THE IMPACT OF RESEARCH by wulinqing

VIEWS: 223 PAGES: 242

									 Report on.            M n     ,,
T Fit Itnational Mteting C),I PdLIUH111
       efiirhe
,Agricultural Research Systems
:Rnd
The Second IFARD Global Convention




THE IMPACT OF RESEARCH
ON NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL
DEVELOPMENT




 IFARD, Internatfonal Federation of Agricultural Research
 Systems for Development
 ISNAR, International Service for National Agricultural
 Research
 CTA, Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural,,
,Cooperation
,EMB,RAPA, Empresa Brasilei;a de Pesq'jisa Agropecuaria
The Iternatinal~ Servjc(- for National \griitiltina Rtscar-cl (ISNA\RI bcgaii
                                ill 'I'l( lagme. Netlilans tiff Scptui-
operating at its lit-atI(iiaitii-                                              i, idio. It \%as
t-tabli3hc(I hy the ( m.stitativi (iip       i aIitiiiaitioidl .\gi i' dtii Rescati:




aiitrictiia      ,itiui-ht   iu~iittilu~i~t
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pritiir itji    iiti oI          Nt
                             tiUeiii iii.fa   1('Il 11itta        ,r.
                                                                RiSS Mid's Impacit I o% ec
                                                                                (                          h onlt-ls
Natlionlricun       ltl(      i Delopmnt              J1 r
                                                       itslv     'I te i     .       Ntt     ais
Report on
The First International Meeting of National
Agricultural Research Systems
and
The Second IFARD Global Convention




THE IMPACT OF RESEARCIl
ON NATIONAL AGRICULTrURAL
DEVELOPMENT


Brasilia, 6 - 11 October 1986




Edited by Brian Webster, Carlos Valverde, Alan Fletcher




IFARD, International Federation of Agricultural Research
       Systems for Development
ISNAR, International Service for National Agricultural
       Research
CTA, Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural
     Cooperation
EMBRAPA, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecudria
                I   ~~~
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                   ,mm
              Cetmter.~~~~~rt                            mm                Leeme.FQ
                                                              ursnatOftieCmml  (         l~mil
                                                                                         Bdmf
2.   The Minister ofAgriculture ofthfe Federal Republic of Brazil .NIr. Iris Rezende Machado. addressing
                                                                                                            a \elcomrc Speech in the name and representation of the
     President of his country. Dr. Jost Sarnev: on his right. )r. OrmUttz Freitas Rivaldo. President of
                                                                                                        EMBRAPA. the Brazilian host institution, and to Lis left, Ir. S.W.
     Sadikin. President oF:IFARD International.
3.   Mr. Alexander von der Osten. Director General of ISNAR, sponsor ofthe IFARID meetings. pricscnting. during tlie InaUgt'ral Session. the Keynote Address.
     *TheImpact of Research on Development - Need,, and Potentials'.
   s R. *~ ) \ rn
I ,i t j~ ~ I c ~ l ia x D i   ~   ep - s nt   ~ v( ~ i   u .\ i t ~i i ii (   ~ t ~ fi r I nt r 1~t c ii i . ~i
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                       iv~'~ i.I~bci- ( 'i~r~i o (1 ': ittli'     iji Ir.      cli~icl    \I~ic,.    .121;.                         f~h
                                                                                                              Iuc!     I'C~jit'l(         I I \R ) I I~i . nerc~ii4l
                                                                                                                                                              4lt
                                       Table of contents





                                          IPage                                                             Iagc

 Prcd,
     lc                                     15 	         THE ROLE OF REISEARCH IN
                                                         INC R EAS ING FOO ) YI ELI)S;
List of Acronyms                            19 	         Pedro h-11                                           6
                                                                                                                  5

List of Participants                        21           ,MO)BII.IZIN(; RIESI.AR(CII RES)URCES

                                                         IN St.!PIP( )RTIO)F At;RI(CITIl R \I,

                                                                                          1
Welcoming Address 
                                      I)EV'EI,( )PIENT-TIIE ASIAN
 Iris Rezcndc Machado                       31 	         EN PERI EN( EI:
                                                         js 'ph(. \ hdamlba                                  69
Opening Address
S.\V. Sadikin                               37 	         RI'SEAR::I
                                                                C:HAND FO)O)I
 PRODU))IC'TIO)N

                                                         IN +II "( .I IBI .N: [TIE ( ARI)I ( A.,SIE;
                                                               I
Keynote Address                                          St. Clair M. Iordc. Ralph II. Ihlltps, amid P.O.    77
TiHl; IOMNACT ()l: ES.\"CH ON
I)I'VI'Il,( )PMlINT -- Nl,:I:), ANI)                     I)IS(:USI( )NS ANI ) ( ( )N( :O.FTSlON. ( )F
P()'I.NTIAI.S;                                           1).\NEI I                                           15
Alxalid<r \on del ( )4t1                    ,!


Panel I                                                 Panel II
The Role of Research in Increasing Food                 Networking as a Means of Increasing

Production 
                                            Efficiency of Agricultural Research

LIAI) AD\ I)ISS: 
                                      LE'AD)AI)IRI';SS:


 'llEC(;IAR ANI) NATIONAL                               AGRICUlTURAL IR()I)UC'IOIN IN

AG RI( tITU RAI, RI:SEARCI 
                            IAIN AM ER IA,\NI ) TI I1; AR I IlIIAN:

                                                                                  C
PROGRAMS - \MATURIN(; 
                                 INTI'ERNATIONALI  OR(;ANIZATION AND

PARTNERSH IP;                                           REIGIONAL PROGRAMS;
Richar'd I.. SawvTr                        '17 	        Martin I'. 'iifiviu-
                                                                 l                                          89


PANEII PAPIERS:                                         PANEL PAPEIRS:

THE ROLE, 01 RESEIARCII IN                               NETWORK ING AS A MEANS OF ORGANIZIN(;
INCREASING FOO) PRODUCTION IN                           NATIONAL AND REGIONAL. AQUACUITURAI.
AFRICA;                                                 RESEARCH;
Saka Nurui                                 53 	         'Thnnlndalhill V.R. Pillar             7




                                                   13
                                                Page                                                        Page

AGR(-FORi'STRY NI 1AVORKS IN                                  STRATEGI ES FOR STRENGTII:NING

TROPICAL, AFRICA: AN EICOZONE                                 A(;RICUI'I'JRAI, REISEARClH SYSTEMS

APPROACH;                                                     -TO[HE ITNTiNAIONAI. i'OiTATO

Filtn1i 'l'orrs                                   105         CE NIER ( ASE;

                                                              Richard L. S, )'cr aitd Jos&- Valle Riestra    201

NETVORKING- SO.ME I MIPRESSIONS
FROM CINIMYT;                                                 ROIE OF"UNIVI,.R.SII'I'S ANI) PRIVATE-

Donald I. WjkVinati n                            125          SEiCT()R ORGA N A I( )NS IN TII E

                                                              NATIONAL AGRICUIiURAI.

(.O( )PIATIVE A( IIVITY AND)                                  R,ESEARCIH SYSTIM () I YPI;

Eli 1(:iENCIY IN A(II(:UI.I'UAI.                              Bakir Abbas Ot iil                             207

RESE.\iR(:H;
I'(iiid)ih, (astlal                              135          TilE PRORESS ANi) C(NTRIIUiION
                                                              OF RESiI'ICI I PR()JECTS F()R
DISCUSSIONS ANI) CONCLUSIONS OF                               AGRICUI.TURA I)EVELOPMEINT IN
PA NEI, i I                                      1415         KO )REA;
                                                              Young Sitti Kin                                211
Panel III
Strategies for Strengthening                                  I)ISCUS;IONS ANI) (ONCLUSIONS OF
National Agricultural Research                                PANFI, III                                     225
Systems
LEAI) AI)I)RESS:                                              SPECIAl A)I)REISSEIS:

STRA'I'E(; I     \N
                A.S I) A( 1'VII IT( )                         TI I1 (1AN( ;I N( 1IRSPEI TI VI' ( )I
.I'I'T       N.VI'I( )N..\I. A( ;RICUILTURAI.                 N.VII()NAI ANI) IN'ITERNATIONAI
 RI.SI..\I:II SYSiTIEMS (NARS) OF                             ACRICULITURAII            (SEARH
                                                                                            lOR 2110
I)EVIL( )PI N(; ( :1 iNIR IlS:                                A. ).;

       IhrnhMilhrlhycad 'duar(Io Velnezialn      I1t          1l. Krishan.jain                               229



                                                              (;LIBAI. DIA IISS ()N NATI )NAI
I'ANtIl P,.\IIRS                                              A(RI(CULIRA RESEARII SYSTIMS;
                                                              Ho,'ward Elllilti and Philip G. Paidey         255
STIRATIXI IS FOR STREN;1ItENIN;
NATI( )NAI, AC;R IC:U IT) RA I.
RiSE:\RCII SYSTIms;                                           The Second IF RD Global Convention
I)omiinic E. Ihalilbo                            155          -Summary Record                               251

SIRAITEI IS I( :R STRiNiTI IENIN(                             Final Discussion and Conclusions              257
  GR ICU TU R\ I RES., RCII SYSEIMS;
()rlillz l'itis Rivalha                          161          Recommendations                               261

TiIlE NATI(ON.\I. .\CGRICI:I I AI.                            The IFARD Brasilia Declaration, 1986          263
RIESEARII(: I I SYSIEI 10 IAK IS'ArN;
AnliN Miianfiiird                                183          Annex                                         265

STRAIE( ; is FII( SIRIN;lI IEN INC; ( )F
NATI( )NAI. A( ;R I( lL RTLIAI.
RISIAR(CH S'SIENIMS: LATIN AMIIRICA;
Armandol Slliplr                                I 193




                                                        H,

                                                                Preface





  InOctober t.986, tie invitation of the Brazilian
                   at                                                     each introduced by a lead address followed by several
 Government, it:3 National Agricultural Research                         panel speakers, after a keynote address by thbel-Director
  Enterprise ( EI BiRAPA) and the International                          General of ISNAR. '[lie three panels dealt withilie' "Role
                                                                                                    i
 Federation ofAgricuitural Research .Systerms fi)r                       of Researc ill  I nreasing F"od Production";

 Development (I FARi)), the First Intcrnatioinal M eeting                "Networking 
 as a Means of I icreasing li-t Ellicietncy of
 of National Agricultural tesearich Syst,'ins and ttl                    Agricultural Research"; and "National Strategies filr
 Second IFARD Global Conveintioni were held ill     Brasilia,            Strengthening Agriicuitural Research". l)ur'ing ihe

 D.F., Brazil, from thi-I
                        iItI ofthe mo(nth, ill
                                             Ite                         eulSt oftlit fiv'-day inCeting dii Olitr unity was
 conl'rtnc( facilities of the Fedlteal Ilank. ISNAR was                  provided to visit a numii)f'r insiallalit)nshost
                                                                                                   ofiih        oftlihe
 closely involved in the preparation oftese, Inictings and               organization, EN BRAIIA, and onitie I0urth (ay the
 in seeking sponslorshiip for i)ricilants, through its                   Second IiARl) Global Coiientioin was ihld. lihe

 provision oflth. I FARI) Sc(
                            rctariat, 
                                  meeting tertiinatcd wilh a pletnary session firiOu
                                                                         pr's'ntation (J'u
                                                                                         oifi('siols and reei       ln(iions antd
 Since the lInterniational lr(uiitiin ifAgricultural
         I                                                               ti fiirmllion ofthie FAI       "Blrasilia l)c('laration',
 Research Systetms fit"
                      l)evefopihiiit         (II.ARID) was               1986.This declaration fidlhows "'Ilagio l)ecfaralion,
                                                                                                    thel'
 formally i stabliserl)ill
                         1979 it has-jointly sPlonisir(d IWO             1977" and tille"New i)ciI
 )eclaration, 1979" as a third
 regiial confere'ices and :awtvn regional\w(,rkshops 
                   expressioll of'thte
                                                                                          concer'n fll illte d(eiveloling wold
 de-ding with various elirnelir         i
                                   i':srius. within   lit'
                                                        broad            over th' Iparhus stil(-i)rmf'iilIt ur' ant fiod spplIy.

 topic ofstrenglining igiltritol            research ill 

                                                       tihn

developing countries as an ess'enttll key to nore ratpil                 [lie Ineetting was o)l)(h'd a.ii. Monday, 6th

                                                                                                     al
                                                                                                      ito      (il
and sustained devel;inent. It also held ali  intlrnational               Octol)cr under   tiln uhairnanship of Mr. S.V. Sadikin,

workshop, illingapore in.July ti t
             S                         o
 t very specific                P~resident of I"A RI). Aft r I Iriefinrodnetory address

issue of'"'' li Rile ofl\Ealiaition ill ational Agrieii'ucal
                                      N                                 by Mr. Sadikin, 
the ineting was forillly ienel by the(
 Research Systeilis".                                                   MInister ofAgrientinire, His Excellency )r. Iris Rezende
                                                                        Machado, on imehall'ofthe.
                                                                                                 iresident of Brazil.
 It has not, IImowtver, hithieto iioited ill     intlnaiinal
eoiiferen (ullt it broad ginuiral topic oihftOtionili]                      li(kevynoite address ghien ly \ir. A. \-i(ldr ( )stin,
agricultural resrarch. Ill,elme ihose', "']''lli(it
                                  I'l                       Impa         I)irector Git-etl of ISNAR, was imiIli(' general thini' ofi
Researcth oil National Agrivoiutral l)'veoptint'm, was                  il(i InIcetitng, "Th'e Imnpact of' eset'rih o )evefopitleit
                                                                                                         R           Il
desigtned both to pertiit iuimimi,! ,1I A RI) to share                  - Neecis and   I fli'tilds''.
their siimsss with othters atnud pitrnuit ill('
                                       !o          fnriinlaliill
thl  ririiil'nvidatiimis aimd atf)liy-tnalki.rs,                         Tis waits    fiiluiwi' lIv th (Ih'tlioll   ofuhaitIn(ll andul
gover!muent iiiltiiii      (financmial
                           c        hrllfliidthdonors,
                                                     ilting              ralihiiitits lilr both Ihlpiinay sussi)ns ihl' inetting
(ilt ifi(' htemifits \vhich c'i aicrue froni) iroperly                  aiitdh Ill'l        (iscussioms. I)r. ( )rini, I)itas Riv'aldo,
sitlilor'iu atiti Inuattagul(r(seirh. This tii-litg Ilttlitr            h'risiihtnt iif IBRA IA, %as (c(tt'I (:fhai'tti             il'tli
stInds is a ntile('stllue
                    ill FARI )s shurtI Ilisltiry, nirhing
                      I 
                                               nit'ig,      issisteu b I )r.      I.J.M. Irias, )r. I. Fakainhi
its first folly itll rl
                   i atill;il illitialiv.                               atd M r. B.N. \'eiutu' its R;-piortetis; ialtI I on tIln
                                                                        'Role lReseart ill          Illul'tasihtg Food l'ri)uhlill' wOii]ii
Tle Iteing was organized hill) titer ulaltt discissions,                be chaired Iv l)r. A\nlnio Tort'(-it     of NMi'xihi, assistedi liv




                                                                   15
 D)rs..J. \fitIIer itIod WV.Ag IfI ; Vlitl I 1, ''Noworkiig ats 
                                                                       PR( C IS1! R, oil ( 2221)22diki Aciti itfill Eiivtitit ill
 i Meanis ol ncrcasing tilt Ellichico           AgrtiLiirAI 
                                                                           Agiclturial Researlch''. A jiattel discuissioni htilowu.
 R(-scateci'                    be
                         022221(1              ,liaired byvDr. WV.
                                                                 XWapakala ol'


  Mr.'P.*J ilitv's its Rappii 22tiiis; iitl 12.2122. 11 "National~t 

                                                   II                                                                                   a pIlaiy ail225 22 It..M iIIcr2IIik\\2 and2 E. \eiietjali

 Strtegies 16. i t tiiliiiliiig Ag~triultural lReseciiici 

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                                plesvillf~~~~~~~~~~d.
                                   X K                           ~14w             ;il\F l d lol                            Ii\,o
  ISNAR data file's,   ttowhich Ihle ISNARI/ 
 IFARID Survey                    The new Chairmani oflIFARI), D~r. lItis artcano,
                                                                                                                          M
 of National Agriclitral Research Systems hind made. 
                          presented tile draft "Bhasilia Declaration", whic~h had
 if sigtnificant contribution. Folhloving it discutssion st'ssio r, 
           been iprc\'iously €listrihttd to participats fi~r comlnlll~~
 IIrtha:(l~irman, D~r. 01-11o"z Frc<.ilals 
 hande'd o)ver
                                      Iivaldo,                                  andol/tlr
                                                                                        amltlllnt.The"     declaration 
was tilallilioumsl
 to \Ir. S.\V. Sadiikin, ]Pre'sidenit          fi~r 

                                   toI'II+FARI, tilt-
                          accetpltd and 16fill t1      part
                                                                                                      inlltgrn'l
ofltct lrt-tetdiligs.
 olpt'ling (l't]he

                Stcctnd I I::RI) (Ghobil('.nve\dtll.
                                                                                  Closing till
                                                                                 In            ft'tctinlg, D~r. ()rlilnzo 
 Rivaldo
                                                                                                                      Fl'itas
   ih
 :F owing ti (. op n ngo f l C oli\el ti ll, i lt I nlu vl f'
             lt t li
                  '        '                          lb                        Ie r es e'dis a l
                                                                                 xp   s h        plr e' at ol t ltht igh s t a nd a d<ta l tt
                                                                                                      ti ti      ' eh          c    lel'(

 I'A RI) divided linto
                     thtwir     re(gional grtoiips
                           thilce                    Asia, 
                    mnaintained€   throutghoulltt' m'ling.
                                                                                                            ill-
                                    +
 Alrica, and .Latinl
                  A\mericat & IIlCa+ribbeanIt,
  for i'.orlmal
 itcginlaltinc'vtitngN flilt-
                   tocle'hct     RgtionalI Gt\tnrlim!. 
                         lTe ob~jectiv'ity <)l'lhte
                                                                                                        fl+tit'ii]paIlls 

                                                                                                                  had lIwtilitiLttvd
 Ctoncils, and dhwif)llict-I'S midlt
                   o               toa      l~    MLim lt 

                                                     'IX''
                        d ''t n in 11 (IIS II I tlI111}tdt t is c'to I

 reprt's I') hbe t -sutd lit.(
               lpi     to    'tcltlll 

                                   Ass'll lvif]hel
                                              t                                 flcvtd ill tille
                                                                                              Snllglhl'tling ol tiotmal it I.llturll'
                                                                                                                      agr 

 alll'nlltI. 
                                                                  rn'sca+rt'h,lhv cnlp~hasizvd'cl.slpIlhle
                                                                                                               cially   b'nt'lits 

                                                                                                                               of'

                                                                                co'p-iollm andU aldatdcd thli
  rteco~llllVilditoms ol'lthe
   rti pa
P a c'i n ts r Tl'l k\'C l l utn c'r at cf' hki l lh c
                       1.     ge  a l , ll         i                             n t it rrgar di Igth e'vs ab
                                                                                        g
                                                                                       n~              th ir ilit \ ,oqct g slr totlg 

                                                                                                                      'S kin         tcr

al'tt'rtnooll..\AFtcr the' (
                 rtccci\'lic           lt'
                                         at
                                         .wif% ifiv.s
                                                   tlic 
                       po+litcal suplpol I J.','s'rch. BR PA was lehase'd

                                                                                                  I;n"       EM31+:          

rt'gitonal
         g()\'crjllncouncils, Ilht.N
                                  Iont- de~t+hdhlv

                                              tot
                                                t                               and p~routd to h It
                                                                                                  c  t ll(-d ll th<
                                                                                                            I      Ic'tv
 lig. Ih'c

dis(tossiom    n d
               rll option ill'IN,.(Im
                                   ulivlltllt'. b\ tht
                                          lotpairtc                               isht'(I:FAR1) %%(.] tilt(. 

                                                                                       [           in     lilltt.



                                                                               IIFA RI) is Ctls<-ciadlygrim-'lid tothl,,  Go<vctrml'll l,Brlazil

This dl (islu l \\';is
    ".

            S          filh,\v'd h\ till'ti lilIH.IInStcd
                                         V          p os                       I r i  ~ilig   t ( 11,(
                                                                                                    Illatguilic'cill flcwilitir's liarilte

                                                                                                                                     t Ili'lilltgs
odllh I'llis .Nlalr'om<oC:.. tdlFAIS.\( ;I, I I t-zlicIh,hic
                                                      aIsd                     and~ alccording Smh axtl
                                                                                                   It            wc'h'ol.     t)fl);it
                                                                                                                                     iip~aills.

n v%w r e' ltt I I D a nd I)ns . F' o m di,
     I sidhl lI :A R :                 .,M     -a'ri                           S p c' al a ni a r ct lt -t ) E I A\ ,til B rhi lia n h ol 

                                                                                   ti l th k s     li         I':BR I  l a z.          st

Atgc'lii A~,Mid II m tlit'd Ylls lfIhnl shill,
                     Mh                  tla 
                                 Illstitliin, in ])Illticutdlr th'LA ilim lizill~g

                                                                                                           IIIIlhlV ILl rg

  la
.X l a vy alt s .h ' b c~t
        i ,;i n         t
                        s     ]Njh, S tu t l' nfly D~
                                  arc.    b s, t
                                             '         r .
                      o l i
                                                                                c'lli lt c: D [u' ' i ( :, \ .s ac ad oha . i l
                                                                                               .D I)l lm '' lM h        d     vil

\V. I\\'atpa~kaLi&nI.att3:
                   "             l(-
                          joi dil lh'iomdls                                                +

                                             ;INCh+ i'rmnl;t                   Coo(n'l-itllto
 (:it'.+ll st's
                                                                                              Ing"       SM o      +A\ntlltvE'xectotiv't
                                                                                                                          lli,
  ' l
t lll A fit l R tvt
          'a     zioll a C "1.1 il a n I ofi s mIt.()t lfl
                             11      d h   -r
                                           s                                   .ttr e'ly,ID
                                                                                 ' t a      r.I l i jlo- .M;licl+ i al
                                                                                                   z            h    s.         C l o
                                                                                                                          l l r a'l
                                                                                                                                :   s
olfE p(~ljoinetd atdtifilm.al
               ,t',           lintIt bc[ . fi'ica,.
                                         W                                     I h'illritIlui(G is, lillir, Ehe'H
                                                                                         Iloft<     In+t-   andl(   Stolc'in.
R eg'l',(:, . it a nl d ' i IB ( )tt'il~ ' l~l l l d
     it l C oll      l        .      t'l   pj      un                             sc m
                                                                               \'a t ctchs C(as~ n l'llb , %\h c'h d bl fi fl btilt

                                                                                                  ,t    t'r i h a                 il
  a
ats ddiiol    t~'
              1vllbr r .\lfilt
                   l       .1.                                                 olftht'
                                                                                     \\,ofrkh>;a id'~ h~gistir"suppo(rt fill- the
                                                                                              ill p    in~g
                                                                               Illec'tilngs.

                      r

"'' lilmp)hclial
 '.)lo dthtli 'tlig \\;s Irllt' ill
           l         y ses"                                     o
F ri l a\, t o( ) (ll l(.,Ill tl llh cl t ir oli osh i p o \ r. S.\V.
                            l                             f'                   (G'tal aplr e c( i oni al oivXpr v. d It d ct l w i g
                                                                                   e        p i  a       s ls            .s
                                                                                                                          .  o i I hb
,Sadikitn. [lnhon.si+i,   hvn'idthl' F'l":lI). chalirtllenl
                                                    'Ilht-
                    age'nc(ies,, who~se' Suppltrt, ihillncial aw~l ill kind, Inade (het
    oth. rec p a ll t,I si l
         I             sc o l       'ts td Ih tr i'Alo cr 'l"
                                      l]          i    lP    l s
                                                              l                ll ldll t l' t m tt'i gs a Ir a'; : t ilt- gov et y o, s o f ' lh
                                                                                    i       f lh        n         li t\               - :
                                                                                                                                  rfl +11 " l e
sun llI ic's (Ile'
               of      panc] Ii rs
                                 l    anod disculssions oll t'lo+h   I"                    n
                                                                               Nt'ttl~mI s: Ili(t'   Unliold S talls (tL,"S,\ll);Fi. (4 rll
                                                                                                                                   tfic
     (
illh l ht'(Ilol i 's. nd tIs w.,a",
          .                i a                                                             +

                                               lidltom'td by                   R vtIIIlIic 4.111if It ;I' an ffkustra Iill (AC IAR ;
                                                                               i )          ol'(                        o
ikp-  i
     t'd ondn~-ij) Hi,,t'u,.sionl.
( hll br'tak, Il)r.
                              Altl
                                 (Ir Iht                                       Illv Foo)d & Agritcullural ( )hganfizmlioni'th, U~nfite~d
()r1'imzFl,'a+z R lt'do,r'nmc.d [l.' 'hair. lI inlvite.d
                                   C         c                                 Nations (FAO\(); dwlt Te'chnicatl         I'll.
                                                                                                                           I,lil~u(

M . il diki l It
               opr. et l I v e'itg a s o il ry of t
                     n oi l     r'.           it     h 'c                      a n R i o-al vl' o' ni. T A to'l t l El',i -\\i o k .
                                                                                 d      ll \
                                                                                          )       p   mC        h    + :
 lt  lulr
hlighlig!its 41 If(-l lik c individhual o'~ld'rt'cm'c
                                                 p l-.S                        Found(ation; I IC A; (C'I ( AINI'; CIAT; and ih<c
                                                                                                      I); 

lpiesc'n.'t itng th.r %\ccl-,,ilylk-mvintl ilwl
             dot             ,     to,                                         Fhral Ban k ol']B'azil, Pa+rtic~ular thanks ;irt'
                                                                                "<
                                                give'nto
      r
r ep o ts , a l d t l ,' d'tt( pllll llj u 
ati o n~ irtc a i d b~ I .
                       ih i .' l      t l         s p l          y ht          IS N A R l o r1m al nl k ey n ot(el]lwak v s . ila l e n~ fi ll
                                                                                               ; ki g            s        rl \a      a d
r e'g l li ts 
 . l iu~l i I:A R I) ( i Ih ba sis o'tl
    ion            nrt      s o'                    t             '
           Ipt\ itil i nluda le It is li( upp o)+ u ring til
                                                                                r       ltr      l        g      cs      rt d         e
                                         .

dlibetrtionst't,'mtintlg. Tlhecoclusion~s and)(                                prt'ratmry wo.'rk thir mer' .

                                                                                                     for           ting
l'TC01ct~lulations we re,duly adpdlhlt(] Illm i)arl
                                       ll         (if"
      pr
th e's o ce < i ngs
     e,     edt .
                                                                                                                                    Tl e"
 itor s
                                                                                                                                     h Ed




                                                                         17

                                                                 LIST OF ACRONYMS





 AAASA:          Association Iirr thre Advanceet of'                            CIA:              T'echn~icarl Ceniter fiur AgriculItuiralI
                 AgriculItutral Scit-tics ini A fiici                                             & Ruiral Cooperationi
       AM:       Asianl Associartiont of'Agricultrl                             ( I'l:            Centre lechIniquew Firestier Troil
                 (Collegesanrd Uii stcs                                                           ( Fiance)
       AAR:        gency' for A\griurrlrrrral RI-st-arrh aind                    )SE:             Gerirarn Foundaf~tionr for Inrternrationral
                 I evvioplut-nt (Indtiia)                                                         IDevvIoprtirit
       ACI
         R       Astralianr (iriri         fort Itirrrrritrioril                ENI B RAPA:       'Il( Nationalr AgricurirlI Rtiscarcir
                 .\gricutor iRiiI-rsiciirc
                                a                                                                  Irttitrist' iii Ifiazil
ADl),II:          .-\rsi rariai I )rsrhrpnlrrrt A\ssistancer                    FA,\:              Frood and A\griurtrr          )rgarri,:tiui
                  Ift11iri                                                      It SAX(RI:
                                                                                      l            Irairuiiri .'rijcii     filri  1-1 grirriitoi,
ADlIl:           As~ian I)rsrlincrrr Banrk                                                        (\'vrIrciclr)
    AI.,r         Ltinr \:rrrircrtr Assocriationr of,                           GDPI:             Grorss IDrrnrrstj rlIodutI~
                 A\gricortirrrf srjrrrrii                                      (if,:              (,crrrlrrr A\grr~t fo-rilcrfirr
       AIFA
          :      Ltin .\rrrr irarr Associ~iain11flIirfer                                         Crnrjrrrtior
                 Scihools rrf.\grictrrItIrIIr                                   IAA E:            Irrn~t n eil Assorciation of,
A\r
  K     :       A\s;arran Pcifi c (      irt
                                     Commj Co lilt]   rnrrity                                    Agiriutral~ Ecorrnomists
    AI:          grirrrii inn Rresicr   cri                                     IARIMS:           Inrrirrliorrlr Agricuril t Reiarci
ASE~AN'.        Associatiuon orfSnnrrtf Eaist A\siarr Na~,tionrs                                 (rrrItrrI-
       AVD\     A,jrr Vcgrtriabr fRc.se~rrrf               run                 I:\
                                                                               IIrtrrStr                        r .\ssuiat jolts
                 )r'rfirjr0rr
                DI            ( 114t                                           I l1IG
                                                                               1r~i R:           Initernational fBardf (Ibl lant Genretic
CA 1)1          ( :aiba      AgricnltmainIRcsvarrrf and                                          Resomurces
                DIo)lr nrrrrrr Inrsljrrr ii                                    I IfI(I:          I ritriatirrrar Banrk lot- Rconstiructin
GAllI F:        Crrrrrr i6r Rrernnrfr and 'I ririnirng ini                                       amO Developmenict (Wrld~r Batik)
                Trop~ical Agrrrrrrnr            (coisti    Rica)               IlIlIA:           Inrstitt iolirrniii   ~l.Ir(Ctrlrrlg(;t
  IENICA\,\.:   C niodei Invistirii(                dcia C
                                                    (ii   :;fia dv                               Agropectlarr
                .\znrrcrr iiCo nninirj                                         ICA:              Ilirsitnito Coloi
                                                                                                                nniitrtni Agrtrrciarrir
CIA:            (;mlilrrrrarrrnntii lmnrsttv Ilistitirir.                      ICARI:            Irndian Cournc~ilt i6-gricurirrai
      CGA:      Colltsoif itive Cnrqr oil Irrtrrriidnaf                                          Rese-rcl
                .\t.iin( r1rriril Reseaiir                                     I(      \ II)::   I rririrrtiiirlr (nrrt liii A\giriltural
CI AAl:         ( it ri       Ici'sigaioli rns A\gtiriiis
                               i                                                                 IZr'SV;:ttrfr Or ie WD[iV A\re
                "'\Ifrtr Bovrrni'',1       I I rglrr)                          IWII IA:\''         rrtr'r-A,\ii ol ( - fr fin. thei
                ('tiCrll IItn'riinar (11. \ricritriia
                                                A                                                Iiltr'grawtdn Dlopmeeinjrtrt rit Siil attit
                unoii if]
                    1                                                                               inte


                I liurrni'rri'rr ofi Mi/c~n        randW\Irr't                                   Physiolo gy aind Iriririgy
C( :            IIl i'rltrnnril Plartrtni~             l             ~l           ,:
                                                                               WRAP'             lninrainal ConiiIlint Renserchr~            i
( I lL\ :        0 rtrtcdcni' (    i lir'rrn    iiii    rra                                      Agrri-Vilty
                rir1 RechlIn'rrcrr Arrnnrirrirjri poolri Iv                    IClRISATI:        Intrertratinral C ropj Rr'sr'arrh Inistitrute
                I )r's'lorjpr'rrrI                                                               for' lie svillj-Arif Tropin's
                                                                                                 lit-




                                                                          19
 IDIAP:        Instituto de Itivtstigaci6ri Agropici-ij            NARS:             National Agricultural Recilcl Svsltll
               de I'ana ni                                        0 1)A::            ()ralizaiiii de Ii s L.Staii s
 I l)I{(:      Intcronatiojial Developmnti Researchi                                 Aii'cricajuis
               C~entre (Cainada)                                  01IRS,\:           Regionial Initetin aljii Ornizat:iion b
                                                                                                                         i
 I E1\V.       Instit tt iI'Ile age ef dci NItdcci Ic                                 innait id i iIiia IeaiI h( Cn ilI
                                                                                                      MI
               \Wirinaire dcs Pays )I I)Jicaulx                                      Amica~~)
                F'rance)                                          ( RS'1 I M:       Offcec k Ruclivi-civ Sciriiquc ci
                                                                                               L
 IER-          IllstiliiL dI'.colioolit Rulrale                                     Tchniiiquec ()intc-Nicr
 I FA D):      I nit-tnationuil Fund for Agricidul aIiARC:                          Pakistani :\giculturniI R'-scarchI cun~cil

I F.RI):       Iiiiclliationai Fecratiioql uf.\gicilturaiI                          &~fRvsonces Rem-arcli S'. I-iveopiiicnr
               Rvcscarcli System ift, r)velopiiuiit               PL'CNIGA:         Ceutral Anwjrh-iji Coopeative
I FPR 1:       Intriiauioiial Food Policy I'istiaiic                                Proigramiis IM.I ood(Crop~ I Iiijriivcluit
                                                                                                   F



              Cobopeiirai on il\glicuiuiiii                       1ij(   ) :,I)I:   C:(jliuti IPrcaacilcic6ii (-It
IITr\:        Interiiatjunml Iiis',ititc liii linpicaiI                             AdmIiiustraijl de l I Iivestigacjiin
               \griciiltur                                        lPROCISUR:        I'IOigrilli C001iopcraisi dV I iivcsOigNicii'n
IICA:         Interinational    ikvisiock (cu iiti                                  Agricola decl ((111( Sili
              Afriica                                             RI~E11N.\:        Ama1;zoni A\gru-ElIgicia I Rscalichi
IN I,:        I ustituin Nacionial dviInlvistigaciuim                               Ncssoi k

INI I'
     FAIP:     I iistitti  Naiiuia (Ic I nvrstigiciuitis          S:\IIIO:          South A\siai Blic(Iis Organization
              Fioiisudr!i, ~\ g ropcctiazias ( Nlixico)           SEA\RCA:          Sout oust Asia Regionual ( cutt-lill.
INIPA:        NaionaiI Iiustititc louAgricutltural                                  Graudu.uc Sii( andt Rectrch~ in
              Reusearchu and Df-)i~qclupivuu iiu                   ~griculturei
                                                                              A
    IN:       lusiutiNcini          l uuuo~iUASRC:                                  Un1ion oflArab Siititic Rzcsuurch
              Ar~gopivuinriu I :\uguutiuia )                                        Coiuncils
      R ,I:   Inistitiut de I6-chtuiuulics Ag\u. loiq u           Ut(INE;SCO:       IUuitcd Natiouns Ed~ucuitina and
               roicIrus (-i des C ulti.res \uv. icii,                               Scjuuuujljc ()ugalliz;tiou

I RR I:       Iniutuiatinau ijce !{uscilc Inustiiii                                 Piroigrammie
ISN A R:      Inuiviiiuaiiiuiai Sirvice lii Nati onail             IN ICA:          Assuiiuu uul( .ijluau        Uiversities
               \giciltii      RuIcsriiuh                                            andi( IcsilluIn itutecs
                                                                                                  lst
    NR:       Nagjiuial .\giictiliiaI Recaich Ceiiiir             UISA IID:         Uiwci Staics Agec in- International
                                                                                                        b
N:XRPI:       National \gricul uiur-u    Recauclu Projctu                           IDivclupillent




                                                             20
                                           LIST OF PARTICIPANTS





COUNTRY REPRESENTATIVES                                            BARBADOS

z\R(GE-NTI'N,                                                     jolo P.W. Jcihr6s
                                                                  Mhiiistr\ 4)1 Xgi calr e, Food, & Fisheries
Carlos I.) vS~ltidv1ile                                           P.0.     Xl4    Hi ;ieHav


                        I NIA                                        OLiiViAk

                           a                     1,4!4(i          Iia
                                                                    iliiiio     i1ii


                        I~~ Illi
                          (ii                                     Iil1I114to BI
                                                                       i t11                      d




 R li vi
  i          .      9                                               I R ZI

                                                                  1\lutolsl'l4S1440.Ek11414


I ii44i44 Nai 4.i; 4 de
l                                                                 QI    ()C   (401.    o45(1lil       042-1.1)1:44 Xiii
                        I~~~~~~~              Agowidm7(44-          lci44i411 I111i14i    -   1)1

 ii,~Z VVleZ 20.r -- LI        .ucj6il                            Da~vid Stokes
Illo4s .\ ir44                                                    The Biti sh Coucil
                                                                  SCRN 20)8/0 - IM. F
Juil Cail us scl!J                                                70000 - B~rasiliai - DF
Iliter-1\)iI)1-iaI IlstitiiI         1)4

 Coope4raion41 o41 i     4ir                                      Guillermo Picncs
I I:\                                                             0 ga iii ii(Ii)l dic los 's(iiios tic A niriel
                     8
Sarirjeilil 7(i"4 I'ii
Blvlio     k\ircs                                                 Ediliejo C ity lank, I' iiidar
                                                                      740(44 ilsilili - D)1


                                                                  Nojili Our 16Iiain

Illigililcsl \giohuiraii Researc-h Cbuincil                       Avenida     cuts    Naiet




                                                             21
  Alain Perraud                                          Scvtrino dceNelo Arajko
  Office Je la Recherche Scicntifiquc                    EMIBRAPA
 Ct Tech niquc Otre-Ner/                                 Ed. Venancio                         ()
 Centre te Coopt'ration Internationale                   7OO - (ama - i)1
 en Recherche Agrotmiquc poor le
  l)evcloppenlent                                        Ali Aldersi Saab
 ()RSTON /(IRAD                                          EIMBRAPA
 linl)aixada da in"a - (x. Pomstl 65
               d                                         E(. \'E
                                                               Ninciu wooM)
 7o.toN - Brasilia ­ )F                                  70o0 - Gama - IF

 William Ellis                                           Carlos Nloyscs Andrtcotti
 hntcranwricam Dc'velopmto                  Bank         ENIIRAPA
 Praia do0
         Flanikogo '.o                                   E&
                                                         ld. \200c n)i a)
 222 1        -   kil cheja nciro - RJ                   7m1 -  Gama - 1

 Allmrti( 1). Portuogal                                  Antonio (   o
                                                                    i. chs
 EPANI(;                                                 EN! IRA PA/C N PI1
 Av. Amazonas, I F), 7" andar                            Ed. V\(';biio O000
 :o I8o - Belo I h'rizi,nit - MG                         70 0 - ("iamai - IiF

 Alil)o N. Santana                                      Antonio F. dias Avil
 Nationjal Agricultmral Rcscarch                                                          1
                                                         ENI!BRAPA/I)E
  I'ntrpIrisc offli'azil                                 Ed. V'cnfinci               2., (11,          sala 7T5
  NIItRAPA
 EM                                                     7t'3:3       -    Ilrasilia- I)
 Ria EMIIRAIPA s/n'". - C aixa 'oslal i0o 7
      111)-       Blrasilia                             Ilcitto Nl.,..Jtuior
                                                         'NIBRA PA/S PSII
 Aoizih dt. AiIoda Pinto                                Ed. lPalii(ioll
                                                                      do5'C1llvlvililtl,
 ENIBRA PA - I )ept" ll I iililiniicai c                !" alndar
 I)ocun('li         tavill                              711iit       - Ir'asilia -)1"
 Ed. \t,,1~iiii'~ o                 io

70)3:3 - Ilb'silia -- )F                                II. GrolI
                                                        I iIA/( IAlI'/I; l                         l      IPA
Ormlz F                      Rivildl
                             ]ias                       CIA(, (;aixI lOslIA 7"(."0123
INIIIR\PA                                               7330i0 - l'laaltioa - 1)1"
E'd. VVII,'lli16it 2(100l
7pmml    - (i;111;      - DFl                           (Cavd(ita N.I I. WooIll(ois
                                                        SEI1 ,AN/SE
      .1trii hav's NIachiadoi d! Sil'a
          (                                             SQS 11.t , 111.
                                                                      (:i)l"                           llvl

IN;IBRAPA                                               7t1'.'3.1 -         asilial)F
EA]l. Ven''l^1lllvio .tloit

71m      - (Amal -           I)"                        (ristiill) N. NIilc
                                                         I EC/('()AfCR I
(trlos        I lenri(llu       Iloo Gois               S(AS 6h I, L,1t 211
IENIBRAPA                                               Mhllro-   BraiFiliai 11
Ed. VCM'n1i11i0 2000
                   <
pimwl -" (Amnla         -    I)F                        Claudio A.iF.do Naistilnl.llto

                                                        Balinloil dle irasil S/A -- FI PE(
Ellt'n Solviri \ascoiic'los Costa                       Ed. Scdc I l - 2f a&lldl - SIIS


711      - (ama -            I)1F                        lailco do Brasil S/A - I)ENAR
                                                        SIN - Ed. S(tIl I - 81"andar
                                                        722771   -       llrasili.    -       I)F



                                                   22
 Carlos F. Fisc'hCr 
                                     Antotio tie Fr.itas Filho
 SUI)EPE 
                                                EMBRAIPA/DEP
 SEPN -w16, Il. C-        iandar, 
                       Ed. Vcna ciO 201()), 7" audar, salar 706
 Sala .I06 
                                              70333 - Brsilia - IF
 700M) - Bilasilia - I)F

                                                          Fernando L.Gara.gtrry
 Carlos A. )iuccos                                        E.MIIRAPA
 INitI 
                                                  Ctixa Postal 1.1-22t      t

 70M) - BI'silia -          1F 
                          7()1)1)()Brasilia - D)F

                                                                 -

 Daniel((stalson                                          Fihilna 1..I.M. da Silva
 Intr-Amcrical hi lillat0              fill               EMBRAIPA/(NI'lI
 (',opc111prtiiI     oIn   gilicillltr                    Caixa isial ) 
 7-012 11
                                                          C~
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Eil.   V(Ill1ll1iOl 2000,       sala 71 1                70-00 - IBrasili, - I)1
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                                                    23
 Idare A. Gomes                                                    jos6 R. NIclo SA

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                                                             24
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                                                           '26
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                 C.A.Kiaici            WNROC

                                                               WELCOMING ADDRESS





                                                                           Iris Rezende Machado
                                                               Mlinisteru)f. griculture. Re/iblicu Federal do Brasil




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                yvll'.s       Inllionld

                                      attrictiltut'd                                    tchnlogLical aiutiollo nllyillplivs a c'omnitll ipro)t-c+, 

                                                                                                                                    inig       o~l"
 rtcst s%-s'i %%'its
     ,r(.'h jjl r(Iltl-lit~ h thtcv It'a 

                                      €'    iu<l'thlt.                                   'tl a na I tolt%
                                                                                                       ccc     i kilto%%h'clgt 

                                                                                                                              gtr;itr alie whrvhl

                                                                                                                                     td
 BrazilIian '
          It nic.t
                 l~I.+,kAgn cIit' I
                     fort       turiR -l~ I'

                                        . I,                                            iII twt%..rlI, IhII s m o'idlim
                                                                                                                      deplc.ldilnt III Iill,. t

                                                                                                                                         ny t(
 ENI ItRAIPA, ag!rittm l tit'civ b 'it,, mll s11"(o11                                          .

