Work-Related Fatal and Nonfatal Injuries among U.S. Construction

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					     Focus on Safety:
  Preventing The Top Four
   Construction Fatalities



State Building and Construction Trades
Council
Funded by Federal OSHA (2009)
OSHA Grant Number

 This material was produced under grant number
 SH-19508-09-60-F-6 from the Occupational Safety
 and Health Administration, U.S. Department of
 Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or
 policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does
 mention of trade names, commercial products, or
 organizations imply endorsement by the U.S.
 Government.
Credits ─ Sources of Information

   Center for Construction Research & Training (CPWR)
   Laborers International Union of North America
   U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)
   Cal/OSHA
   Federal OSHA
   Occupational Health Branch, California Dept. of Public
    Health
   The Construction Institute
   Associated General Contractors
Topics

   The Construction Workforce Nationwide
   Fall Hazards
   Struck-by Hazards
   Electrical Hazards
   Caught-in/between Hazards
The Construction Workforce
Nationwide
Construction

   Nearly 8.7 million people work at
    construction sites in this country.

   In 2008, construction workers were 6%
    of the workforce and 20% of the
    workplace deaths.
Latinos Were 30% of All Construction
Workers in 2008

    Latinos as a percentage of construction occupations, 2008
             Concrete                                             57.7%

               Drywall                                            56.9%
                Roofer                                    42.9%

        Carpet and tile                                   42.7%
               Painter                                  40.1%

          Brickmason                                    39.9%

       Laborer, helper                                 39.0%

             Carpenter                       25.7%

               W elder                       25.0%

                Repair                 20.0%

              Plumber                 19.0%
          Op engineer                17.4%

           Truck driver              17.0%
            Electrician              16.2%

       Heat A/C mech              13.2%

             Foreman              13.0%

  Constuction manager         9.1%

        Admin support         9.0%
Latino Construction Deaths

   Of the construction deaths in 2008,
    25% were among Latino workers.
Non-English Speaking Workers

   An estimated 4.5 million of
    California’s 17 million
    workers do not speak
    English.
   Cal/OSHA states that
    employers must have a
    system to communicate
    with employees in a form
    readily understandable to
    them.
California Construction Fatalities by
Hazard (2008)


                            Struck-by
                            Fatalities            Caught-in
       Other
                                                  Fatalities
                              16%
       35%
                                                     5%




                                                        Fatalities
                                                       from Falls
               Electrical
               Fatalities   California 2008               36%
                  8%        63 Total Fatalities
Nationwide Construction Fatalities by
Hazard (2008)


                       Struck-by
                       Fatalities              Caught-in
      Other                                    Fatalities
                          11%
      36%                                         9%




                                                    Fatalities from
         Electrical                                     Falls
         Fatalities   United States 2008                    34%
              9%        969 Total Fatalities
What Are the 4 Leading Causes of
Death in Construction?


   Falls
   Struck-by hazards
   Electrical hazards
   Caught-in/between
    hazards
Focus Four OSHA Citations

   85% of all citations and 90% of dollars in
    OSHA construction fines are related to the
    Focus Four hazards.

   79% of all construction fatalities are related
    to the Focus Four hazards.
Cal/OSHA’s High Hazard List in
Construction (2009-2010)

   Framing Contractors
   Roofing Contractors
Fall Hazards
Session Objectives

By the end of the session
students will learn:
1)   The four main causes of fall fatalities.
2)   How to prevent falls.
3)   How to use a personal fall protection
     system.
4)   How to use ladders safely.
What Occupations Have the Highest
Number of Deaths From Falls?

1.   Construction
     Laborers
2.   Roofers
3.   Carpenters
4.   Painters
5.   Ironworkers
Falls Are Number One

                  Falls are the leading
                   cause of construction
                   fatalities.
                  Falls accounted for
                   34% of construction
                   deaths nationwide in
                   2008.

                   Have you, or anyone
                   you know, had a fall
                   on the job? What
                   happened?
Ironworker Dies After Falling Off Beam
(California Case Study)

   Break into small groups.

   Take 5-10 minutes to read the case
    study and discuss the question.

   Report your answer back to the class.
What Should Have Been Done to
Prevent This Accident?

