10
    5
    0
               Always       Often    Sometimes    Seldom    Never
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: I KNOW
   PARTNER’S SEXUAL
        HISTORY
  50
       44.1
  45
  40
  35
  30
% 25
  20
                           14.2
  15             11.5                  10
                                                 8.4
  10
   5
   0
        Always     Often   Sometimes   Seldom     Never




          SEXUAL BEHAVIOR:
          AVOIDANCE OF SEX
              WORKERS
 60
       51.8
 50

 40

% 30

 20
                                                9.6
 10              4.8        6
                                       4

  0
        Always    Often    Sometimes   Seldom    Never
        YOUR CHANCES OF
  60
         GETTING HIV/AIDS
                     51.7
  50

  40

 % 30
        19.8                     21.2
  20

  10                                        5.5
                                                       1.7
   0
        Impossible    Highly     Possible   Probable   Definite
                     Unllikely




                TENTATIVE
               CONCLUSIONS
Presence of some HIV high-risk behaviors
  - IV drug use; unsafe sex
Some evidence of under-utilization of
benefits and services of the indigent
Relatively high likelihood of some survey
responses being framed in a socially
desirable context
    PREVENTION STRATEGY
        COMPONENTS
•Preventing initiation of drug injection
•Using community outreach programs to reach drug
       users on the streets
•Improving access to high quality substance abuse
       treatment programs
•Instituting HIV prevention programs in jails
•Providing health care for HIV-infected IDUs
•Increasing access to HIV risk-reduction counseling/
       testing for IDUs & their sex partners
                                       Source: CDC, 2002




         BASIC PRINCIPLES:
       PREVENTING HIV VIA IDU
•Coordination/collaboration among all service
      providers to IDUs, their sex partners, and
      their children
•Interventions: coverage; access; quality
•Overcome stigma associated with IDU
•Tailor services & programs to the diverse
      populations & characteristics of IDUs
                                       Source: CDC, 2002