                   I lt      (I-h~Il     t-c                                               II
                                                                                        sqlI(c All (c I'th'l   iIIli'r
                                                                                                                     itItion, tria Isand rc c
                                                                                                                             na                 tssv~s

 ;it,,! p+ro~duc Ii\fc
                   v  e ;It' .ian ,
                            t/I
                         It h     soci I\'. 
 vI, I
                                          Rc     cI                                     Mhitch I bvt' Iizcd. tqJ it~i
                                                                                               I
                                                                                            It' ca     IuIi 1) I.     IiIiona1. 116 I'rs

                                                                                                                                      III- t.xpctItst.
 projec'tts andl( [I-('hllltlhg<-. d;.+dv im ta'~ll(T~ 

                nr\v            ,.m[
                                                   itild tLtcltlratt ll.t dhtc(11111y shotld ltc
                                                                                                      im i  fIou (                     takc'r

 hiyve Ibet'll       ) 

              th.\rtl .,
                                                                                                ..

                                                                                        adva nltatgv qufi:'ly ;ti,

                                                                                                   ol'ats       Ipo,,ibh


\Vith this flakt~ttiomi!,
             t        I~li .\ inu.,
                                  ohicc'ti Ium\'
                                            v"s 
 Ict'.                                 'Fil. qvt'nc't'l
                                                                                                     ro lit'-cl of,11t'fhnical 'oltlattiollt
'.,.it

                                                                                                                                            is
I-Sltlblislh .tw-li,'nt~
          t IMr                 1hill Ih+1zil:
                          It".vt'll
                                                    actiont bI'\\cn sta~ltes+ II illti'rlla tolm lor'ganizatlionts

                                                                                        pcl' lllitlillt- lilt- 11Irt i l l l oltlh4g I)i't\'is+iol 

                                                                                                                     o,+ +        , tillv       tol"

i) [Imthic\ I*         .1
             Ic't'hlloh ;11lljl+l
                    "~i'      lll\ ;                                                    It-c'hnlic'al aildt (.\( IIlangv
                                                                                                       s.,'r itc"+ liltr         olill    dl o(thgic':. 

                                                                                                                                                  and

                                                                                        kill)\\h I,,so c.t\l..ions , I)o11111)11 rclsi.

                                                                                             ledge       (Im          ('       ill
ii)           tiat.' r(Al ,t
       tit.1.'.s ;I(         wdl   dlt ionI
                                    tl          v
                                          \\.il Iclllow
                                                     t
       tc(llildh'.dk i holiotI of'it,
                                   Il'vlat'lit'+: 
                                     ' l hlitiv'al
                                                                                                  t'+c'p-l       c o e il
                                                                                                        ti.ntl htm'Ill. (it lt IX.+. 

                                                                                                                                  hi'\elN.

                                                                                                          .,

                                                                                        (blet'.\(.l
                                                                                             h    1(',h flontlt < llh-,fllllhl
                                                                                                     Il                           the o ltht.r
                                                                                                                          clatiolt,,; 

iii)       m
           ill l, nrc'vl',ml\ IIla
                (ift-       -fi t    itJil n ll flic'h
                                                    \%.otik                             dt'l(- ilo looplc'ialio~ll'll
                                                                                                ,               hbel\\ dh*\cthl
 o(liltr'ics,

                                                                                                                     -        illf.
       (olopq .1tilblt Oll.'
                   \\ilhi I1',-liol Illlt 
 l'n.lnillg
                                         liv%                                           baI lk.\ holi/otat l llalill,,hilp,
                                                                                                                        rcs+.nllillt
                                                                                                                                lil lSou:t~tlh­
       opI        l itic".
                 lllt,   ",w i+l,.11 Ohlc     sl',
                                        lloolti 
*1
                                    So I l:lih              l,,lhc IF k~l N\rSI((Ill is1 }'ilig_
                                                                                                                                                 to



                                                                                        m ll at. llfl'lll-I m -i' I
                                                                                              lc~t      1     ''l              '11'tl tIS
                                                                                                                                   III
                                  .,

i\ t I i\hll,. i i I toilh
        ,% ilt'~                       \c.Itpcd.l v l it
                                .h.,,,-dh              l
                                       +

             -
   Ili ,, hatl
      l.,il.            111' I. i+l.l
                          l\.             t      ll ltl('
                                                  i                                             of l.th,.l ll; .
                                                                                        'lallsfIk'      lo         bv't'li- %% l h ­
                                                                                                                                lvt l
                                                                                                                           i\v ht
   Ibilid .
        ill"   I .x l kl jus
               id             t    'lt   i I
                                         11.1 t ]~ll,                                   I'ct'-i~liallionlIfclhlloit';ll
                                                                                             ilL!      has     lt>   c'llllpe't'licv
                                                                                        I orl
                                                                                            >palihh'c lii v hw olt' bring [r:
                                                                                                   \\.'itl+          ) ,+          ni.,li-' 

                                                                                                                                          Ird.
  '.lw,' [Ill\ . 1.',
          u         hrill.t ' Iiull Ill. .tl op~q t. ou
                          i                     i
                                                i      ld                               .\tloiI,+- lr(d l' j)(Prt:m i t,4.1t1'11 o licil, is.
 Ille

                                                                                                Ll       i                     fbw          Ihlt
(hill ic'n a~
            tl, ., hc'll, e
                       lil    1111I ll I lldll h i"
                              Hill                s liik .                              ",. ltcc+liic

                                                                                                    o.tl ..,
                                                                                                   ll                 i. mill.

             . 

  plo dl.. il I.- ht I Ow l HC' .I
     I    ',h,.       l   t    ,           \ p
                               lf", Il.',I\ la 
   Iml+.:
 . -I %:Ihr. n
           l '.1- . ti1 l % . ,1 . - - '.h + it lilitil.1 

                  1       '             drt
                                       'I-.                                             l i ta rq i il ltl,p itl sI,. :it4" /,r)' it'
                                                                                        hll it's,                  CIt'. [lltl 

c'x11hoil~ .111,1 H ,' ,u +
        limi+                              ~
                                 ll, lj'lx\ Owlt
                                          vcI'                                          ttl -prl-l,lti\ h
                                                                                          n         c'
                                                                                                     of.Il    L4h
                                                                                                                            , 

                                                                                                               \ ,()nlh lis ol'\\ ll-tla'
                                                                                                                                      illcd

I ollw'l\ M+ilo)I4.".i,tin,
               ..                       t
                                          ',
                         11.1111.1t - "+, alll
                                  1,                                                    It'(ch ll I'.liand(
                                                                                            ln
                                                                                             it'+ .   h   l,It',.(lo
                                                                                                                il         ~ . Itis,
                                                                                                                      llalll",i'l 

                    \pbi'

                     ,I,\

                   ll +~ itmtiml, 
                                                     Ih'ro'lic
                                                                                                c'sv, i.nl \\c mll t"vt'r\
                                                                                                      ill
                                                                                                        ilh~it           to,,sihlc
                                                                                                                                 v'lliil
                                                                                                                                      Ili

                                                                                      t"-,t;tl.all1II'lill slit( lls,
                                                                                              lis.h            1htw'. (.\41 1'[l +I~ l lls.
                                                                                                                                ilk
                                                                                                                                  i
       -li
  \ a "t illa'
           l ct, ,tIQ t
                    if                    llfllcal ' 111l,t 

                                                   11..'l lit,(                       illljo o..v'\p -'llik,< + l.IId. l tim! III(- illis
                                                                                                            lio tli                         t
                                   .

t:akc.
 lt~t' olk-t k.,,Iiim;d chdtz
    ,dvth'l             k           \\Ili( hihii\r-                                   %%.[s llo~l Ilh
                                                                                            i              ~
                                                                                                     ic t IS'           l + r.\i lill'ic'l,
                                                                                                                            [ v
                                                                                                               pal+t i 'l Si. '            lli




    d
    II    ' Avc]t' 11, 11d ,I II\ ,ltt' \ II
'l'l-v 
il,,                 hil'           l                             ~           +wi t'\''c <la
                                                                                              . l ,t'<lltl l < t imt .' ilot tiili il

                                                                                                        sz op              c i
 o
  i .~\ - iol liuh x0
      tH    .to,            ' ll.   o d
                                   .iib 
 1.it.t 

                                       .\0                                              'ill' li ml ;Jl l\il       l.h 'I.,,i h \,h '
             ~
cehlitif . ,.'         u . z'ul,\. 1   (\\ ;~ i '                             ~lds.~t hoti       I l
                                                                                              I11 1, 'l'\~'l  i.l ll d inl +rical
                                                                                                                     (1\l1          ahct
Ic'',l ic-,
          li 1%ll        -vail~
                            'lll[
 lw       T'
                                        \ ''.          llllsn l+ '"
                                                            ll          lt            li'l?%i'']o'flvll l+lo,ll'hh' tlo ,ill
 to Blhtl, l llf]it,
                                                                                          '                               liad

'I Ill-l          <1 € ,s
                 ul )I h ,,1t' n
                            d            1,
                                          \,u + t' , I M
                                         si                            i~
                                                                        l             tl(ll('
                                                                                      () lllud
                                                                                             ,.t:o'+.Ic,'\,(11,4                ?lv+1vc p i'                o   l

        jI,1'1hil , ;11 ll,_s \
,jIji]"I'(' ,I       Ii     hnqm               r.1           ita'p~ '~l 

                                                                  h'a\'o
                                                                midlHills             natona         li    o\        l                      ldu i       n
     il.s H
\c',,''1 .<t l i,,i,l ,+.
            l          .ilh                      I
                                                 ' llv l'.t clalid
                                                        l                               4- (    q v.;
                                                                                                h I:rivi Ica 1 v
                                                                                                           ,   i           '. n +lill "tl'o waLt'.
                                                                                                                            sil    to     c   i'"d



?   ill 11 , I (alI 1.11klbr'+.I,1'1
I hIV    (
         11      ) l ' (|sI\ T~u
                              Ih        %\ 11,1\
                                   otm(itl''~ I.
                                          v                                                '                iil'cd'                   ll '

     II i d
\%'('I'hrI'ill ,I t
                  S       ~   m     It 1 1 ,
                                       h        'aiLtli4-;11.[Ili[
                                                                i    (\i tl
                                                                      l                )       a
                                                                                      klt .,I ,tpol B I/
                                                                                           It       i,                   ri ( tlistt " Is h\\
                                                                                                                         i ns c i m                 f,

.gi. Ii ki l\'t i ll " Vt.i 1 . lv,lit'i' i h/
  -
 t(            111;1 I I(l I         I , ,'.
                                         l
                                         ,   ia                                          i           o
                                                                                               1']1 I .Ivl.i+l
                                                                                                            ill
                                                                                       MlItll lll il' l~ l(l~l "+,1;Il l 4v
                                                                                                                 %itI o         pin g and.
                                                                                                                                       t]           ~
  f ion hc
sit'~llat , v , (i xtm k
       x       .i      s      i lo'nidl(-
                               icil l~,r,,
                                       l                                                      c II 1
                                                                                                 qwd
                                                                                      ilaisluli(1.\ co ' nics F ir'li I' ol, the al
                                                                                                        o            s v'l gic       t';l




                                                                                32

  research and intert-sit-d ill (he                               ol'ollit,                    iv)    Increase ill productivity 11111st bv acilieved ill order                to
  comitrics ill order that ill(-%, may assist flit, lrims! r of'                                      sillislN. the liceds ol'oul. bildly llourislictl masses. This
  science and (edillology li-oln Illon-d- . Joprd                      colintrics ill                 conslittitt-s a moral obligation its much li)r file public
  It-SS-developed I ountries in Such it wav ;is to perillit div                                       st-clot. as dw lit ivilic scclor ill vvery country.
  gellf-latioll okk "national fechwdogical calmcity". I I is
  oilly bN vI(itblishing and sit cilgilit'llilig national f-c-m-arch                           Ill Brazil dw tcrllllolo y gencratioll proccs, is based of'
  WSIVIIIS lipal rach colifill vcall gcocritiv technology                                      two Ill 11daniviltal idvas:
  appi (1prii IIt- lo I iIs Spe( iIit - ag I(,-( Ii IIIit Iic co IId iI illI IS.
                                                                                               I . Rescill-ch must k-gill ill IIIv lit odoucl. Ivvc] and cnd al
  Widl this in -nind. -dw trilliNli-rol's(                          (ildilplvd to                  lilt- producer Iv\vI. Ill ollicl %Nords, div lesviocht-I
 ,pvcilic                 Situations), must be based on                                              jimst seek Ili(, pjohlcios tivinanding solutionjointly
 ;II ollslant rScllillu v of information, alld in all                                                with ille            and Illen the sollitions evolvi-d most
 atillosplivic ill %\Ili( tIll katc inilialk v, lolk-clsitics alld
                        I                                                                            also be ((.S((.(I.ioilltl\ \illl oill. prodon-I.S.
 p it IIli( agcncics, mm king toi.ct Iwr %\it man\ pairs ol'
                                           II
 handS, (-;tit piodu( v tit,- occcSsai \ kno%%Ivdgv fin- illc                                 2. Solmions that art- dvi-kc(I h\ rescarch must bring
 III-%cloplocill of cach I olliltr\          .                                                       sovial and/ol    C0111011lic rcho'lls lin. plodocri-S alld

                                                                                                     consionviS alikv.
 Thr lilorv s of .1dolitioll             tccllllolo ivs is cal-riccl
 ont \%  ithill lilt- N\Sig-ill of wchnolol, Lcllclillioll iIsvlI and                         'I'lir basic obict-1kc is to Iviclse it ploccss which It-Ilds 11)
 1111oll".11 illc plotim lion pioccsN. 1 hill is to Say Illill Owtv                           collsidcl :ill agricul(III A probicill"', Mwiller they Ill­
 i, I ijl)1)1\ and ;Idrioand loi ic( hnolo ,y. The finkagv                                    technical or.social, as subil-cls lOr tilt- ;Ipplicatioll ol*tlit-
 bvi %\rcii (IwSe I%% it p mcn(s is I kv ' c1cincni ill oidt.l.
                        (- (ot                                                                Iuv[ hodoh Igics ol'llic vxat I scit-ilucs. Whcn possible, we
 11)g1liffiolk-'. fill- inlplm villrot ohlic plodut (ion Nc4Iol                               must 11 to             (III. ploblems ol'agriclikoic nol its
 .illd dit. ( oIIS(.(IIII-Ill I.("llolili( and ...
                                                 t i.11dr\ cloplocilt ol,                     fcclolical and Suivillific plobIcIIIS bot its Social probIcnis.
        olintl irS.

                                                                                              This Ivilds to dic lisr ohill. methodologies dcveloped fill­
 Thc           ol ( lial",rd %ilh ,.vllvlalilll 14-( lllolo
                                                   l                                          soci;ll sciem I. lescarch to Solve Illc ploblvills (11,111c
 I not 111,11k illc llaliolwl 'I"'I I(         Irwal ('11                                     pioducci . We must ma just "kill,%%, ondt-i-stand". of,
                                                                                                                                        to
 inust lit , tit -idrijijair kill,%\ Iv(fi r tit Ili,, I(,( 1111oloViVill                     (lic colltrar\ , \\I, m ost "llildcl Stand ill ordvr to 'civi.".
 qaps v\iSting in 111c 1otoill             m     \%hit 11 111;]   In cul \\ lict c            The coopt-ralik-4. S\ swIll ol'ag? it ultural I vs -arcll ill Brazil
 dicre i, I Lit Kof lijikai v bvm, -itlilt- Ill i\ aw and pliblit.                           which is cooldillawd b\ EMBRAVA Seeks it) gcnci aw, to
 Sut (tit Scallill", for (It(. Sillyk alld drinalld of Ic(Illiolop                           adapt ol to p-1.61-cl Ic(linologics \\ hich constillite not
 to bv S\ IwIlloill/rd,                                                                      imposed Solutions bot options and '11(crilalives fill' rural
                                                                                             ploduct-Is undt.l. Ow di\ cISv vcolo ical, ccolloillir and
in s1IIIIIII.tI\ , Ihr Icla(ionshilt of w w m( 11 ilb fill- pI i\ all.
                                                 %\                                          Social sitoalion ill III(. colilill\ .
Svl (ol IIIIISt Im. awd oll 1114.
                    b              11,11o%\:
                                         illt
                                                                                              In oil](.[ to au;jin sit, It IcvvIS of'obirctivily, if is
i) 	 I il ( of"Ill, ill Icl [its of sm ial ilill'I'vSIN, Illv Ill iolitic's                  iIIII)OI fill)[ Ili M IOI)t it Sli*;I(Vg *\%Ilit'll VIISIIIvs that ollf,
     I'M Irwalch IIIIISI be ill lim. %% Ow most impol laill
                                            ith                                                                1-t-Inaill in volls(ant lolich with ploducer.,
     illlclc [S ohlic (*Illjltl.\ ISa %\
                                       holl., alld 1114.
                                                      opinion (11'                           cxtvn ion \\-of kcrs, and vvvii gvnctal constuncis: ill filct,
     1114.
         Ill-ople \% IIiI\ c 11, IppI%Illc rcSrarcll ollist In.
                    lilt                                                                     willi Ow dirccl and indin-cl clid-liscrs ol,1114. It-clillologirs
     Soo lll.                                                                                devch )pcd.

In 	 Sv( I)[Ili, Ihr ])It Ill i( ( oNIS of, Ivw an 11a I v Ird IIcl-d                        111 operil Iiona I Icl ills, IIll- Icscal cllcrs if [list idl-lit ify wila
     %% I IIv Iri va tc St.( lot a ISo I"I IIit i II'l IicS i111C-scil I-ch.
       hvit                                                                                  Ilic I(.;I] Si IIla Iion is iit IIll, uoll n Iry and i1)Icl-pret Ilit'
     Fill 111cl Inow , IIIIII I. %%
                                  idcI\ w ill I-Svillalk v [I-solt , are                     1111(h.r.slanding of,1111. massi-S ;IS All 11INihill \' 1001 to I0,qiC
     plo Im-rd 111-callsq. coopci alioll floill 1114. 111ivall.
                                                                                             and ill(, scivillific Invillod, in oldel to Set 111) exp-rillivills
     Sct [o[ pcI mils It-Scal( 11 14) bc (.;11.1 ied lilt[ oll a \%idcl
                                                                                             and                 which will Ill odoce applopriale
     Sampli. of om 11.11
                       ioll.11 it : I i1ol                                                   teclillologics as Fist ;is poSsildr to SoM. oill, lligll(.Sl­
                                                                                             priority
iii) 	 In dir Illild 111,1( thiN Sol I of I oollcratioll %%illallow
                          r,
       Icadvis I,[ dir plivall, Sri to[ 14,onderstand Ow villue                              It is olit. (Imy to Stimulate, scicillific 11-scillch and its
     iold I]w oIIcsc;II( h ololf. hilly, Icadint, to ;Ideli-list. of,                        technological applications ill a tralistic Illanner. Ovcr Ilic
     41vairl. invcN(invill *.11Irm-mch.
                                                                                             LISI 2o \TiIIS WC IIdVV SCCII It()%%,
                                                                                                                                 (he Scl rildo and                      .1a




                                                                                        33
  regions in Brazil may be used vd intensively adi to                                                      reslponsile flor technological ad'anices which will place
  great advantage. Until a short while ago, inaniv pcolil.                                                 Brazil aoiong the Iibretlost cotIitries in litv area of'
  thought thal these sttibborn soils were not suitiabh fior                                                technological progress in agricltiur.
  primary agriculture. But ly using irrigation and
  appropriate fcrtilizeir techliques and correcting the                                        t             he ENIBIRA PA     et'tr whli yu will bc visiting oil
  acidity ol'the soils, we have prothuced ruiord crops olnoit                                               \ednetsdav is tle sate c'nter il which President Sar'ey
  onl' soyhean. but of'whcat, Yi:c aiid sorgllii.                                                          was alIe to sel tilt. technique                                 of'uiciliiiiiiliaiioi of
                                                                                                           eiobnrsos, their collectioni fi' Freezing, division and
  We have recently heco ipplying resources to ihc most                                                     transf'er. This is a tcluiilUC which we find ito                           Ill'i
 miopdern branch of'liolwv, genetic clgirietriig.We niuist
                                                     c                                                     sulpjerior to Ihe l'ri'ezing of'stllileu or"artificial
 not forget these            aiif atlihgh we still 
 h'pu'ld
                              nxperieces                                                                   inselnationl, as it allows ls. fbr examplC, io )produce
 heavily on ilt ilst-devhloped ('4hlIutrics, wv motus 
                                                    1iur identical (wills, begintnitg with one ellbrvo. This
 cootioue o117" owo               tllts         to set till gene bntuks, varical 
                         becimies a very iiuiporlauil tol+ iill         ifrIs
                                                                                                                                                        llu       to improve
 collections and so oli. As %o all knoin
                                ll                                        are tobe 
                               catle or i'ilwe
                                                                                                                            in our.efi6ls ofibSeI' aimilills that are'('
                                                                                                                                              .our                    ill
 colpetitive il til' initernatioail poultry llliml               (-

                                                              ;iwe
                                       daigei'          ol'exliiction.
 obflitgel toi illflrt inniofer lirds F'roml Not Il Anit'ieica.

 Now, lihbidizatiii din's not perlmit unlimitied 
                                                         Iithis fiell iif'liit,'ichuhiolov EIMII\RAIA las prdciluced
 lelpr(thc'tiill sio, pie'i idically, t lluhiiir                     breede' is 
                         ilo first btovite pregnancy inl South America tusilng
 Ibrced to replace his breeding stock, imiioriillg lew' birds                                             cillir'o in icro-Inlian lilatioiun.
 at a 'ery high cost, aund using sca'' natiomid fils.       Now
 v,'hat I have ben talking alnuit ill t'rtms of'potiltrs is also                                          A echnologv produced by h'MIRAPA with high
 title in tit arca of'secdis. ()nls now live we begun tio                                                 ecolmllic and cli'il'llinun
                                                                                                                                    iii     ]( tlotial is the witde list of,
 protlice lin reasoiahiible iiiily   imnpros. d h\ hrid stiifs,                                            Iiti'ogei-lixiIg iacit ria. \'e hiase tiilized this ill
 but i'''n then \ii have had ti d'penl (,li fir'igun kiiiiw-                                              solviUlats, cliinaiailg the iljrlIir ieed to iroide
 flow.                                                                                                    niClogcI fertiliztrs. This tecliiligy hilis saved .+oo
                                                                                                          miilioin hllllts \i.ir
                                                                                                                            v;Icli    anamullnt fis'c illis tIletotal
  \'e most bri'k this              dhjpci',uic', hut this \ill oilv couic                                 ImtIlget of'I'MIIIRAI.A l6iIlii' evr lofi"i'. We hae'also
alb ut whes'll't          na'tiotal scienti " i'i'si 'hi ('clttiers ;HT                                   shi       u fill         ipissibility of'fixing nit'logeli    ill whilat, weais,
 Ilucn' full        devehulped. We havei' a hug wa to gio in this                                         Ilic',        iillel, soirgliil,       slga'canel   andIi';agcs.
      X
aruea. ultiltiotlifl (im                         ill itc complex econlll;i' sectior
ol'agro-industrv have li'en ( oiijt'ing with ilii-sctoir                                                  +\   licral t'i'sia'uh is Ised today as oiie ol'thc
agenlcies adif with ollisl'sics itdras ll'olo best and
                                   iis                                                                    prilipal i'c'leers iilt'l'r ss ill all divelopied conlitries.
brighest vil lg      i'hsrairuI.l's.                                                                      {esearch isnot at cld ii i scll'tut can lie used is ain
                                                                                                           'fliiit tiool to lpf Solve ecoomiiilaii        n
                                                                                                                                                        id social proilesiis,
Ntaliv Bfrazilians huae fw'il l' llslaiuliding ii scienitific
                     l                                                                                     iill ii will 1rilit'e till' ifisirTd fhli'ci ((ills Ihe
                                                                                                                                                               Oi W ('ililet of'
'esearcli, bih in i rii'ltirui' alil biiO g'iil'iics, hi whitCh                                           a well-delined agri'iultuoral pllicy.
we hi'e itd'          cide siuc     advance;i ev'n with oil'
                                            so'is,
slliul(cl r('iteSlll(    availille. If   Iflpllicil ilh'i
                                         aps,                  01'azil's
                                                             lll'                                                          ilf jecti'     is Io dh'e'vhll e'unotmiii'allv v'iale alnd
riol'ol         y and had              i
                                       sitI       h     ationl p      y    m.                         s                    illit    llloligits      adaeltd, i the t-
                                                                                                                                                                   ecological aitd
li alle        il tcnlullfii'r   ill Ilhr ohsticles's I hiis, iiil'ililiiilf and                      airi-hiulinturial realitics ofhl cliiliyr. Its r'(arih s(ks
                                                                                                                                     il
Io lveci'l(lili'      the diffireces              sltfiariiiilg oi   cotlnltr' fi'n                   I raisc iie Ili'iifpiod'tiii lllpodi'tisity of'fiid Cito)s,
 lhle'ls.                                                                                             fibiis, ant ren        blll      t's lflilirgy, hi ii-igktke
                                                                                                                                                                 our
                                                                                                      cililii'ryiiict' i.iiigly less dep'f)l'iel il lii biu'tigi
()it      1    lotigh ol'AilliiSt iliis \'valr, h~cnid tilm+                    irilivy                   t hol            gy!Iandl illilpimrh'd ,em'ii't      Iliilaw iails.

  ii      'iusliiiirt iui 	 al gtiltlie i'c'sc'i+'h ci trill il
                 ou' nali
a ililliil        gliltlilt      aii          hioti'illlogy ril, i'n1i ll elte.
                                                                             lAodt't'oitg                                     1io        nle      atiii naiiil target lanii, research iilost
                                                                                                                                                      o
'This iti 'n l'lter i , Iow\' ill l lg oul 'dillilliug all                                            liv rienited lo:
                                                                                                          o
scielic le'siili'i in tii ara l'ii ilt'cfloliihg . ''his is                                           * 	 ill' roim'ilioul n oi'liba. i' liptls (rice, beiis, colln,
  ilit ll'thi iilltn  llents wh i otli' Preside'iit iitnds Io i si                                       cassava, oat aw'l ilk), si'ekiig toIllaldl tlchiiology
                                                                                                                                ii
ill o 'r to ac'i         iii(' lal ts wlihih this gov'erniii'ilt has                                      to 	 lwi i'iilalility of'l'l+CStii(+lt ti'ical ii ,siiiillalid

Set1 ill the' ili      u iliral secllor. Dillrhig hiis slpeech of ll hn,
                                                                      v                                            il     lili-siztd 11i'tricr;


191h      iofAligist, Ilhl Presiden'i                 si i     Ill .w'i fhlly i
                                                                         o                re
ofli h        itl uihat solll'         is'irclh tIarried owt in Bai'izil is




                                                                                                   3,4

* 	 giving priority to tie search for technologies                 the samelite le.id to solutions br serious social
     compatible with the conservation of'environmental             problcms.
     quality and sustained, long-term cultivation ill the
     extensive production areas;                                   The Bellagio declaratioi on
                                                                                            0977 and the New I)elhi
                                                                   declaration ol"
                                                                                 1979, which were prodUCtd (luring the
* 	 soil microbiology, biological control and agricultural         I FARD meetings, contribite towards these oiljectives.
     inlrm,.lion, in the area ol'biotechtiiohgy;                   We hopie that ilte guidelines, which will be produced
                                                                                    new
                                                                   by the Brasilia meling, will slrengthnll   iir
*	   saving offissil energy and a:lternative renewable             delermination to fight against umger, against
     resources, paricilarly in irrigated ::griculturc;              ialnuf rilc'il, against Io\'Cn'ly social inequality, and
                                                                                                    and
                                                                   that r!tcy inspire its collaborate more filly so that
                                                                              w'l             to
*	   the development ol'itechiiques appropriatc to given           all rest,.coers, extensiorn Yorkers, and others involved in
     regions nlfthe country, including thelproduction of           agricultural developmcto throtghout the world can work
                                                                                                             (
     basic seed SUp)pliCs adaptdl to e)ach region;                 more closely togethc. I ovuld like to welcome von once
                                                                   agaill, to thank yon and congratulate you oilthe
*    and finally to the transfi'r
                                ol'teclmology, beinning            initiative lIb" 	
                                                                                 this mecting and to wish you a very pleasant
     with close association with the extension services and        stay in Brazil. I liolc that Ihe restlts of'this iteing will
     lhrmcr organizations.                                         he promising and that together ws'c p)noduce a proper
                                                                                                          cant
                                                                   level ofwelltr- and better standards ol'living for all
Agricultural rescarch needs ito reviewed overall
                                  he                               nations, so that chronic imlnuttritin will be conquered.
pieriodically, in order to c+tablish general guidelines
capable ol accelcrating progress in the agriculturai sector        Thank you so untch.
illterms olgrowth and increased p)roductivity, which at




                                                              35
                                                      OPENING ADDRESS





                                                                     S.W. Sadikin
                                         President,InternationalFederation(!]"
                                                                            Aq+riculluralRevearch .S.'s.atem
                                                .14~Dev'elopment (IF. RM). 77a. !lhgue, ANetherlanit.