    Investigators said employers should:

   Require everyone working at heights to wear fall
    protection equipment.

   Make sure openings are properly covered or
    otherwise protected.

   If possible, provide alternate means of access to the
    work, such as an aerial lift (zoom boom).
What Are The Main Causes of Fall
Fatalities?

   Unprotected sides and edges, roof and wall
    openings, and floor holes

   Improper scaffold construction

   Improper use of portable ladders

   Falls from girders and structural steel

   Unguarded protruding steel rebars
Fatal Falls in Construction by Type

     Causes of death from falls in construction, 2003-2008


                     Other
                     (26%)                           From roof
                                                     (32%)




         From girder,
         structural steel
         (7%)


                   From ladder                From scaffold, staging
                   (17%)                      (18%)
How Can Workers Be Protected From
Falling Off an Edge?
Protecting Workers From Falling Off an
Edge

    When workers are on a surface with an unprotected
    side or edge greater than 7.5 feet above the lower
    level, Cal/OSHA says employers must provide:

 A guardrail system,
 A safety net,
 A fall arrest system such
 as a lifeline and harness, or
 A fall restraint system
Can You Catch Yourself If You Fall?

No!

   The average person’s reaction time is half a second.
    In that time you fall 4 feet.

   Gravity pulls you down and your speed quickly
    increases.

   A person who weighs 200 pounds and falls 6 feet will
    hit the ground with almost 10,000 pounds of force.

    Catching yourself during a fall only happens in
    the movies.
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Unsafe Covers

   Covers over openings must be properly
    marked, positively affixed, and capable of
    supporting twice the intended load or 400
    lbs, whichever is greater.
   Covers must be secured in place to prevent
    accidental removal or displacement.
   Marking should read:
     “Opening-Do Not Remove.”
Working on Scaffolds

   Scaffold deaths
    accounted for 5% of
    construction deaths in
    2008.

   About 1 in 5 of the fatal
    falls in construction are
    from scaffolds.
Cal/OSHA Scaffold Requirements



                Scaffolds must be
                erected and dismantled
                under the supervision of
                a “qualified” person.
More Scaffold Safety Requirements

                  Scaffolds (and all people
                   working on them) must be at
                   least 10 feet from energized
                   power lines.
                  Must be able to support their
                   own weight and at least 4
                   times the intended load.
                  Must have toeboards and
                   guardrails.
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Improper Scaffold Construction

 No guardrails on sides or ends of
  scaffold.
 No safe access to scaffold platforms.
 Platforms are not fully planked from
  side to side.
 Missing toeboards.
Steel Erectors

   An average of 35
    Ironworkers die each
    year during steel
    erection.

   Fall arrest systems
    for steel erectors are
    difficult to set up.
Cal/OSHA’s Steel Erection Standard

                   All steel erection
                    employees (except
                    connectors) working on an
                    unprotected side or edge
                    more than 15 feet high
                    must use fall protection.

                   Connectors must use fall
                    protection when working
                    two stories or 30 feet
                    above a lower level.
Then …   and Now
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Not Wearing Fall Protection on Roof
Truss

   Man on truss is not using fall protection.

   Cal/OSHA requires fall protection when
    employees are walking or working on top
    plates, joists, rafters, trusses, beams, or
    similar structural members over 15 feet
    above the grade or floor level below.
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Protruding Rebar Hazards

                   Guard all protruding
                    ends of steel rebar with
                    rebar covers or wooden
                    troughs, or
                   Bend rebar so exposed
                    ends are no longer
                    upright.
                   When working above
                    exposed rebar, fall
                    protection/ prevention is
                    your best defense
                    against impalement.
What’s the Best Way to Prevent Falls?
Methods of Fall Protection

   What is the difference between fall
    prevention and fall arrest?
Fall Prevention

   Fall prevention systems use equipment to
    prevent workers from falling.
   What are some ways you can prevent falls?
   Use guard rails, covers, and fall restraint
    devices.
Fall Arrest

   Fall arrest systems are designed to catch
    workers after they have fallen.
   What are some examples of fall arrest
    systems?
   Fall arrest includes personal fall arrest
    systems and safety nets.
Guardrail Systems
Safety Nets
Personal Fall Protection Systems
(PFP)

                      Employer must fit and
                       train each worker about
                       PFPs.

