The historical context the geo-historical context > how English reached a position of pre-eminence the socio-cultural context > why a position of pre-eminence will last the combination of geo-historical and socio-cultural strands > why English has so many varieties Origins within the British Isles 5th century: northern Europe > English spread around the British Isles and mixed with Celtic languages: Wales, Cornwall, Cumbria, and southern Scotland 1066: Norman conquest English nobles moved to Scotland 12th century: Anglo-Norman knights moved to Ireland Outwards 16th century: from the British Isles to North America 1588: end of the reign of Elizabeth I 5-7 million speakers 1952: beginning of the reign of Elizabeth II about 250 million speakers, most of them outside the British Isles Timeline Old English 450 - 850 Late Old English 850 - 1100 Middle English 1100 - 1450 Early Modern English 1450 - 1750 Modern English 1750 - 1950 Late Modern English 1950 – 2008 BBC Timeline http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/launch_tl_ages _english.shtml Expeditions 1584: North Carolina (Walter Raleigh) 1607: Virginia (Tidewater accent: /z/ and /r/) e.g. Zummerzet 1620: Massachusetts and New England Pilgrim Fathers (silent postvocalic /r/) 1640: 25,000 immigrants from the British Isles 3 main divisions (p. 34) New England > Great Lakes Northern dialect Virginia > Gulf Coast (Texas) Southern dialect Mid West > California Midland dialect There are many mixed dialect areas but the main divisions are still found today The frontier people 17th century: Scots-Irish immigration wave 1776: American Independence > 1 out of 7 Scots-Irish 1790: 4 million people 1890: 50 million people > Sunbelt accent: from Virginia to California Other influences Spanish: west and south west French: north and middle regions (Louisiana) Dutch: New York < New Amsterdam Large numbers of Germans: Pennsylvania Africans: south > slave trade 1700: 2,500 black slaves 1775: 100,000 black slaves The 19th century Irish: 1840s (potato famine) Germans: 1848 (failed revolution) Italians: 1848 (failed revolution) Central European Jews: 1880s (pogroms) 1900: 75 million people 1950: 150 million people USA 1990 census: almost 200 million speakers of English 2000 census: almost 215 million speakers of English English as a sign of American unity > conflict with those who want to protect minority languages 20th century: movement in support of English as the official language of the U.S. Canada new land farming fishing fur-trading Ongoing conflict with the French 15th century 1702 - 1713 Queen Anne’s War 1754 - 1763 French and Indian War > French defeat > from New England to Nova Scotia Canada 1776 US Declaration of Independence loyalists moved to New Brunswick “late loyalists” moved to Montreal (attracted by cheap lands!) Many British people identify a Canadian accent as American, many Americans identify it as British! Canadian English different from British English different from American English French influence French as the co-official language (chiefly spoken in Quebec) Sociolinguistic situation not found in other English-speaking countries Ottawa and code-switching (Poplack) The Caribbean (p. 38) black population in the West Indies 1517 the importation of black slaves from Africa to work in sugar plantations (Spanish colonies) 17th century: Atlantic Triangle (slave trade) Europe – West Africa – Caribbean islands and American coast http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/ism/slavery/ Caribbean English 1776: American Revolution: 500,000 black slaves 1865: end of US Civil War: 4 million black slaves (abolition of slavery) Policy of the slave traders > different language backgrounds > pidgin English (English spoken by sailors and slaves) > black Creole (southern plantations) > Creole forms of French, Spanish, and Portuguese eventually West Indian speech moved to the U.S., Canada, and Britain http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/routesofenglish/storysofar/ programme4_3.shtml Australia 1770 James Cook > first penal colony in Sydney (to relieve the pressure of overcrowded British prisons) 1788 first fleet 1830 130,000 people 1850 400,000 people 1900 4 million people 2002 19 million people prisoners from London (Cockney) and Ireland influence of Aboriginal languages late influence of American English The country now has a very mixed linguistic character New Zealand 1790s European whalers and traders 1814 Christian missionary work among the Maori 1840 Treaty of Waitangi (first British colony) > 1840 2,000 people > 1850 25,000 people > 1900 750,000 people (emergence of New Zealand English) > 1996 3.5 million people (Crystal, 1997) > 2002 3.8 million people (Crystal, 2003) Australian and New Zealand English New Zealand: a stronger sense of historical relationship with Britain > British accent New Zealand: growing sense of national identity (vs. Australia) New Zealand: rights of the Maori people > Maori vocabulary in New Zealand English > Maori: 10% of the population Homework Read p. 29-43 Surf the websites reported here and listen to the various accents.
Pages to are hidden for
"The historical context"Please download to view full document