Etelicy           a is and (.111141114-1,                                      ( )III I3h'llg~io
                                                                                             iIt'tilig ill 19+77 obs(r,.'-d tp o rs
                                                                                                                         th
                                                                                                                         I
                                                                               limd Iprodoctioll in iIl(-',.'chpilg w.orldhad
                                                                                                          d                               e         o
Oil1w
    ilf'             h       llalionlal IFcdc'r;Ili(?!
                            ul                   o
                                                 i'A.glic'lhtor"al                       s
                                                                               slow . N\Vctressi',d ille Fict thati the aFppit-ilr
                                                                                  .                                                   a
Ris
ilc          y       ins fill
                            1)eNc'l()lut-I'll , I mu1+,|lst CXpl'q'ss
                                                        t (                    stil-losc's illusol-\ and \%.'trvlt (
                                                                                            m.'c                   c            lie

(fl.         Lr       ttmc to Ihl.', e
                         d         ( '.,rI~ll of' rtazil [ill"
                                                   t B                                     cI
                                                                               inlld('1Mna CL:lth I)OM-..'c bo I 'lf-
                                                                                                     .ilg       i.1n<1tog             n

  ilg              s t i
                  if tgv fits[t 1. II an~
                                    t liolil +Mrcting (41                      Ill l po r. llv lB,1lgio tnct'cing    dccpy--l    ett 
 ll
Natiral A             I      l'6-'mtan' ilns ao~d ict

                                      'S~.l 

                                     h1                S(toind                 ('.txisttenwc o! food f.rilitn      ;old w,.idep e dIl

                                                                                                            Irs".,'v\t',
a F RD il ( ol
     do                       .cltioninz is.loodc'l city Br'asilia.
                                       t                                       and ;1(1\€o( ta'd       If)]
                                                                                                 s.teps inctitas g.ainfoI-n o\I fi
                                                                                                                 ing
             ne          i'..ft'dw
                         t " 
,".s.                                            oppol-ttmlitit',. ill111;1arvils. Thel Im-',
                                                                                                   1                      ingaso\ari­
                                                                               that il'tllw pit'c Il ',j
                                                                                                       ic'uhtn 

                                                                                                            alprostress.%%a. fll
 p
Th m lil                  o
                         it iillod'lni,
                                      gwta coIII~ttv inz
                                                       \Nohl                   act'chl'awd throwdh it (o sidc.rabhf. in.cea il
   i
  1111va             d fi' F1'])llllil
                        hg               ll   e na'l
                                                 t |ionlal                     il -c(vt'-llh{lll    drt\ tvlopilli4 'ololill ic's1o
                                                                                             IIlj!l}\                                     ec        u   h
  l(ll
aglic 111 sca 1 vll
                hll    lli,,(- IBRA P: as an 

                           E'M                                                 in it se\'rt'6,o d c+risis. fi-oil \\hic'h
                                                                                                                        dwy 'voudb    bcl
    i n i l llodIf
             h'~tuimn[
                     cif' lik 1i
                            .l    nalngi it'ollural

                                      a                                        1-sc<alr* d 'l\ :-i',,.
                                                                                         ml'l '                lood.illpl)is c-il po sbe
                                                                                                                         t+b 

n-wiich l nl \ ill ccI'l't pt.m ill' stiuli ting
      \                illdy       it     l
                 1
(-i       i i 111dclbll l i o lc n'tgth.'e 

             (ni              s       i     inlg                               TJhe'uecwtnt llBtI
                                                                                               i       llilgit          appralt' t
                                                                                                               Ihi'r,'loic
'1illc l l           I ista Il t ' t'lopinll.l 

                         'h                                                    gm-vcrn-I ;olld .( l lilvilll as l+.- c gI lci t
                                                                                            tlltents  d 'Jv               im
                                                                               bil alud Inililfail      national agi I IIIIIl
                                                                                                                           ur    se rc
\V (i-I
   c             A  I) Bomt lehar   m-t+,~l ht.M illi..l
                                          d ic          ol"                    c'alpalbilitic"+ ins 14'vihq:.it+u
                                                                                                  (             c',ontr'ics
                                                                                                                          toh11)sp e 
 ll l(
(Iltl(
Ag               fB ,uil, I lis, ['.:\   \ h
                                     'lh'lf< is IRo-ze'ndt',,
                                                        %%as.                  panct.'o i t it'tu glr< l in Ioral pr Inl-r W
 l
                                                                                                  thmil      .wv                
.
  ~
g~ oo             . l
                  t-1 llv lilnl- o i hll'll I, ",x'lh'nc\'
                      In                           vt 
                               tilm.
                                                                               th1at, ]csolvf'd ilt Bcllagii) (C(mlfc et t

                                                                                                          fill
           I'lslc,II .hl(
                      li slw. ial +.c.nl.l
                                       of t~rafillldv,

                                                  lilr tits                                   national li'de'ration la~
                                                                               e',taldi-, ijlt,,']
                                                                                       an

inaIon
   vi        i l'l'     hu, of natlional ilgiicolltmla]                        instiltiliounal fl'r:mw'\ fill- sustaincd andaciv
                                                                                                      (Ik
les.11-11N\
         ic l 'hlld<'chqoinge'Nof l%will 4iv.c
                                          .     adhh'd                         c' .pu'atifni aillong national agrit'il ulll ral c
talv1, w (o li'-'t-tccw ill add
                   anld                  ly its+
                                         f<i~                                  sniv,'s, the'N.\RS ofh <'    dc\'t'hlf c t rie; otl
                                                                                                                      i,ig
dcim11in   l ttl nl+.ioH'.,                                                    at imc'hallis fil   ll ll"l
                                                                                                    ,;    Inc<titigs g Ia , ­
                                                                                                                      anln        f
                                                                               NAIRt.: titdiscus, , it'c'
                                                                                                        ohnlomal 'oncertoi
Nincat s i~ , i    v       d
                   cl 1(17+7, Ih(- s+
                                 c,€atAlvt ilh(-                               nationlal .ttly'ico resentarc<h
                                                                                                ittral       w.ist<'lms; ri ..i
                                                                                                                    toh           ~
W oo (:oll( i ll Iu'' ill
 old              IIIhl R01114- Ml1(17 ,it9"1 "l*
                                             m                                 wd      rilic %"
                                                                               'hal .'pl              h    lo<grss coumld bea cetrae
                                                                                                      dw il"
ag lil-l
    iv           isc lh h lr ,l Illi
                              of'               AIIIIIi('it, Al\l
                                                               iha             thr1-o dif'ec(l co
                                                                                     gh               +'alionll on,,zg ;toh r ul;
                                                                                                      e'             dw      d
ansiifi((                 'tB Iltaly.
                          llkii,   *I'l(-\      list u scd at [Iln-            piroductivvt lin~kages hv'twc.cn
                                                                                                              IFAR -It (-.
                                                                                                                        l)
      pl
nir lim gle s tix had lI..1.
                          ita'h' ill        food
                                       'as.ilig
                                   ill'r                                            n tional its
                                                                               illlh'r                 as
                                                                                                 ,.vell re'gional ag;ic'tdturiln sil
;"Idi'4W(tioll             illd('"v I",lpig('ooo[tnif's Mul                           andl
                                                                               c'c'iten; 14)idtlcllik'
                                                                                                   ah<ernalik~l ++tnatt-c l
                                                                                                                     .v
Iv ci- [l-c p bililic's and Illv roll. <ohlaliollall                           glnall-anlte-'int.1 s flow.+,cw,.
                                                                                             onmoll          ol    Ieclill                     st
1m11a
agli'            4- iff1
              y'stems in co' <llinlg land and
                       '        cl   ile                                       1t11flIlle<'s.
-Nacr
   ndovt .,d'the fill-(-(, co()ilnvit~s
                                    into,proslperity




                                                                         37

  Two years after the Bhllagio Meeting, I FARI) was                                'Those Nvorkslh))ps could 
 ot have Iven con
                                                                                                          H                                               et   ed ir'hlu.
 formally incorporated, and its first Global Convention                            had been nt financial and techiical support given to

 was held in New Delhii S'ptembe'r i q7, in coiijtinction 

                          in                                                       I FARD Im tit-iiteratOnal (Ini" ag('iis, re4iolal
 with dic (oldt-n.1tihilve Svnposiitnl ofrtll' Indian 
                            agtriciiltural organizatinis, ti international agrictltural
 (ouncil ofAgrieuIltural Research. ''lhw

                                       Presidtnt and 
                            research cen'ers, partictlarly ISNAR, aniltie national
  ticto'btrs othl     interinationial and regional boards of' 
                   agricultural restlh systems oldie host countries.
  IIARD .ere deted atld assigid lhetask ('factivating
 the proposals Ibrnitlatd at the BtI3agio lliecting.                              l)l ii g Ihv lat li v vyears, ictlarl, o'st'ao'Ir 
 Ieaders,
                                                                                                               pilrt
 IFA RI) should have coidttcted "Isecond globiail iletincig                       agricif't.I rescarch Iitaiiag:t sa d sciltitists if NARS

 in 198:3 ittht latest, to revitalize  il landjliveiiatr its 
                    havr rt'r'ived also a iiultittf.e ofliiviiliions lIrlnt

 Board of iaiageillent. utt, utliriiat'ly,          die finaicial 
               ('tei iiteinatiotal o-italiza ions and d(veltopitiiii

 potsition ol'ihe li-deratiit did not tlrIlnit s15 organtize'
                                                   to 
                           is-,istalll.e igeitci's, to atiteid ioiili-icners, workslhops ot

 such a lttlig    . Witl Il"A ) ilt  tirially 
stifilisht'd, an                   training courses ol i %    wide Slil'CtIllhlof;tgrictultirl

  ijt))rOf)riJlt ilt'atiSitll %%astht bv providted to (ontlit 
                   rms-ialtch tlti+l'atuehuilttiit-s.

 regiular ilnietiigs alitlng feuhadris oIf'N'.\RS ;fit to
 exchingv i'xittrit.-,    s in fotuh u aine iilh'Intie,
                                            .iutl                                 \Vt' unlv seish ifit            RI)
                                                                                                              I lAl eniufuf                   htt'uiu   ll'

               i ii
 research lpolit'          Ilrograms.                                             iuvol\veil in th    jilti ingad Xtuilltol                        ltI(s.      s
                                                                                                                                                        ltciu'i!iit         

                                                                                  Io avoid w;stfl (ftj)uictaioft a fd i)'tuititi aIIif to focus

 Sine the fott'al in(forlporaition o  AlI'IRI) n t979, this
                                             i                                    bltciit. th uitfs
                                                                                           itiluh..          tationail agii t lurliml 
 research

 li-t'iatii his cOMiuttet OM itItt'u;tbtiOi;l itld tniin'                         S.s'iis ofdt'v'lopi g t tuntries. ])iing tli' ci';tts, \v'.

 it'gitil wov(rksholps deling with mn'vuiiing issut's itlied                      ]tot' fit' t'lli-''c(                 il

                                                                                                        i:; g itowth oFt]f'titifi'ces Itetwitli
 tit strrigthtnitig igi il(ultuul 's.iinli %\stettms Iin
                                                     i                                ititmil Ilricttlt     I iser        I s siteill
                                                                                                                       uiit'uI                 uitll Idh
 (h'v'lpi g u ( ntriiiii
                   ties.                                                                fittll it
                                                                                            li        tI     u i it l
                                                                                                                tI        it'st',tie(h itl\\ors in

                                                                                  ugritillhtH.lhr ;I,,[iiti.
                                                                                            Ti                         turul stituilisis ofthet d'v'loping

 In IWI)1I works.hopsl)
         till'(+(                   ag;l.ric'ulttil' 

                                            adie('c'h
                                                  r                               %m<rl(I
                                                                                        hak.rga;ilil+([I<'cognlitiln ll-'
                                                                                                                andl( It-']p'rsvnl(I 

                                                                                                                    a           oil

 iitla.agt'hl'ltlt \.' lt'ivid; illSan         (:sti
                                         Jlst(',          Rici. lorilli'             i ars      ifruittan        uil    the'   it.isl\          tunciiiils of,

 Lati n A mriciu .1(ih('iirihl,'an ri-tgiot . Los If3i'ins, the 

                     t                                                           illt''itl ltiiull is ; i'tusI'cgillaul ri'stll S',S('lis; iainf

                                                                                                                                Ii
 Philippies, i,rAsii ul thlt' S            i
                                        l aciU reglie
                                               ri(iiln,  ind ill
                a giii ill       ulllll)'Tf al' 1,'1
                                                                                                           tit'u'iin         . IlI)ytIe 
 uts

 Nairobi, Kvityt, fir \f]'icit i( iht' MiIddle ist rginil.
                             ;                                                    ItVI'llaiiiI stlt           llstsi' resilr             ritter- ;InIi ietworks.

                                                                                                                                               s nd

 li t)82, two workshops win' hl']dne iii Madiurid, Spain, 

                                 o                                               Many ofthlit' agricultlral scilnlitists oldterhlopitig

 lifr thet ILatin Alitiriui and    regiot, aid 
                                 ('airiblytai hiv\' (ht'vviolt'u eXpcrtise ;11i1 rxlirietti.n

                                                                                  (tiltric',
                                            Ilh
antotler ii I )Djakarta,Ihidonesia, litr Asia nd Ih( 
                           srving as coiislltitts iii agriciultural est-itl+ anid
South Pac(ific region, lit t jlfi, three workships wvt'                          (h'k-cl'oltti t rttut'ts. Th' ar' tivcit, iln    lat, preliirr'd
conhtfoted; in Cali, ( :ofo lii, in )jakarta, Indousia,                          because ol'lihir "halau ds-o'n t.Xv.'riu'lt(. in Inal.agig
and in l  ht(lan, Nigvria. I      ,i
                                  'jffH, a workshop on 
...
                                                          li                     national agriculttural r(seauclr  ,suel('uS inta (I'vl\'ftt-oiielt
I nilpa't of'R('scairchli ALin'tural and Rural 
                                 situatiol.

tl'vetl timilt" w.'as lili ii I)jakart. ,\fill in.IJlv tf his
y'alr ill itternatitonl vtotkshoptj ol ilt. I olf.f'
                                          "                                      A itllluei. of 'tit     agriclnitltll restoli.h sysitllts, such
                                                                                                      ti)l 

E;5li'alIti(nl in National Agrictltttral lc arcr'h
                                          t     Systtins"                        as ht' litdian
                                                                                       i-         Cmitil itrAgrictilttural RsareIrl ill
was held inSingapor cttsptlsttretl bty I I)R(, anl                               ENIBIIRAIPA, ofthtis cotuntry, iituhc'tl have tIle tecitical
!FAI'M,).                                                                        claacitv tol provid' t'chnical assistance ilo fess-teveloped
                                                                                                                  ',
                                                                                 cou)lntriesL'. It {'vilns,
                                                                                                        Ihl+r'i)rc thaIt 
('hiln l Ibl.
                                                                                                                       thle
We*          t   hatlirv c IFAR I ) vtrti:shttps ltrtx'ith.(t
                  thuiest'                   hive                                fieilba(k oi'r'.stl-ch t hturtlitilits fiottt nlatitnl
alt o's(lAlt'u1t ftt"111        pprtttlllti's
                             ttittd                    ltitional                 Isear ll() il(' inte'rttttioial alti :'giotail                    tesearclh
systelts th hIt l iitttitor tilt'     ro r .vs
                                             ofl'he dt'v'elhtping                ce(trs ;ti(  tietworks is , atltially i'stalhisling itsel'] The
cotntries in it, Iuildin, ;aitd siretugthtuing oftiationial                      roilotlcaf tethology Irallisfir frltl, interi ationatl celters
;lgri(tltrll'r(;rh vtll;to'(hll intforiiationtiltedvijil
;Igriclitral restarih sysvsttls; toexchtanige + lll'llt(l                        to IllC (lTV''o)ini, oitres. iS
                                                                                                    CIOIII('                         ,gl'ri|l'

                                                                                                                               ;stgetvfuiiael l-il'itatt'd.
                                                                                                                               I;SO(

and share l's jx i.lcces ii sttlving plrtthlll: aIl
(oviltOitii    t ttl"constlaillts t)iistitttion iuildling antd to                IFARt) tiil(  ut lonitor .itnd lihfosst' devljimlits
finding sptclie ways Iii aterliiiiig             I    tlrough
                                                         r'(gliss                c'losely

                                                                                       Ithrouh its I'r-gitial wtiikshotts antItlulti'ttgs.
dir'ct ctt)er;tll ;llitlig     natitnal lgriilntiu-ni ral nseareil                  Nationlt Agri(itIIl Rt,'siiici System
                                                                                 'Th(                                                                   Dat a    tBase,
systeitis.                                                                       dt'vehll'd in 'ollOlttlittonwith ISNAR will. hopellutly.




                                                                           313
  providle relevant and he l pfil infoirmation on these                                                   which has already inspired other developing couintries to
  linkages between national agriculttoral research systemls                                               remodel anti rebuild thei r own resea'rch systeIis oll
  of th, developing worid and the international atd                                                       similar lines.
  regional resc-.rch systems.
                                                                                                         The special atention demonstrated h the wor(l ollor
  We should plan for it more regolar dialogue with the                                                   comnilnit to establishig and sntiggthnini        national
  int. national and regional rsearch Systems. 'e could,                                                  agricoltul ;il research oring die last 15 se;rs has created
 lo. examnple, il the case of'Asia itld the South Pacific                                                awareness and iilde'stading atmong the devehlpmelt

 rgion, have it joint ile<tiig with I R{R I, ICRISAI,                                                    leadershilp that a siltong and dlvlaiwlic tationial

 AVRI) C, I(CIARM, SEAFD      H)E( , SEA RCA, II)RC/                                                     agricultural research svstem is ; tust lir soslaini, g

 ACIAR and FA(), to get an oxrview ainid first-hand                                                      a dvii               devehllient lrogrimi.          And, iidced,

 iniforimiation oil plaiied iiid oligoiilg tsalr-i activities                                            a growing iumriiiiil  ldevelopilig cooiilirius ill Latiti

 in tile( regitii.                                                                                       Airictia alt! the (. ilicCar iibi, ill Afric' iii Hit 
 Middh
                                                                                                                                                           td      i

                                                                                                          liiis, AXsii iiaid Iit St t Pi'acific, ill\ have rlliVlly

 Siili          eit ings could also Ill. itrgaiiitld fll- tilc al+iii
                  t                                                                                        1ong igri'iiIilial rese;iich ilislillitil s.
                                                                                                         str
  \iliericii           d Ilii (.aribbeii         reginndil ii         br \t'ici alld
 the Middle East.                                                                                         lie illrtli fliit'lit-ot'fvelitpiiig cotolltits, httweverl,
                                                                                                        shows that politirall soppotl itoraiilgill             Il search
  lh iteOiillliIilitilis of'oiii Ielliglo 111ti lill 1q177.                                             Iroit wilhhii Ihl. cotitlitv is still firagile. it is harld to Secure
 ti' I lARI) NiW l)cliii dtlioitioln o1 i7 , ili thil                                                   ;ii titittaii   sillicieint levels offonoitig hoiii th "
 conluisiois of ili I IARI) lei    1     tltishiis                                                       Il Vetitttlif agriticliitral ieveltfilit, ind Iu
                                                                                                             eie
 Illlileallnt issi's t4'ii:ilinll    iciIiilli il re'st r-t. also                                       agritulial researici plrliciularly. \nid idt sltwil dohin
 rlh'ct i sitiiiong iI;ssig it Ichilo"s    +o.\ ]NRS ifeiriilf"
                                                   to                                                   olit.         e.'lt l'tral'ltittli"      grlowiltih:; iggrivaiIll the
 allerliivt Ntiitgics lilt gttiillit est-itl'h it(stllhs it; to                                         sill iltln.
 tlit' f i 'lS aitd ih Itli clit" tv hlisiotii iiiktts;
                            t l
 im-i\ lliiti        ill ;i ril i ltlila I cil' l-c'h %\ill nil\ Itli
                                                          o                                             Then.i is allso 'oinceirni aiiitli             I FA IDI           l
                                                                                                                                                                      cli Al l'sIh[llt signis
 lilittiiiigfil ifltrlirs               an11d
                                            steici       ii 1t<llill Ian             entiolt            tofedeltpilletnt issitaite rIilgit hi                     t(heftlior

 fitoi its ro'stilis.                                                                                    itiiitnity cold bai i i                     etweakeinitg oflithe vill

                                                                                                        fiitliiipii iloip iitil               to hoiild anld strengtlihii

 Ne\s ttchl           ltgirs dtl.tfoflpd sliotildtlItt                 f
                                                                       Ii        rttil itiied           igritItitiI al tes'iti                htlpaCilics ill de.velpntlg etOltlt'is.

aindl atda ti-'d tol slccilic tcchilih'al anid Soc iail                                                  I Ihilik tha l            Fhir~hst ]nlt-iln ltiinil M ei ngllhf
                                                                                                                                          I                           of'Nad llli

 'lliiltii tlil         . 11ilad tpftlied ft\ Ilil
                               a                                ,      tItirh'v'    hiigitr             Agiitilirti          l    'Resetlirch siiilsii            td
                                                                                                                                                                   iveiid        IFARI)
[itllt lliclivi
             of               alnd       r idit ilil       h 'ls. Ih        tl
                                                                            %\'\tcr, to
                                                                                   t                    Global ('tsli'i'llioli vill h,;k into ihis protlfm antid iti 

aci cvI this goatil %%-11.itii S l i                    ad;llt-staillish ai cl cl ofl                      i       tli ;iraillils IIiilgi       i(Illh l;il n-tSca;rch ill dhevlhpin
g

pllldictivt. 11 scl'ci h %%m             ~kcl S, co '         1
                                                           11ill .    Ih
                                                                       114l        pply"ol"             countries andil will i't'rciloilld iintl-dialtv stepls to)1wt

Ili id      i't.,   llles' n.ild boiild Iilc 1-ricr It lograllll ailld                                  Itlkr'l alndjlinl e'llorts Iollehviatel Idiost, constri'mhis-.

lprojects       11-oillild Sclienisti     s %\ithigoodt     \\<oi'k I'(,(oids         id(
 Hiis %\iti lightpi frtlliliv
         i                                    lf stit.ss.                                               The Ihtliio tf, the     eiietitg will he tho iiiplat ofiesetiich
                                                                                                        otti tlliloilal agiiriltutial develpimtpitit. Its olliccieis ilr:
lotcltliv' t-siclrh is d.rltlltlttii       a(                        ititpIt I tiritil.                 to highlight sitcices slid iitioinal restercl experiecttes
1i iilt'Is         Vriis ito ItlellV
                  tils            hiI)CtliotS                               of                          l0'
                                                                                                        basld tt iiiitnal iltihologits aido riilh 
         itlecliehiivig
                     h'14isl~~~~lti\'l'.~~                  ltils       ~ili            I~~liiil
                                                                                      IionllItll
                                                                                          Sll(          natii'ii         lrtii\                 );ls ill Ii(I plodtlion and in

                                                                                                                                              goa
(oili-i'    tite mt.%%ill listict ito aitotliils ofsiict ssfitl                                         Sistaiiigi          riiral dievc hlltliittl;
                                                                                                                                             tt ithoniil, (lflrtuiiiitiis
'o;illiil's of iglici lii l resitol t ii silu iriilipi                              vg'oilill            uilf tlill o s fii ll. e i           t(llisi(l o
                                                                                                                                                        coilr ti i,
dlometviiil iotts, ititf so to           slitolll ili
                                                   i                                itoepower           rsri;iici itito.iks iii biools tf tiiiitit itereist ill s.ii
 rs to'sslti Illaiplts.
            il                                                                                           Iutionil wli elttl tltb"i ltlv .lliVa Its,
                                                                                                                     h                                     'fis ilh
                                                                                                        rtitoes     atnd divtorse skills cottuld sfCtd   ilip prtgress; and
 'eousill also lisivti Ioll uollililS (i iolocslitl aI'villples ill                                     It prillitlt tiln vsililisli'itl ofilicaiiisinis ti provide
establisliigii i st ti gii oti ill, iatiini l i gi tllliiril
                                  1                                                                     it twoo- avaslits
                                                                                                                    f       'fii tiiwilitlii (oiorostlrth nileds iid
 Il-Sl-ri s'sitllsl ill                        iliillirls.
                                                     comt\lh         As I have                          alprofriate techlintulogis bl'ti.ei th developing lialioils
rt'fitrd ito atiiir, a lotoit                   oxillhatl l           iiodfel ofalti                    and ittiroitiillill and regioial resairch inslittllts anti
cltiv            atiitial        liiltilltial reseal't' Syestmll                                        aigencies.
dev'lhouing roliitries is right fiurr il hBrazil, EM                                RIIIAPA,




                                                                                                   39
 The Second Global Convention ol'IFAR D ain is to                                   produclike session. During !hc courst. ofthis, I aillicipale
 establish working cooperative mcchimisjus bemct-ii tht                             that tit(- viithusiasin already dt-monsiratt-d If\ many
 member countries ol'i FARD and, cqually important, ill                             IFARD mclubvi-, will be shared by othels.
 promote and stimulate awarenchs among tilt-riisting
 scientilic institutions ohliv powntial ol'i FARD as                               The strrngtb oH FARI ) lics to ;Iconsiderabit, dc.grev ill
 if catalyst ill dw process oCstirngthcning national                               dic stf-cligth ofits lovill of. f-t-giolwl orqalli/aliolls. The
 agricultural ITSViLITh S\StVIIIS. It %%illidso svvk ill pim ill(-                 flecd to stiengillt-11 div support will Illen 1)(.(.olll(.
 cssenlial conlintlit\ in Ow inSlittjIioll;t!i/"Iliol1 of, I FARP.                 iII)pait'llt. ffapploptiatc action lollows, Own I fi-el silre
                                                                                   that m. call rvIv oil an v\ I-11 otc clitimsiastic [(-Sl)ol)S(- to
                                                                                                                      m
 What makes this inifiaikc imi(Itic i, that it sivins I't-mu                       ill(. an nomm-clill-11 I oH FARD's Thild (dobill
 tilt- (Im-t-lopipig nations Ill ill(- \\m ]d IlIvIllckc., mid                     Convention, ctinclith plannud for [y)o, wilt-11 the
 rellt-cis micv again divir drici minmimi tit scrk                                             411 %%olldagrictillmal I.I.Srali'll %%illagaill bv
solutions to ille evvI.-Im'sclif Spet, (vIS offilmille, pokul I\                   14.% cd.
                                                                                        i(.%%
and stagnating fura] dc\vI')plllvllI. Thl. I FARI )
inifiativ, Ito%%-   approachkig its 11-11111 oIv\iS1cll( v.
                                               \var                                 Finall\ . it is m\ plva ,1111     (1111\ 4)r\pIcSs till 1whall'ohlic
                                                                                                                              (
secks, diert-16ic, it)vinphii izv that              Ifis Ow                        Bomd of IFARD out                          ihank to out dimms,
c."ential licy lo StISj.jijl('(I                        (Il'it                     %%ifiloillMlom, colltilmolls f-cliclosil\ Owc locctings
i1m.-Init-lit ill agricillillial rescall It,( killcild\ Stalic of                  %\I)Ill(lfill( 11,1\ v lot -IfpossibIr. S( \'(-If major dollors have
(It-clilling, both ill ill(- lialional IvcI aud in till plo41itills.               madc 1,111111S    it\ iiiUdc 11,1FARD. Fkc ollwis have
is an act oll,,Iitli Ilial It-quilt-S .1"Llc.ll of Lrvih'f                         filldilt'I'd lit(' MIC1111M)CC ol",V\ Clad IMI'lik ifMI)IN, Mid 1611f.
collifililint-111 thmi ant otlin l1lodcl [Ilf-chnologic.11                         ollict ou atli/aliolls ha\ 4.plo\ idud \ ahlaU. Icso'lln.
dvchpillt-lit.                                                                     prisoillicl. Wbilr it filight bc im idious (4)SillgIc mll till(­
                                                                                   donol hom iltflolu So                  , I 11111st
                                                                                                                                    comc\ publicl\ ille
Tllv imen-sl sllo\%Il ill this lllvrlint b\ Iradf-IN of naliolial                  drbl ill gialilmll- %% I FARI ) m\vs (toISNAR for its
                                                                                                              hich
agricultillill it-Scan 11   pl(,L Ialm If;[,, fill vx1.(-cdrd oilr                 assistant c ill i aNh and kiiid ill pim idiiu Ili(- Nrcirialim of'
(-Xl)(-( tatiolis and Ilillorltill.1 11,1\ has also r\( 4.4-drd oil]               IFARI ) lM dic hs[                 \vals. We l('41H that this
abilit\ to finallcr 1111-111 A glalik ing 1111,111wl of -1;
                              all.                                                 assm i'llioll 11111st I)III \\I- hope that Ilic resull., ol'illis
                                                                                                            vnd,
national Ivadv[ _ to-spond.-d \\ilb itilli Iit\ Itodw                              illevOliq %%ill 1114)\ ill(- a filtill., if ilmic.
prc Ii In ina I N.a IIf IIIIf( t-I IirnI of I Iit. 111 i IIg I )I-N )i I v
                                                     vvI           I
consi(Icialde dimot sitlyot I, I it-girt iliat sonic 28 of                         Aloiu %% fit- dwims. %%v
                                                                                              ith                     iliink om Imst (irgimi/.ation
Ill(.S(. bild 11)ll- disappoilltud. Allocalioll
                I                                                                  ENI BRAPA, \\11om. olgalli/ifig comm llcc has so gf.(.ikll\'
plaucs %%its              di\ ided \%itllifl (hr Irgiollal chaptcls                lacililawd Ow Smooth opellilut ol'Illis fill-cling. Thv\ haVe
(of'IFARD, %%iththe 1(.Ntlll thal lit, IcSS fliall Ill national                    kwilied iiivlv sly oil Ili(. Im-paratiolls, over and i1bo \ c
If-advis arv % its ioda\ if,, IVA RI) pai ticipanis and 12
                 ith                                                               \% \% calli-d Ior Ifotill Ilit-ili. I rI Its dw[ (.lot'(, Cllslllc
                                                                                      hill ;is
ollm-1. coull1rics it c I(*Ill V.S111114-d' b\ ifidix idual
                                        cidict                                     Illat all Ilicir Ili cparillioll", Illose 111' IFAR I)
                                                                                                                               Ow
participants ill. instillitiollill pal licilmdoll. Wr illso hilke                  Secirlaiial and, if, , vast, (I[tilt- spealicis, ;if-(- madv
with its if large ri-picst-niation hom mir host ( ounlry                           \%orihwhilv b\ mir delibeiations. Thank \-(,if.
Brazil. I welconle vm all and wish \ou an intelf-slillf" and




                                                                             -10
                                                                                    KEYNOTE ADDRESS

           THE IMPACT OF RESEARCH ON DEVELOPMENT - NEEDS

                                                                                      AND POTENTIALS



                                                                                         Alexander von der Osten
                                                 DirectorG;eneral,                              i u         i'.      i     a      iur                          ch (    I       /)
                                                                                                     77: l ',.     \+th~ t,




 I.'t me. start 1w Itlling youi lilw pliasld I ain ti                                           c Iit-        iI          , look Ior\.ard to, Ili                 lthIhturvl.
                                                                                                                                                                    -                \e        iit-tl to ask
 Itopartcip alil
      i                         ltis      First ltl'r i               lia] M etllinlg 1"                                  n      Illsdv s:
 Natioial .griculttal RcRarch                                                   aurd            StcPos                           esearschnO                       Prese
 Globdal C'.       noll\'lt~ FARI). I \.,\ '<it thi.s 	 c'a.,ioll to
                            ol'l                                                                                      •       \\hat aft' h I 'halhll ".,ol'to.nlu                         l t..,?

                                                              ,

 ilCrl v.'ilh otJ" il-'ci -,aild p)al'nll 's -	 thc ] 'ath'i 'r                                                       0I
                                                                                                                      • .rv        %\'cc
                                                                                                                                    I.              t o fivi v
                                                                                                                                                             t     w       .
a Ili               Illlc ll 	
                rad1l5 44,'1atiolal \i                                                                   w	                            radiiui I Ilu. l o.. tj i ; d Illril itit . , I
                   \., rfin d '\ch ,.I i'tl
                             l' rt~~m
                                                                             ll
                                                                           alIit                                         1
                                                                                                                      111, low do \%l                        uI           r
                                                                   l~lt d               \ oll<r                          cihidlllic€ Ill puqodlili\'il\ Idl'q It-.scilich Ns vstt .,?

ill\italllr .        141 dlh           , i lu          lc
                                                     lls . 4i .11 	 i. 	                                              0 I Ilu do \ ,%',a
                                                                                                                                      t                        (t (bo 111iliZ ii4 IlC hil ui hiijal
                                                                                                                                                                i il\
                                                                                                                           u'saglll'i IN          '(lil   ld h\ 11 1 r s t tljc
                                                                                                                                                                 (                        hs    \Nlll   -N.,

'Ilil iiill           \ llit hirI\cflownt             Ilir thi,-, 
 1'%.\ l s. i l of                                      \\'la tI ill m,.do jo,                      jlsiJ
                                                                                                                                                                           is        Ilul L t lill              tt11tas.ks!

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   "
 R .Nl ch onlN.ti1.11,11 Att it IIllIIral Dc.\'4.h-lopii
     .1                                                                                              is

hiighjly 11-4-.               11 1I
                               to               ts:ill %olt. dw. cad
                                                    u          I                          lnational
                                                                                         of.hr                        III Im tall, this,1].+l llitit4. I Shlall dc.al \.,ilh still)(. Idllthese.
                                                                                                     '
l't1*illch                         Il
                               tC'l% ,
                                   i+3"      +it ISN
                                              (             . R : it,   (111l       ol i' I .UIII-       I
                                                                                                         1            lli'ti-N lil',. 1 '1, 111 ( o wil llltl t-llt flil points:

                              r.111d~      Io , u
                                              o                                                                                                            ,
.,ipport +l               i   t                                 Ir.
                                                            onil" N             l      I \%(.;Ill loi ll              1. tlI-'      lt' i(.\ (.11cillts ,        114.lpast,         aihrilI ''           w        "+h~ l
Itll of
     1               .-   ~ la        S\ 'willNof ili,,tit ui           ins dh'dic'ald I t 114-%%.
                                                                                            w                                    s..aind:



                                                                                                                          ic.. insi' lliliillal 'lit\ itColllivli    Itloo.k ;it thc r'iucrgiing

I \\ I'll I., 1c., ,Ird 11% .11p ,. i'ltioll Io, d w ( ;o\ 4.l itlllov ll ofl                                              glh lhal it-".,l'+  N
                                                                                                                                              1' .\Nsl,'lti 11ll t-I~

                                                                                                                                                                   di\'isrion .11labo~r

Blazil andl it. LI",.\11 f          I il i,, t dh't-i',i , lo host Ihlis,
                                           l                                                                               .1111ong 1th4\.Ilio lls gio .ll, o, I(tlt~s;

ilopl lail ll rrii'i, . A1
         t                                              ~
                               his, .m l h4 N ,\N \ i.io.li h+lf-ll' 	
                                                   ',h; IIA                                                                                 '

                                                                                                                                                 'm '+l"' to III(.(t d'tw 1111111, d wlt
                                                                                                                                                                  .                    huil-il) IF"
     - ,hlit N(I '1<i ot N, l
                     1    1          hI..\
                                       I Il~ t\ '\         . n l 'i i                                                      II;tiom lI JIL<,l'('       il J'1tl)ao ilil',.

iisititionAt .qi l o.ihIt                       ~ it lili     pl<t a ta i
                                                                      i             k ,d
thi 1d,,lt4' ,la++ti,                                                                                                 I. Past Achievements of Agricultural
                                                                                                                              Research - Our Present Position
NIy I oillp iti l- s to l h , h.adl.. ship ,I I I".\K I) lot h'..,g~ing,

this I-\v4-111. ( o.nw., .11a srIttth'tgi( In1ll lll. I I Ili(,\ Ii(-', .1
              1                                                                                                       Thr'food€ I-Iisr's it: A s'.ia (11 ing ica s,\\tic , %.,
                                                                                                                                                      ht                        hic'h \\.' 'r.

oppoi Initlillt     Ilookingt 1,,('k anld Iiakiliit si,l, k. \V\'                                                     piillll ticd b\] ralpidl pollidlla iolt ttro%%Ith, iHl-ilpilaicd
                                                                  ~
,,ish l d + l issc lo ;o hii'v'inli tsil,la , ;ind ll i olw ,lh r":
                                          so                                                                         ai liIIIItll-Itl f (h'-v illclitll,+%dliilliiiolid.iilltllliall +c'lli t'.
                                                                                                                                    o
                                                                                                                      Iiht-silllatholi ili'-hl l ,l ht ii
                                                                                                                                            %N            lll . Ill ai litilli cll, IhcNc
0 Ilixo         'k doli li 111j
                 .l         a'               , a'sigmiwd         to I1s bl \oIll
                                                                     t                                               (11-\f-'h piluilis \%,rIV:
    'i 	   iI ll i        lrI'irs,,
" 	 If m 	 %%\ ot ii( !-d Ili."if.( lilnoloti. ", ir' ttli'll-to
           v (- p' d                                                                                                      it r  w fi'lii'
                                                                                                                                        lleld ('11611 1(thl~o IIlionlll] anld
                                                                                                                                                             lli
    (o lt ibiltf' if, Ill'ch lli, I.1                                                                                     itilcrti lililnal h' <lini sip ll of agl iclthtti~al
                                                                                                                                                                    +
" I li 'c m.l'it 	 ill 1iilll l I!'
                 li                                                                                                       dr'xcl iiniil1 ill it 'liird \V lrld;
                                                                                                                                                      I
isIif tooll, \Nbah ,ll. thw is l ,l j,+
                 iI                                                                            Illril'll,.                t t. fliinditlg2 ofitill' ('.G IA IRanld 1 l     i a
                                                                                                                                                                          dl ll btlil-utp
                                                                                                                       of a g!hl al ai ilttllital t-scl'llh '+-siI-llt;
M ll.c illipl llil ,ii. l i                     t', thal hoo kingl back is. the"ntii''d                              0 iillas. ix'I-l' INldin-i'ld h'\ I d 1111 - il lp (1l'
                                                                                                                                   cl                         hi
       resea rch Caplaruiti~s ,at Ililt, ihitioml                 h'        il          thl~         in                     knlzt,    andl Illort. Ibas+ic' I-'sclu'h is, fittdhd.
       ,'tillIllit'.;                                                                                                   • 	 ()nt ldlt soctiorcolloilli" Sidhe, it is lit"cotm letxityv of,
    " 	 the"mobt ilizaltion tol's.c.it-fice" anld It.('llloh)y i. illelt 
                                                  (lry'lanld ftinlling s s".itns|., willh tht' n't'sllling

        tran~sliprina~tion oi ditional l. rit ultmv,. inlto Ihighly 
                                                        multilicity o-lo'u p,+,.N\vhi('l 1Sh)\+.,. hdo%%

                                                                                                                                                                     S     1 pr'ogl',tss ill
        tprodnlitiv't filfl'inlg s+%stilnls: 
                                                                                          %              ;1lll1 com pic,'wi.. tict tnallnsli'l. of,
                                                                                                                             +.('Ihlot!og gt'nlt'ltlio~ll
    " 	 Owt gint' vi t t'nhl iclull p'tlit it's i,'l
                     l                                                           tl 
                                          t'clulologN..
                                                                                                                             tt't)
        dcvv't'h iln c'om~tilis ill supll:+~~l(I+                       i~ lll'' 
                                           ()If dict ionstilliio lil sic, %,.r
                                                                                                                                                               IIIInSt n,'umvinl f. thatl
                                                                                                                             Imo(sll
                                                                                                                                   n       ltllln~i   lw*,,alc€h     s+.%
                                                                                                                                                                        s+,trlnm         ;if(" \o(>tmn+, +n il       t"hv'arnl
                                       .,
 Toett< hern, Ililt's c'll bl l                  ugm abol ,t ,\%,han srillcet
                                                   ht              hils                                                     slagcs ,d'lhi'i (1.clp
                                                                                                                                             hthl                          ll. l
                                                                                                                                                                            t              d1
                                                                                                                                                                                          ,,tl li-d %%
                                                                                                                                                                                                    ,itll            g'tI~v

 beel', cailh'd the ( ;n'''I l'l c\ utioll. Its basi,, \\as, Ow
                         v      R                                                                                            ille'xl'iclinc'd 14-scan.Ir('h-n,. '1 l l i lh c i\.ily, is hlow+
      .

 inltroh il m t~ntv vdi \,.-it tfi l grlcllic s"+, ns odl
                  o n \%            e tcm              I                                                 a'tt               ( )If Oiwtpolic\ sill(-, IiII;IlI\,. Ilatitmo ll
                                                                                                                                       l                                        ,i       ttu'~ to

 and I it 1 ,lh 11 n        ,tn l 1.''l < so il IC'rlilil\ +alld 

                               c~    good                                                                                    nl ii'Lllltll(. ill n€'-.s'alrth andt Itotf'chcil i , 
 t'+calo gl'ss

                                                                                                                            i+'tcr
                                                              tli I* N, 'sullI -'s+
        inltl~l                                                                   ,

             q'il( l,       it,. 
          tl+ i.<p ll
                                                h,                  [(o                                                     hais m,,I~'l,'' %%k.. S l~ip,,l Ito +i icl~l
                                                                                                                                          bf-       .,                                  ' Iti+( ll t'h

 %%€ t No( hf , Ili~p
  Iqc                           IIt   'll ,itN ;Ili\
                                       N               ofablh' ipolit+ 

                                                                      \Hi                                                     I it     "(I,I(
                                                                                                                                       I iIII)Ii IIL Nt' I\ itt'
                                                                                                                                                               vsha s, IhI 'lv I                        't', bcn'(
c'l'i l( if I ir Il, itllnlls l f li ,. anid flit + .1\ .1ilahilit\ 1,,I
      I                                                                                                                       ladh IlInI ,.
                                                                                                                            inI       ilI
 ipnn lit ip ll,1.1nt , IVIu     l+'ili,/'c +tl \ .11-' 
 , ol (I I'd lt.
                                            and
t +c' l., n .:i~ ,;h ' .:, i ',1 
                                                                                         < ;: ,.+ ,,. :, , tF
                                                                                                                                              I        h- .        s +',           i'€           ;,     ,+ s ' l
                                                                                                                       W\'ht-l€vdo % 4+. ,,tlld + \%.If-If
                                                                                                                                       s             i                 d(          ct \        t %hI,         Sl s     hIit vn'
    llct irl,.pm  t hcIf<;I vfi k i' 11it ineI1., hi'tvI, impr
                       (,t'                                                                                 ,
                                                                                                          c.,iv        ". 	 hval w! r
                                                                                                                                  n            l.,      \; ic\, Ihv( (;ItvtII Rc                   t
                                                                                                                                                                                                  IIIiolh . it I~ns
                                                                                                                                                                                                               h
at, ;% .l1 kl,,+,im . I t Il t( lvc'".N tcl II ill 0lo h.,
      1.
      ,                     d            it,                                                             d             gi\ il its... hl anld lllt              ht Ils IllIll\ h'sslills:


A s'ia '.+I, hl If;\,' l l illp,,,,l
                    I.b               ithoilll it..\Ill)i\ of lhic
                                     %,\                                                                               •
                                                                                                                       0        1lt III
                                                                                                                                h1 lSmth
                                                                                                                                      lo                  p)t
                                                                                                                                                          I.      .I,,s 1th1. l)im tl td ietlllopL
                                                                                                                                                                             + a
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                                                                                                                                                                                                 pr('i lilinl
                                                                                                                                                                                                       c 

  tettnolog' reqtuirvieit ls.                                                                                      or priodu titt ity. It has IIII'l€ii ll ininhid Iby- sitold
                                                                                                                                                      I
                                                                                                                   agricullonad polic'y,dev' llemll olill-a.l Il..
                                                                                                                                           (t('
  2. 	    Future Challenges - Evolving 
                                                                           an l huil-tip ,l'illtilitiotilu calpitics.
                                                                                                                        Ow,
          Technology Requirements

                                                                                                                                E',,
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                                                                                                                     Te
 I                              tihe

                                                                                                                     Global Research System
  lt titlc k IIt' oilit v
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                                                      \isPtlt Ill (olitili-. 
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      ic           iorl.
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                                                                                                                  ailllilng nationlaJ             V       'll
                                                                                                                                                            ,;tiii]
                                                                                                                                                                 Ihcvirle'cl'lic(h

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                                                                                                           '13

     Coillaborationt                                                                                                              r;Iltge oi goods anid strviccp'ilnIsjpoiJ1se to it wit. rlge                                                                       (W
     Whaiit Cant wet dop ip moiliz(iet                          tipt'            pottl
                                                                                  )P~ttltf~l                                      demandsppl              Ivitppi all iiIcie.Psitngly fiiiogttipipips girotij (11'
     ava~Lilble (3j)ptiP                      ics tileO gloill               lescptelpSsvil                                       N:\RS. Tlheir minl (ptt Iiniltilons alp: g(I1tlfPIlasm~

                                                                                                                                  relt    ph floclifilt(cs,collaborautive. respviip-, 
itciijia

 lipte       things aprc ( tva tip
                                 Ilii:                                                                                            assist~lanc,  trainling, jiplic apillysis PIIPI Pins~tiuti

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  I have already mentioned that if, solving oIII*pjesellt jill(I                                development. They are fill- baiis low any impact III'
  fullfre ledill0logy requirements tilt, Colitriblitioll-i ol'basic                             Iccilliology. This conviction is celill-ill 11)ile philosoph"
                                                                                                                                              f
  Svivllce will ha%c to Ili- more prombient than                           Ili                  of*I IivCG 1AR; it is t II(- rai%onXibe lilt- ISNAR's cxistvi            v.
  pri.ctica: Icrins this nicans ill(- lived to fill) alf available
                            ge and expertise ;fit(] to mobilize                  If             Whal can \Nv tilt joillfl\ to,
 .iouircs O'knowled                                       a                                                                          Arvilgilivil national rest-alch
 poiciiiial pariners oCcolialool-alioll: research centri s if)                                  cilpacilivs     \\'If;[( ale lilt- ( oillillill) issm.s.,
 tilt- ind list rial ized vouiltrics, oiller specializud ilustillitiolls                        We all kii(j\\ that too1w Nut-4 vNshil, ;Ili\ rt-sratch sysivin
 ofbasic    science its well as kI11i% -I sifirs. Pal (it illal I\
                                                                                                               Illiligs:
 I-clevatil ill \,i(.\%of,[(.( 1.111 advillici-s ill I)iot(.t.li ill dop         %%
                                                                                  ill
 he tilt- I-stablishilicilt of illstinilk 11.11 linkages ox,ilh Ilw
                                                                                                I . a t olu 1-111 - it     lem h   dt-filled goal and stralt"P
 Illost advilliccd Iabol ;oorics, \. llcl c\ cl         Ihv\ at v located.                          Illonc\      tilt- I   Noon ces to addicss   [hill goal;
                                                                                                    pvoplc       (Ili, S( willific cilpm it\ 14) colidtict its
 Looking at the indusnialim (I cominics, %\I-if(, marv, ol'                                         progra;ll:
 cowsc, float III(.               olivillatioll ol'their lvsval ,ll                             .1. 111allagvIllent       tilt- illstillitioll.11 capacity to olgallize
 tilt usts i,, Iik( Iv it) It(- tvissesst-d ill flic light (if prcsvnt                             tilt, s\ slo'lli, (o (14.\vlop ii ( olivit-11( plograin aloof to
  1,11-pli's jolobluills.Tlwx ola\ bc shilling 'max, Ilona tilt-
                                                                                                                    olilizi. ;Ix ailable Icsoill ces ill pulsitil ol'Illat
 goill ()I ola\illlizilu plodll( Ioll. I'llv dill-clioll ohlivil                                   goal.
 adjustilivill 4.1161-ts is not xrl civar.
                                                                                               ,\If liltir aft. important. They ill(- ill(criclated and ally ()if(­
 iv. Collahowhon with theliiialese, 1w                                                         call constittliv it Net i0lis

 For sonle lilll(- nox%­ pal ti( 111al 1\ ill I alill Allicl ica and 

                                                                                                I if \%-(if king, to sit engilivii NAWS, Ohis is our inalidale)
 loarl" ol'Asia      m. 
 11;1\ v obsel vvd an expansion oldiv                                 we 11im. filtilld dial. ill older to be productive, rest-al-ch
 plivall. m-( ((it %lialt.ill mclall       Ics"alch ao, livilics. Private                      s\sIvIIls I)(*(.(I adc(Illatt. cilpm it\ ill (If(- awas
s-( (of lil ills havc r"scillially bl-ril ulking ovi-I Nprcilic 
                              Policy. lescitich olganizalioll and Iescalch wallagvIlwill.
filliciiolls ill Ilw do%%11stivaill NJ)(.( 111111

                                         1     1)1,1114. 
                                     A hI         lucr* on vm If.
III o( rss.