                      Employer must train
                       workers about types of
                       fall hazards, how to
                       protect yourself, and
                       limitations of PFPs.
Inspect Fall Protection Equipment

   User must inspect fall
    protection equipment
    before each use.
   Competent person
    must inspect fall
    protection equipment
    twice a year.
What Are The Components of a
Personal Fall Protection System?


   Body harness

   Lanyard and
    connectors

   D-ring

   Anchorage point
Training for Fall Arrest Systems

    Required training should
    include:
   Explanation of the
    company’s fall protection
    policies and systems
   Selection and proper use of
    Fall Arrest Systems and
    related equipment.
   Selection of adequate tie off
    point.
Why Don’t Workers Like To Wear
Personal Fall Protection Equipment?
Ladder Accidents

   Each year, about 65 construction workers are killed
    by falls from ladders.

   Most deaths happen from 10 feet or lower.

   Twice as many falls occur when stepping down
    ladders than when going up ladders.

   The main cause of falls from straight and extension
    ladders is the ladder sliding off its base.
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Unsafe Ladder Use

   Don’t work on the top step or cap of a step ladder.
   Position the portable ladder so the side rails extend
    at least 3 feet above the landing.
   Secure side rails at the top of the ladder to a rigid
    support and use a grab device if a 3 foot extension is
    not possible.
   Make sure that the weight on the ladder will not
    cause it to slip off its support.
How Do You Use a Ladder Safely?

   Make sure the ladder is on a firm level
    surface.
   Always face the ladder when going up or
    down.
   Maintain three-point contact at all times
   Don’t carry anything in your hands.
   Secure the ladder at top and bottom.
   Never over-reach to get at something off to
    one side.
View DVD: Don’t Fall for It
Fall Prevention Summary

  Cal/OSHA requires fall protection on a
 surface with an unprotected side or edge
 greater than 7.5 feet above a lower level.
 Fall prevention: keeps workers from falling
 (guardrails and hole covers).
 Fall arrest: catches workers after they have
 fallen (personal fall arrest systems and safety
 nets).
Fall Prevention Summary (cont’d)

   Floor openings must be secured, covered,
    labeled, and covers should support twice the
    load.
   Scaffolds must be erected and dismantled
    under the supervision of a “qualified” person.
   Set ladders at 4:1 height-to-base ratio, and
    climb using 3-point contact.
Fall Prevention: Tips and Feedback

Class Brainstorm
 What tips do you have
  to help prevent falls on
  the job?

   What is your employer
    already doing to help
    prevent falls?

   What else do you think
    should be done?
Struck-by Hazards
Session Objectives

By the end of the session
students will learn:

1)   The three main causes of struck-by
     fatalities.
2)   How to prevent struck-by fatalities.
3)   The safety requirements for nail guns and
     powder-actuated tools.
Struck-by Hazards Are Number Two

   The second leading cause of construction
    fatalities is being struck by an object.
   Approximately 75% of struck-by fatalities
    involve heavy equipment
   One in four “struck-by-vehicle” deaths involve
    construction workers, more than any other
    occupation.
What Are The Main Causes of Struck-
by Deaths?

   Vehicle and Roadway
    Hazards
   Falling Objects
   Flying Objects

    Have you, or anyone
    you know, had an
    accident from a struck-
    by hazard on the job?
    What happened?
Construction Laborer Run Over by Front-
End Loader (California Case Study)

   Break into small groups.

   Take 5-10 minutes to read the case
    study and discuss the question.

   Report your answer back to the class.
What Should Have Been Done to
Prevent This Accident?

Investigators said employers should make sure:

   Workers keep out of the immediate area where
    heavy equipment is operating

   When visual contact is lost with workers on foot, the
    equipment operator stops the equipment until
    contact is re-established

   Equipment has a working back-up alarm.

   There is a written code of safe practices for all
    hazards.
What Are the Leading Causes of
Highway Worker Fatalities?

   For highway workers on
    foot, the leading cause
    of fatalities is being
    struck by construction
    equipment.

   For highway equipment
    operators, the most
    common cause of
    fatalities is equipment
    rollover.
What Precautions Should You Take
Around Moving Vehicles or Equipment?

   Stay clear of vehicles
   Know traffic control plan.
   Communicate with
    operators by radio
    and/or eye contact.
   Stay out of "blind spots."
   Wear an ANSI approved
    high-visibility vest
   Don’t stand under loads.
What Should the Employer Do?

                 Have a traffic control
                  plan.
                 Set up barricades and
                  warning signs.
                 Assign spotters and/or
                  flaggers.
                 Equip vehicles with rear
                  vision cameras and
                  radar systems to detect
                  workers.
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Out of Driver’s Line of Sight

   This worker is in the driver’s blind spot.
   There is no spotter.
   Worker is not wearing an orange or red vest.


        One in four "struck by vehicle" deaths
        involve construction workers, more than
        any other occupation.
How Can You Be Struck by Falling
Objects?

   Working under cranes
    or scaffolds.
   Rigging failure.
   Loose or shifting
    materials.
   Lack of overhead
    protection.
    How can you be
    protected from falling
    objects?
Protection Against Falling Objects

                    Wear a hard hat.
                    Secure all loads, tools,
                     and materials.
                    Use toeboards.
                    Use debris nets, catch
                     platforms, or canopies.
                    Never walk or work
                     below moving objects
                     overhead, like concrete
                     buckets.
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Falling Object Hazards in the Picture

   Scaffold is constructed improperly.

   Workers could get struck by objects falling off
    the scaffolding because there is no toeboard.

   No hardhats or safety glasses.
What Are “Flying Object” Hazards?

   Tools can create particles when chipping, grinding,
    sawing, brushing, or hammering.

   Particles from some tools move at amazing speed
    and can hit with the force of a bullet, like those from
    pneumatic and powder-actuated tools.

How can you be protected from flying objects?
Protection From Flying Objects

   Wear eye protection.

   Wear hardhats.

   Inspect tools before use.

   Make sure you are properly trained before
    using a power tool.
Powder-Actuated Tools



                What do you think
                happened here?
How Should You Use Powder-Actuated
Tools Safely?

According to Cal/OSHA:
 Training is required to use the tool.
 Eye or face protection should be worn
  (hearing protection too).
 The tool should always be held perpendicular to the
  work surface when fastening into any material,
  except for applications recommended by the
  manufacturer.
 A sign must be posted within 50 feet of the area
  where the tools are being used.
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Improper Use of Nail Gun

   The carpenter is firing a nail toward himself.

   He has no protective equipment like a
    hardhat and safety glasses.

   He doesn’t seem to be using hearing
    protection.
Struck by--Nailguns
Highlights of New Cal/OSHA Regs
§1704. Pneumatically Driven Nailers and Staplers



     All pneumatically-driven nailers and staplers
    shall:
   Have a safety device on the muzzle.
   Be connected to the air supply with spring
    loaded shut-off valve and a positive locking
    mechanism to prevent the tool from
    becoming accidentally disconnected.
Highlights of New Cal/OSHA Nailgun
Regs (cont’d)

   Personal protective equipment shall be used.
   Tools shall be equipped with a fitting that will
    discharge all compressed air in the tool at
    the time the fitting or hose coupling is
    disconnected.
   Safety training shall be conducted prior to
    initial assignment.
   Training shall be conducted by a qualified
    person.
Struck-by Hazards Summary

   Use caution around vehicles and equipment,
    maintain eye contact with operators, and
    wear high-visibility gear.
   Don’t stand under loads.
   Wear a hard hat and safety glasses to protect
    yourself from flying objects.
   Don’t use powder-actuated tools unless you
    are trained and certified.
   Pneumatically-driven nailers and staplers
    must meet new Cal/OSHA safety regulations.
Struck-by Hazards: Tips and Feedback

Class Brainstorm
   What tips do you have
    to help prevent struck-
    by accidents on the
    job?

   What is your employer
    already doing to help
    prevent struck-by
    accidents?

   What else do you think
    should be done?
Electrical Hazards
Session Objectives

By the end of the session
students will learn:

1)   The five main causes of electrical injuries.
2)   How to prevent injury and death from
     electrical hazards.
3)   What to do if a co-worker gets shocked.
What Are The Main Causes of
Electrical Injuries?