                                                                                                Rogillding file pohr\ em hollificill, file stri-ligill of NAR'S
This fiend is JikvI% 14)( oninitir and is itolikcIx I(. taisc 
                                is largl Iy      illillrd b\ their uilpacil\ if) mobilize
illix. In'ljol olliccliolls. I I it]]\ Illing. i, %\ ll (oll(I ibulv 

                                                    i                                          polilical Nuppof I and 11111dilig. This Iequires it COIllitilling
lo%\ill its t-1111.111ccd           1.11css ;111(1osi-4-11i( icIu.%.

                                                  c                                            dialoguc X\ith poll(icill (14-4sioll Illakci S.
                                                                                                                              i                     lived III be
                                                                                               convinced Ilim ille baNu (11     ii-ilt;llioll oltll(. Irst-arch

The issue I %% to flag is dillel ('111. 1 is TO'Lilt'd (o
                 ish                         1                                                 prograill is col Iccl, Illill the I Iloicv ol*pI iol itics is Iight

dc\ clopilivills ill tilt- arva of biolvdillology alld (11-als                    ith          and diat thew is illillm t powillial.

III',- ploblvins 14,11111111
                           v ;1(urss (11Ill.%% 1:114m Ivdgc. 'I he
Green R'.\oIll(ioll \%its i-swilli,111% a pubhu 'Cool.                                         Lookiii   ill ill(- sit if( [tilt- and               of lest-al-ch ­
cliterprist. it, the dc\clopillt Ioullilic". The cIo( 'ging
                                                                                                            - find that adillsulicilis ;I..(.          ov'-I lifill.
 gelle fl-voltilioll", based oil pliql-c"s Ill 111ole( Illill                                    ill 1111c illi ( 11,11POI11" polilical alld ccolloillit.
                                                                                                         %x
gry1clics. is pl-l-doillinitilli\ ;I lot ;\ I[(- sector vMv] prisc ill                        cif (                I )evc-lopilicill, Ivqill ding Ilic Asiall
Ow de\ vIoprd %x    orld. 1,114. o llc t it'll dial ill iscs is: What
                                  I                                                           It-scitich coulu if model alld Ow Latill Alliclicall model of,
(all we do ill makt.           Io 1,111111vis dr\vloping
                                           ill                                                st-Iiii-aillolloillous ill"lifilics ;it(. (asvs ill point.
colintrics (If(-Ilv%%
                    oppollunilics - hop-1111Ix ill file s;llll(.
\xilv ;I,, div scvds      (4cril Rv\olulioll ill Ow si\lirs                                   F.quailx if, poitant if(- is tws iciiiiijig it) the si/.c ol'
alid svvcllliv%.' What ( all the (vinvis (14,to clislin. and                                  ii-scan If steins. Long-tvint viability is ;I key (viw( vii,
Speed ilp dir flanslei of knodrd"'r.,                                                         pallictllarl\ Miell c\11.111al ltllldim is ilmolvvd. All loo
                                                                                              ofwil \\I- "t-v mt-l-alubidolls phils I'll filallpower
                                                                                                                 alld inflisn 111.1 c \xhich I alillot be
                                                                                                                                  Ill
This brill gs fill. to Ow 16111
                              (11and filial lopicof Inx talk.                                 111aililaillf-d ill Illv long Ilin [141111
                                                                                                                                      national

    Strengthening National Research                                                           I havvall (.;I(]\ ITlvI IIiolwd Olc I
    Systems                                                                                   Iiiikagv inechanisin, it) viistitc that all cxivrnal sources of*
                                                                                              kIlo\\ 11-dill. and ( ollabol'Ififill ale (aplovd. Sililikilly
All (phis assembled here are (onvinccd that stiong NARS                                       impoi [;lilt ;if-(- lilt- linkages \%ill: III(- let Imolop (ralisli-1.
are fit(- kv\ to long-wrin sticcess fill- national if Hcultmill                               S\ swill alld IINvI s.




                                                                                        1.5
  urnLing now to res     rch lnaiilin.-tl,  I \ 'l-dlid
                                                      iatv
                                                       merely                   tlir issuts: restirclh policy, rcstd ttJ1 trgal i/llioll
stress i
       h     throiigh hl iter Inageme~cnt prc'dirtv'y'd                   a   retearch iallagelllit. W know thi t hiv il'r
           lo Iii'easCt the irodliity oflllV r'earclh
Cniln o it oI                                                             imlr)tiint cowi':erils if) ol, tilt Ieaiders of lialiillill
                                                                                                   y
 ystml. Bet llr planiting, pltrgraiillilg and e'\ilhluition iS\stetlti.          \'t hook fini'isvd, tici linit, Io cntiuing it."
arc1 likely toi I(+l'
              i      t'i+ rijit il      and iohtlit\ ol'oir               Cillaboah \%.ith yiou - (il ii It i pilliirhiip biasis.
                                                                                  lil
researcr h pro,, ains. Similarly\',W t' il
                                    \\       ~c11ltilsf,
effetcttivvtilets-i andHcost ,'liclicym'>         utilizaItion
                                     tluough be'tter' 

antd ti anage iiviit ioi kry i't'(mi lilhUIii
                        m        ls:
                                  ''   r                 .                II   lRI is your iii li    l li hisciissiiil i yiir conctlns.

                                                                                                       Ow
finaiitl   dandillhsic'ail le(s.5itil'c.                                  It is oily natural;,            that
                                                                                                 lwlthltihr wc'  stand rvldil to) w\ork

\W.", ISNt.ha' sl,+uctulrt'l

   ill                  )ill"
 latoon 

                          lprog                                           with IFARI and cnt'im.to'"pUlo it
                                                                                                          \whe~rt"
                                                                                                               lelsihhe.





                                                                   '46

           THE CGIAR AND THE NATIONAL, AGRICULTURAL

                      RESEARCH PROGRAMS:

                    A MATURING PARTNERSHIP





                                                        Richlard L. Sawyer
                                      Dirclor Uetne'rl,
                                                    Ith'iotiloalao Ce' tl((,'11),
 Po..
                                                                     n         Lima,




Te (Cosuhlativi. (;rhl ) lilt I]m
                    ,           crnaliollal .\, i('.h
                                                    ul,tl             illh'rn1ml:llil

                                                                                   l (fil i-lsiol[Ii1lglh a mo)dilicrl agircil'i-'tl
Rsvi I h ( :(
            ;IAltR   ;s li mldh ( i IIw
                                  n    icarly 1(1. s I ovt                  l"' \hxi"'I(lrl      l ll-  lln 1917 OWNse
                                    , ,

 ll)N\-,\ Ilil it
         tlt.            Illobhhl     l'lg if dumcill
                                      o                               ifumldatiols cStab~lishid t\%.oi,'cvt'{'nh
                                                                                                      l           s: he'

1*1t (,\
   t            lAW -( :1.NI I .,oi IM .i -- kic'l
                   :.,      Nh                            f,      illNige'lia andtlct'( :1'Jt,'< rla 
io,nl dhel i IIlli
                                                                                               Itel               ,
  g
Ii',       i,d (I"(-, )(Iamd lR,wkc'lIIfh l'ndaiom,n tt
              illw                          it                    'l"olial Ilf IAXI' il (.,,hlldibi, Im,l,rd (',1topical
                                                                                                     l:oth
%%c'  \it'xNNI-d l.,th thc'hon,,,.1d dc'\.hlopiljg
                       b,    (      N               I ,,lt,'ii',, ;i, IIIIII~. 'lilts,hv I+7 , %\,lic'lit
                                                    '                 i(                                II(-( ;IAR %v  ;I
  Ivlpoal Ilh'f.,, Il,,.
its                        hoI,,         it 

                                    lt'+,l\;a.lthl,,.h1thal       I               rolc'IN
                                                                             luihd+l,r alh+d\ rxiJ+c'(l 1(ll ml'llali
                                                                                                            r1'hc,
 I,+,tlll ,cl
       ll~ m.
                        I      ita\ lt,4..u,,s,

                                            hrhcltiull 
 
        P"-lol
                                                       .                        : 1( 1 ) ' INI,,t
                                                                                    '           N'
                                                                                                ,tahiNh(lfill If" 6tll 1n71;'Id

                                                                                                                    i
I fi 1 \ Iioqu,,i \m<ul iloi(
    l[)              .,s          I.Ic'ni'gt ,iakc'o,\'(-I
                                            i            Illi(     i, i,,i ( ; A R .,\
                                                                         l II            s,,vi 1(1-.'1'Iic nmnal m
                                                                                               ill            Imvt,

wnk ofl.         f1,'nl,'r..                                      (CItol)'+. h lililli
                                                                          {Nf..,'a            tlt[li svlhr:,i-.\i
                                                                                                               il'I tloi, N
                                                                   Rl(,lR

                                                                        INVI'). c",ablsh,'Ad illI nldij;IItj-%,%,.s       fi,

                                                                                                                          lt
E olution of the CG System                                         'cnic'r hic
                                                                         it, .I( lllI\ rumcdl \,, ( :( ;\ . Ili
                                                                                         (           ti(-    ;         ij71I
                                                                   lhrc-4-4 ldtliilal 'Cllit. 
 adhhvd: [lit- I nhlcuriatliolnlil
                                                                                                 f\rtv
 A i,ti vN :            dic ',ht,
                        h,'v%.1lolohr { (IAl            \Sf-I
                                                        ,,io' 
      L,l+drlo,,\ lf,[   ls,o I,on                         + 

                                                                                                  ,,       i..\1hI)istaws (II.LR\I)
ilic~ahs I(,\%     littlh-"th(oluL'ht lh, S\ sih'lll A 4t18;\l+{ill Kn~a. the lkihi
                                      4,11t"                                                ijatiionl l,i\( k ( :(fill(-iltA'it'+f
                                                                                                              t,
liibiliol        lomdill d b\ II Wit , id ( ',1I of(
                                                )A       %,iach    IIIA:A) ill lif-JiL and lu 11,1'        It'

                                                                                                              nliolll Bhad lilt

      s,11
  fi'., hr" N1.111 I, 

                 "-\        Is,"F"I.ih'~ \Vh"+ As, +

                                                    th(            Plant(:rtlih' Rlm ll+ cs II IN(;R Ic'adlliH hIcd ill

   di)i.
      l           lar, thII
                  tat ", 
 in
                      ,           "no , ols',tiol noh"4+ 
   l     I'M\ ) ill Rlic, F I
                                                                                      .             A\l it ll
                                                                                                 -Is\\t Rtifc 
rhlopilil

                                                                                                                      Drt\
   ,c(,+o,,lil> I l,,
                 ,\1o
                  ,,'r       f plt'viili: ,mid 111 N,\ ,,I

                                                     snIl' 
        AssoclJ~liml. (\\WARIDA )isa~:l a Icqti0,,Hl

                         ',

olllg+ll ,dr[ii ,,, w,n,-., I\ (
         A                 a        h<'-1 "llw'llsl It . is,       inhil ijio\'rl111wl     assmllto,+ ithI"
 lm 'l( llilll
                                                                                              lli lI \\                      •

                                                                                                                  -, Ine h co        ic
i I~ h"~~ ,I(1 I NIf ILo, lh'l [lt-,
    i     \\4-1f               I ('li .,<     If\ 44111111,   l    ))II, "im, '.i . , ,1t Iits.
                                                                              , I                   11t,,dlig  has.com e thr,, Ill(

                                                                                                                        ii        gh
 u la ,,
b 'i l l (i+ hs Il i o~ + 
 hi ' , + ,
     '                      bri slla     i     ,ol I l . " ,\ h ll
                                                          'a        ( ;l \At.T h nh 'r i o,ilF o o.l l l u'-it '

                                                                                          ina              d P i(\ R ,t        ]h

is 1j
    that k i     bmj
                t'xI hat it imiks a,tIhd \m L'I .,f                  \\as-,]illtg
                                                                               ,          rh,                 l li(IIrl      rl b(lhr

                                                                                                                                  \'
l lt      I
       l~ll    14' d
                  dr    ",                                           n(ollll lists'an lvll
                                                                                         ta(hli             ill
                                                                                                     llI rd't(    ;I(h\'hcv l(
                                                                                                                        ]oIIpl'+


                                                                     is \k dillh'r1'm l1,1111
                                                                         r                  1114 . . r r,1nlcls. 

                                                                                                              'Irht,
'I I
   (   d < %., lolind,.,
       l.lc           ill       - i.I       ht' ,ls"
                                                  Nc .,Ishlil)        Itrniti,,il ( '.,.nt
 Al Il
                                                                                           l     u
                                                                                                 i( 'uhal 6clt,''a DIr\

                                                                                                                    ill
o'h \\'ild                               .

        hlih,,, I'M\ ,ll([
                    )                  M'i 'Ihr(
                                               r;ill Iciis1                (I(:AR])A)I,,th.hc ill 1171, \ilh
                                                                      A\lf-'il

\%;Is lp,,' (I lil,,
    ,(       d     (r'uuc . ,-N',h
                                li..h,.d
                                       b\,fill-                      h,'ady la,
                                                                              tr,,illS\
                                                                                    . Iii. is Ilii,,,im il Iotlrcu d %\ilh
                                                                                                                .,
Rm      . an id
  ki-'ifi      "   F omidio(ns, 'sonir ,llhict  HIll\                lail d iIIll h ll ' '+I
                                                                                           [lv,Ic't hljl. "l'I si rillrrl 

                                                                                                                .l      l{Ljoill
  ,Nl,'l .ThI
       it-' litmiis(f'
                     +Ilhv ( :.Il I, I,' 1.1 ionihdr
                                   o lf-                             Ih'le,'rm\\a-il Illlri hmal ,%i
                                                                           \            tis      Ulil        \ic'c
 Nailoal

                                                                                                                 lot]
c
M i l lic'im Mhai/ \. I ivf, :I
           pl-,+            ( NIMl Y'I) L<,  bt.4'k
                                                  io,                      ti
                                                                     ,\g if~ ,l ]              (I."N
                                                                                             I~t," A\R ). I, .0dli,,hcd
                                                                                                                    ill

                                                                                                                       'l'Ih,-
I Ip hlci
  ,%% Ilh(- ch,-l
              i     lvill ldl itl ilmll lc,\Ic'xic;III               N vilwj i n ds, i<i+ .
                                                                                    ill    o

illpl ki t Ii/,c \\It
         I.     ;,,d       I,,dI( ti,,l l.       1a ln
                                            lh li l+lll 

                                                      1              lh,.C M A lt.\ ,+oIn
                                                                         (: ;

                                                                             .                       ,,t,.i.l         d, lcl(lil
 R R e"m,,ali Insliill (IR R I) %%.Is,
  t          Ih                             ill 1111

                                     lIoIIlllhc                      li"-s i 111 1 st
                                                                        'ill
                                                                                                '

                                                                                            l    +IIIII ,II       ii.ld '(h,\.-
                                                                                                                      .,    .hding
I'llillin,i-N
            ill I',ll i-ils]      Ill-,w invil;,lioll
                                 '1                                  rI)IIItri',. hf-,LI 'll
                                                                              Allodl            , ,N% it if l*011
                                                                                                   hih
   .ol.111 , r
cl'-         1         I M. YTrlok ,. a Nhil.11iii                   '+I+,IIIi dlicirp'
                                                                                     1111,   ald - .1,1'hclolvtil




                                                              '17

 collslillit-d al prest'.111 by pt-ople ill dit-vuloping collillries                                 agricillitil-al grim ill and developilivilt?", alld "Whilt
 - au.     included. All ohllf.              Illiljok loot and filhrr crops                          he expl-t-wd ill ille fillill.c.",
 collsideri'd as slaplv lOod's arv inclildt.d. FoIll. cvIlIt-Is

 %%i)tk fit pidw ( lops and :%%()     I cnivis coii(hict rcsrarch till                               The Im pact and Priorities Stndy
 Iivvst!,( k. 'I'll(- holding ]tit thf-w (.1161-ts is plok idcd I)\ Illu
 Illolt. 111,11i n1vinhvi, of Ow
                 Ill                        IAR, It'lln-willillt, hollI                              DIII ing Illv past 1111cl. .cals it Illajor illipacl Study lilt ill(­
 devc] opcd itild III,%clolloa ((tillill il", 1 1614    (1N;Ilioll,                                   !i ;LAR SN  sit-ill %%;Is
                                                                                                                              roll(IIII-wd Ili. collsillialw, IIII(It-I (lit.
 agcllcics alld va? iolls lloil- o vI 111114-Ill.il alld                                              Ilidalwv ol'the ( J ; IAR Sc( Icull ial. A illaJol. priorilics
 illit-l-Ilil(ional                 oll".,oli/alioll'.                                               sill(k %%,Is colldoclvd b\ FAC. \,ill: till- l1v1pol,
                                                                                                      ollsilluolls. 11)wv il dw                        S14,111 as 'Iddi cssing Ow Iighl
                                                                                                                                                             %%
 If\ 1,;71), %divil(If(-fil l i olopiclivilsi\c lciv%O'dw                                           plohIcIlls .111d  allocaling IVY'llill's (olin lk alliong ille
 CGIAR %\,Is        (olldilcwd, Ill, :(14-j 1.1wlllpw'll tvith is                                   pohsiblv m              Thl. illlpac( sIIld\ alld Ilic lylioritics
 %%;I, ilu k\a) 11)hM oI I ,Iotlpol crilo-1, Illat wilild hv
         i\                  t                                                                       ol(kl If,[%,- bcil hilishl-d I'ld sho(Ild Iwavailahle lilt.
 114-f-dc(I lilt till- 1,111-w4 'Ild'. 111tow. And I)\ till- 6111'. if Ow                           \6 11--m-Ar distilljolioll \(.I\ ooll. I , '1111lot do illslict. It)
 w(olld                (it Illv \,wIli ill P)NI, illv Ora 1.1                                       divill ill this po-scillmil-11. llom.\vi. ;I Iv\\ bliel,
                     I. II.td    cloci   _wd Iol I'l                    (11.11 \\"ill(]             Ilifilligills         ',i\   sovic       filth,   .1lioll   lit lilt- Ilmill   lindilIgN.   Ill
  oll".1               lold.1,111, it      it, hll I I)i(       ill',      I1.,val ( h. and         Ill\. opillioll,             hat     is ilo I lot I. t lit is IIf it M 1.11 t I lew

 flat kstq) t,,ij( tilimal ic c.o( If mid ii.ditim, Ili pio imil, 
                                 (k)(.111114-Ills               Iml 1;1(.llipirNsioll [ill.\ collvt
                                                                                                                                           i                                              to (111,
                                          I)Iill( ill.il If(lit-lit ia lics ;Ili-
                  w allcl.
 pool (oillillic" lilt( Ow ("Ill"I                        11.1, okcd ill Illc

                                                                v
 point Illm it ll,.k\ Iwl(III, 1, 1...... 
 lilt- Ilolllil-IN ill

                                                it, Itoo                                            I hr ifilp'n I (till\ drAl IIIAllk \% lit I.alld Mwat,
                                                                                                                                                 itli
 mi(.Il, v. 111111d %%11i, A~ 11)1)li(
 fill,. Ili lilt- Im.hli-III, 

                    It        Ili-                                                                   ollizoodilirs %%Ilich Il'ill alle.1d\ 1)(1.11    'iddics'ed 14.1,    [MI
 0 ill(Ills(II'll                     Ili-[ .,I %(,If I oll soll. m, 
                             flo.1advs of Illow If\ [lit-            4('111ci . 'I first., it 'llould bv
 1114.1v
lit, di.1111 di-loll :i,.;l hrI\\I.vII \% III- "llco 

          is                                                Ilm                                    Ilowd, plodil, cd [Ill- It(-%\    \illil-lics Illm Icd Ili Ow so­
 willig-d                       Iod Ill           d , .,111111ir'. XVII'll I, 
                    ( allcd (;,, .if Ri.\o1iiii(m h-lor Ili(. ( :M AR                      \\as
 illy''I I.Ijil i, 111 ill. I( IIIrI, Ili-
                        ,I                                        I., ilw lit-rd, of 
             6.1111d'-d. Ric'..            apd, (1, 1Icssi'l v\WIll. col 1), MIv
 Illc 11.16(t1i'd jm lt lalll, ''t                               Ili( 11 11.1\(lilt.               Ow ('111%   1olooloditc, fill \\ Ili, It            h \%idlill ille
 Inoq ".\vIt h"'d pi'dilrill'. If)-,,I d %\ If It,- ill Illv
                                                         hit                                       N\,14.111 11.1d "i'll"I'llrd (Ill. Lind Ill             (Illall(illable
 (lopi, , 11111   '111,114yi, '. I 1w ( roi, 1, If, 11)       hill, it( 11 mid                     illipm I fill \ irld ;old plodill I fill (haf ( olloillisis Its(- Io
pom (oHIIIIi( N11111,11-411         1olllb''T.Ilki. lv (.,11( 1old  1                              v\11.1pohil. IwIll-his (,I Ow k..c"aw 11.16onjI lc vl.
                                doll"l, Ill. ill( 1C.1,illl-k Ii.oking I,,                         Ifo\\vI.i, . olllillL oul             s,11(1\ IIIrI( \k Is a dvaI
lll(*((,Illll, 14,1 w( 1111i, 1 q w, it\, illd
                       Ill,             .11                                  v 111.11              ind i('itioll (11al ll;llio llal             41( clopllw lll \\its Ill
'll I. lic'-drd it,        \ till dom.1 lill.1111 I'll w-111 I,cs ill Solk ill,                    r(Illal of                    I ilopol tml, r Illa.) Ilic (lit(.( I illilia( I on
dr%
  vlopilli,-l oIIII(I                                                                              plodol lioll 111.1(h. h\ ;t llr\                    ( lop %_: .1 I\ of a S( ivillific

                                                                                                   bit-okihiotili. 'Iliv hopm I still[\ Aso Iolllld (Ilat ill(.
           111,1,171), fiold, 't riord (o hc                   1OF                                 sliaicijc, mili/rd ill %mikiiii, .illi
                                                                                                                                       v                   commirs
plir lit .111\.,If\ %,           fill-          (11cidcd lovillbill-li ('11.                       had a suoii hillovii( I. (,if (Ill. kind of impit( I achivvcd.
I'llis is IvIII.( wd ill III,- ( Icalioll 'll lw%\     Illv[,, olorlillw,                          I'lliout"llool. (he Nlil(l\ g.l\c 1111-gvIlvi'll illipirssioll illat
it%(, .11 it tillir. I )III illf, tlli,      1;1\ 1.1 till,. 11111d iw,       p .?i"d , .1 Ir%%    Illo l ( ('111cl s ill d ir            \. Stvill \%I'll. I olld licting (Ill- resealch
vc1lillics          hich. IIIIi( ip.1611,         spol".1 s, li.ill                       Ird lo   III-vdcd 11) illlplo v                             tioll. I lom-kci , plogless oil Ille
qaill m                         \\cIc d'.1 lilwd                        (o Ilw             IAR.    ill lilllliooll           111,111 \\;Is If(,[ So dral.
           .. I    Illis %\.f totillk        .1 1".1 iod    d (1\ IItIIIi( go m Ill.
           111,111 '41111 scali Iliw, to dclcl Illillc \%Ilat m Ii% ilit ,                          I Ill. illlpo       t s111(1\ . ill Im. opillioll. illdical(-, dw Ilvcd lilt.
diould hr                         I)\ lilt- \ 'I( Ill. %di'll   sliould Ili. lilt-                   omv ( hangv it, Ili(-                11;1k(.\ coniiihition
,i/c ol .1              \\11.11            lit- lilt- fill" .I ill.. I loli(.11                      4.111cls is ill Iliv aic.1 of plo.'I.1111 (Im clopillent am "
                  Coloillilit.l. I I A( : 1.c1c.                                                   illstilliti.111 hilildill." flailliIII4 ond ili'lililliollal strawgics
                                                                                                   sholdd bV Lj\C11 LIvalvf ollpolIMICT ill Illv \(.;Its allvad.
Till loltoaIIIIII.11 illcil-.1ws In hllldilu %%(.I(. kvvpill
                                                         no[                                       The 1-cle\aIlt flurstioll is. -IIo%\ (;tit rclilt-Is mid lulCollal
pilcv %%ilhillil'ilioll Ill pl-1111i(lim, r\islilll_ I uIlIvis (o                                  PIO111I*;IIlIN inipjov their mjvkim io-kitiois.1-
Ill-mille 11111\  opulaliollill ill Illf-il Illoil.( 14-41
                                                        ( apacily.
Fultilt-1111OW, oIIIV Illinois hvg,111 :Iskilli" I sulicol                                                                   NIIId\ 1-f-coillillendsoill\ it 1,(.\\ hifis ill Ille
                                                                                                                                                                   s
dillicull (Illi-SliolIN, likv "WIwt Ilove Ilw (1-11(cls                                            presvill                                     It sliggt-sts that work. oll
accolliplidlefl." "W hat has Ill-en llicil (ollillbillioll to                                                       (ollilliodilics hu [(.(Ill( cd solm-what and that
 national progratis could take over sone ol the things                     fids to solve ,najor bod irohns. Few ii'us are
 centers have been doing tip to now. Ih  also suggests such                working together ill way that optim izes
                                                                                               a                  returns to
 things as adding vegtetalles to tile ofciniodities
                                    list                                   inv'estments in research and it sit doing ensures support
 covered by the CG(IAR and incrt-easing work otn  sweet                    for the present Funding br tlit-CG IhAR system, not to

 potatoes.                                                                   en
                                                                             il tioll rIattes of llicrlast that were colillont live to

                                                                                     thi
 One could draw till'    cotnclusiotn that Iil one wallts to               len vecal's ago. Of'vell greater itmipotrtate is the Ited to
 "rock thet.iait", no on(, ants to change tilt priorities of
                             w                                             turn thel tide for Funding rescarch it)    t(tia
                                                                                                                         ntional
 ti najor donotirs of'the i-'lI-estallslietd centters. Yet                 budgets.
 there is the ittiplica(iii iliat there ar* ;ctix'itits  which

 natiotal prograns cotld take over frm ti'ci't'rs. If* 
                   There are those who lidc! Ill dhe( CGIAR systim gets too
 rtcittIllVoilaIiitiins filr
                           chaige. cserc  .xpteetiud tt) th-               big a share iii ith total budget available 16r agricultural
 priitis study, tli('\ wte notibly"absent inl final  the                  research and d(evliii)pniit. Howevtu', w,'eiust keep iii
 versiln                                                                   iind that what goes tt lilt   C(GIAR systetmt ttday is
                                                                          onlY Ma'1und 5.% i'lh total Ib;tug itiVestiud il
 WVhi1t is good attt thetse sldit's is thai iti\    clealy                agricultur;al reset.-lh ill'eveltping COltitties.
                                                                                                    d
 justify Iht.liet.ed ilt. sysleln, they indicatic that ito
                          il'

 tnitjor stolgt'ry is netlhdit) iakt itviable and ell't'tive,
                                 in                                       \\,IVis it 1i1at .")%invested itn the CGIAR sysitll has
         ey
 ind ti point out tilte d lilt,-'reat nationalpo.am                             such ill
                                                                          niauI(h          inipaclt, while tIllc invested by
                                                                                                               o.',%
imolvemnt in it-hat t/ tter ate dtin,,. studies give
                                          "lhest'                           Iational progratlis has received sit little attentiotn? Partl'r
 tic' impression thll change. call le eXl)eCted illilc                      ilt' a;l-\tr is that inttrntaiiotnal Cetnters have illally
                                                                               e                                                       l
  :; IAR sysltic illrdetr keep Iaict. with lit-
                                itl                  changing              cases rect'ivted he.credit lit- work (tti Iytatioial
nceis l'nalt prigrlails iid tlt clianginig priorilies ii
               inal                                                        prograins. Ill    ilict, Iutist itopacts ill farters' fields are the
woirld lu ditrtttuctit. They idicatc i leit'o t/e.jiti
                                          a                                                 is of iblh
                                                                                     ttrtdll(
 intteriiitiollal and ntlitial

                                                                                   1
C(;. IRilrtt', pan Itl', in /lititt,'. ,on t'ott'
                                       buildin                              )rogra itIlls. Iitt awavs ssays ti tilt ri% attd

                                                                                              ' t.
                                                  
                                                                      i       e
ciomparn-'+   atdkaoa',.'+ ti bat t/iha national /riat    Aid              tiii- o)i% could tgt tog.ttii'r
 partterslip Ir thl
                                                                                                                 Irit'
                                                                                                               ill
tlse studics plrtvidt, a \tr vualhlabl' ast liulbilit'
                                            b         f                     iutitte. atid illurase hieost ill.'ctiu'uless ol'thver'trall
                                                                                                          c                          o
  5siltn filitn which lhi      rrct\ic.\vs
                                       c;ti work ill ltutt.
                                                    lilt'                 itvestmnti iti ist.'             I hink thor ar'. (an we not
                                                                          togelier lItuolslstrlt the \alie ol'agiictullrtal research
Involvement of National Programs in the                                   andul thertihlefil( liug n;tional restrlch
                                                                                  tir'i             fi
CGIAR                                                                     programs? I think we cain. It orht-r to turn tile and     title
                                                                          itirtease ftillitng ir ;aglicultural restal'ch, both ilthe     i
              t Ill. f
 'Thrtohogi lii' tit'           C(;IAR thtr'c
  has htetn a weak,         national aid ititiml'tiiotil spiheres, we itutist establish
 iallfliarttid ictllitlilliitll if)
                                  inivolvii g the hevv'lopiilg 
          iwtter artillship irriaigtcttt'ts.
 loltlrics Ihitt'ls   i'vrs
                        intli'cisittt iittking ittiht' s\stt'ii

h't(l. date..Iaticmll iprogralli inv'lvtelflln hbrell
     To'                                   has                            I Ill\ illol, tw,) flc.t<.s
                                                                               y                   hilve'beetn
                                                                                                             cruc'ial
                                                                                                                   toiet

 ile)[(,' ill urti t'jtutiittittio ll in sliting itiortitii.s. siucciss t'1iC (,(;At ci''CrIIIs:
            dwe                            dill                                                               )it'iri'ttation itnd
This systiln wrtks fsr\-oil, but yoti iisl\vttnt              ;ithillc  continuity. lItl oflirts. art. fi't(lUlitly in  missing
systttu lve.l has Ititi iurtc tlkiu dai<
                             a               ito                        ni.tiatitl irogrins.Sinte the    I.-lRCi hal't this cotiinutity
R'tImt'stiitlitxi's t fti' ct'vx.eIliuig irgio i;it.\'tit
                                                 is                      ilrttaity sritegic cotinunulitiies, theit   touldserreas
lutei getiv Slll   cifit, ue-isi ri Ih's toI)lay at Ctilcls             contentration) .trcttlalutrat'prograis. You vuiul lie
                                                                                     at
WVci. ri i           tlid-sirt- sc'ssionts ifit'    ( I.\ I..\ li-w tf' assured t'a ttnstatt ltiw o'gttetict mateirial,
yorc otintrics t;\u' tuttle lilt' lituiltial ttiii ibiulitti i,         iilitllaition anid progt.ult Sulpp(ort tit'lletlers,
                                                                                                                fiolli
 lilt' ssi'll Ihila is It'tquittd ttitttll'tship. BIhii Ii
                                   f ritill                             v'garudh'ss ol'ihi' tiaitinal Ibidget sitlatill'r
agaili, itii jr itlhltill is that pIayittlluis atc rt'(l'iutlly           griIultt..
illrrtirs ;i.il e r'lrt'sicllati\'ts
     a             i                         arc tfttiin ll
                                                          dl
debfiulsive ill h'il
                t       participatii.                                               AR
                                                                        Your (C Ih systetm t Ilay is a vital, trttductis'e group of'
                                                                         ciltters tiiat tttlletlitiates ott solviig priirity protlems of
At Il ictdividual ccutt.   l'v'el, li,.altv direthrs ha. a hl
                                                           ai            agricultural devc'omeltttnt and has linding From a wide
list ti'ltidvitits sltwilg hofw tlational ilogralis itt'                 grollp ofd'hlorsissured fir breset'ahle fiture.
                                                                                                       the
getiiliteiv involved ilt iot.sptcific ctitter (h'cisittt-tiaking         Change is eXptx(l. i tiiihree Crwuts: ( t ) the aet'enterswork
protess. I ow.\vr, I h'iiiext frkly thti-i ol'is
                           iiitt                                         icith
national piograott, (2) the div'.in q'laboramoing (enters
hav. It t.o tt I ichc tip oftilt' ic'h'rg ill
              n         tli                                              aind national prt.tgrait, the,
                                                                                                  and (:j)    telatie itpuorant-e of
involvintg dexelotping e'tutluri's ill etit'r actixities ini
                                     c                                   d(/frrentrotontitiie.andproans.Givetn Iit'se Cicts, we
aiwa'ithat wtuld iakt' itS till'*puluis ill      tsing dloor             lited to isk " Ito' c ii natioitnal pl'OLgr best take
                                                                                                                     ins