   Contact with Overhead Power
    Lines
   Contact with Live Circuits
   Poorly Maintained Power
    Cords
   Improper Use of Power Tools

    Have you, or anyone you
    know, been injured by an
    electrical hazard on a
    construction site? What
    happened?
Electrical Hazards Can Be Killers

                     Nationwide, about 19%
                      of construction fatalities
                      are from electrocutions.

                     Workers can even be
                      killed by ordinary
                      household current.
Laborer Electrocuted By Energized
Crane (California Case Study)

   Break into small groups.

   Take 5-10 minutes to read the case study
    and discuss the question.

   Report your answer back to the class.
What Should Have Been Done to
Prevent This Accident?

    Investigators said employers should:

   Give workers information on what hazards to look for
    and how to avoid them.
   Have strict safety procedures when working with a
    crane near high voltage power lines.
   Contact the local electric power company and have
    the power turned off when working within a certain
    distance of high voltage power lines.
   Never operate a crane within 10 feet of a power line.
Death from Electrical Hazards

    Causes of electrocution deaths among non-electrical
    construction workers, 2003-05
Effects of Electricity


   Estimated Effects of AC Currents              PATH:
        (U.S. Standard 60 Hz)                    Harm is
  1 milliamp   Barely perceptible
  (mA)                                           related to
  16 mA        Maximum current an average
               man can grasp and “let go”
                                                 the path by
  20 – 30 mA   Paralysis of respiratory          which
               muscles
  100 mA       Ventricular fibrillation
                                                 current
               threshold                         passes
  2 Amps       Cardiac standstill and internal   through the
               organ damage
  15/20/30     Common U.S. household             body.
  Amps         breakers
Working Around Power Lines

   Overhead power lines
    carry extremely high
    voltage.

   Electrocution, burns,
    and falls from
    elevations are concerns
    for workers.

   Contact with power
    lines can also cause
    explosions and fire.
What Equipment Might Contact Power
Lines?

   Crane
   Ladder
   Scaffold
   Backhoe
   Scissors lift
   Raised dump truck bed
   Bullfloat handle
Power Line Facts

   Overhead lines are typically not insulated.

   Equipment operators are normally safe when
    equipment accidentally touches a power line if they
    stay inside their equipment.

   Workers on the ground who come in contact with
    power lines are 8 times more likely to be killed than
    workers inside equipment or vehicles.
How Can You Work Around Overhead
Power Lines Safely?

   Locate overhead lines
    before starting the job.
   Keep equipment at least
    10 feet away.
   Assume that lines are
    energized.
   De-energize and ground
    lines when working nearby.
   Use wood or fiberglass
    ladders near power
    lines―still keeping at least
    10 feet away.
Contact with Live Circuits
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Missing Ground Prong

   Extension cord has a missing grounding
    prong.

   If the power supply is not grounded or the
    path to ground has been broken, live current
    may travel through a worker's body causing
    electrical burns or death.
What Is This? What Does This Do?
Ground-fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)

   Protects you from shock.

   Detects difference in current between the hot and
    neutral wires (including a ground fault).

   If a ground fault is detected, the GFCI shuts off
    electricity in 1/40th of a second.

   Use GFCIs on all 120-volt, single-phase, 15-and 20-
    ampere receptacles.
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Improper Cord Use

   These cords are improperly wired directly to
    the electrical circuit.

   Not protected by a GFCI.

   Two-wire cords are not grounded and not
    rated for hard or extra-hard service.
What’s Does This Tell Us?
How Can You Use Power Tools Safely?
Power Tool Safety Tips

   Keep cords away from water, heat, oil, and
    sharp edges.
   Disconnect tools when not in use, before
    servicing, and when changing accessories
    such as blades, etc.
   Use double-insulated tools.
   Stop using any power tool that is wet,
    overheating, smoking, starting to smell, or if
    you feel a tingle or shock.
What Should You Do If Someone Gets
Shocked?

   Call 911.
   Do not touch the worker in
    contact with electric current.
    You could get shocked too.
   Turn off the power.
   Use nonconductive material
    (like a wooden stick) to
    remove him/her from the
    power source. This does not
    apply to high voltage lines.
   Start CPR or other first aid.
Electrical Hazards Summary

   Contact with power lines causes the most
    electrocutions. Stay at least 10 feet away.