                                                                    49
advantage of this system?", "How can you collectively                               Contract Research - Linkage Funds
become a constructively critical and productive part of
the system?", "How call true partnership relationships                              A number or national prograins in dc-veloping cotniies
be established, ensuring your decisive p)articipation in                            would be cal)able id addressiiig some of'ilte research
this system whlih was created to work ol yor                                        topics now being addressedi by internali nal centers, if'
prolblems?"                                                                         finding were available. Many doiiors arl providinig
                                                                                    funds to link cells oftxpertisr i (levc1('le countries to
                                                                                                                            1
The Future                                                                          the international centers and developing countries. We
                                                                                    ought to be searching 16r hinds which would (o the sillie
 Having reviewed tie origins, goals antd peroritaiice of                            for the cells of'expertise in. developing couintrics.
tie CGIAR systen to dale, I would now like to look into
the future ald examine some alternatives for better                                 [rtn its inception tile liiter'nati)onal Potato Center is
involving national prgims in the work and decision                                  used core fhnds to contract risearch ill both developetd
making oftlhe system.                                                               and developing countries. This is hoth good flr national
                                                                                    programns hd cost-el'lective 1r (,1 P. A research contract
Various assumptions most be made wllten looking ito                                 oii 	 linkage fndis ca;fit greatly improve the local image of'
tie fitre.      Let lilt list some
                                 tiat        I feel are most                         t coltitlry prograii. For example, rct'',1ny it coiottry
important:                                                                          program urged ulsto finld a small contract becallse the
                                                                                    institutioii i-I't it would boost its image and the ilorale of
    i'le irst assumiption is that while real growth liay not                        its scientists. '[his was tre important to them than the
    ie essential to the well-being ofnlost centers in ile                           itoney involved.
   (:G ssltetll tolay, it is esseitial to tile well-being of
    iost Oflyour ntional research programs.                                        Networking
   'Tlie second assihption is that             te vitllily of the                  There is inuth activity at tihe iresent tile         oil the general
   cetlltr 55s\'Slm (epulstldon a constantly ch;intging role                       concepts o'fnet\,orking, but there is little knowledge of
   f(r (eliers, its strong idonal prograitis elltlge,                              the various types ofnetwvorks iossile. Network g}als
                                                                                   vary cotnsiderably, from tit (listrilbutio!t ind testing of
   Third, negative growth uay lie valuale iperiiidically,                         geurnmllasn to a puoling ofrescarch resources aitong
   both6 tille etlters atnl 6r developing-co(ntiir
       for                                                                         nearby ciuiiltries with simtilar purolblemts. For Sof)e
   prougramis. It helps theiui(oss of'ilchiige iy (li-uimg                         Itetworks, ilost ohe FuindIs ini ile teiision inkig
   leaders to r(evillilii       their     io)rities, fiucus Oii key                renain in the coordinatiir's oflice. Somie of the networks,
   areas, and li(llidLe )'OgriunUs which are no loiIger                           like PRI'Gh()I)EPA ( Progranita Regiomal C(op('rativo de
   relevanit to the dhangilig illu.s. It lso stihuilaltes tIe                      Papa) iln Cellal Almeri'a attd SAPIPRAI) (Southeast
   p              s
               irogri0 delimoV their areas oh'eiiimiaraiiv 
                      Asiatll Prograti lilt- Polato Research atild )ev'elopmne              t)
       dvilatimage a iii collhoralt wilt others. 
                                are trioe part nership relations \wih the cenhie' involved
                                                                                  being but one inm'          er ofthe teall. 'lhe countrii's
   Finall,     we Iiist asstum      (li ili her    ire iillcthrd      ions        tieiselves nalilag' tili'       program, derillille        priorities
   in the)reset
        i             systen    tllI il    thI( ih'i-ationis aitllo g             and distrilte         rt'sponsibilitics. Ill the ease of
   ctiters ;anid ntioial pogalnlus%  which nIed to lie                            PRI'C()I)EPA, ti(' posihion iuh')oorliiatmim is rotated
   ctorrte(   helir, looiking veir lit- into Il(- futre.                          amolig Ihe pJarticipaing cotnltries.         CI 1P backstops Ihe
                                                                                  network and (listribues Fudinug frot            ai external     (litll(or.
   Looking to the fuliire, I belie'e hlt clnters andJ
   iitional p iogr's   should work towards several tlpcs                          Some ofthc aidvaitagi's ofthis uy'pc ofnetwork are:
   olcollaboramiv'V associatiolls over Ihc liux live to ten
   years -- il. illnuediati, to nlid-teiltl illutre plannuing                     I. 	 II avoids unnecessary (uplication ofinvesllicnls adi(l
   horizotn limr thu( developiment ofh ong-teril hartilirshihi                           i.l]<nrts ill resuanhi ofcoi)lollniilrest to tlie ('(ttltties
  relatims. 'rhtise cian Ii. simntarizi under livi'                                      o'a regioin.
  headhilgs: linkage and it iIm reseac'i'h, nt'tworking,
  exchlanige ol's(citists, ((I;AR ihecisiui-miking, and                           2. 	   hi proviulhs inlm'rnltional ru'cogmitioii to nationial
  thi('especiilly tiiily       amit of     iottechnihugy.                                s(.i(mtists, which may help assure contiuit           Ilinding




                                                                             50
      firom the nationai budgets as policy nmakers become                     system, whlercby FAO regional delegates are named, has
      awarc of ite value ofilteir scientists.                                   lotbten ellclive up until now, ilthough I understand
                                                                              some progress is being mait it tlit view, strenglhening
                                                                                                         de.
 :j. 	 It provides a collectiv ctaIslist
                                       Ilnt of priorities For 
               you participation il the alla s olithe CGIAR is essential
       Ot region, which may influence donjors, and eveti 
                    to maintaining it vitality ofall oursorganizations.
      CiteIrs, to keep liiir intertls and com nodi es ill
      balance with national priorities.                                       Biotechnology

 Networks pro'ide deit'vhlping-country programs with                          I get mixed signals as to how h lilt CGIAR should go ill
a vchi Ic ibr collectiv'ly ineracting with ctilters in                        this direction. \itlhI all tle I.ilhrt Cliceriiig
a constrictively critical way. Such kinds olfinteractiols                     biotechnlhgy, there ii.greatpressurefit,enlerprogramsto
need to le !6stered and iiii ltiplid.                                         taue/iirther"ptsteam " into basic re.searrh. Some \e'ry
                                                                              infiluntial        tors have earmarked iitids Fr work ill this
As ntworks lect(lt' Si rligllviictd, tilt' call a Iso asstluIe               alla.
resplosibility for soime ol the activities ofregiiinal
pruograms tiirristly lt    endid mianagetd directly by 

                              or                                              Bu     it a rect    ileinig   iircsciarcli   h leadets ill Latiii
iiritatisioatl        celltsrs. 
                                             America     atnd the ( :ariblian, counmitry after conllitry
                                                                              iri'sed :he needt/ssr elters to nove doirnsseas to assist in ihe
Exchange of Scientists                                                       criitaI tical onidet.v areas qfon/'-/in prlhlm identificationant1
                                                                                     a
                                                                             trarn er J'techolog.       I I lcre is strong li'cling oni your part
CeIters and national programs iiecd ts develop plans                         that this is also a responisibility liir the systt.ln, \'uil had
aid liidil           to liliit   mii desel'"tling-collilltry                   itter get yiour iless;ige toidolnors and th O   l'chnilial
seie'fists t) wrork It a center
                             Iil         lisecific periols oin               Advisory (Coliti'.
proglls il iial          inlcrest. (Cmvei'sely,et'ter
se titsits riight cosider leaviiig tli Salltuary' otliheii                   As lr biiutctlmnlslgy, I ciii'iiiily h1lw w5'are ot being
oftilsmu
       quilt ciiiihsi tallh, hiadul art'rs firilitiis ald work               led astray s'ilh lals' hopes by this lienw status symbol,
with naional log~tratrm, [Ir it Similar pvriodl fd'ti.,                      which iltclodtes work nmany of'us have bee~tn conduiting
                                                                             lisr ytars. Ilhle less, iip)roache s art. yielding Solilt.
Slich aiii       i",ciliaigc isrgraill wilid hlp build hsiig-tetit'h         ailnii ing rmstiils ill a f'ws liis. But ll thie fieilg that
coillar,
      iavic linkag's and iwit'h'slnh'sicy allng                              ciitveili'imal ap;pji'achts to lsr.irdiig es', varilits and
                   l
sliltsis ait gretlimllrist, lmi' 'xchsngi it'                                cisi'risliig dise~ases and pests can b' lIirgottet, I say be
   in a     itialld r.se'arch resuilis. Fsor ililh,,li. sivviral             carclid. I riniibeir back toItie tarly Igrisss whli
(I l~ i'l'
    P      iali      s-hass'd sci'itisis his's taketn                        irradiatioin \sas .xpiclictd to play a kt.y rol. ill ti
salbbaticals withiti di'vchliriig-citimtry trograms. Ind                     developliilet ofltls varictiv's as wcll as in fitud
CIlis lit the/srs,  1s/otlsatin! w etatithealqualrte s cientists 1to         prservation. As a plrsi tal a niidi si', I5 years ago ill'
Ih." iinswhere a /so/leissm a         slst
                                 Dd' sel in aiiilsioin                        ianit, Was ill     olIills' alrliest palpel'rs pulblislid on
               ientist. I)spite thr \sicli' dills'i' iiie hetsetvil
with national ss                                                             irradiation fri ihsd
                                                                                              ll   tstr\valiosi, co-autholrd ssili )r.
tl salary siili re sslIllosi natiinal trogiamiss and the                     Arnold Slarrow oh'lrtookhasctt National Ialiboratories.
in1'tiisiial soi'iirs. wosrkable iritiingeiints can ,(                       \Vhat took pliw. inl North Ainmrica iii time- .)os s'as
d'elopid whietlci tici slgissd will ar. iil\olse'd.                          Ibllowed ill Europe in the. 11itos and inisome developilig
                                                                             colntries I still set. reaclirs Iteilig costsrttcted alld the
CGIA R Decision-Making                                                       salle optimistic hmeadliies inthe local press.
                                                                             Ihilitimmisa'tly, dlslit. ihe( jiullicity, high holites, and
Nilalleilecs islist sirlih liiiilliic s'llici, ways to                       iiillions ofd lars split, iss' ofllllii('iegy las
itile-raicl sii i'lil      s i iddliiois sos thiy saill ihitit'm Ihws        ]liioditiisd ixtirimmly II'%
                                                                                                      epsractical results in Igricimltur
  iiijoir decisiliis ill tl( Sst'iiT. Th c'itil'rdirectors grioilp            aid hisid liirst'r'aitiu. Rt'SiIls with hilislloiigy tsiuld
aiiid Ih. lrll il is isici't'         h haii ai la ililig c'hahmiiiil        Iiri lit Siiilarly
    iwhortelssris i acliviiuis' oid isshs. lhi-iiiig ilii syslt'iii
 il st'iili-aiiuis il litlhoiigs. (lld iit I I"A RI) so ostgalii.            li 1ily\ iiiion, liii. ililt'iiitiilil         itil s   itnd developing­
is'll, ito ha'v a ' ilgilt. ish I ( IA R iiii'ul'iigs, and
                 ii                                                          cllilry pr       siliiS shuild let Ol' tosls lrbioti'linsolog, bI,
                        ivps'
re(piesi a similar I\pvofiripiiig liT oilly ssav' \isiii                     prodliicitd in the &lvelsipltd   world. \Ve shoild keep
viit sanil lie hl.viid vlhlhtively is I ulrsii<isllti'Ciive
                                                 i                           abreast anud esxillire thit ist. thlese tiils tilt ailis
reptremsi'iiniiii. Itiit thriusigh I IA RI) wil otheur                       priorily piroblhiis, titiil tIme vatle ol'te approaihie's is
                               .                     ,
srgiliaiiililiiould ita\ ibiis vital isl? 'li          presint               well dtsuiieluiid. Iti t               Ieitig, let its nut divert
                                                                                                            he. ntile
                                                                                                              e




                                                                        51
scarce funds from conventional approaches to breeding,            please be assured that I and mv colleague fi-oi the other
                                                                                                                    n
agronomy, pest and disease control, and postharvest               centers at, open to constructive i riticis ii and a di ahogtte
                                                                                                   C
 technology until the honeymoon phase ofh;,technulogy             to improve programs, centi hing-terin peer relations,
is tver.                                                          and develop ir awareness oflte vihlue ol'ilnvestneillts in
                                                                  research is we move into ithe filtur. \e want to Is( well
Conclusion                                                        the 5% of die agricultural research funds %t"ave to
                                                                                                                I
                                                                  backstop what your o7)qY% is doitg. Otly as long as your
In conclusioni, I would like to cnphasizr thatt the CG IAR        progratis art. solving problems, lielping to iicrease
was developed to respond to your needs .\ayhe we have             productioln and bringinlg down hst prices, can \eI.justi
not had lie right communications up until now. But                our existence as tldividual crends  atrd t sy\srlni.
                                                                                                        as




                                                             52
              THE ROLE OF RESEARCH IN INCREASING FOOD

                       PRODUCTION IN AFRICA





                                                           Saka Nuru
                                        Director, NationalAnimal Production Research Institute,
                                               Ahmadut Bello Un'aiv'ersil'.Zaria, Nigeria


Introduction                                             e/kI:ln              "rarw.
                                                                                  ,al'
                                                                                     ,l~ok
 six I
                                                                                               b inlihead ofIi\'hslt

                                                                              Itlnhy ill tilt
                                                                                            wor'ld - ,about two aniumals fibr
                                                                                                                            vr
Trenivltttoils reseit lhit'viilnii
                  ,llh;            ltls havte ]etl nlmadtill                  iuman (,\It i j68). i tlisti tission oftil role of
                                                                                          'i'il
tihe
   ,tridlr~ of)set'lor', iling ill 1il1. )l,\t,(l
            c'          I'et'M            ilnl                                re l'tN ill Ibodl
                                                                                   -clth             p~rtotuctliol, olilt.
                                                                                              anlimall                  Imust of'


podlctiona ofctc"-ail,         antd   cro)s e.g.,
                         "'rains. l'M.t                                       ltltssity ltuts allcitlioll ile
                                                                                                           mJlt
                                                                                                              t      lg. ald Itediulit­
ill rpJr ligh-.
     t d        litl \ lrritlics 't'rit-, ttit'i. sorgltittt,                 sitc livtesttck s.-t'rirs,J)Mttittlilrly (iltth , steI t, go:lS
       v't It
         .
tulbvi.rs is hi\iltl(cillill)
                            ill this Ipl't'-.t-llillioll J,,                  and swiltt', e ofl't l;1rg(.
                                                                                            betilt        cir. nillulbt-l-s ill mlost
(olcI, til 1t            ( h.
                         '-r fpto t'al ,te
                                       ,hi        l
                                                 mit vtl'i'llhlllti            I ittpiti iist     ( a d hil. tt ill l
                                                                                                          t          r       l
                                                                                                                             ,t ,ral. This is
till. illcit.,tsingR hu1miam food proIdtlitill ill A'll This
                                                      ica.                    t'h',rly ill Tablh' I
                                                                                       shotwn;               .
a; Irr                      isillip ' ~
            tflgirnillillvt1ll, libl           c%'viar vam'',
                                                          m(qs:               -As (&)1979jT     ,Vslillilktrd 1 17. 7 M illio l t'llV(,Ioff.(;
                                                                                            ,;111

                                                               million t sht'.'I  itet ' millit goits w ri knownit
                                                                             t , nd
I. We illr  .,11           O
             N[\V;l that lii tl dw rrsl illc Thir00 P SO
                                                 ,:           eR       iSnl illtropial Afiica. Tiltst 

                                                                                                    rumillESls
    VI Illhi   ml~l .li .           gli i ptllatitl ut
                                      K                     i t ts tek lt Pililtrs
                                                                           137                  lLiv't    littalits, of
                                                                                                             U
                                                                                                           lock

   rtolr'ilr  tv Iv'I llonc-:hild of'h  i      /
                                              ,3nlc llo ill
                                                       )9ll
                                                        U   4%)t'
                                                               whi.'h         ic('otnlt 3 ,llill
                                                                                       i)r1            (75. % )(Kah),0
 k

   filods of'im~ill,,l l ]rgill. ,A
                                  l     llh'"t~'ilclo's
                                          oll      ilt"c       I(oR* Nigerniai has all cStimll I I m illion l,,-;d
                                                                      ).                      te'd                   of
   respng sile. rllcmt illinll hc n. r.i -
                               1    ((                 7a.t2 i.r,             )            .
                                                                                         million s(.c ,21 million goats ,a d with
                                                                                                         1.5
   cultral       so[3io olloilli( low grilf-li.' (
                            7an.d
                               iil'lors,               5it.0                                        (il3 ll) 7t.
                                                                              other rli.inllis Npeci's      i           oftl total
   Wtlo lit   stock (       :125l.y
                             its r7N0. .oinadequalc                           Tropiic7l Livestock tUnit  ittpicl AfIrica.
   att   tl . gIro
          i       'ti illr m-cllt rtinll.)     and lack
    l'gt  erl i tlr el slim t.[tl I)i'blo, ( pp t, ill 1'\;'t-r
                        l                                                          n
                                                                              ()l .a tol hv l,
                                                                                        l,      ,hhtugh Nigeria ha1s
   C'OM ILLHrson withl )hllSlk.llndl 'h
                       rr,            WS'Ialr,and                             r m    ina tlillS
                                                                                       l           Flthitl)iil (2.,r).!)
                                                                                              thian
                  Ilillioll cMttl(,
   hv            i2.2
           gllllult.
            1                  tM'td
   (:illionl                               "ildilli                       1.7        gokts) Mu"
                                                                                                                                   .Ski(iIi


Traleh i. NUMBI.R W)I.IVE.ST()(WK UNITS ITE 1,000 IPEIRS()N.S BY SEI.'C:TI'DI)(:()WNTI E.S


                              iirg Li          vestok Mekdifu         tivtestocttk          Ioultry            t     t           ot()

Afric,                        -I         1
                                        n.    )          72.9       1.4%)                  12.6    (2.5%.                505.0   (100%)
Egyp1)t                           m
                              1,1l. !(.l%                  7.2    (.6%d                    7.5 (tI )156i.5                       (100M,))
Kt'iiy-i                      706i.3 (9 1.6i%
                                            )            55.)    ( 7.1Y,)                 m0.1I(I.:1,      771.4t                 100% )
 Ngr~ria                      I160.0 (72.00,             .19.3   (2.?1.0%,)               I16.1(7.0%,)     2-..6                 (10)0% )

Wo;rild                       325. 1
                                 .     (791.3%/,,        70.01   ( 17. I%
                                                                        ,)                I15'.0   (3.(6%/,)             .1.1    (100% )

Sourrce: T.B. ()gun',.                   [Unil (1,.LJ.):
                        iofl.I,iLve'stoc;k 

         Horse, Mule', Ass, Catleh, Bufnllo.(Cllid' Imt  =
         Pig o.'., Sheep and G;oal o. ,
                       I                            Duck,
                                         C'hitckeni, "rurkicy = (i.on
         Figurers il Ibrackets are"('Oralpntci ratio)trlive~sttock fo~r till
                                                                           sctetd(coonltrics Ibst-d oil
                                                                                                      Livesto~ck Unit (%).




                                                                 53

         0 o million' cattle,'-
                             21)  illionl sheP aiid 13 nliilioji                                                         iv) 	 control til lisease agult (hiringr        ig    idstae
         goats), site has the highe-st numbner ol'goats and is                                                                  phases or devwise pirophiylactic aitll cua ielitisurcs
         second to the Sahel coun Irues tonly inl shieep anti catie                                                            inl tile case ni anjijial discasis:
         populatiton within till- West Airicati rt-gion. Thuis, tihe                                                           imuprove tilizatiioi iiiagru.-by-jrodtuits to miitio;e
         problem itriotid animal siupply is inot a shortage of'                                                                return ill termis of tasl ol.recclinug iii ivgaot c
         animal nuimnbers hut ciftii'.'ve nuuoiitio,; and                                                                       miatter;
          iiiijtii   through research flor their timvefoptliei.                                                          vi) storalgv ;liil plot tssiiig to liuiioi.    %.,istagot;
                                                                                                                        vli)      socioti             loiiiis of fplotucit               olt, ill cliioili to Iiiiisfitr
  3. Animal agriciifurc tittiriuitis     to tilt 11101cr use oft                                                                  ofiiitovaiiiois;
     landi rt-sttrtts anidt lurnislits sviabftflitif for plroper                                                        viii) impro-tved l iiiluuiiiiiittiquipis                            toi miaximiize
     hiumian iiulrjitiiil is %%(Ill useiul byv-pioductis. h'liiii
                                 as                                                                                                produiitivitv ofimp
                                                                                                                                                   iiiujitd                        gciuoiyvs if crttjs aind~
        cottnrihuiioiitn iit otf nl
                           n          itec ifijiugh ifit(                                              of'iiv
                                                                                                       i                          livestock.
        Iicle, Ililk, and egg~s tll- humainit nteds. bmjalso
         tna ct           fv t.hiroc 	
                           .       h       ifi      1     riiitiii      oi i      ifc i'r   i      'ifioi               N ational Livestock Research Organization

        fprodtliii,               espueiall iii Owit~loplijing '.soiht. 
                                               I ldift I io boousi t gico ilial liiiiuliiou iii Nigeria, fbothi
        Exsaitples of liuist- art ainiimal l'trctin ii's ani 
                                                          dic fil      antd slcigos'rii ot111c 1 r ti rImucht
                                                                                                                                                              it
                      aina ii t         tlialabu; or iijir                     iuttisj'.t 
                             inivolvedt ill Irsietih andl ctxlsiol siuviti,. Ii fItct
         tiiiijuil,            inuinire to prtov.ide dieaj oigluic 
                                                    aiutuiral                     uist-ichii   is thu ohmcs            tit li pribahk li-u

       tiinspiortation~ offitittti' antI iiriiiiltiral pitiuito                                                 ~      ( ;;sirttcrit of N ivia. It                              i.'I,          t   rrnon

       nulirkis, cu .                                                                                                                  iadii
                                                                                                                                         iii                                               is oiifv o
                                                                                                                                                                                        1i1iiiu~f;.,~if iciiriid ill


  1. It is oiftit1 hIt shol litgi of pltin        ratuhutr thinl                                            ~I'                 1 jj;   tovilijs         intl tifgsof't1,htiilogy         art

     iarbothydtiniu 	 fissis thm toratts .ini imiptthiniuutii to 
                                                     alhso jivolved iiille siiitnd ifiphicd iguititfitiuifl tst-ailt.

     buihlaitiuit nIlltritil ill ninuit 'fi-icaltui i      ittjs. 

                                                            l(
                                                        lowuitiititttt    nlgtniiiziiittns sliihits (lli         1-11lioa

     \\o(\ttih    .jtf alinillu           it-lttf knui           ttiiihti

                                                              ootta                                                    lInstitill. f6-orliiji .\gniinihuirt (I1EVA indl idw

       til        )( imilihfon lolls InfifihIc plol                              111iu1itif\                           liitaujtitnaf Ivi'sock (ntitn fori.%Vritc (I L(:.\ ait.
       (W\jlvi               lf
                            ttm       Tis 1iigfi-valifii ploitiin is cthuiilthtt                                       vcun'Itiiuti instsill Icsian 1t i aguiciitiittiai titthfeitis
       itt ninrr ithant             u  t f he pi
                                               iolin     pii stit   for lioiiitit                                       ill Afhia andoh
                                                                                                                                   i  i                      olt njftiic lsltsnitjhfv                    ionts upjtfitt




      .\iujiuuu Isit i 11 b\ts. 111,11111Ct)i, ti;'i id-i Itniusivu 

                                   I                                                                                   ill,%%hiih all.                 ;iitnultitl-u onituiti. is'hill                      lfit tesutrli

         iand slitw' lip yiufti tividchiis. %ci liii tntl itilivaljioits 
                                             inslilitioNi              ii       intit     nh tndittiilihv to timt1\ til
                                                                                                                                                         ma                                                    iplfitti


       foodl iskti ill                                                                                                 Vfii;
                                                                                                                       \tiniit                  Ruieh t iiistii                     N\RI )is 16.iillk

lFor tluse ant l ii.tilsoal, dw tlth 41ifn'eiitiu ill
                    u                                                                                                  lhtttlution lRtsci t n                        tijtuitc NAPR\llI f is lilt fivistock
fivu-sittik fill- inimitlsiig fod ptitilouiiin tiruuudy andt                                                          ptnnhoclioiti             'Ift iii an          lso (111thitioa
                                                                                                                                                                                 iiiuuiestinli
             ndurk      r     lis    oi~paunuuituoti iitifutiliu                        andt ittl-s                                  >
                                                                                                                      illstilics illMi                   v               I\i'
                                                                                                                                                              a 01,11 (hit              llit ollpt-I
                                                                                                                                                                                                   5(       ituiuulh
speitall atllion b All
                   .\tiruil                             iguic uftuuituf sciitists.                                    il ii siouk its seltuhis ;ttlik itits toii    pincpa
 \g itiluitiriul nIst-are1fil ii                        Ittosif htl             put             liol                  irsciiih iol. i'I -   ilr  inlttiaiti livitsiotk iseinch
giiuralfv lot usis iitiliilu                      oll         fit    hidfooiiig:                                        itli
                                                                                                                      \% 1fuiiil1ustu.im It pitlm Its                               g.ltili/,lioii ofeussuvil
                                                                                                                      andi                       -hiromfum; lot fumolfm fiiuhiiig) if mutiheir
                                                                                                                                              b\ssaf                                   s
if       illiim-cittiii             1f1iiw gilitit              polviiilu         of i ops al"                        pliia                uItnisuti4tN to siiutf op istmif mffilcsik
                                                                                                                                           [ill
         Ii\   ist ok;                                                                                                pruiiulionii                                tut-
                                                                                                                                                (r g. n.)ili/iitg('l                               i~tfns oii lisc
                                                                                                                                                                                          m,41 p.111ti
ii)      devi-loptut-11 itfuijiti
                          llo                    tiit 
                 titi ;1(.( pbi.1
                                                                     1 ai                                                     liluil           ii stcsls it, fvIl s%\imo.
         ;IgIlo unitu lii         1 Nip.igrs
                             .1"bn
                                              tifiinf ovct dw
         F1,14.1 s traiional 1;;1i lit 1:                                                                             At lilt- suic fusi
                                                                                                                                     (ll       uiillg  IvtmuI s iii rslabfuisfiiiI midI
iii) 	 (lu'.eltimiu            fufnn -sauvilg ifisit cs to Irtluur droiiuif.i                                         Iiulau~gtt liv rtilt sutll gttvilrntuuuiu to suujipl\ iloi 41\vt
         antI utiliim. hiuiluiu liii;l itlit,  r.ug.                                                                  sitm k Ili thIel moii li\vsutjtk Liiuitus lilt \.Litni iii staii
                                                                                                                                                                     '
         inthiai.aliotianutlist-   ti Iaimalu tritidon;                                                               gtivrumunueIIu              iuuv tile Irsliiiilliilit\                 ttfjtptvihiutg
                                                                                                                      iXtiul1siin                 vs. It is
                                                                                                                                                 vit                                    iit
                                                                                                                                                                                        thaisiisimilar




                                                                                                                5.1
 arrangeenutits prcVitl in other African rounilrics.                           mltlilt pi-oductioi and tip-grading tht local breeds.
                                                                              These indiscriminate importa .iris have of'ten ended iin
 We will now consider sotle'r's'alich achievemttents ill                      dis:ut-r, %; ii : cnosal iaiie o risomtces in lllntl
                                                                                          H
 specific areas that have' ;it
                             ittipact iot Imnoting livestock                  cOtintries, because the imported breeds and their crosses
 prodocti, ity. 
                                                             were unable to withstand he harsh climatic and


 Genetic Improvement and Reproductive

 Efficiency 
                                                                 A resiiunt inve'Iitry il'th' availalble getr plasti t
                                                                              pt'rilit til' potential till" colminlic iraits to lit' ncognistd
 ProbIleis related ito tht ehllt
                               6%c tiliztitin and                             and incorporated into tatiotal hn'eding ptogas li
 collsetrv\tliin ol'aiilla lti   retsources have reei\ed                      increa.e ili productivily has int btein adequatily
 worl%%idt' stitillil ialteitliin o.I ti' ilast Iwo i ades.                   documetnlted ill it ist .\fiiiai livistittk sp-clis. Atuing
 Mo~st ,.fiianfoo)d   anini l~s.
                               eslpecially Calllc, an-. knm .'1l1                 eonoiic tra\its awtol'impi lance It)nimal
                                                                                tit                  ihal                        a
  to ihe        I
       geIt it \ll(liset's', rsistIit Ih sp icific
                                        t        disvikss.                    p ittlvin supply are heat itlvirai'., lickitd str'ss

 T'Iny AIst*, have to %potetial lir   rionitic Irtits ofutilk                 osistatnct, and ability t hi)lidh'
                                                                              I                               
      lr t.lity riiighages.

 or mat,1 prodlit'ti n, howcvsir, alihtilgh it is rtcog tiztl                 Althiiiitgh possession if'tlhnst trails d   es   hot settl to

 that Ii tductilt ill1 tsi    tt ltto iH it 11111
                                       in'ht       giltlti"                   'otilci an advaittagte b ilb asitg- t- milk or nic t
                                                                                                           tri      tI
t'xprssion il(' ifi'ii liking. Istitt iihi tii't ts il                        yieds olfitldigetiots speclies, ihe'ir iot'orporatiot into
animal breedinig I  or r ttUir i    iti\iy ti art.
                                                c    lhter                        ti            t sptties has iitreasil both milk aid
                                                                                        lItl.rai.
halycr-.d by tolht.r.         I'mllillent allimig tht'-st ill 

                      111clur:.                                               Int'lt \ Mvds. For v'vimlpt., by c'rossing Ilriv'siall wilhiIht(
Imatny comti s illt' thel lack tia c insi,
                                   i                 go\irtiitt               indigenot   s lIIii.Iii tots tht li, gint alil shimss a (;'Y
                                                                                                                                       o
polic, ftl aitinil tal      sttitttthti 
 1.rtl aiid
                      tiustry,                                                itcliase ill miilk +'.vMd tei- ti' inliginois darn and             t-t
t;tci(ttlt tit"c littos alltintg th major iviesi             k
               Iretaiils a Iigl.r degrei'" oftesista ct' Iw hi sIt
                                                                                                                       to
                     5

        r
ot%%.1jlrS, Ihlil- i i I inal ist . rlalioI
                 s li(rj             lIai        its                          itttgic t
                                                                             cm tirit. and il<vailing disr.fts
                                                                                 i ln                              ihc 

Ib't'ed++/su'aills li "'<loick
              ol'ani    fin       lti,      iianimal                         F      in
                                                                                   lri" sK i    I    l    s ti
                                                                                                    tIis%.l hisd d
                                                                                                               lo d                             hlessi
l)T ok-'lialel I rsII t. l i t
                         I"               i 1ntl\Inh v I'i'tl'",
                                                     [WI +                   N tSgi (rod ia,,
                                                                                 i         atid'              ally
                                                                                                             ict fist     ified inletri s
       Ill.ceds, InalN, dek\loping ('4,111tr1 ws Ila\ v
< l'h,,':t                 e                                                 animal hi'alth nlroitli ll r'1f
                                                                                          aHid             i<'t' input c'{is.

                                                                                                                nti'
imp ltd \tlic liyr a .I\N s,, Iha dwlh c siall/
                         ,(t             l t   S                             i v(;EalN'i lliriSts il osslwS have been achir\:
                                                                                                   l        ds  )d
       andl
]ho 'in l)air\   Shmrthrn lIMmilk piodutis   i                             ttiti.haind lhllr
                                                                              by                hlto,hitrd h'icllht Cilsitigl
                                                                                                                and
W  s"t Alit c , A\ rshitl"              mi
                        ill'ast 1\1ii'. (pl'ogrl2 1:                                   ll (till\ .
Ahvlridvf. Alils.and          in .It'al t2rhtel
                                  llh2        l'4.   i.11                                                 1l
       I
ill t eli       lics.                            I'                          Atrlificial
                                                                                     insemination has bee'n S     slIlly ifilr24duct
                                                                                                                                 d

                                                                                i
                                                                             ini (          2s
                                                                                      ic likeKen'y11a, is
                                                                                                     but    still
                                                                                                                i7. in9l.y in
llatk-ite Itsiir
       d,Pr                     i
                               Mt l      j,andt     nshydah.slhep
                                                          rtnher             Nigeria,Ghana, and               Weanst A'iritii cmiitis.

    similar I\bri-'u ill
hlav',                                  %%ith .1 \'ic'w im w tr,
                                      .Id             11                     I 'rici prod~lilol has mto I't'raill
                                                                                 .am.d                        etl~l, hl<w)v
                                                                                                                          e.,

                                                                                                                          tr



Table 2_. PEU'( "IItMMANC:I O'F CII AA:TEI+:'tTI(:S                      )F INIGE+N( I          NDNI(:I)SS"-IBRI+I):I\D COWSF(
                                                                                                                           .
              I)AI RY IP.( )I>U(TI )N IN.SIII1K,, (NAIPRI)


                                        Age ilt
                                           .   Ist    Milk \Mivd/         I~i'actioil,         Yidd/           C]alving             (:al\'ing
  v
Ill'r'                                   ( '.aI\'illg lactillilu           I.x'ugth             day               ly                internal
                                        {Ilmlills)                         ((lit ys)
                                                                            d                    (lkg)                               (days)

1111fla i (\\,/I:)                         5(j.9         II1 (O 1
                                                              UI          25)1(211)               0
                                                                                                 .t.             83.3              -11
                                                                                                                                   .t]l(3,67)
  l     ( li
• k% o Gtud                               .111.1            11 1:;
                                                             I               266                     11.'3       111+2                +16l
\W m lro-t
   I                                         .2
                                           .50(             I121]7           2.51+)              .t.7            88~.11               -11H
Ihimji N                                  .'3.2             168 1    ~       2 -'                                                     383:'
F'ries
    ian(1)                               (5019)           (16912)           (271)                1i.9            .95.61              (3581)
                      -)%)
                     311I~ri).,i~
                               <          i2.:              I1110                                TO1
                                                                                                  .              93'.7                391
    I
71/V Fiv, iatn11.-%       ):               I1..            21021            2111                 7.2             93. 1                393!
Iic'siatn ( IOW '.)                                                            1
                                                                            (30l1               (H1.3+                               (:ilill)

.Smrm : NAIPRI IRe,.a'.Ibliati.
                     ih                                      air Irm NVRI D~ata.
                                              IFigurr, ri ke'l 

                                                      h
                                                    ill
  been ichieved thrlough it comb11ination0 ol research into(                                                               Aniother cont~ribution2                 of researci to inlcreasinlg local
  reproduction (iindigen~ous large 1(4(4(  an2i1.2.s, lilt-                                                             output2        is fi-oill get2211          manlipujlationi             wiili      Owcnative
  limiited list- of artificial inlsemIina4tion2,                     and2( impro21vedI 
                                   breeds th~rough lI2(sshi)Crdillg                       (IIllighl-olentia1 locill

  nutrition it (I lititnagemeiil. In many coinrtri Cs of A flica, 

                                      i                                                                                 b~reed types il 4 tiiiiihiit
                                                                                                                                           (      bn              traits4122 Illilt
                                                                                                                                                                  Ifin-~

  tile indligenou)s b)( e tlius hiave ro ci cficivilt ill 120.12 

                                              d                                                                         poduct .11,Iiigli birth wiiglil, and12 i'r      F     g241wilteI
  yield provid llCi 12vy are well mana12.gedI: CL., Sokoto 
                                                            1i2 tlis' rt-speii', tbilt-  i~ x !'dai '.Ioep 2iemerge iv hes..~
                                                                                                                                                          .ao
  Godali oflNigeiai, the Iagara cttle 4,l'Su(al ainid tilt-
                                                            hain'ig it b~gger litice. s.ize, birill (Stiglil and2 less
  1102110 of 1.1151Afica.. It is Iile
                                2'      feaible thatlil 52 iit 
                                                        prewc(V(.212g []ili aiji'. givillg al i,4c2,lI higher lnv2it(

  lrireds, del(VC(2jC1 by5 2112- rossing 2(I.Alricali 1221121%%tilt 

                                   c                                                                                    output21.

  comp21lemen1ta2ry chara122crs, 222125 oillu
                                           Ill.               (ldi

                                                       and22cou1

  obvit    tl- l 212(2 to2 import42 c(Sltic 14221 212212.21'. 
                                                         I lop2224411 ilili                 441     ld      .221(1
                                                                                                                                                                           and11 4114j 2'               % a(5
                                                                                                                                                                                                            reality
                                                                                                                        d                      IC.',2,12I. ( )tlIIiu
                                                                                                                          oi(41gI1 512224 ill I2
                                                                                                                                 ad%                                   l'I122CC(I
  A\fricani    I2(cdI'      ol't;llo ill(* nolot224'                 Iio
                                                                     fritliii          sicm.lllltv,                     12I22j12.'1oc t .2'.        to Illation,.21421
                                                                                                                                                                     (12ii    Iril2225IC2and1(
  hearts, aindi        lii' jpl4( 1lll 2'. lile                        lnd db Ilill
                                                               olp fill-14  14c                                         I22212.t42,124 h
                                                                                                                        implantation,122                           Ili     ;o2li2121 va.,iii 2 124, Alli2                  2im
 sho24rt (1li2.         o42 441
                              '.124(2    (Za.k          ,i     41).
                                                               qli         ( )litir         i     Io22j~
                                                                                                  24,o                                 ' lit ill( wasm,j2 lijstock Inoduction242
                                                                                                                                     ics22                                                                1I21421gf
  iden2til5 IliCed 212122.( wt222 II'.22
                                       i                     514 '.      I)(C.2~i(         122221d                      hili2212045421               \il                      Ij'to.((k. lR2'.I.2ich
                                                                                                                                                                   2Indgc(222(21'
 (Iil.1i,2 hl i 42.
                  lab'. iCItllcli IA2 S2(42'.
                                        142.2                                         in li~ e Ow2 

                                                                                           h                            2(112i               422'.l (o 222cia.( .11imiiio                       j1od(22(144(
                                                                                                                                                                                                p
 2225( 24)tttv
          (                       22j1(5v52i2244221/i22g (11ug'.
 lot tht-
                            and42'cwp2(1                                                                                l11i(22gh i llms         and( ol2i2cl l(2IhlilI(2(',                   12.Iog22ecic
                                                                                                                                                                                           Suhits




    1422'.i   I. '.        222'.lo(f s(4j2   plId2(4( lion(4 ( )111 224.4222

                                                            .
                                                                2

 21-cm2l       11 222l,m2.\.1it4422            imalj2((                   l
                                                                     4222imi2           Rcsval. It                      I'Ntwritiont Researchi
                2mo, 1.214,1112iaw J
                  a1          (552                  illd122..(22IIiI. (422 '.42I14I2~42.22
                                                     1                                                                                                (      222l(2,12'22(ili                           2(i2I2

 flocks. ill >i141!i2 s1445522           21,2 III( al (-\%c, I,2221(42                   t(2v41i                     Ii'.2.,t(k         pi(2412142
                                                                                                                                               iii                4Imhuman          oi 2
                                                                                                                                                                                     2         ol22J(ion2 ' is        II

 \2.22,    ma2.king2 it 2111li221
                                til      ,    (,iain a          ,22.4c 222222(1242 
                                  oli4s
                                                                                                                     222211             'I     14 111-cl of dic           Ili        222I2(22241              ()fill(.
 1112121114221222i22g .22122
        ),                                                                                                                                       1
                          am                  22    2222.       I('.cwml I             122(lilt            1124p(
                  i l2J fi-42d 4-soo22224 inl
                                                                                                                                        2
                                                                                                                                        lt                                  li    (]!-\ st.4         Jlh.222
                                                                                                                                                                                                  ol p.2'.4        aI .
 I .
 poss.'i14ililk       441laio                      112        4 42412422114                                             122,112 oil222/22~22
                                                                                                                                4i22I242222                              . I 21(1(2Such4124422211ti1422'
                                                                                                                                                                                                      ((112

 IiL2lol~Ig2, 2221 tilt- Is'. lit S\2 I(22i.ill                         414 si ls
                                                                          C 24('.               (4 142.2ll
                                                                                                 oltls                       i 2i2i(4l
                                                                                                                             2l/1iIlO '.2(       1,22at ' '.2(4ll11 iti2124222h'.222f2
                                                                                                                                                                  .2'              lag                            ( ilod42

 442114
      plodm124           221(2 222111142222l
                                        i'li2214' lilt( also)22to (.(ll(I.                                           'Il        I      l v1\.21422(4 v4                          122 IligII moblil lit
                                                                                                                                                                                 and4.'4
 labor4( Injill, has. .2(52           l212,    2222(o
                                               todc 4442 222l.l2c~i242                                               It212J2(I112222           12,2.4 a2211422i222421212
                                                                                                                                                                     211121l il2 Oic 1124411222
                                                                                                                                                                           o
 andn22(1             fll Ow121142
                                .
                             li242(d1, . \ 222l2l22j/j
                                            i                         IL,2~221.1.LI2241v212~2llll
                                                                                  a   ivl                               fc c                               '.221)42ll a212ll
                                                                                                                                                                   422lio              '..al 121421
                                                                                                                                                                                                  local          and2(




obla11j224( inlic2         I212Iilill              ~
                                                   l.          s       lv..'.ils.                                    quatityiI         and21 1 1111Ht, is. c'.'.ClI.                 In1 dvvIopvd(col221iv5.
                                                                                                                                                                                              1 22




Table2              lII'ROVLMNTN                    IN RE1l'R01t(:llVI: I'ERIOR\AN(EI ( I
                                                                                        F                                                        ANKASA OWES UNIR TIW IE

                                   YERL
                                      LAMBING~r~                                                                                                                         IS'1iO-G11214

                2
I1Lamin1g I 24gialn2                                                                                  '1071-     177)                                 o11                                              141111

4Avlrlgv N2 2. of.55'             2122 Iav/yvial                                                               47                                          fill                                         901
N21. oflaib~ilng'. 11 24( lW2'/y.2i                                                                            Ill                                        111                                          1911
Nol. oflmI             1122
                       born2)'    r 412 55s/yvalr
                                    oll                                                                     I1                                            1(i!)                                        244
AvcralgI 111121s1i                                                                                         1.20)                                      1.231                                            1.25

   )22cr-N eirly lamb21ig data1. ff4412 Atilt, 112j212k212,1nd22K11125
                                                           a                                            (I
                                                                                                         1979)




                                                                                                               56
Taihir   .    i.IyiER SIZE, Il riIIEKGH'IANI) NIORI'AIIIY AMONG INIGENOUHS SHIEEP BREEDIS AND)
                                                                                 t
              TIIEI R CROSS ESAT SH IKA\

                                                                              L ii ter Size                  Birthweiigl                         I t rewcaiig
                                                                                                                    kg                              Nhiti l),ii

IPur4t~edgm,
           UlP
   Yanikiis                                                                       LI-                              25.1                               15
   LJ(I                                                                           L.32                             2.1                                22

(,C/r'dihreoul (D ami N Sirv)
   Yaitkia; N tUda                                                                1.2)                             216;                               1

IBiilaiti N Yailikaisi                                                            1.4                              3.00                               13




                Batm X~~t Ud                                                      15.                              16si                      t        15 li~st




fltit ghi           (13.37)in
                 fitit wIet                                            1111
                                                                     Iai                 inc7.ase                 121.3duciv       759 7l         idrciy   210.0n
                                                                                                                                                              o

AI,ii ulidrltl (11.17 pl                               rdllm         7(11.2liI-
                                                                    lII                         .7
                                                                                              Iic    tim a lm 24.7 ilu             9 .121114.I~ o'lc .)
                                                                                                                                       ill  l



                         it iI~ v ll~ d i~ I 1 ll
                               ,- II~ I c           'I d (h   I sc 4) *                   p l c cs   c p v ia l    (I l.i ld lrl "I N li t       li d c I ili1o/a
    the (ir s.-ason anid slortl lbleiiv the riins arrive.                                                                       it
                                                                                                               nuirivills. ihroth
                                                                                                       (Iit lht'r
                                                                                                          l                          -c. oil Iialls ,lt'dailalel
                                                                                                                                          chti
     loswe'er, tlie same bieeds. given uptitiInImi iiritiot, 
                                         li'cds,lind that aIpiihein eetvel <jtt/
                                                                                                             we                                  and an etiergt
         bet.(:
    Ihfi\%(' II      h I
                       +         , Il) d
                                t. r's               sl~i
                                       Ihltcl'r. al(Id 11                         rccIavds
            hCVCI1'2,800, to
                                                                                                           0                       :j,ooo c ('IKi d [, oplinm i Iiir

                                                                                                                                             a +
                                                                                                                                                     al.+re
    havse Itllitaied high Ivtrge ity' gains n iilty I kg wr 
                                          mliaxiiiium'. pi1'ilhrmnct'                   '
                                                                                                                                                    + 

                                                                                                                                     ,f'lrtilhrs t'tl st'ks tl'agv,

                                                                                                                                                   -
    (lit%' lh'riltl(.l SN'str'il.

         lin t         tfee        'rhw.g+in is not) fitlo.rhw                                         and that                    and
                                                                                                                           )'(iovn 
 :j,ooo)Kcalt/Kg diet are

                                                                                                                           p.,
    thit. r it    h ullt         ili     txilii    h            Itru s.
                                                                it                                     optiimiii           illfiiiishiig broilcis I-9     itks tl'igi. A pr vlii
                                                                                                                         Iei ItYI iti i.sI or ..iutiKcsIr/li
                                                                                                       dil aw ti lil l fill Ina imtln c.g plittctioll
 Kg
                                                                                                       It I d' I                AN D A
    'I'Ldh'G.       IT R FO)RMIA N( :. )F INI)1 (;I,:N(
                                      (              11U'S.                                                ,tr
                    IBREI-I S ( )N F I" AL)T                                                           IRecolilil-ll;oi             l, lot such bird(s ill Ihlv ilpt'rale Zone'

                                                                                                                                                              w
                                                                                                       alt irt 11c higher. Ih'cvill ir,\';dli" 
 rest'arch Ic:
                                                                                                                                   lit's     ,'hcd
                                                        I111n1iji          Stokoi,    ;odali            mlve' natlional prohhvils.


    Initial v,:ih          k179 	                                                  1'[                 Tile dhiv;l sof te. f, d l
 fi i[;i ll s is lfifraec,
                                                                                                                 ,,,,I              ll]
    Final w'igl        (kig,                             26,_                     273 
                whirl is thu iti d (ri      I
                                                                                                                          Ifi lang tg ls (I 

                                                                                                                                          [it ul'a%cglt;tliioll),
 Numbe' ,l   lid
         ditrys                                            117                       117
              ,,ss\l titslthliih pistille. hlits  liids, stasonalI

 Averai e dlilyis d iuii)
                 .                                       ().'i)i)                 0uil2 
                    is
                                                                                                       Ihtgiiljll
 atid ctop I'Sidu) ll ai lhh I ndltls()

                                                                                                                                          ;
 B., Is,,inq   i    t                     i                2.2l                    li.00 
              illslitut ; aijutis iSiln lj   i     fticll     A itti .situ
                                                                                                                                                   li;lc; I litt k

                                                                                                       IiiVjits. tvti    iii'ii ln t E     i
                                                                                                                                         li i itsitck ioduh lin ith s

                                                                                                       ktriliss uIp l lltslill i nIII.Baitril lltis

                                                                                                                               illitliti    'c      d
  t        tt-
tIlh,ptillitt)  k it
               ,nu li 
 iiiliuu. hiad il ci 'tidssn'lli l,                                              nv      i
                                                                                                               ,fihrtlul- ; ti!d d.1,i t uI
                                                                                                                        ,iyi             aiiji;        I
                                                                                                                                                       , lh t
                                                                                                                                                          r(l,;id

il   bijlil ndtitoI fll 1, 1 .i shc
                  t              g      i ii uiutrwi 

                                                  lidiis                                               pasl    t l 	 Lg I
id,lbIII vs. %%I I; .,Is
      I\%<to.       hfll          N\,'igpl)I   1
                                      Iha ,*il Ithl -1                                                  ()gmr;I !1B . I Iich l allililll is I )miI,. IN l
                                                                                                                   I           -
                                                                                                                                    Ii\sit      l'; iel hi ir
                                                                                                                                           I.,: i
                                                                                                                                              i..tu
                                                                                                                                                         lp

                                                                                                                                                           wtirsm
lig. alid                                      ni.u-,                                                          --                    ii"l    h
                                                                                                                       2    'Itt .IIT"             'llIn ill )ii, coml
                                                                                                                                                           Nil                  red
                                                                                                                                                   .

 Ini 	 i
   Nigri                                                                                                              nn ;MdI
                                                                                                       \i.ilh ill . +.piI r to i
                                                                                                       IJ).istI? 1",:PyPt 77 1I i 'h 1d (t.i,..,
                                                                                                                                    1      I
                                                                                                                                           l i. .
                     .' t Ic      , i I, ,,I, I.i
                                          t
                                   I n Ii(,v
1ldtra;de' 

                                         h,;I(                                                              IM                               ad .. peit U,[./
                                                                                                                                                       r
                                                                                                                                                      L;. 

cimlh' awv
         mail k,.id amlk~~l I;
                             I,sltightr, illI( ni
 

                                                ,ic                                                            i
                                                                                                       I,,+hiwi (ll\'vi )t~ll'; qI) . ( h%+ 
 va ialhms inl
                                                                                                               i           ((    I        it,to)
        idtalliagi"s 0 iltiri          itrd
                                         hultll         l l ilr .i\t                c
                                                                              sit ilt llt 
            hlind        I' ititin     illbrs h ,Ilii     s l
                                                                                                                                                     i v"Itwk   illill\
                                                                                                                                                                  ast       nisli
 lutLItSI i'Vi'll
 2_,-,);,,L J
              itlln        i                                  t Wlt.
                                                             ht,.,h         .\CIH tII,
                                                                              It             till                    t tliu
                                                                                                             illl''lst Illids ,.ill c ,tt             uti c
h i . ,ahi g h p o, ni al l                                                                                                          i 1c n t I , lg] " hw t I gsiduuttl
                                                                                                                                                                   i.
                 te t I                       1irfli -
                                                i iu
                                                   t!I              .' \ ,v
                                                                          a           )
                                                                                      N,                                               Jlt
                                                                                                      i m p a c'4 r1
                                                                                                              t,                     i h l
                                                                                                                                        i       l   ivt .l,k ra ld s l o~n
                                                                                                                                                                 uct    i
their i\is itsiht tu1
                    h   uhri.i
                       im s - t if\ i   rto rh d
                                         li                                                           arllt llill
 (,T ;I lllilg p<'rid oI I Ito,I,tla  'II;y ((,[fil
                                       lhis
                                                                                                                i     ts itth tu.ttlii, lik h o tisil ItoitI sltlic
                                                                                                                                           t
                                                                                                      in llu'
                                                                                                            Sl-cial aHrca
,1*'wut(itiod i'sollrtcs.
                                                  + )                        +

It-St llhill .111 llllll illC'l   411'
                              ,ilC, 2. -,                           i       llsof '101A

l         ri ,
         mi\'€ m ,ilc.( rasc.illmr. Suply Id1 ").,,,,,,
                 a,   ill      n            I      Io 
                                               Li\4'slock io'durtion il(Ih(' liional lilalshumat
                                                                                                                                 lti
Il8,11o pll s. 

          )I,                                                                                         l) pa l lal%%S\h'rlll il1la
                                                                                                                          is                i'llliolllh liOw   lilllilli',If(sw"(S

                           Th,'rll'rl ,,tt'tu',H, 

                                ,t~lm:H
                                    l'ulrli,,l h\,'lm                                h,"ruphowr
                        []t
                                                                                                                    lh;11                or 'eed'nd.
                                                                                                                                  llirmal's,il    izahlIcsolho' c              tj(

ruilk hiosi
    p             lt, I k i,
          lim I hi'         still is natku'd as it
                                                ii   val                                               I\e-.ock mnri.                      .uvinpihd IorMasai inKenya

                                                                                                                                   has liven
s.i .( n lIl(- tiadiliol~ ,h millk is Ifmid
   lk                   d s-."           \i'l~l   oil.' 
                                                      Flali, Nig , Ifil ohlmn"-,sil
                                                                                                                    inl        (his,      rcqi
 cs an

IM IC"h f)1 7 , 41 P rr 1-I h ll . W i h i l l r ,d
     '
     r 1-        K    IIM            t         ,,o                      ~                             ;IS	 .,l C of ye al - l
                                                                                                          , lm
                                                                                                          ,.                                ~
                                                                                                                          lo ind fi ',.[fl .;t 'Su p l l l l m Ow(
                                                                                                                                    d l( ,
             \
    ltllililllit'hkofl1,,+                - ' 17 L li -lt            t'l
                                                                      r     ,ahv''.a                              I;old
                                                                                                          i~lithl. aiv'a andl it I 41ll'-;dctil'       .
                                                                                                                                                   alli al
                                                                                                                                                     ';m
                                                                                                                                                       ll
(hlr1ing
      a              Lit-.';,-! ll
                       I liI,,t   E",\ .11,,A\ fil;,
                                              iI4    ,,,v,,d                                                   io ,
                                                                                                      po(litltd; i it g~it'lc,dll cill ;t lc.. l oti on{.
                                                                                                                               S          . hiv ()               s
o           [Ills
   r, l ots~'..tn
   *'              mhciall. ill( Tram. St.ill subtstantil~ ill
                                    ,,is                                                              fill inv t.csn ;od im ptr,
                                                                                                                i                \'ingli',drcsomrc's fillive
                                                                                                                                                          l stock
Illclnpill
    i    if thlenlim ial tilk wi.li,,.cn,.ii.
                  l          m                                                                        ind '\vlopil: , I ulli ,s, h< im\ol\inr .litall
                                                                                                                               I ,,,          ap
                                                                                                      iml           ~l
                                                                                                               oc,' Ito
                                                                                                                ll s rattll.('llwls       ,v-,\il w th

                                                                                                                                                    %6..
11ccatistl f, ,,h( LK,' .11itll inih'
             If
            Id   oft l              \.1,11(1+ lh c                                                    hIx,II
                                                                                                         mIrg,Ii-'IrIi g I.1/i IlI
                                                                                                                   Ii/
                                                                                                                     iIlt,     IIqI H ILvl
                                                                                                                                         11', .vtc.) Midl he
                                                                                                                                                         I
rt'lll iml
        (,1f I'strlvi.m
                    ,io.dily h v frt (.' (. 1fill-
                              111\        11.                                                         If-(Ii', c
                                                                                                             i fIt   I LIail .aIr i
                                                                                                                           IN     IIcIreil~olujy isIif )
                                                                                                                                             \';;v%\ed
qiclke'st
        oi'an, ,,il( ct,m i i cii,
                                o   1(,(,(l il, ;mi\
                                              m                                                       li',a ,z ,1 h ,"
                                                                                                          blr.                   .1l111
                                                                                                                     '0 I n(,Ifli4" 'io-Iolitical'; s.
                                                                                                                                      so           id
                                                                                                                                                    ,
           ,
c'olm ,' ,".c%ialklli t opic.11 .U,'ca
    li                 t            . IhI,w,.,,,: 1
                                                  o%
                                               ,.,.                                                   1 ,, ill"
                                                                                                         lo    illil  vlll is(1- l ol,' '' i l g calter
                                                                                                                       v'll'll t       fi, o);
                                                                                                                                           <
71) '1 I'thli l fl'l
           'V i i lol-1 i l" l illdh l\is , l il io l l.
                             l\     ll      "I'l     lA                                               Il d h l ol n 11(In
                                                                                                       o (     l     1d                        1 ili i ll
                                                                                                                                         li( cllm1 l lol oh -v' a l';
                                                                                                                                           i                 c
Bllind al i lill of hll)rlll /4,111rh01
             a      ,                         t ' o~~
                                                    Il.r 
                                            rn"idulrs       and1 It IIIIIvlillalqrI'c '1,1 
 an l ollI1
                                                                                                                             L            1 lt    lplallI
                                                                                                                                                  I)
Iflopica;lil i cir{'ll,' im sl,
         {11\         ha I -I     Iiiiili'iliml'. l rts

                                              .\l llo 14                                                slaIhliid pasir,lll d vhu ks aInd li-'id

                                                                                                                               l      Ia           gilldiells.
ibrllllll'(dicls 11.s<'d
                      opon h'mlri'lti u H N,;la i (Is
                                       ,oo il
                                       I                                                              I'lovriding rur111hllail allm a %% Ilill'ia Slp h'e..'vils
                                                                                                                                       \ithi
w 'r,,111lul ,.sIIId
            I     , ;,                              i' llinlvill
                                   vI,
                                     pc'il.r.Tlhe 111                                                 \.henl   grlazing4 llill patsilles. isANI+,) I fi'isileh l l.
                                                                                                                       IIla                      ;           opi
irgiudalcs ,'n,'iy ima~k,',
                         %%hichillfl
                                  tf,gt                                     ilic
                                                                          it's inilikf




                                                                                                A'

  At the beginning i 'th(- rainy season, ieI plct lagt
                                                    tIrocnuctivity
                                                              I                                                                   oi'li'vestock Ieciit's a challhnge it allii1al
                                                                                                                                                                     L
  crtde protein Conent    oratural  glasses is get.ral' Iligh                                                     scientists. :\fter tw5(o decladhs oatcti'e n'(St'arch, hglhly
  but        c'clili's to a v rv low                      as IlIe ilaint illatiiis. fIy
                                                          itvel                                                   lintritiolls paslint. grasses a id te lgntes have heen
  till- tind o1t11e r    aisc itSOl, (ind
                            lly               p o                                                                                   1 t ilie-d by ma           i   r"1        s i Nigeria. These
  con11tenit ol'soill( range pastuireIs cln bi as low is 2',. \i                                                 gLasses include (C/enihu dli+ri. ( hullk' grass), Dgitilia
  ihis low level, allils jost. body veigfht chinig ile dry                                                       imiaiii (ini
                                                                                                                           viiiliIiigri gii s), I'(inicum maximum ((iii ea
  sWiasol ind const~lt{ilv" have a icdiiued reprodhltx.i..                                                       grass), I'in;ibi'/flti;it/,n (lchphiait giass) andii

  vllicitincv. National Aniimil Irouhction Res ialich 
                                                          .ndri/iig,,                                                                      ,
                                                                                                                                    qammu1i (,g:iiila). I.igliis used ill Jias1r
  1iisliiuOt s(:i(IItisIs hial-e siii 1h iitl CI i t i iiatIral
                                              tl                                                                 'stlihlishlii t iiiliildr .Sitlov/iism iii ,'uialln'inii ( V. ;iiiik

  grass, :lt t stockiiig iate, (& J-io5
                                      kg/hi;i li. ii     l listni 

                                                                a                                                (( :ook styl), S. uguiemi'ntii ( :v. i l l (Scl lil.l SNIi ),
                                                                                                                                                       S
  aver'"ag iil"7 kg lives eiglit per liiad, while sipliiiiit id                                                      w.
                                                                                                                    h/ilali (\ iaiii    ti ho) at d illir. spi'its. 'Ilis g lissils
                                                                                                                                             l
  g1i is gained :I-7 Fg lad iviirsix-moiith
             i     k ptr        a                                                           rli d ,I
                                                                                             oi                  aid !tgiliiis hiive di11 iialcT (l)M ) yi'ic ( iii,iiio to
  III(' (11Ys"'irsol Wt' I-"""J% ;                     1 "Niis-lli 19710.                                                   ki/ha and percen t             r       lI            k-g/h
                                                                                                                                                                              till ((', ) ,
  ]r iprt (.itl.1 of'tailg . till i
  Prac'i<'alv ; IlenT s,1111ivilnitgiatin\ding agto sI,.I
                                       cm, ii     has                                                            I-        IL
                                                                                                                            'I              l u
                                                                                                                                  glassei ', (in r i (
                                                                                                                             'I~'1 s\JI trin11, nld ldiul t It Iill ne ,iiiiwith an
                                              idh     I)%,-                                                                          s         a     'I,oo        ooo kg/hu, lli
      lod11ts .
              i                 dhil l " wo t a leais mi aini ,d\
                                        v i ii,
                                          .                     irilih
                                                                n                                               .I             pioih'h (( .lg 1    i it 7           l'ii, ilr hiks hC1i1<.I ,
                                                                                                                                                                                          i
              and
             7.iht a UI          )in l l)r d tivi(y ln IIIii(iiilon. Ill
                                                    i l,   ' (l                                                                    iil1,gi No it /iern
                                                                                                                                       l d ih                           iitt Vllau a lh.

 Nigl''ia, ](silllists                  uisig aif b-pridi            ItSi
                                           ii\   it'!i
 sul,'h ais      t e'( ifcl lli andcak                  as                                                           \ arc sii ;sl       Iii . l rill i\(ii
                                                                                                                                               l t1          S\lilld     go\l(irl1111llt
 s o l e furh'1 , r ,lrc ia lly t Il
              ,m                       d i a l- i rarp set ( '1t1h .
                                                     o                                                           rI'h (.i \d i heIc '-t oo , , ;iti, u s €dl , li l ( 'rt n k ,s n d fi v d
                                                                                                                         ,                           ,                  ba      a
 ."S\'.i ' gtI~
            1(181 illt iah+l dhv ,vlli l o',,lq it-                                 l
                                                                                  rI~lat itroi
                                                                                           tI                       l   is
                                                                                                                         lisi     II
                                                                                                                                  psm sali      ut Ti I turil 
 i ilal
                                                                                                                                                 lh'\ s.
  Bonaji itthi        t
 li.o Platcau NiLL ii                                                                   l~ i itt k ('.nlr liuuiiur Lt i, II.(A.uA) R i
                                                                                                                                                  ,                  in 

                                                                                                                                                                     isii
                                                                                                                Fii sh-hi ioid Zi i..uiii luuuii I, i Iih luih 'i
                                                                                                                                              s                      k call

 Thble 7.              I                t II)N. :  )NSE
                                            11NI.S;(    IE.T()                                                  snlijollili iv,.iuil lIid           v )t lol i i
                                                                                                                                                      i                                      c (Itr

                       "           II/'PN'l., Y "I EDING(O F
                                              I                                                                lsason il uic: k. lili I .. u1u i'hitlu, illi h
                                                                                                                              l      Lui    'i.                                               I hi       +

                       \Wi11HI FU LAN l
                             T           I:         \    I 'l.l.                                                bank iIIi (I;ike,.; , ,.t t
                                                                                                                                Ic              , I '      l(1h-iII al I                 iI i,
                       U N IN R T lRA.l)l'l'IC( YN.A\1,
                            )l1:l                                                                               ushii  l,'Id IIiatI '.-kg diI IIiatt i (d,1"-, th is s.liht %\-oil
                                                                                                                                                   I            I                l
                       M A N .\( ; I F'N F
                                         ,                                                                      pro \ de a lp ,ov i n N U i i r il rq1 iv a w , I i ] , ( ,F l ot l
                                                                                                                              i        , pp            u .; .

                                                                                                                sced ca.i\i'
                                                                                                                      "            ithl -Lu
                                                                                                                                          iu,    liiiu   g iui.          i.
                                                           }'7'Ks
                                                           .uiiin
                                                               | iids       Ai                                                                  t'u.u/iuHui'/iii'adi
                                                                                                               ( :Liu i iiti',,tid ilitiiiiil.n
                                                                                                                              uii                   l ii. ('ili i.,ud a lli a l lriit li
                                                                                                                                                                         i          i
                                        (ilii uni Ids i i Iu
                                          ,ititi  l id     i                iiA/s' ,                i,         I)~ ul tlioii ll i iu. I',' ' ,i 'alvri h
                                                                                                                     h               L                          r       "
                                                                                                                                                                      I'ull llild ll wu
                                                                                                                                                                              t          ithin
                                                                                                               iilt,
 li.'uu\ u l ,, I ill li du to it's i cifiiii id availability

                                                                                                                    iiis /iii
 Diiv iii'ioll
 I'ailiy.Scaw,,,i
                                        ii        u L          l        j          )u 
                         1."Ili ]i I  viiuuIx IL 'uII thiI ii, ., Ila si I u
                                                                                                                                  1111ih
                                                                                                                                      iii     rx               .R                                    t
                                             0l )11                              I)1'.'                         )(wl'hlol.'u.m )ii.,       arnd A\tlicu11lill

 \\'h4lh Yvill                               0.708t                           01).l-9I4v'~l,'                               I'lliji' IN,andIpatly dIic' to 114,"vc­
                                                                                                                                                               v

                                                                                                                                 i 7 il
                                                                                                                illrauidl ost , Iuios .. tf
                                                                                                                                   i                     iultu     stuh              . hui llu ll,
                                         sidusi (u.7 iiioilhinUj,                   l       w',                hriu',.su         ird ic'ii      kg
                                                                                                                                                O fI)(; s.
                                                                                                                                                         -itm dtiu
                                                                                                                                                                 s              'a     l d
  Il\       .';<a ,,on                       I,1)13                                 1. (Iic
                                                                                        ;

                                                   )
\hle         Yc                                 21.-
                                             0I.L                            I..132                            " lrh
                                                                                                                   .i             am Iliofp
                                                                                                                                  kpgl I4 Itr           t,ids i iiii 11iil , i a'l
                                                                                                                                                                         \             k
                                .fuuiu is.ii u. ...
                                  ii l si issi.      iili . t.. ..
                                                     i                      . ...       .     . .                          ll fI, iil d . loI i t .h N aw ' i ( ;s i
                                                                                                                                l          kg l.                      h tt      u      i',
                                                N,,u,,Sit                                                            all I,,dI'11 I, ' I IIi t
                                                                                                                          ]a:,I~\.m
                                                                                                                                hI                    ,g11I I,- . \';I IRail\ and(It-h
                                                                                                                                                          (
                                                                                                                114c'1\\ ( i,!71 ) 1-'Ilh alc'd 1h.11 414q  op ',.idhlc' L~ra.,i,,g

S\+   lrl!.4 nt4 ' l       1h,11 .1114-1Ill$ 'c' \ ,.r N , 
 ,llllh ul.l~
                                                       .+                                    {n                ;11.4H II~ ' ItrI, ,         ,,t11 1 Iiil)L ;1il(. hIllIX+.,IS
                                                                                                                                                   ,1                              ill
Iit. ,ijiiIiii , u il
                 u                 iuiillurd hits ..s a
                                                I              ,,       thilliiiiixti m .,
                                                                             l                                 I)rl        , dc lihi tsu , i *uuuIh uulllu­ Iiw
                                                                                                                                  i t              ll           ,1 . in,
%%hill il %%asplii it              ll         is11mrl.i ifto bl             llo              I(mi              saihiliall/oll    fNrl i II.  .)itliliu'i       ,I ( lopiiisihJ . ,
                                                                                                                                                                             su
%.',r1i' in n ilk. 1lI. mca. IA\,. i                        el sIL
                                                                 pIleh'
h,'r(I,     'It.,' lon' I ,i";, (" 77'"-+Mv.h . 11h-1 "-lnto hI I 'l,
                                                     (itr                                                                 ('h m
                                                                                                                             i~    114. ill \.;I[\ vihl I I t'll,,.\lha.,sml 0't
                                                                                                               ,1. (i() 141h;Inc ",11,
                                                                                                                                       \(w
                                                                                                                                                 1 [lth~ll, 
 kL g ainl
                                                                                                                                                         ,",\(r\
                                                                                                                                                                         ,
        \.,        i       11 1 p '" 

                   [Iloilo." 1     r;.. ~                                                                       IIlII f"",Ic'd. Ihcw .114'1 KL:,l~dh -lllHI ll'l s.11;1% li,,lln
                                                                                                                                                     (
                                                                                                               ..otiIIIII 11KLI(dl Il~a,I                 1.1\\ lImll Inilhi 111 Ikfi
                                                                                                                                                         +r                       an
lBr(alls.,r ,,rllc dillh4 ,dtic., ,    l'+' -illh 1
                                         t          I'liI l.                                                   Ii'IIII Itlli, ': -,.[illl ;I li    ,I1 , -Illlllh'l hl llim %\.l.'IS 11 .r
                                                                                                                                                                                       1
(,.4.h qmp ,,tl ,'I 1,,41 ( ti\ it\,.1 d illi, i. I 111,,'pt ini
            l                                                                                                  fig of,1".c'lhd sc.,'4' I. 1,4,m
                                                                                                                                        (           lpras anod i-,'wo, dlllts
lindli,4 lvcrd I,'.. tm vs. (t, N.u.lai1 .[til impl4,\4v                                                       I ,vs 'cci\ v'I\. F:~l        ,lilmatud.( l 'filn \ ivihls ,,vc4I ,'v ,;




                                                                                                         59+
 Tale 8.         HERBAGE DRY NIAT'ITER YI EILI)S (I)MI) ANI) CRU 1E PR()TEIN C()NTENT (CI1) OF FORAGES IN
                 NORTHERN GilINEA SAVANNAH

 lI rage "Iyw                                      Species                                         I)I/kg/hIu                                     C P%

 Grass's                                            Buflilgras                                      6,0001 - 1.1,(10                               9-4
                                                   I)iitatia S'mltsii                               6,00i 9,000 

                                                                                                           -                                      12-7
                                                   Elephtint griss                                 12,000 - 25,001) 
                              9- .
                                                   (;iait star grass                                 1,01(08,ll8

                                                                                                           -                                      1)­ 6
                                                   Greelt    plliclili                              7,1)100)- 13,000111                           10­
                                                   (llilli
                                                         gliiss                                     11,00) -- 15,000                               9­i
                                                   Rltitdcs glass                                   6,000 - II ,llili 
                           10-5
                                                   Signal grlass                                   11,0001l - 201,000 
                            7-3

 Ltcgulils                                         Si'lo (plinllial)                                11,00) - 11.000)                               . -18
                                                   VeraiilO stylo                                   ,001111117.111111
                                                                                                          -
                                      II -7
                                                   (,.elltlti'ut                                    3,000-   1,000 
                              13 -11

Grass/I
 i               i1l
                   1i.             t                lal/hiliria/itlil I                              ,11011 - 1-1,00011                           13 -9
                                                   11ai hilI/st l t                                 8,000 -    I1,01)                             12-19
                                                              I
                                                   IhlIIl/V'tra t                                   !,))ll - 12,0li)                              II - Ii
                                                   IRlicsg!rass/stl.                                8,000i ..I10,0001                             12 - 7



      (I)a\ irs1983;)
,_:ails                     il all Iw
                                tt        ssinlllid          III
                                                  that ailliul                          ll diic'timll.
                                                                                                    F~lll               l   !lll 
Sliim
    alllnllc,
                                                                                                                                                  ;illl       l
                                                                                                                                                             -.           is

gIlillin     1   lll'lri tlill itil itiI\\ ilt
                    tllis        s                                mii wi
                                                                       t              Iil lih ile piptii
                                                                                                       hict iIhc ii)slilii
                                                                                                                     l                            is park o1ltc
   it     o lnilhlsit ai\N
Iiil 'lolls id           k\ill bvc.1,                       ilh'u
                                                             aii
                                                               nuall\                       F~loml ,iiicaitmred hcil'
                                                                                      plankil.                      cllilillllllol oILI kg/hcaid(/

                                                                                                                                        

Cro mil
      ,il)i -, liillioll h114-4 v.'- onli!'1hllii I ili onll
          lul                1i   id         'ild                                     dl\ ,iilid
                                                                                               ;insllillihlu
                                                                                                         Ihlm;is[lilt(' 11 is -                   lt/ ,lisIt'al'
                                                                                                                                                      di

timl i llh l sllmoi.                                                                  1l ili ]is lost Ihloll h Ir,illllingit
                                                                                        .lh                             , abilliHI mlillionl Ilclld
                                                                                                                          


                                                                                      of. caII If\Icll' IIIIhcl IlWN hdN I\.'rII II)
                                                                                                              InhI    r
                                                                                                                     I(      ;1-iIl I                     dryA   soRl
                                                                                                                                                              sANl)
          o    11)
Inl rillS i~ta ilahlil\ , il 1( lsitO
                               i          iIllow rcS
                                                   adily                          .    l-riod
(A itsi IIil
                                                                                       Mi'o                i-). Ad(Iin  I;l opI IksidheSI l I
aiviilb c. Mlilhci [ilNu1.111hat\ (,ivd (llrh ti rIli
                 is                             l. ills                               lII]a IIilI
                                                                                          ize,                 hleg(IItiCs, as polssilvh
                                                                                                 h'lanld t IiiiI                       wiho.r


        ii
       gil       iilihd      I
                            ulrm             m will bc available ill                          s.      ( it, (ItuIIh ) avi        b   'it iil.   I siI\       p
                                                                                                                                                          Stp rt aII
      ill
gl1a;i/ini                  t
                         ll il lilih'iilll illrrcr(lo
                                   is            pp d with 
                             caill p l
                                                                                      tIic                          oniilli'ria. I(Nr liTs
                                                                                                                   ti   N    (iNl        il                          .)
iflliv.r
      Ilop]s     ,   pall
                        Iic'ulatll\
                                 S(IgI4
                                      llil.   (
                                          Thelv \-sc';Illl 'op
                       sii ilic                       olyl to devise alli
                                                                                              aill-ol'l'i'iilch, lit(l                 itcelle!

of Illi'li/,' \ it.hloll t '
         \\ ill         l                ;id aisIliiaizi i l aingli
                                         an           isn                             lIchlill       ilog l ilili(IValill
                                                                                                        i              forcr1op1
                                                                                                                               rl'idlli.s 
 llhcrl
                                                                                                                                       anld
mnilh'h ill1,tit)% I'Xll 

               li      Ih              iirll G         Sa
                                                   hii.; vannalih, it                  'llla utilizaliol, bill
                                                                                            i4l'              atlmlto IIli-irt 

                                                                                                                           lrundcrsillnd tilt

will                 Io.
                       c,               l lbst
                                            llii.1 l i l, i \\ 

                                             .ill.llill
                                                  Ii                                   lih
                                                                                         sio liiilli llisill
                                                                                                   .ll4ill i                             7ll2l.cd.



Tlale   9    Ij].,  

               ETI MATED ]IARE'A S,(\N rl() S(R(GIl                         II' ANI).MI I,11'l'ANI)TII' :1                    GRAIN ANI) STRA\V

                 PRODUT            ION F(IRVAR:(                                  17.S 

                                                                               Y'5.S2R.2IN. 


                                                               Slllmil                                                               Milhl

                                           At il                 Gra';ill        'slilllml'ir                  IGra
                                                                                                              Arv                    (lill                 stiliat(d
                                                                                                                                                          IE
Yvll                                      (M .]Ilil                lod.              .iri                     M     Il)Irod.         P"1\                   Straiw




19iN6-15 
                                  5.6i                   .1.2               16.11                     AA..                  2.7                    2 1.6i
1969/70I                                    5. 1                    1.I               17.2                        1.2                 3.2                    25.(6
197-1/75                                    4.11                   3.9                15.6                      .1.0                  2.6                   20.11
19111)/l11                                  6.1                    -1.1               16I                        1.5                  2.9                   23.2




                                                                               60

   Bec(_au~se ol \variatiolls ill IIt        !
                                             IIi oriill (Ilullhy ok-tlrp                         ple         ~
                                                                                                         t m s
                                                                                                           tC'la+I{m'il          '+lliltrtadilv is oil Ilw( €
   re t.'s t+S to)It'ngthl of'stilov
         chl       c                             l( . lie'Icl, (.Iu \'i) t,)
                                                 h                                               od+" "" ut:itltll\ as i esit'++ll fidl'iti
                                                                                                       +,                       of                     roa lparilsihtS,
                                                                                                                                                         d
   lI-rtilIizt-r itlIfIf Iicadhn atI,(Iwvt'I Iht(Ir !tlII ge"(AIlII ssi I 

                                                  d I                                            whihc lamlll Inl'tlinyl is lbetweet'l -.-. andl~:j',]. Goals ill
                                                                                                                                         )
   1985t}), 11hterv is ;I n'(c Ito vii hIn(nc its iiiti 
 itive'%;I\'it-
 Ib\                    Ow(."obd-hut1nid +imp' ait. (dfvil alli-ctl.d with] Pest' de's
   (e+thtel p}rtJ\'sioll ofd'lolvtill so,;etil~ld(i.t of dihrtlicill 

                                                                                                    l1its Rillfillants ( ITl)                and
                                                                                                                                              ti(l     ailgt'. All spi)cst'+ ol'Iod
   ttvi:11111cl   .'tili' 1-cr(cd .;rw . PJ;tla i             ult
 l sipph'imrmi
                                                               ar                  s          allilli ls stll.l"Irolll (.11cr-
                                                                                                                             lll                     obrcdlh...
  Jl;l\' ( 't< 4.1111aicctd pl) (Illility rr        .j). csi lti s thlal

                                                          t'd
  tirva anod NPN soutri..es ohii'lgilR.+l Trh11, ill ,,rgllhum 
                                l'( ild~ge that he.+ith is, %%viltlthoumld lot be Inolt( • ll.
                                                                                                                                      c
  stl*;Ik\tIiills (3.71'    (),
                            C       (flit\yi%\(d]( ( 1971. 11Ill'                             thimll livi'tou c'k ])io(ht'ctonl et rpt~ ise~s. No Inaill'r Ilhi'
  National ..Aiiiia lrh ction kct"-cio'ch Insltiute, niow(d(                                  lgilt-lic andl ltl htio)l+l innova.'tionsi. %%v abhh' 
 to
                                                                                                                                             aic
  \+t'ight losssn' ol'<o)-, too o6 kg/(day ill (citilh"lvd mlct'/ 

                                      I                                                                 '
                                                                                              aIrhit-\rl Ilh(-- Hli n'iullificd( b~yanuoilbrl
                                                                                                                ft                               l'-!oI",

  Illil"P'vs,,lip        {ill)]~ \ hil't.
                         c ,                   w cms

                                                  oil gloil, ih c'i ki. 