   Use GFCIs for protection.

   Make sure power is off when servicing or repairing
    tools and equipment.

   Inspect all electrical tools before use.

   Do not touch a worker in contact with electric
    current. Use nonconductive material like a wooden
    stick to move him/her.
Electrical Hazards: Tips and Feedback

 Class Brainstorm
  What tips do you have to
   help prevent electrical
   accidents on the job?
  What is your employer
   doing to help prevent
   electrical accidents?
  What else do you think
   should be done?
Caught-in/between Hazards
Session Objectives

By the end of the session
students will learn:

1)   The three main causes of caught-
     in/between fatalities.
2)   How to prevent caught-in/between deaths.
3)   How to prevent equipment roll-overs.
What Are The Main Causes of Caught-
in/between Deaths?

   Being crushed by
    collapsing materials,
    such as in a trench or
    excavation.
   Being caught in, or
    between, machinery or
    equipment.
   Equipment rollover.
9% of All Construction Fatalities

   Caught-in/between deaths
    represent about 9.2% of
    construction fatalities in 2008.

    Have you, or anyone you
    know, been injured working in
    a trench? What happened?
Plumber Dies When Trench Collapses
(California Case Study)

   Break into small groups.

   Take 5-10 minutes to read the case
    study and discuss the question.

   Report your answer back to the class.
What Should Have Been Done to
Prevent This Accident?


  Investigators said employers should make sure:

• Workers don’t enter trenches deeper than 5’ without
  shoring, benching, or sloping.

• Backhoe operators place excavated soil (spoil) from
  trenches at least 2’ from the edge of the trench.

• Workers get safety training before they are assigned
  hazardous work.
Why Are Trenches Dangerous?

   Most deaths from cave-ins occur
    in trenches 5 to 15 ft. deep.
   Cave-ins happen suddenly with
    no warning.
   Other risks: falls, electrocution,
    being struck by falling objects (or
    equipment), and bad air.
   Bad air can make it hard to
    breathe, help cause a fire, or
    poison you.
Think You Can Run?

If a trench collapses, why
not just run out of the
way?
Soil falls too fast.

Guess how fast it falls
from a height of:
2 feet? 4 feet? 6 feet?
Click your choice.
From Two Feet …

It takes only 0.35
seconds for soil to fall
two feet.

Human reaction time is
about 0.50 seconds.

There’s no time to
escape.

Go Back     Continue
From Four Feet …

It takes only 0.50
seconds for soil to fall
four feet.

Human reaction time is
about 0.50 seconds.

There’s no time to
escape.

Go Back     Continue
From Six Feet …

It takes only 0.61 seconds for
soil to fall six feet.

Human reaction time is about
0.50 seconds.

In this example, it would take
a worker another 0.11
seconds to reach the ladder.
There’s no time to escape.
Go Back Continue
How Much Does Soil Weigh?

OK, the trench has
collapsed. A little bit of
soil can’t weigh that
much, right? Maybe you
could dig out?

Wrong! Assume you’re
buried three feet deep. A
cubic yard of soil is
pressing on you. How
much do you think a
cubic yard weighs?
Up to Two Tons!
A cubic yard of wet
excavated clay weighs
3078 lbs.

A cubic yard of wet sand
and gravel weighs 3375
lbs.

A cubic yard of
sandstone weighs 3915
lbs. That’s almost two
tons!
Weight of a Truck

Two tons is almost the
weight of a small pickup
truck.

Try to breathe or move
with this weight on your
arms, chest, and face.

You can’t!
What Causes Trench Deaths?

   No protective system (like shoring) is in place.
   Trenches and excavations are not properly or
    regularly inspected.
   Excessive weight, such as machinery and spoil, is
    close to the edge of the excavation.
   No safe means is available to get in and out of the
    trench.
   Water in trenches.
What Must an Employer Do to Make a
Trench Safe?

                     Cal/OSHA says your
                      employer must train
                      workers about trench
                      hazards and how to
                      protect themselves.

                     Employer must name a
                      “competent” person
                      before a trench is dug.
What Should You Do Before You
Work In a Trench?