                                                               it                             rpidl     ilisti .,a.. ItI,% fil.~ (hisI asoll hill l Ilier (.116i's
                                                                                                                          is              ,
  h
  gaill'd (..tB tl, 4).11 k !l',+               possib~ly Im-calist • idaill 
                tl, drv clop it li\v",t,,,k indwsii\ it+,trc~t huniatn nec'tds
                                                                                                                                      i

  Ifwint'r ils ill addli~ tion flil'ogi-Il lit-, lltim palrtd %%ihh
                             i                                                                 mav+jol ,])id,'nllic d 'i ,+,sl. 11nilm\ l;If ,s (,l'.\hica

                                                                                                                                  ill
  NPN Nupleci.s. ( :+ttozisred( c'akc' ha s A*s()bvvl tiScdt                                  itll ldilng Nigeria. lky alld ig, €dtv sliltillt almill~

  its ,t b\y-pasts p~rote~in and ('liitr   Stipl)i-ntitvn %%ithNPN 
                          di,,c'asc., ,,uch ;,., i i.lldv pt, (',mta toiuun

  for hbcliv li oIdtl lyx .
 I hImN    cvvr, dhi"tist' <11high-prl twitl                      joltclplt-m ,li.l            o ,-;Itud-llll llth disra.,w (111'l          I+s,
  Sop:l)ill-Ills is (' ,'tl\y and~c
                                  not,                      ;rdoi rd~lh( Ow(
                                                                      by
    r c t ( r n' s
                                                                                              Nt".\ casthv, Lujinoil               ,,hand <li,rdis.r'v. ol'pl~t l I\'v

  ]p o             .                                                                          1)(.(.Il             h (,l''"s~
                                                                                                                          m,urld        but notI clad( l'ltd, l r                ~


 hyd, ,xifhc). alillool' .old t ,'va,\\ I          ath cur 'tl .r, his
                                                        h                                    thi'rrloir, th,' lit S( st 'p ilhot (,It 'l i s t4, ill( 'i, lasc
                                                                                                                                                            ,foo

 bern, ptrutkvtd ill ian             lI
                                   tim iic,, inclh~litm Nigiii+ 'la.
                        alil

                                                                                             .        ll     hn lion+.With hivalilh pl'Ic.t thi .11alltrv'd.

 ht-rst l,"rdls,il ('%,'Il. l (,'tglad.ltiw, +u, +
 htltillrd hl lm
                                                  -                                          41114-.r iln m.    ill~sIr ul 
 d I . r         u'a\ I 
 l .16 oa
                                                                                                                                                tohae'v~
 N tIIo 1. Ainm in  li:i supl ies.N .,anud .,I a isl,is 
                                    t:oal I-l's 11ll-,,t l              .    ill .1nilll~l Ilrldinthml.

  a,(1(Ilinil%, iUL aij'tc l h)[1 .l 
 ill., pIw ,.,m i.,,.tl ,,11t; ls+

  ;fi tk(] i      -. \%.rcksf        (..i( i t,, Ill- ( ,,illdh i. .+ ( 1..l 

                                    l,                                                        1hb,m, \ ('.. 1th,,"11Qh ma.jo, ,pidr'illirs h;,','r ht+,' i
 has bi-.11l [IScd( it,. 't "'ll1( v ok lllol li. 1 .)If hvd\
                                                                      ,,1%
                                                                        Nk ;111(1 
          t +ll"       14h'd, ctI "11oilI+k       dis,r     rs ov, tll         1   1.411 (1)h'O w'l
                                                                                                                                                                            t+l
 I,'ll l',, it is           14,'i'rt,

                               h1.11)(h. (stolid). liill61il,'l-q~~l hdltlvi+. 
              Ik c.tshm k inij,n. I, i ,h, -        n mi/ p dt t il (h - l o nw
                                                                                                                                              li        o            ,r
 hi s hf-.rll %\itl,.I\ lied 1" 1
                        l                  sti., [ it Ilht lillllof I
 ,+l. 

                                           ; +\:                                             '111dalit. lhI.1low~h , I i         vil kic<Ito lll(civar€.

 .A -,,, k,,ba t.1 i?€;t is c'liolitgh 14'1(,'11 ljlc tni( 
 O l,,l l lr~t 

                       :
                                                                                                 +
                                                                                              plou t (tion. Sli,h 
 '1'-mi oonlit di.wa. , , ;:I( hlidl' h)tlrcelhosi,
                                                                                                                 1                                                      ,

 ;itlIl lh aw oft{
 ki, m ca'+i.r i e,,, kL4"+NiilV..llhr tnio is, 

                 ,I              l                          '                                ( i11)1)\ hdok w'tliosis, Ili('h( illirliais,,.an sti~
                                                                                                                                                l lildm lhosi,..

 dill.(I Ihis i ill lit,.i,,:s         .':t. ,lild p, nh
                                                      i ki.(I. 
                             %%Ili( h1(allI ai . h. lir)lhl Ik e't%ilstalgr ihlomll h abortion.
                                                                                                                  1
                                                                                                                  ,                                    lh
                                                                                            '1AIpalo~omlia"k. socr<' l hi<'o'i,, andI hr'hllililhiasis ca;ll

 Flivl powh nllial 4,1N P)N a+, ativ,iii'.. l,, ]It%,-i js+tin lollJ t 

                                                                                            CM]",s(  Chrontic" %, sliniL. tilllh illil".,s andl{shl ,, dcl{'l ill

                                                                                                                 a
Jll('lvas ilig ihlc t'lif i'llr ,
 Il li-rd( Ic'. ollrcc< Inlilizadl l ill thr'
                                %                                                           llllilly S    hcsl~
                                                                                                            , ,d'1lw! itll lials. %'Jlil(lllal tifis+ill ([;lit\
dhc I'hlpilIle 4'lllll'i"+,N has~r hevil (oc,           iticll . .M ore %,.oik              ('+titl'IIh ll '     ri'o o l. lli dlisa~tel . Ilh.€ mlsv +ofthe* \idh'

Mid prl ial d aipplicationh (,1 illr I'srim <11 'solts \\.ill Ibe
                                                                                            (listIdlnlticoll (,I 
t-r m,.Ili,", a d fit ks,. (t- \ci'tts. of,
c'o   tlt l,.fd ill d w, l,'ca   hliti,   "'.                                               II+.V    lli tllliar+is ;111(1.;itliollit -Ibol nc (lisc'ases if) the'
                                                                                                                                    h'
                                                                                            tl,)lmi ,.; i        l €'l
                                                                                                                     l ' h,161 '.11
                                                                                                                             I'      IIla hl ill c'lll l) hll-sc
Animal Health Coliftribution to Increasing                                                  k,' ,,, an h,i ,i,,w, tl1(.\, trllllt. Abouct I('i million
                                                                                              r(       ,il l
Production of Food Animals                                                                  S~l.k,,,. o,'th, .ii(.111 1(1,16111-11itili'-,t,.€ %\ith
                                                                                                                l               is                 Isc'ts,
                                                                                            Ili (s: 2 1 .7 "1/, ,,f i.8 1, millio nl ,(I.kn i. is ill Hth S id )-h in nid
                                                                                                                                                        ,
hl l      €'rilv-l.
                 (lisr'aw,,s of loo d ,u illibs [Ills,[, odl,'t1 allv'(' I         ~(                 oI'Ah ic'a, i. I muillim sil.knii. ,4r'27.6'o/, of 'hIi(h is
 young st,('k. This if tru,(of pigs, potillri vanid lmc,'1 ,h.                              ill \v\'," A ir'a ijalinkctt+ Nv',rlv 6,.;Ol., il'th (. land
sil., th,'\ .j ', sliol1t,.-*r l +ilt \ olin il ,*. Ill (h1-\,.hol) 1                       alirt ill OweSinh-hlil l d z,,i,. is inli-~st,.d %%ilhts,,tsv' li~s
(o)llittrics. o+ l         ~.\n
                            +
                              +'titlh. a ,. a l,o.m .( t, live( lil                         andI(1h i',lro is illot 11silbh' fill qtl.li    ill tlle'ra;6 v
So~ll)(1' )lilt l,n ,. pri iod(s. Ill Hin    my A\l'l        'i lll 1'
                                                                  (                          I's1i l. W ilit illssivc 114
                                                                                                                       t ricolhu l i i lo i';isi ill IllaniY

+i ;mll ,' air ke'pt hom ,'r+ ;111(Lh l 111',l h,,,s, still of 4.
                                          H                                                 pa
                                                                                                 r t'

                                                                                                  s ol"\li i"a v",pc' iadly Niuv+,',       oic Lind, is+, ringhl
                                                                                                                                                          b
ill ilhe \111111g,.1r g.uiomlp,vpv    <.l.i~ill liolils, kids, .11d                         ol,'d       1 and+m~ bc<lic.v cd thill wisc,linli'stioh, andi~
                                                                                                                  if i,,
calivv. ill thlil ,,rdhl. ,\ l 0llins a ndl lpost-I ltta hoss,'S ille'                      Ilht'rl'I r 1[\'p l it,isl,pil ,.,sis,is on lh
                                                                                                                                        O    (.(ftw. Tlhis+ill Ilir,'
                                                                                                                                                 l
V ISIIVd In. baI)r('ri~n.vitanl, fIlligal andl l        alli agenVts.                       , ,'call, Ihlill no€t o)ilk %will th,'r for imlv a d'€ o i ) t-si(Itl<'s
                                                                                                                                                     (f
By and1(L rlg ., dis ,,s ol'l-ch (lt.{rili., Il hdo ll ll I y
                          t',.             ],                                               bill i11.,o yv',l-l}ll(Id grl' ifrg ip(,silbiliti,.. ill the' high­




                                                                                       61
 potential rorage areas of*the SHZ and, IikcIN ,                                          Ilarillers art. illso cssential      ill I.to introdlive
 sedvii(arization and increascd livestock prodtiction.                                    iIIII(AlMiolis or bilild k1poll divil. syslicills olprodkictioll
                                                                                          widlout a too drastic depill-Illn. Croill tradition. By
 TI Ic    Ccono n I ic i III pol-li I n ct. o Ct I vpa It osof IIiasiis Iias              collaborative rescal-ch ill Ow field, using Ille 11triller I
                                                                                                                                                     S
 declint-d sillce tilt- 1960s becallst. ohlit-st. ccological                              animals and land its ficid laboratwics, ellough colifidelict..
 changes, coupled with high hwcIS of"glollild aild air                                    illay he g".1letated lol. tilt- acce-pruxe olwork-able alld
 control ol'the vcclors %% pt-sticidus. 'I'll(- (-its(, ohick-
                         ith                                                              prolitable innovations. This llc% apploach should oilcl.
  bovilt. discast-S pl-csvilt it dilli-Iclit pit (Inc. East Coast                         bctlcr pr(P.Specis ol'accepling and liti;izillg n-st-ill-ch
 liwel. is still a Incilact. ill Flast All ica, its is licarl-watcl,                      innovalions thall Inkdiiiollal govvi lillivillill exiclisioll
 discost. in \\ '-st Afi ic i, esp-ciAly 161.            intioducl-d ol.                  sel-vicvs.
 t.xoli(, allimill,      Aimplasolosis ;Ili([ lmhcsio is still mellacv

 cattle and sliccli. ( :owrol of OcL , hmvcvci , is iii.t its cim                         Bt-catim. olripikilding arablv agricliflure, lilt-l-c is a need
 as that lihst-tsr flirs. alld ill(. Its(, (.1,01claprillic (11u-'s                       161. opliIIIIIIII resoill-ce llsagc. Thelf. is lilt wigelil nvvd lim.

plovidcs t:.(- oid\ allsm.l. so I'll. Rcm-alch into dIr                                   an inlc ratcd appi(im It to likeN(ock dt-vt-lopment liw

clAdt-Iniology alld control ohlic vrclors rcspollsiblc for                                incivascd joilk iind mcm \ icld (Nurti                 Less

Illest. discascs Ilas colliribittt-d illdilt-ctl\ it) 16141irl olltplll                   v-,11-11sivi. gl-;IAIIL N,ill Ivad to scdclitalizillion, \%,Ili( It ill

ohnilk (viossbrcd animals) and mcat. Sinlilally,                                          IIII-11ill Ic-Id i(scli'lo cic(lit liwililics, casc 4)1*illl)lll
                                                                                                 %% 

 kiio%\ Ivdgv gaitied thrmigll n-scalch ill[o div lifi. cych.,                            acquisitioll, 1wilvi nuout"cluclit of lecd ICSIAIRTS,

host and palasill. I'M   (ov" and I)IIIel. vpidvllliolo ical                              mat kciing inct-jili%vs and a gvneral im-trase ill

kno%%Ivdgc of tilt- cauNc ohlisvisrs b\ lichninth parasites                               ploduclivity pri mlil arvit pri ;:11illial. Thils, MOW

                          oklivi.p. havilloildwsi ;oCciltdc.                              ollclisive Itsr ol,;Illvildy cullivalcd land could he Illildt. by

cm cidiosis lit             clic. ) has LIcatkl               dic                         ;I clo-wr illicgi'llioll of litod and li-t-ti I-c(Illilvilivnis.

I)lo(ltl( cls to ( (11111(ol
                         lilt-ill Illd millimi/t. IlIvil. lom-l ill                       I :olllljillilli. N'Jil. plant. allimai and labor into all

I-Ili-cls oll pmdm limi.             has Im.1-11  .1,Ivalcl IINc )I                       ifileglillrd 111    Illinq N Nicol im rv isvs lolal oll(pill olli)od,
applopi i'llf.           [I.          ill(. (it colillid IlIrsv                           I(vd all'I Inch! lit         vvd dw silln (11,111coll(plits ohlic

discascs.                                                                                 colillpollcm- ill                ! IYdIok


 Ill 111,111\ .111ccd ( )Illlll ivs. grilclic illiplo\vilicill and
           1(1\                                                                           \lot(. It-scal'.11 on ilillov:16%c aild a( ct-plable wchliologics
It-prodilt [I\ c cificit-11, \       llt\   v       L l vad\ Fit ilitalrd      b\         lol. clop n-Sid'Ir 11tilizaiii'll still ocvds to Ill- door,     ;kll(l
ill(. IIN'. of Iv( lillifilles illvok ing no( oIll\ villblNo liallsicl                   odirl. li-ed IcNi'lln cs Illost Ill. sought to willimixc
alld iIIIIIIIIII-gencli( s IIIII AN,) ill dr\           vlopim discast.-                 collipt-lililill \%ill] Illall fill. avallablv qlaill. Till- cllvalwl,
icsislant Iiiins of lk,-sum k. Rvcmildnimi I)NA                                          lilt- fi-i-d sool-cc I%%
                                                                                                                idloill sacl ilicc ohl [till itv), ill(- betirl.
lccllllolo iv, ollt-1 winal kablv oppm 11111ilit-h fill                                  dw IcIIII-11 (o (he I'll olc[ . Fcvd IIIIII it-lit evallimioll is
ITNIT 	 ing a.1illial plicil'o. pcs alld ;Iljilil\ (1)%\
       ll('Illl                                         illistio'd                       Ir(plil cd till pallo f-1.1-11cl I1IhbcI Sced Inca], sliva lilt(
                                                                                                                         , akc,
kit;if and 1)"( 10.1 discaw.
                    ial                                                                  cake. vIc. lit        Illim. dicil roll. as stilislittlics lot. still],.
                                                                                         ohlic scal cc alld v\pvnNi\ I-im4l vdivilts nol Inall\ liscd ill
Future Research Needs                                                                    IIIv fi.cd.Alwl lialk c IVcd 14-Solln-cs.             lllo\%St. plants,
                                                                                         m.rds, sit( It as 1.1d)"dinadobl,        Ill[ (111.1 ('sligalioll.
                                                                                                                                            ill\
Ill dnclopin                           wsc;m 11.-florts ill 1,11111n. ol,
                                                                   will                  Mam coulill it-, in Alric;l slatli'llirl, I -.1lbstai'lial 11111111wi.
ilv( (.Sit\. colicclill'air ()It:                                                        ol'i-atill., shrep and 'goills daily and W1.1)(I         tilt-sr
                                                                                         allinials is ,\;IsI(-d. Moch mirk Ilas hrvil donc oil li-ed
I .	 N sicills 1.1scalt-II:                                                              (1\11111alioll ol'blood olval, bill             ;II Icclovillgivs fiw
       iotvt iatcd ,pp,              I()li% ( sit,( k piodtictioti:                      its Ili ocvssilli. , III cNi'l vatioll and tildi/alioll ;It I. Lichillg
       illicliNificmilm of list- of I lop 14-sidtivs and mil".1al                        \11 it vall IcpLI( v illipol-14-d lish local ill potlill .\ h-vds,
                         ill (114 "CaNoll:
                                  (11\                                                   lill-14.11\ roilsv] vim liovil4ll cm-Imn"r.
       v\ploilalioll oFollirl li-cil 14-NI'loccs:

            cilm. I)lo(lll(.Ii(iil IQIillst [[],III)[ diNcost.s. 
                       Fill an vili( irm lki-sim k indIIN(r\ , plopli\ lactic nicasill-vii
                                                                                         tlllollgll \;I(.( illation okaliolls spvivs art. cssclillial.
Livi-sum k Iswjns wsrmt 1, is I,,,%% It,( .i\                im adv(piatc                Molt. Ic'scalch ncrds to Ili. (lot)(., 1114-1-clow, ill Iliv al-ca of,

allivillion 11,1111 \It i, an Iii-slf.ck "I iviltists, ill lillc %N
                                                                  ilh                    rall1c, pollltl \ alill -. 111all I onlillaw vaccilic prodlic(ioll.

   Faiming S\Nicnis ;ippioa, I, to incivasi. liv(.t iock
ilm.                                                                                     Till, 111(crilalional Litboliloly fiol. Rcm.;oTh oll AIIiIII;II
prodoclivil%. livir is still not emmigh knomi aboot                                      Oiscascs 111.10 1)) mok oil vac( illc ploduction agaillst
(ladiliollal hosbandl             S\ NwIlls in lialsh climatir                           M pallosoilliasis is it Illovc in lit(. righl din-clioll.
clivirolillivills. Sm i(w( olloloir slodirs of Ille livcslock




                                                                                    G2
 BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                                                     og,,,-.t, I'.t. I 8 3 . AuIIIttrttdtctitoI tilt. CIaractteritirs ,
                                                                                                 .);Ip; IIIv" AnIIi aI I IIslba IIhI'y. P rort-cdi I g V. \V.A I, \'o l. I:
                                                                                                                  II
 Ailhassan, \'.S. 11)8.5. Ad\anres in RutI
                          Thte                   tinant Niltriioi                                   -- 2:3.

                                                  t
 and Thcir A pplicatiuti ill the Ijtilizatitl Il 'llo 
 Quality

 Forages. It'itetd p'icr at hit mil Annual Nlectilng olNigeitia
                                         ll
                                                     ()la\'i%%d , MI. - 1976;. I'i~clt,
 Soc('it ofl'Ai!,nal IPro)docdi<, U)ni\'trsiy f'I fc, March, iollrl,                                                                     I)illr.lIt  TrvattlntlIlIts (il
                                              i                                                   U~tilIization oflDr\ , IighI -ilmt Solrghumll SIoIVerI by' ]o Illinlit ltls.
                                                                                                                             i
                                                                                                  Ph.). thsIlis I)t'partinvl II'Al\inlal Scicnct, Alai                              Bello
 lDavit's,]..l r!j8:j . (CropProduct'ion                ill the++Nigecrian .%a'alinalll                            ,
                                                                                                  UnliVe'ls+ity. zlliat.

 ACIAR IPrccdlings ,Series N ..N iia - Australia

                                I
 (Ctlaboraklis. Agri'ltural Rettcth 
 Id. Ntnu, S. & Rvialj.(;.                                   IPr (Ihk, 11.11.            ,     io. Tr';,l IIL\saiiity
                                                                                                                                    I                             liy I' FitI ResI III(.,
 ).

 1     1
       i    -   :1-. 
                                                                           ill I'rvcetdin               V. \V( :A P VI     . I    oil -- 1 12.

tie [ius, I N. and Agishi, I.C. 1)71. A riil I'llllllliC                                         Ray, II.(;.T., s\tll                  I.lelise, P.N. (1171T). lhcWhInl )ll:l.,IIf
Alai Iyio'ailtg    S51.% ii ill IhIie
                       h                    I
                                      2tltlaI Zoneil1.                                           (:r11    Reidtt Ias              ododer: A RIsllr~l Aniltlysis iI Kat iIIit
 Pro)c'(diogs o:Anoo\lll] Ikim                                                                              ,
                                               l,(k (Conlli-trilt' Sallnal'ol   19}78}           Prov)\incel Nigvjia
                                                                                                                t                 SiiInamll Ruc(';lt         Iulh'in    Nil). I:p).} Zaiai:

                                                                                                 Ihittlic (ifAg liiuhliral Rlc' rIt.
Edhivitc, 1,.A). !o82.. Ult inlc Imolhtion, ( )\itia~ll ++\clikivil, anll

B~aclteriological Silldif+ th's i{llotal 1111Pe'ri(d in InIIgentils                              ,Syige{, B.A. illho. Milk Ir+tlwitin [ nltvti I':Xllictke yic11u;.
                                                                                                                                                                "

Nig'rial (:atlh, Ph.. I t hi,i A.'lunadot B'lho [nivi sity, .Nil%.                                pjlcctcdilli~ o Idlhc:o~ni-Il( o Imp~act o)l'Al\nial DIstasct
                                                                                                                         (   I ence
     '
1!)82.                                                                                           IRt'scai    ,ll-c (:(ollHI oilrILitsl ('k hroduocti(n lln.,l'i(a,

                                                                                                 NairobIi, K na. I - -hillctnhcr.
 ~ivcst,,ck I.E.10.2 ­I.iitockIotiI ItA'\hil'.
.;1      .I1.1:.1
             IDc\h,iopmct ill TJropjica+l                       ysut I's aind
                                                                Kirh'r                           \Vitmwvr, .S.1 1. j:jl+. Illvt Rl.h of Sciencel' and('lTethnlog)~ ill
           \\''+('ls~h[I       vcr an    lk.                                                     A\nimlal Prlodocl(tionl: ( :l'4'aling it Visi                il. Ihv Fultu
                                                                                                                                                                        llre     Pr ,<.

Mc'hl en,      . I j6Hit. \A dd[ 4-ls% dir ( )jjvnill , S.%s,Ni(n of Ihc'
                         -              to                                                       Vol).   :   1 :          ,
211d \Will 1I {ol,f'Wot C411A\liolid lodout'l . I ll o .f( I;
                                                         it
                                                                +
                                                                .
WA'. P. I n
     :.,'.                                                        )
               rlsvt\      ofl, al\ landI, [U...A.+.jol,
                                a                           nll8 i . Ill-                        Zakari. A.Y. (lilh ). Manifi-slationi andltDetet'cionl o'()cstruls ill
                      I't"                                                                       litmaji and 13lkolqji C:ows. PihlD. Tlhe'sis, Ahimadu IBello
                                                                                                 U nivertyl,JI.        Zalri~i.
Non'u, S%. (l{i,
         I                 TIw .\-d jost itnll I an (I hIlcl-gition of I. i%r'siock
andI Cropp~iingS slls.                  Ill Iht'(t'(lings of A\llcilu A\lic'.
VIo              r ill
                onH All           : C:.A\,1B.
                                            FIJrs;S%(''lllir Clml Irl'€nt ti,
A\ruhi, "[T ai               ia, Febl. j(18 1. Ed:. I lit\k%,\t(,i th, I). : P. -,.',7"




                                                                                          6]3

           THE ROLE OF RESEARCH IN INCREASING FOOD YIELDS





                                                                                     Pedro Le6n
         Sub-Diiector, Reseatch hnre~igationand Technolog) Transfer, Insliluto Colombiano .4gropecuario(IC.A), Jiogold, Colombia




 Th (utistior l Bdhu1aclkg rnill    is od   rodu-inc
                                                tasing
                                            it' Itini AiniiI at    rict 1970N 1)(illls(' O'ic "isV"ill oil
 inportalic globaly, ill is of'lI illiv importan ildprices, 

                   r                                                                                        cold explain why thA inc'cavisl, ill  d pr'dtctioll
 Third World. This                 iaptr
                                      evillins ft.        rolctf             ll      hnl           has ilcld li
                                                                                                              it\         lld( til1'Ilh(luti\ll ia        tionl ralli r thal
 icras             ood
                 Ilti        onl      ith' ll   in .\   i'rili, iy
                                                           [              ll I IIis.s                   II
                                                                                                   Of iIn IWr\a d yiill       . ThIIll' it'ill 1h
                                                                                                                                 .           c      il     i ld tl;k   IlIt

 it   (llnllb
           erOhl lf.slil ls, ill sll ohl' l h                        .,    1, Ihl
      l          int(rt,ast'd li ll M9luillilion hi'tIi TdS 19711 10 -.
                                                                                                                                            ill
 lead to subs(.llv.l~l r                                                                                                                                    3

                             cll
                               .io nd discussit.

                                    lll                                                             tile iotlitill i on:. lhish irs ot ilht            I
                                                                                                                                            bst'r\'ilitot ois               ris
                                                                                                   tha it is tIttt lne(lhbhi tob ring twiv tirs into
 Historical Background of Food Production                                                          (.'Ll ii        ill LatiliAlint'ric~t thant* tr Ill
 in Latin America                                                                                  v
                                                                                                   \ i.d,,.                                                       'r-vaS(


 Tilt. a.l,,oan gr ,.ino
                      +ill       o I l ion,i. ill I.;1lin+Alor.ric',
                                             (
                                             .                                                     Now\\ desplite, ht'sc,applartinlly consiste.nt obse'rvations,
 'sliii atcd ait .1.2"I,, ill Ilht I oll,. \\1 ' h'd'd to) 1.74/; ill
                                             i     c                                               odht'r Eact rs m1t1st bt. lilkeln int(, cc'(unt \\'hell tryingK to
  ihr Itpl s. T his, (ojlIr ,I' %ilh Ow1((llc'l'll illtlilioll in (he'                             expllain lilt( silliatioll. Tlt- €vXcv(SsiVV€ t't' triltioll oil (Ile
                                                                                                                                                     t'om
T hird \\' ddh N c'\vi ht c.h, div.i,v t c.dilh-i''tw ,, ill fil-'
                  .                                                                                lit"d (\vilh CO('I Iit 'i(t1(s iIt h'ils I Ol'O.7'y(I iH(Ii+i Itt('s ik \Vt-n

                                                                                                                                                        )
cittisc l.,''his, I.'hla 'ioir. \Vhlih' ('llhiv+hrd atl vas.,trw,ill itnl 
                        high ]ercl'(' g ilgl l dl Ilandholdehrs w\hose' oidy

                                                                                                               (     'll
itn Ill ill rI (' "I'_.7"- ill h1W
             A                     I91"in tildl yit'l +t 5 .,p                              ~          S

                                                                                                      ,il i~iIy fl'inwtC';tSinlq rlodift-tli~is t10ill('lT'iLSV yiCldS
 Iht'i'e 'lt"-    wen."l onlkh OhliW' and I " ',. I,'sp
                                    ,                          -i\ .y tlnn'inlg                   ol                                     '
                                                                                                        their ilv';lilbd)Jv arl' . *1*1htInigratlioll I fihle 'itiv's 111C IS
OW( 19170s".  Tilt", the' d( l'n-t
                                I cjs     t\ Iv\v it \ .o (h'cadh',
                                                n
                                                i                                                  thilltIC Clt'lhVSS
                                                                                                                  is      I;11)01r ;lilaht 1 tVxIJhi1 nt'W\ ;land; this
  ll . Ib. exp!lailo.d loolo. I1.I(lih h,. it dv'c[.va     ill                                    ill fIlint a t.ilinl im plie's it Iw'vd to illc'rvilsv, yie'lds it)lprov\ide
I'tdti,.'itrd alrc., thiall 1)\ a dc.( Iv s l l, ci a'IIH
                                              i         ,\ii'hls+                                 food 161rOWriSillg nl'lIM1n I)OI)Il;ItilIS. Fur-thternlor , lite
                                                                                                  co+st <l'illcrt'.;ksijlg (lt- land unlldvr cultivaition :lnd(i t-w

l' e'vcr h .Jt'ss, aldtlih.dI -vxtoin'lliol of statlistic's rtcvca;s 
                            estalishililtm (dfgovt.1-lnnllil po)lics to)implrove't
dilli'ticrts htl% .(.If i hllp iocilm r1-gio+ns odl,Latil                                         staoldarls +fli\ing,rc'inlbrcr I t irgtenty libr if(\\, and
A1114.1ritca: IIw tt'llrltt.a      att d ,,btrlqpic'a rf'gions showe d                            colitinlilld t-1l6rts to increalst, dw<.yielhd o~fiod crop~s.
all i'l 'vtse'lt the.Jr ;1\ cr;t~ev yic'hds \\ hic'h wa':s not
                i
rt'lhecit-d ill Illc trl it'al at la , \v hi'h tw'nded to,slagtniliv                              1IL I~ itbe
                                                                                                     l      t
                                                                                                            i     in l'l
                                                                                                                      e     ul, ill addlition , thlat apa;rt f0"tlli the'
+vc' div' 1()()()- 79!PI ' i od .                                                                 ge'ograp~hic'al diffi're'nce<s of'olir c'tltillent ill (lIt'stions of'"
                                                                                                  pr< dl'tioll, wv' iust also)conside'r ft- dilli-rtviii social,
\\'ill) r .,,ir t to Illv. I tllr1 .111dc' c, tl av ilal f. figure s
                                              dw                                                  po(liticail, t'ojlollllit. and(.1 t' ll-ral silliatiot ls ol'tilch
sligg'st thalt inlltra.ss ill (hr'prodll(lion o   ,lmaj ,r                                        co<ulrt~,  which Itldiklle comlclsionls 1-cach'ed above:
agriulilltl'l Iro' .s wild to bv' follhwngvilt- glim Ill
                                                      r                                           wjhen t'mI,    r' atl dih'ctilllrv' hlevl. Thils, otir globall
fall' ol'Ille popl nliltiol, ;llllotughl Owrn. an. di~llfcts'                                     analysis 11n1sl be. ust.'d only its ;I 'inew,.' rk Ili"dh'lailed
           pJ'\,
          nIr ,dli.ls. For e'xalipicl, ill libc.rs and ofil-sc'cd€                                altilysis aIt [Ife incdividuial coulrly hl-Ic.
c'rops (c',,lr.ally soybea;Ils), Il 'r is it vvl'r dv'lulliic
  ro
gi, IllnI'MV , C011nltling \vit h \vc'e'bli-lS, tnt'-at, dlairv                                   The Role of Research in Food Production
pro~ducts anld nibe)(rs, whichl showv, r"ahs \well In'low OWH
flinl r~itl(. o)l'lipilatlil inllc st..                                                           0)fall soc(iall actti\'ilits, scitenfilic re'search is filnm(ine tal
                                                                                                  to ill(. protictio~n ol'16old Ibr tilt- poptihition. It is throuigh
Th 'I      r'll( ' ill tilt' tlilizalliomnf traiclors aind Ii-i tilizvrrs                         re€searnlh that oil( can inlrochice: iniprtovternns ill




                                                                                            65

 productivity, pernittirg traditional resources to lit 
                         Consequently, scientific research shtoul be concerned
 better utilized, and improving standards of living and 
                        riot just witlt tile total vohume ofrprdueuioilibut
 well-being. In order to properly eflect this, re:warch 
                        should also develop production alternatives lor se   tlIo
 planners must take into accottnt certain eletnients which 
                     tinmes ofscarcitv which create 1I(od   insetcuritv and can
 optimize the efficiency of research within al  frant-work of 
                  lead to imaltllritioni.
 tie special characteristics and iobjectives of each Cotjnttr.

 and society. Among these are tile fiolowing: 
                                  A verv itimportant research consitheratin is the
                                                                                 nutritional value ofl'he lnds pirducct fithiumlat and
  . Scienitilie research is tiot, per se,jlist an academic                       animal coilsunition. \\'itl usual]\ stems to occult,
    exercise. It mutst take into acclinlit prdlictioi 
                          however, is that sectoral filanliers tetid to give too
    characteristics, tIe socioccOtioulic antd Cultural 
                          ucUlth atteiltion to those ct-lips
                                                                                                                  olhigh aggregit 
 value
    characteristics oflthe producers, and ofl'ourse it tliUst                    Alidexport itilleitial aitl simiilar critleria ignoriig

    inotteglect theleeds ofrthe eu(nsultrs, who alfict Ihe
                  I                                                              vegetables as seolldary Ifcrops,

                                                                                                               Fruits, and traditional
    balatice of'sUlply :ftf dettiaid. A reseatrcfh process                       natioial fintcls, which lplay a very ilmtiialtt rlole ill lte
    luist, therefore, iclude a |ihase ofex-aite evaluation                       ,ltritiot    oftifnich oflle local pou)iilation. Research
    to coinsider all I!.icolrs alrectiig proliduction witlhhi
                          l                                                       lust, however, iedevoted to tIlst     flnds, is they

    the lilatro-ecillotillic sittiatioi of the cotiintry. A good                 providle a valhiablh stralt-gi: resvxe inii 
securily

                                                                                                                           flod
   research systelti ilst        includ e a capaitv to flelceive                 aild, ftrllriltloe, tfhey provide filieen
to twelttv

   aiid evahiale niril           chaliges illrder liit ake
                                            o                                      ercett of Ihe total national etnerg lietds.

   approipriate aljusltents. Ili     ither wrdsii iecailse the
                                                  , 

   paratieters iif'ftt-ittlictliin ar not static, scintifit 
                    Food seclirity rstarth   qiitires greall imiirtalce
   researcli nusi have a buit-iti Iflxibilitv aild lie 
                         whtei cinsitlerld il ijutiii iit ill rest 

                                                                                                    t                   te     ii'the
   prepiared t tinderstatid an          mtlttl
                                         i ch          g.
                                                       g
 
                      tetinltty. ItI Itist linrettiletllhtle        that tile

                                                                                                                                       ptiorer
                                                                                 sectors othe ililinl        do rilot cotillite ellgtouh
   As a corilli.try to the abitive, taI t-It ilimst ilht give                    taloriics. r't ileysfttll a glatl flitiit'liii    otl'their
   grealtst I'iilphasis toI i ll,t         ieftiresillative                               o fi
                                                                                 unllieVilt       ind atit thus iote vilhierabile when
                                                                                                       ret
   prldllitiliu systeilis which will havi -v ted i'tilt thit                     fiitprices go ill.his ltsc the detttai lii. tither
                                                                                                    T
   lilalivvarialthes aii 
 ililiis Liithi i Ilt(illt'el'S.                       godls aid stltvices attd poilts Itl Iltgre al illiliralice
   Froti aiilolheriti oflvic\%w
                 p                            w
                               he hilra( lionis itinh 
                          ol'rese-ar(ch

                                                                                            Ii)the g(ellialliving stanldards tol,

   proiictiiclon sVstitlls tllI 16 llettr iigratil atllittg                                                      L
                                                                                 communititiles stch as Iliist tof atill Atini it,          which
   sc'ienis tsanld in Illli cases( i hillige inlapproai'to                       art. ci'eharai'l.erlzed
                                                                                                    by"low hIves ill'inllu~le andt,

   Ihe solution     llltilils.                                                   ciiseuetltly, otinsulptionit.
                                                                                             c

   The resllls if'lhe I-vilalili llIlase, which idetilies                      .	 Th   high levels oI'tflltm       )i1l) "'euit in tlist Lail
                                                                                                               1
   and assigis p[ioritiis to irillvills tl iivesligated,
                                         Ite                                    Ailericall     otililtrits hidit        hat ilti ptlaiiing itl
   must also lr'ei        applropruiate argiloill to 'slhlisih 

                                                   I(                           pruc(ditlii     Itr(It'tsses
                                                                                                          mulstlake heitll(lbo

                                                                                                                            I~laci"inho

   all aeitaitt Scenaii        Illv tirsiatch to I lati
                                                 l             et 
             accoilunt. Agrictlt it-al iestach is also Liced with ihe
         l)fltridinig til tlhtir hliarateristiis, silut

       .lilt                                                                    uhallttg toii )ltr(hiie
                                                                                             t           techtlugies thitl itake adequate
   exp~eriluleiliS
                 thoulIl-c<arricd(o il l extterillillilal                       iise.     ab~un(danti
                                                                                    tfilhis               rt'sonur, avo(idinig labo r

    .eiltrs, whlerias othfers colud ldbcarrihfd oiluttuis,
                                              out                                           It ctiuhl, lhiiweei', bl argltd that Ii­
                                                                                dlislilacelilit.

   undri~hl' e roii'ui(frs' pfrodlic'ioln 

                        ()%li            conitiohns. This                        migfrationi
                                                                                           (d'lhl,    p
                                                                                                 i'iu1'alla~liltin to Ih             cilics
                                                                                                                                          (leales

           thit
   ritilitatcs itive anl iflielivi participatin lii'                            a tiet fill                 whith tre laboi
                                                                                          rural tei'hfiltigies            rsaviig.
         cei', p'riilliiigt~ h
   Plrodth                   .4.             i )li 

                                        lcrliia aiid Iranil.'(1'

   tecthig       tlty, a ll t             reftiltlel        Spil-ldily
                                                        llltiinre               Perhaps, ievtrlhit-s, w Slitld qilestiii whithel
   than byxotlher liilhitdk.                                                           art.
                                                                                pcoi'clh Iluiralili,
                                                                                                   hth tiles btec'alis nisufficieint
                                                                                                         i           i

                                                                                Jib
                                                                                .ilftitr         ilies  ar bt'illgireahd in t counlr' side.
2. Reseirch has greia       resflttsibility with ti-slte't Iti (hIt                ltihaps it is hsiliiii-Svitig tehiiltgies thit'nselvts
   iteolehls                        tlit
          "fi6tsetlurity", ineailiiig stall aid 

                                         I                                      that fiti'e labor Ioi thetit- laud. Itiltl lace 

                                                                                                      tsr                            iiftlt
  reigular suplhy ofilltrititihlly                hlitith. All 
 too

                                         adet'iiaht                             scalrce ilftftirltllitits av,iilile to I it iligralts,

                                                                                                                      hi
  oifteii iliili" ittention1i is giveli Illlhe thttal
 o'
                                                   stpiply                      i I Sii\'e 	atiswcr io tlhese ifItistiilts is higfhly
        ne!gheeling till 	 p~roduction t;iheidar ;fiid (
   lbttt,                                            thrl'(balbt'.                            ()ilcr tllic'tioiis
                                                                                                               iilaybc'raisvdt oilthis issiue.

  ststiil itaturetliiilty   iliiiifttll, rieuiltiig inl 
                       Itr txitthi, whit justificalitln there it fit"
                                                                                                               woiilt                the
  liegative ellitels itti rieIts ;[fiii tisultillt ii 
 l

                   tii                                                           idoptiilii lhilir-saviig thtitiogies iti iroduicditii
  Iiods, especially ,iilog thillptolr stclirs itl'society. 
                     lillUiiics with already xistilg utlieutilfticitt?




                                                                         6i

   %'hat ould be tie value of research which did not
          w                                                             With regard to exotic products, it is worth enquiring
   take into consideration the level of'all available                   whether existing national and international research
   resources?                                                           organizations are doing sufficient work on then and
                                                                        whether it is necessary to intensifv it. There is
4. 	 Most Latin American countries have cxternal trade                  aconsiderable inventory oi'Ib'od products which have
    imbalances, suggesting a need fbr close collaboration               not lbeen evaluated or assessed sificIN ,and others
                                                                                                                  I
     between all sectors ofthe cconomy in generating                    which have not been subiject to trials in similar
    foreign exchange.So, although most export products                  ecosysteiis. All of'the ,'oregoingoffhis a very broad
    inl Latin American countries are ol'agricultural origin             field of'res action fbr 
 Latin American and
                                                                                    arch            both
    and agriculture foes, therelbre, provide a high                     Third World research scientists in general.

    proportion ohfiOreign cxcliange, is it possiblc to
    imilease this countribution?                                    Aside Ironi the Ibur I'uirdamental rescach issues
                                                                    itreotioted abouve, there are others that itlmust he
   (oitparativc advantages ca;in be foiund in the                   considered. For example, te participation otfrusearch
   production oftropical fiod products with export                  scientists ili firuilating policies or decision making, the
   potintial, and they olfer several new rescarch                   optiniumi type oforgalizatiou and utanagetment, tih(
   poissibilities: improvement itluality, prscilationi
                                 q                                  allocation ol'resourcts, thci'appropriate type of'scientific
  and similatiitctors related to international cotsumeter            training, technology transfir, and Itheintegration othe
  standards, in particular, present opportunities fun                agriCtnltiral sector into the general econtotny, to inatne
  rusearch centers.                                                 just a few.