   Make sure the contractor has marked all utilities before
    digging.
   Make sure the competent person say it’s OK to work in.
   Make sure equipment, like water pumps and
    ventilators, are in good condition.
   Make sure there is a ladder within 25’ so you can get in
    and out.
   If bad air is expected, make sure there is a rescue
    plan.
How Can Cave-Ins Be Prevented?

   Trenches 5 feet or deeper require support, unless
    they are in solid rock.

   Excavations 5 feet or deeper require a permit from
    Cal/OSHA if workers will be entering them.

   The type of trench protection depends on the type
    of soil, and only a competent person can classify
    soil.
What Are The Four Basic Ways To
Support A Trench?

   Sloping
   Benching
   Shoring
   Shielding
Sloping

   Soil angled to increase stability
Benching

   Steps in trench wall
Shoring

   A support system made
    of posts, wales, struts,
    and sheeting.
   Hydraulic shoring
    (shown here) is very
    common.
Shielding

               A protective frame
                or box is used as a
                trench shield
                system.
Entering and Leaving a Trench

   There must be a
    stairway, ladder, or
    ramp in excavations 4’
    or more deep.

   It must be within 25’ of
    the workers.

   Ladder should extend
    3’ above the top of the
    trench.
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Unsafe Trench

   There is no shoring.
   We can’t see if there is a way to safely enter
    or leave the trench.
   Backhoe should not be on top of the trench.
    Workers should be protected from equipment
    that could pose a hazard by falling or rolling
    into excavations.
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Trenching Box Is Too Low

   The trench shield should extend to the catch
    point (top) of the trench.

   Ladders should be placed so that no worker
    is more than 25’ from an exit.

   The backhoe is too close to the edge of the
    trench. Its weight might cause a cave-in.
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Unsafe Spoils Pile

   The spoil pile is required to be at least 2 feet
    from the edge of the trench and/or retained
    to prevent it from falling into the trench.
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Hazardous Trench

This trench has:
 inadequate sloping
 no shoring
 no trench shield
Excavation Rescue

   Excavation rescue must
    be done carefully
    because rescue
    operations might:
    –   cause additional cave-ins
    –   create more soil pressure
        on buried victim
    –   injure the victim more
        severely.
What Are Some Other Caught-
in/between Hazards?

   Caught-in machinery or
    mechanical equipment

   Pinned between
    equipment and a solid
    object (wall or
    equipment)

   Equipment service and
    maintenance

   Rollovers
What Are Examples of Mechanical or
Moving Equipment?

   Saws
   Presses
   Conveyors
   Bending, rolling, or shaping machines
   Powered hand tools
   Forklifts
How Can Workers Be Protected From
Moving Parts or Equipment?
Machine Guards
What Other Precautions Should You Take
When Servicing or Repairing Equipment?
Lockout/blockout

    Cal/OSHA says that
    employers should:
   Set up a written lockout/
    blockout program to
    make sure equipment is
    disconnected and locked
    before it is repaired.
   Train you to use the
    program.
Rollovers

            Have you, or anyone you
            know, experienced a
            vehicle or equipment
            rollover?

            What happened?
What Can You Do to Prevent
Rollovers?

   Don’t work parallel to steep
    grades, embankments, or
    unstable soil.
   Use equipment with a ROPS,
    and fasten the seatbelt.
   If rolling over, don’t jump out if
    the vehicle has a ROPS and
    seatbelt.
   You have a better chance to
    ride it out with a ROPS and
    your seat belt fastened.
What Happened Here?
Caught-in/between Hazards Summary

   Trench protection is required for 5 ft. deep or more.
   Methods of trench protection – sloping, benching,
    shoring, shielding.
   Trench inspections must be conducted by a competent
    person.
   Only those who are trained and equipped should
    perform trench rescues.
   Use lockout/blockout procedures when servicing or
    repairing machines.
   Use heavy equipment that has a ROPS and fasten the
    seatbelt.
Caught-in/between Hazards:
Tips and Feedback

Class Brainstorm
 What tips do you have to help
   prevent accidents from being
   caught-in/ between moving
   equipment on the job?

   What is your employer already
    doing to prevent these
    accidents?

   What else do you think should
    be done?
You’ve Come A Long Way! But We
Still Have a Ways to Go…