                                                              67

     MOBILIZING RESEARCH RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF

   AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT : THE ASIAN EXPERIEN CE





                                                                   Joseph C. Madamba
    Immediat Pall Pre.lident, InternationalFederationof.'lgriculturalRe arwh Stl'lem Devehop.,ent (IF.ID)AiaIReional Council:
                                                                                  io"
                               I/nd Chairman,Dctvetpinent Sp)ei International,In('., Mlanila, IPhiflppinet
                                                                 zlilt 




  Rationale For Agricultural Research                                                 Ili        Iv nlcsur,-., ;I coillitly's (I..-llvi'            is
                                                                                                                                                  lln boilt

                                                                                      il o nd sim' 'ilic'
                                                                                                       goidts. To"l' hicv trt-                    goills, Ill('

                                                                                                                                                              ficls
                                                                                      and d I r'latiiqlshills. Ihll 'gcovcl'il InIIisl i"
                                                                                                                           Il'vll    l idt-ltilied
 il tcgrilling and apl ydnt, kiltm hedge I I ihcbiologicald,
                        i                                                             M id ( 'Nplfi 'ld (Ict i
                                                                                                     . T1o  r                    m allf-In ilivc I citi
                                                                                                                                                      lils of'
 p hy ,ic a n d socia l ph as e sot'l p io d h t io , ll rc st tq
       ill,                         hic           n          sill ,                       v
                                                                                      a hiiin g dt.,v ilv a nld lrille 'IiINi vl st

                                                                                                  e lol ilt    Il   r ich      b
     dis    u
 a nid ,trib l i ntio          'm 1t rq , o ld IW,ht- lo do l ,.
                                                    rNp        It                     Ip p ro a h to                Specifigoills , ire 'alh

                                                                                                            q ic n'lg    c           st c is

                       •
 itoclilhs        l    hillh
                       ivul~lanld iiIIlrioll. x ll its
                                           asn 
     Ilc sot'ill 
                    iimillcr1li\ve.
                                                                                                  \\iholu itescairch, 

                                                                                                                   (1c\'chpqoll~i lwral'ins

 a n d r ( 'o l ih l
    i       loiil i            t , , It il lS i i \ .
                                 % l    m
                                                                                      \ o, dhI ik i rh ti n ,a dI (-I >i l i~h cd
                                                                                                     c o       li tcs     d                             (  w
                                                                                                                                                     a lg :i o l h

                                                                                                                                                                 dl
                                                                                      no~lt III hh' c
                                                                                            '                        v
                                                                                                               l lii ilt~
 l all.
 It is. 1 1icialk +-.1Ji c'dIhlii
                I
                l       z       Ihtrkb i, Ih1ir1-m
                                                -l1.li, 'n
                                                    lics                           It" d illi<cu lt io illioillch\ Iiot'
                                                                                     is,                             l 'il Il                 d eve' lop menic
                                                                                                                                                            t ofl'

 lit llilwiill lvmtl        11 'lc. t Il
                                       its (hl.plidll(icco          '
                                                                   a1illh                             lati. it iil\'ves.t'

                                                                                                       bllitil         Ilwilllwii-c'hllill ill'
                                                                                                                                              illliV,
  \; iit\ l' iiiilit (I(ip'lll.: !Ii
                                   ii)i't'
                                         rriotil liillll' 
                             ,I(,
                                                                                          l           illh
                                                                                                        1 :i: popuatii         on~i
                                                                                                                                 t~owll, it-illilli4owl,

                                                                                                                                                  l
 I'T'loo
       iIilill
             .             ;l'joillls
                                  ldl       I
 6i( I lil\ ofl 
                       ttf:1ooi           A'daiclvlaiddwlplci 
                               l

  col-hj~t' I oji~ll
          l                   I iii i1I illl14.1rlliill
                                  )                   It;h[llit( 

                                                            It-'.                     dl'si.'1dli-g                      iiv        \      ot 
    evuhI                st
 ic'liltill
         t liliiIh' li -\I
 1, vIdhh'i,. iilloliiion~l, 

                                    i.
                                             i-ctadxpil              ooi-weilthfedan(4
                 e x11 .1-l -l cal 4. c ., a n ( i ) l i t
                     pl 4s                                                        fl-      al . ;I'ai ' lli ll k ll d e(lill s ah pli l i s
.
                                                                                                   i          l            si   nd    ce
 cll clv mirc,4 it
                 .             li
                               -lI oll,         \%', c t.
                                              illi i ll



                                                                                  Asian Agriculture in Perspective
 Slllr il. 1 '.m icIll il i l c 1 t
                                ll.lliil\Ill' ilit-di

                                                   a
  illi~     illi
      t'liliCes i l illia~l lI".c'.i ,111viaills a :' 1111.

                                   (h              li (i)                         Forli li l
                                                                                      .                 il' 1'
                                                                                                         . le 'lloicils oll'the
 c plinirl
 ie'i's
                                                                                                                              d~wl'     cou
 Ivrl' I'cll logl-aill 111w11ilnot
     i                               ,Ilil\
                                         ICrslpond (.1l11 'll|
                                                 toi         live'ds              ofl'Anill   hbecil dCrl.
                                                                                         hilive(                          Irooteld ill till(- b~l'ad fielhd of
   '
o t d (' '
         ",lht agt (~ l i . bi l l il i ,, al ol w sn i i e. )
            i    ri i                il I s )            v if                      ai1i ci l l il '.I l l fi , A si li li ri c' lluil
                                                                                                 il        iw    ia     l    i ll t r c            Ihl     coln i
                                                                                                                                                           'l l.b er e'l
                                                                                                                                                                 d   d
 lit'     of 'h ill lii'(ii) ' I 4Iicuiltlal
    Iii-c(ll.Is            lh ir           l[il                     li
                                                                   r-sc                  all
                                                                                  to litilc Ilhlwayv bac(k lto it 'egionl's;
 historlly.
                                                                                                             Ih (        c rly
                                                ,
p~loglrl ilil
            shlould lir'hlaii r'diil
                                   11- i
                                    ll              l11s liliiodilir'N
                                                      I'f                         (     rrespi' i ll ng \ .the'IIIiircI-
                                                                                             '      l li             of As-iiali i 
 ic is icd it)
                                                                                                                              l
anid ll         ns
                 lhi         ll-st41'c ill (" \'liilils
                                 impi
                                    l       .              o
                                                      slllip ling                 caich 'olllilliv"'s
                                                                                                 agric'ilhtill't., foirest;,            willcr, aind Itlc

            as w4-l! Iliillil lli ;ill api o i'lc
di .ciiplling".,   as                    l                                              I c
                                                                                  Ilililr i'            I
                                                                                                        sl'.
c'lllllillill
           ii ll'hl' b sic, iivld, aidali vvi\l 

                   li       a                 anld
                                      

(Iml'\ ll il
      i     itall
                ais cls; (iiii lIh-'
                                   Icsvl' 11o lli ali ll 

                                        i           olh                           Ill O Whl
                                                                                          illiiiihit        lc
                                                                                                             iiilk-SiS, IK0ll,g illld
                                                                                                                     lIIV'   -SS    I"1Iiiii'('il
anld prlla1ililhold
              s              cll)lh.
                               l(.      :,1id
                                            shldlid lov\idc till                  dl'wldoplili lsiaiii
                                                                                              A     'oilnties \wolild c'YSl'illially
                                                                                           g 
                                  dh~pt-nd of]
it ;ollillilil plii,,l ol'llilola,
            illl r 
             li              log.".,         andil
           whll       c-ih clillllly
                                                                                                          iisclld vs ori
                                                                                                                       dot'snot~ dol.
                                              ' 
                                                                                    And, i this
]pril firsc;
    i      (iv')
               .iwa'iin
                      apil oachii~l ) prolemii slvilig

                                  (                                               I lltl'I, il ;holild hv           irc'sst'd
                                                     4                                                                         dc1-velopmiienl whichi
                                                                                                                           Ih;.li
sl~ho ldIll. dc\,chlprd      I(-) li\,Iiillbh,
                                           sl'ciit-ii c ll-li i
                                                            o ldl                 does ilot'ollsl'l-Ve" a siillicielill)y Ilongperiiod
                                                                                                   (o(.i.i                            intol
                                                                                                                                          (lie"
                                        ,
     il.utilizc-d' alid c i'lll lsi lolli,
b I hll                                 .sioniial 
                               I'illil'v) re~sioli-cci 
 ll which it iwheils, cannotl~l
                                                                                         the          hlsti'                                                      bvl
iliiprovv'iiill

              111s b
             lil             lwrovidcd; (v'i) irl      ,spolldill to!             Su i           - anld l'l'r
                                                                                             neilld         ill          iitslIicdw c i'trlill
                                                                g                                                                          IlrllM of,
plillic Ili'lrds, rsvil'h1 plorar ill shoulild bc ililillald
               Ih~vl'                                                             thlite'policy) mallkingi
                                                                                      r                 anld laning [bil 1"igiilirl
     politicail pi-~ssmlres. (vii) linll
F'romll                   andi                      , ill Ilh(                                  C
                                                                                  deve'(philtlllil. s( lotli
                                                                                                         lly), whiht. addretssing lIIIt
                                                                                                                                      issile..,
iillile(lill'll(liollo
                ofl'              

                    ilcIllllI':il,'i h ]lif
                              ieslc       'illils,
                                                 the'                             ol'lpl'oduli , Scl'll
                                                                                            t ly 
   rcliaim cquiily, ulnd otlht'r

                                                                                                           ',
itirre    ,giddi inesl'
     baisic:     i    i-clm'iice., e'x'llh'iice, 

                                              anid                                   ida
                                                                                  I'll
 niII laIinidices oll 'ihpilicvill reailistic
                                                                                                                        ,
cooperaionll,    shimlild Ill kcpt iii ind ;il liiivs,
                                              aill                                dev!i'opmlienit
                                                                                                laningli              imilt also inc(orporateill the ie-ill­




                                                                            69

   conserving a co)untrys resources. [here is flow5 it geiteral                                                                tievaie or. two, as ftiilosvs: ( j ttfttstvi'vlfttt oliiw
   realization that sutstainlet (cvltpmtett reqiits stwerai                                                                    ecoittgitxti infirastritit r sential fll. slistatttt'fl
   preconditions: inlir-strttcturv, capital, kno%%sledge, 
                                                                    agricultutral advance - Ifii this pufrpotse, tite confcept of*
   systecff        chlaltgr - and1 its a('tj5ttfIt emm                                  ectf5.5,ti'tt 
                        land reformti shld     i
                                                                                                                                                      bvll tc    t     Iiot'tit idtii landtt
   b~ecoumes tite respftflsility ' thotse wbo
 ttif
                                           iitt                                                     itIllc Mtost:               Itti1itii        obtligatitons ill ad(Iiiff  to land o%%11fstirlsli
   til( eple~fi.                                                                                                                righlts; (if) organfiztion o~l i~ltiiitg ffil a s5 stwill basis b%
                                                                                                                                p~romottinfg fle           gi~o%%tliof tilt(              ielt's             05%h .l ssttiftlofts
   Ini a couni~try's diitinlth ilift it) realizv its                                                                           Mslih~ vati pfrottvfif               t        o      in.tat stIVfts tf smalil ;:s %%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (.l
   (he'ltfpffivlt poftenltial, it is lie-Cessalrs to)dot a dtfaile-d                                                           it', margttlidt         Cailefft         an       dttittfrblf      hlit)       ffilfliaff
   ainlysis (i tlif .grit idittal as well~ ats ruratl assets andl 
                                                            ipttductlivitS an                ill tonie its %'s(Ii f\Jtlltl
                                                                                                                                                                                   is         illiiill    anid
   liaiiiiis,       .icerrdiig lo sjf-cilic re~gions %%sithin ii.fttllli
                                                            itt
 -                                                                                tiiili andif ( iii) tli%tt-iiiltitoff ii tIJoppf 1fftflitivs of,
  Coutiflit       ill oiclt.lfto         huhvlo
                                             Scihllopr it                            ftttcilfo              andjft            1111ttttlfitttvil                    ittotit qtti                   in
                                                                                                                                                                                                  ol      itl l       t   t-htst
  devSelopti1filttl (tniitiit                 lfis.                                                                                                     smafll an iiilSllage
                                                                                                                              ttffftjflttfis,                                                   idustries. as %\(-]I is

    To dot this, it is impotan(.t to iiglif/t-

                                     Iv                                             dwI bastic fittijlit
  ohAsian agriciltIj .Ics\ vstII ilt( sftiiig ill%% 

                                  I               scif                                                    iI
                 Opportunities for Agricultural Research

  operates. .\gricittire inl Asiai may be i.ettiallv 
                                                                        in Asia

  diariiri/cd               hby: )it itffos;au of sittif 

                               W                                                     t~rilis wssihii dtit
  Ile .oiil -iittsi e. t 
 siilill/iitaiguitill filitilsand(
                l %%                                                                                                          Accordinig to ait etcift lrtgutttt-%side setotriIl reivws

  shiarecrflhits ctiiuaite iiai kll dit-ii 
 illhs ofilit                                                                     coitl ing igrictiliirv ill Asia )AII lofl)). ihie mtajor

 tfIiititftt
          oid ibitt                 oiiigsimii fofitis
                                                   dwilifil                                       tii)
                                                                                                  ai                          p                 Ltttisjitst1cil            (tfltnft            (jffui-lifi           ill
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      t5tsi            it
 popu~fla~tiont imi-tlast., Msfli is it mai~joIictot to,ttttttil                                                             Sffm.1 teiltftII      lot ititsed agriffilitoill 
 pfnfftil-tivit
                                                                                                                                                    (im
 stutli, cotisifltiilf; liiots dlis Initigs picst'st oil atllcitl                                                            is tS'.liilh)IV (ii) IVS(Ils 01ii ijitt1s, itld sitldil Ilfithl

 fiatgttoititil lands, oil (111lertioif nt', (oil 'o(4tl l vttices,                                                                   lofflig       .\sialtti     foltif         ic a           f. Sis\ 

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ilots\\. and
  andi oil Owf ccoifffffff           's 1tiff1flf\ fiffff               iti                (iii    ft(f                      cofifflf;lfl[( m oifjtf (isis                       fr11111l Ittl( fasfs: anfdf ( iii

                                                                                                                                                                                            li
 varingt. dcgites of sftss and1 fltagf iffliil-d~f ol il                                                                     paf ilfvf~fffftffis ill hlitl 

                                                                                                                              fst                            and1 f"Ilcafiiffm ff;tt lfiffg
                                                                                                                                                                                     of
 bfasic iffljffffi       tS\.tf                   t
                                    ific l'; ting of oil an %
                                     t                       i      mer                                                     a ifff              i i
                                                                                                                                            ac vvfvjf       l di Ic
                                                                                                                                                         lff-dlfv4lIopfff l ffifivs,    lfetflfS

                               l
 Hts0ffflfts, flit and 11ffi1iii,as t(Il iS d t~ fifff5sfiffif i60                                                          bIiluig abiout gicllff111a       Iffff eilffi fjt.cplhiitv andff

 till' iifttffttfff-1ifI (AM.iftiCfS &ll .idlifii~ii~I ;ii.)ffiliT.SIfS 
                                                   fac~ilitatfing tlt ififif % i ctifld adflitfit oi itfjfffff

                                                                                                                                                       idst
 5'stflvifs an plat tf~fiffsll troic~ial Asiat Soli ii~ igly 

                                 i                                                                                          if.1111ologil'S. ( )stra   lff%. .f            lit) 

                                                                                                                                                                      -ill Ill 10Ioill~

 .sitttssfll,Awifl s sffffffffflfifi                         to ille picfssutfs 401' 
                                      thua (vlfoififf ffoflitS vS%ill 111Sf(4 1ff k ilicav
 ht.i'h
                                                                                                                                                                            mole
 fxfIffV~lhitt                  I
                              lillgiJ      Mffff
                                               IL1tI                   \Njfff iit
                                                                         1fffi1f             (S) tira                       tiffliffil          fttff ffsfftfilfs f1Ifjlffff                              uuf.jfL
lififIs an. Iffifig colff(fffffl ff11 nfffi-,fgrifilitiffil ff515S;(vi)
till- fI'agiiiy of1111. sitifLtio'f alioig dIIIJfillialrv tLrf,                                                             Ctfffsiuiig. the.cSifl foaitiilblc andit ii tfitfffff

clittlits tl;Il1 tgfifflfff. fhffvfflfiflvl - ill(- smll I:,tltfff                                                          aglgffilic L1ifttilffg flit. itil jfffttiftial h ­.istifg ltild
arid smaljl lisill-fiiurn: (vii) dwf IFitt that ufafffffIi
                                                 lavpat                                                                      tilttl       1f(
                                                                                                                                          fSfflff..s     is I lt hiffi liig 
 flull', walizi ill
[filtit.Iuig  iifIstf is ffftiii III(- I 5 uffffmilfffliatf rise                                           of,               flaill A..iafft coiftifs.       'ilil     fti'
                                                                                                                                                                     apph       . t(, itl' Ifo

hfligif. 11111
            Ilillfftjfjfif                    ill          flffilf:;               (viii     illf [ilc thilii.             agtiiftlttf-al ff111      \%ithi rfffliftlltel wat-1ti ffld(itl~fs
swith all       its i.itildaft Im~ihL-ill sfiigfilrs .                                      I lfi tildlitg                 sfftlfjfit lfin tf ihl 16 ill           Il htighi-\ iiltig Svfiftits o
rtill)(-,         tuifuulfalce  I
                               oit l hc ff1 1ffo ifflif                                      ilo
                                                                                            J~      il,( .                   it ciand Mtiff Iti ills to larItge afifas ohIitifli d 1,111(.
whiot mo1st needt   it: fix) dicUvXkstfltu fl'a fftfmfflffl oh mitl                                                        i.ssvtiil'I       111cle is all i flgfffl l         ito agi tilt itfal
ria~rkittilig st-~i-vcs stticliar iducffiffifl ol'ii tinivff11   f fl-c                                                    Is          t o detlvelopf (lop vtrut irs w ith ai tidlf rallge of'
til fi hrt tfus/fislfrftfuf andf (X) flIM.     ftat 11111   ffif                                                                  s      rlst, andf fldisim ff-Si'talff                           5     ISits iffjftnftfi             Ilie
ftft1flitjffifs wherv1 Ill(t maityfffi' f cultivtortS an f        s                                                         m ol'Iicift-S atnd fitfft~ififif.                              SujilalIv ill all tliluIr Io
tX(Ttlditgfv        pIool andtl         th~           f'         h
                                                              litill                       tisclba 

                                                                                                sfilitltifl                Ifiltiffi/fz          fi-ltiiitf .51              [lit- h(JtfjtIff                   le        hnfifttivsft
invisffres i dit 
 field oFafgrili itn                               ititti
                                                                  frm iiiffioifislS
                                                                  f                                                        to ffillfiffu/dw ti1so fdifffiff.afic fittdizert ssiiil
essemtji        ifflitifc   diiii             t off1flffffs                   il      iffiatiig
                                                                                            ci                             proffifftittg fill tist- fffigafic fi-rtili.'ff shouldf iff                                        iS I.
ticreased iproducttiont cflintts (-lt 1ffstitttfl;itfd.                                                                    CV(Ill 11101T  ttiltthisis titaln it hats ill tivf past. Tlis is
                                                                                                                           I ttcallse tllffs, awr sigif~ici ant antd impoftrtant
Swailtiflirtllall (t[!)Hl) ha~s sitttltittl        thtdi(
                                                        m-ftis III Asitif                                                  coiltsidcft ttjffts 1fosmatll hIttftfft5 w\ laii smallh,
itgricidtit        it, dive t llos, antd pffssil\lyit- siftttting                                                          I'ii     tttru landldin~fgs wsith very sitatll catlill




                                                                                                                     70)
  resources at twir cotmmand. Invariably, futurc itcscart I                                              Role of National Research Systems

  programs should continue to be fihotistc oin thost bod

  commodities and Farming systems that ar directly 
                                                     InT 1977, directtrs ttfiational agricultural research
  related to the neceds til' csoturce-poort-arnters in ilt- Asian                                        s'Stems irti' Asia, Airiia, andl Latin America wvho had
  rrgito. In addition to ri'c in rainled areas, the oili r hintd
                                                        h                                                hid in Ihclligitt, Italy tt (iscuss I't'ntials for
  ttti'ttitttttitjes ofilllgttrlljlr   c to re'solurcv-ptoo)r itrIl's                                    (topt-ratittn:\illtlTtg Nationtal Agrittultiral Research
  inclute: millet, uIIIsIS,alili, indcassatv.
                                     '                                                                  Syitts", (*;tllt* tilt with ititituler t'tconl
                                                                                                                                w     t                  thtsions which
                                                                                                        essentially St tiv rol and re4ponsibilities orfnatiotial
  Essentially, rtst.ilrtiit and \lttnsittt arte tItistvly liitkto
                                                                tt                                      resetarh systetns ill Itckstoppinig ih     lit~rwarti
  thet p~roduction proce'tss and \ould 'tvComspoodingl1v                                                dcvclopimviltal dirulsts fil'tleir rcIsluct'tivet 'ounltrics.
  r'ttir'     strtngilt               ictniti          toritati.g          M'ultt iIno                  Allong t'hlI        u itlott'
                                                                                                                                important     titthsins, Nllit'h ll'(, still
 adap tiv' r           It'scaI' I
                             ill            loal Isjt'!
                                          als                    it        t     \hitt h: (iitr                valid     tsday, ar:

 builds off ite %,,trykalready (lt)nc at to llillan:tionall

 :srititural           ttit t.(iil                               ast               ntacnttll                  Th     iti attti
                                                                                                                      l                tltibt,                 t

 rctst-ar -h institutions; (it) Ir'lht'tls Thililltanwc otf,                                                  tlst developqing co~lltrliit: is tol bring.about
 rainli-d agni'lu' Hsalllmn s l'lS                    ii                                                      a contimno inc're'aw ill ic-r'stial ;full aquatic

 cxtc-nts tll( c'rop t' vcratrv Icyldl \%hcill andl t'itc; (i\'                                               Iprtduhli\'ity wvitho~ut dt'n iloll to Ihc lotm''v

  olphilizc, dir iltt'gr'atitl t ro and lik'sltock                                                           liodcliattttitit'iii rastourcts
                                                                                                                  t                         tlu land and water
 ]prolut tiol ill silall-holhhcr I'llrniln N3   sit-ills; and(v) is                                           ftle ctry'. F~ur'ther. Ilil-ttrchnlohgics nust be
 lihrcwd ITo 114
              1 v('tloilic- %%('ll;IN
                               as           ilnsti(Illinl                                                    location its we'll as silluation-slpeific. While concep~ts
 cni'itou~nc-li inl \ hich Ill.. 111lk 4,l'1h. LIlT , ill As.ial
                                                    IlwX                                                     a11d hasic relsearc'th inatcrial {;Ill7 bvladale~d by one1(
 opt,'raw..\Areas ,ti'ras .lhs,,ill li%rstor'k                                                               ct'Ol~rv ftri'nlaiLv rlt,the lprctist ' Technology \il!!
                                                                                                                                          l
 rc,,rirlch shoul ill( I1tdc ctlici'ilwt' inl fi'ctilut It)[ opliiInII                                       have'l' l be dvhv\'c d locally and (aihtrwd to div
         t
 pIolt I(lion ;is %%cHlpasllt. and~ I lo'
                        as                              '\clt ll'l,                                          C'oonciliolis of*l'rI('h arca ill such a way [flait till'.
 lit   ihl.c asv ofI lishcr.fivs I vsi-or IT. ill(iwa,,, ,d altlrillioli                                     ecolhogical stn'e'l.ills ttt'an arela al'u loaxiizcd and
 ShT,)h ItI .
         bvtzi,'             t4)1'solit(. t'lll'l
                                        C                             ;i       m 11as,                        li(' colohgical iisk%and handlicapls inininmizted. Thus,
 IH'S"UHtt H
         C           lK.rt            ( :,,r r ls ,omdill-ly, c\t'llsion                                     alstliolg aind(dy.llaillic naltionlal agritIldluolil rn'Sel            ch'ti
                                                            '
;1 I ti      ill  ;iL: Ilt1mr,'livx ~li', .andt lish'.n Irs fletd ft
                  a'1i,             t o                                                                        s ,vll is a m ost liar slislailling it t~vumimic
 It-. inorr, ( I.os'1 liutke'd ft t , l,r',,cit'h t'lli is. Ii ' icd~l'ch
                                  h                                                                                    lent Illegalm ;[ni lotr comn\crting tilt' land
il \%o l](     bc1             l'    To''lk11 ll   -11l'l iltc I'\'llrt
                                                        1                          ()t'lhit.                 andl~ \illtcl"v'lillN          (o 'l ,l-a h aIfi'l   inlto \\tcalllh
e'xic'isioll ,siu ppro tlxit't I-to ill(hudv' tilt, itltoll
                        i                                                            tio- it'.,
                                                                                        i                    fiv'allingfitd To ivt pcotplh. W\ithoutl a Stronllg In-warIIc]7
.Is%\I,'1s rellt kc'tilu a
        a                                    s,
                                            lt'                                                              ha;sc, il %%'ill I . 1pos.sible Io inl elase.:and sulaill
                                                                                                                              not,
                                                                                                             filot Suppqlies and natllr-al ltestoul't's, rc       i-tl'trl,

                                                                                                                                                                 ovvt'
     t
 Il III( i -ilt" I,o l,.\t. Ihr,'l' kvI Ic'h'\'ail i',ho s ille

               l iiL                                                                                         o." stablilize' ipriucs, and , Ulplic'.,
 iflipolltill if I, ll ,idl : Ii tlle ncc.t fl " rliartl nilt, The
                t o                                             lc
ot-rationral lilkat., Iell~tri ill~ilt'nli l al It-wcarth                                               Iii) E'ac'h (1c\'chql)ilg cotnity\ mustIInlitk e've'ryv possile
 insltiutt', arnd national I'tsc ll TiNN,          '14llsl ill , rdtcl It)                                   4ft't i tll il rcase ihle Ipltduwli\'ilyv ol'its clopq s,
c'lslt.' That I1"1c       t'           l~gtlflll ic'. 401
                                         o'~~               Asia bf1 flt Illowr                               filr-usis. FITrlTo
                                                                                                                               allililals, andl lishec s. E1161 is sholdh
1,111\ hll)ll hc s,'ir'lltili ;o bi'    iv,'l 'l oflOw irnw illatlioral                                       bv,'nad,'l- o du ' wg'iolal illibialant-S ill
rc',i'ai'th nt't mik: (ilt ihic ilvCd' it,, co', (m l ohcalioll-                                             dt\ch l            ~'nl ITtInsollc [flat (ITT.lTIijiS tl'
                                                                                                                                o
.,p c'ilit" I sl's' r h11111 h'l .1 111111filluff,' ofd f-41
                                                          tlil 'i,'        l oghtical                        h'di('h    ogt
                                                                                                                        ,tial   adva',llcvt an. shlfrcd by\ all Il il ernlis
       t'm iii I u . l a'h(,\,h lflt,,sa l ,t~l\ir                                                                ls 'tcivt' tJ'Ilt Simt' 111,tcir"holdings anid Ih
   w\hic'h k,ofl~ lit' llal ilopollat. , fila Ilainlicd ill'as %,'ith                                        ,aglic'llh fllll h l. ITT     oldehr tota'l,,' this,,
sc'astollall lim il.1liol, ()I rain1*11l. %\hI , ,  vi              ll halltgcs ill                          it(11'aih'-d inll y,,\is          altwi'lll.l l, lon-'tSl, olaille,
                                                                                                                                                gi
C'llivalio~ll prio lit' vs (stiI 11its I'hiallgrts ill Itlantling dT e's)
                                      n                                                                      arnd rI rn asscts. ;is \\,'11 ;IN
                                                                                                                         ll                      liabilititvs, %%illhlavvl to hc
 mlay Laive. Owt     If'suho[llt  11(ilating dIollbhv ofr Itilih'                                            Inaldt. inl v'ach Iountry, 1't'gioln by lcgion ll nd ation
                                                                                                                                                                      (
Cf'o' lIVg; and (iii) (If, xlvc(] lotr %.'\s Ililvl'll of[
                                                       aind(                                                 pllans dv'\'t'lpct whit'h1 w\ill iwl~p tit "%ct' le the
opltimnizing lilt- linkatgeN blm vn     ,tcllrst-art-h andl ir                                               tl1;ljtl cotlisl'iolls r1'gardling Owcwali,'alill 4tftllH.
e'xhtnsio~n st'r\,il't' ill oldhe"rhto   vlstln trarnsh',' to t-,%]           c
                                                                             asl                                  vchlpo l tl171thilial tol'Ilht atca. Tllv sol'-'f-SS if,1ht.
                                                                                                               1'th
                                                                                    .
                 hv'''I~llcb
                     , iilrlillllt-is       t',ti 'd ic'thol,           , pac'kagel                          dh''chlp cuvllal pirojets shoul aiso be, Illolnitlfrd ill
Finally fill.[( is all IIIgc'l(ll ,rtd t Nol           tolallizc                                             ]loonait s \%(-I' 'tllcnoity *Terms by usin g
                                                                                                                                 is
agritcullloral rcrthIhlal it c'an betlcr nlccvt fill- nccds of'"                                             yarldsic'ks Sucth its ihv :dditittnal ilecoltif derve'd byv
Asia's Snmall lairlsr.,                                                                                      Snmall IFil'ine's an lu. hl'wuiher ol'adhitionaJ pel'll­
                                                                                                             dlays 111-floyin       v~mnicl'rattd.




                                                                                                  71

  (iii) 	It il huI( be stresse tit ati reiil'lc Il I firts s Iioul(1 be                                                               legio~n, rech1ri hats 1)((llic fill option lihul Could
        Se~o ill a dev'elopmewntal f'ramewo's~rk i21cI~idi.g not1
                                                                                                                                      poIv9idC anlswers IIo thet inloc99king prl'9Iems1 sIaiied
        only basic and1( aied21 il9'eSligaLiloS blile 21 WlhI'                                                                        by' tmtldr'i-hda                   !)lileninca                    Iikt'   rapid polatIl.1ion growstht
           process of(h'vehopine'tl                                 of ilppropriilie lecUIil9logirs                                   ad lle lit l'gy crisis.
           its well as thlir widltspread~ dhissemIinatIion1 arndi use.
           Ill this Conncti2on1, it is llet'('ssal% to)9119iol1il' and(                                                               W\itindw
                                                                                                                                            (last                       Iwo2 9'i-9S, So99101., iilldevc('l9ig
                                                                                                                                                                        1951
           orient a country's rest'a                            rel     0eluIis ilvard(he 11                       radj            99911l122i1s hiaveliI9.IvSi((                                 su             19(1e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (2112ilulin               29994('III9'
           a~iell('9tlit'                o9FliatliliI goals, to9 112 iz                          p1/'Ji99lolvi-                    all       jiiaiI          9Iica1l 111,91.' rt 

                                                                                                                                                                           ohc91                         i cc1tslor1 ai.94ilil2I               alI
           (tli(re'l            ral'r           than (li59illlilll'-clert                         approauchel911ls                 l9tscail(I                andl l'
                                                                                                                                                                   a
                                                                                                                                                       119,1 bv(1 Lk,uj1 ill Of I'S to(

                                                                                                                                                           o
           2o rl'st-.ich, andh 19li ki tlie illitimit,I ill .lrliranging
                                                                                                                                  .stililltI 11 (lit' 5-clulcd "pililr 
 9911(11i94ilt21r.Il
                                                                                                                                                                               i


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                                                i       1 i1lI.pt 1'9'l29v 11to tvlfill iilawl
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 991(ilc..9Ii.12i11                                                                              1
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                                                                                                  plI          iii(-'l,          India                               (9'l        l       Ill9Ji94                   t     I.l2111rl
        ill9 III-ri ll.p m I'591(5                                           is15i1'
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                                                                                                                                                                 Ow2



                                                                                                                              7 il2 %ilk                                             lidc I(I 11 ,c o "
  Philippines                                                                                                    Indonesia
  The"cast. ol'the' Philippline's            call lk ,.is           t' c itwd its                               This 'otllllr "s ('xl)(.rit~(.i.'( ill olgrading its national
  ;I possibl etIchxism li wtliing It (hvIhoitg t lltltiys
                 n                r                                                                               i's'tn'lh sysittll capability fi Itgri'llllltl. litittstrv, told
                                                                                                                                                    l
    lailitt al r.s-tcitth uisitill illlo t tIespti ti'   xtd (-llit( tie.(.                                     IislIx its ducs hi      its sltxgIlths ;ttd \%tIlklesses.
   tup eii Siljl[)rt mitltttal ditvt\' ijiiitiitt lIltxinglT14. i need                                           I Ih e. , iltl( dic i ihuitelnt .xjprtxlxh txakiinx bN its AARI)
  tl aLlie,,ill, iet 'tll          h ill agl i                    i'l
                                                               Miduit       t r                                          It
                                                                                                                     Ii.+\xso Itii'xi i 'It IIIr;iIi
                                                                                                                                    r                  'st; 'uiI (It ltl)\ t'
                                                                                                                                                              Iltt                                                                          1) in
  olfil holl,-rl'a lge+ rt "stali'la ]p'gnail            it, p <mill' (lit 1-cli n lto                                        tilt lii, 'I )'' ',tt5ltir\il I titi
                                                                                                                                                     h
                                                                                                                hb.J+im its dc' (t'h1po .cm tl11mi h the'iti 'i .1,1Jl    tIlti                                                     i        u
                                                                                                                        in~g                                       ci'l
  1i  ' (oti lll \ ' t stItt ll tit u ll .t ,.lists t l
                           'i                  ;'        l
                                                         Iiott      l i01ing                                    j(11 i:  tlialioll ol: it' St
                                                                                                                                       il', illf'ra.tl c'll ands I ilsitie
  its ttisll (111l.i fis. '1ii slttu illt,\t i ' i tIx
                                       lst     os                   ip                                    ufill ttiv    l ll ll , ii lls'i ('1  iliti  . i litI-+t'lt 1hI ls hilitv oI'
  dwlt*as,is oh'littlioniri~l (11-vc.hplov'it nc't'vl,,. I homs
        b '                                                                                                     it, sci li \
                                                                                                                 si''               lhl l st mugv, 51dvIh 1     ii i;        il S ittixhi
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                                                                                                             75
   4II   P
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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                                                                                                         .(:, Ni.. S,,;,,itl;m, I1113. (,,i,..,titl,
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                                                                                  76

      RESEARCH AND FOOD PRODUCTION IN THE CARRIBBEAN:

                      THE CARDI CASE





                                                                                                                St. Clair M. Forde, Ralph. H. Phelps, P.O. Osuji
       Dir-ctor Il 'llY~ea iti (ul )evi/nm'niii-ii, P'lant Plhvh
                                                               i                                                                                                                            tIl
                                                                                                                                                                                        iI,~j
                                                                                                                                                                                            a.             nimaNudritiinisi I. tipF'lul qi/ ('inib/nin .lFritnhlumal le'etwatcli and
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                                                                            IJev'?lpnFF                              t liliile                         ((.1 11)),                        ('nil'reisi        F (ailm if .1
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4



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            4                                      l-vd               v, olloloii                           Fill            IljlowiFjI \.II il'N all (                                                                The Regional Ec~oomy aiid Role of the
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        o                          has          ~ ll
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                                                                                                                                                                                                           77
        ameiy inicrealsitng net inrcign earnings,                                   ullit           aiid                           Impact of Research on the Yam Industry in
  elmploymenl. Ol'these, increasing nt( ibreigit exchlaige                                                                        Barbados
  earnings stims tIt
                  O                               tlit    ilo    critical isstw.
                                                                                                                                  The yanil (l)illloncc I/i/c.) is clle    iilic  Inaiorlstalth, lilc{
                                                                                                                                                                                  t
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  excliallge                   illliligs %% i Ille sectllr. "hun b, jeelise tltiild
                                          ithi                    l                                                               IItIt sllcics ofci tlliitlt ial sigoiiit';ctte irot lcl- ill
  Ili aihievei tihtlligic                        ihctcasilg til( ptoiicttiti o                             cll 1d                    ill;ciltdos anid thet i~lsieti (I tiititittll.
  aiid nslllieid coliilliidiiiis iltl both Ihit                                                       alndl7                                                                                                       iiceitdlltll
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                                                                                                                                                                                  till 191711)l367 it
 vi1'x    l' i               lill Iood impoi rts ha~s siahilizc'd ill ic l' ll \'c.;iis                                          ill i973i, Whih fit' iililPOlr 01'\ h lllllil('p l i illcfi vase'd rloili

 aind ill 1118 1 a llollllld tol sollic                          $1'E(C
                                                                      2.      Ib~illionl.                                        5             It.s. 0 770
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                i
 lf!)B ) is ai lirga11ive' SF'( : I billion pllr allillitl. T h'ills, of (he                                                     ililpil-1l'i'i                 l"It         qualitly ol,1lil'1 \ ' ,i 1 ilbe'rs dilv to


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 is
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 Thi'll(, iip                irI bill is dhorlimitld h\ livestoclik p iwi                             ts l($     (C
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                                                                                                                                                                                                      'ill        wilihl six
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Research Direction
                                                                                                                                 Ill the((h.vt-illl                           pihlisf. tirol       Illwed,         the(oljv'ctive
Aginst this baclkgrounlld, ( :AR I)I hasl, iis its ision-ll
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                                                                                                                                     to
cliliriblille' lol i ltil lilil dh' .1"Ihnl iililt thrliu ,h (he.                                                                lo dliingi ailid dis i iilillg4 clliliilvriial (Ili ilir ' of"

g(.li1'r-ilill anldl diss'iiilliiliioll fit' applroplriatel l'chllilogy~)                                                        laiilliing Ilolfl-riail \%hick wals ofl'lil i                            (1ialil)' aiid

tilliIh(- brlicw                ill" h c (:iirillbcl                oiii t.llh".Inli             kiig tol                    rflic                     ic       of, I Itsw andill i               il- i ilsf.s..such' Iliiai ril
I xeclilv Ihlis llli.silli, dwl Insiiltiilc has*Iorlliscd fill                                                               haid Ili            \.wl'd, ill fid              ir iais, t il        ii'ch rl 1.1isl,
                                                                                                                                                                                                              l            iil le iall
if',scl-c'lh Iliial is; iiillll'                      (lI'illf-gh"anld ailiicd all rl-lillilili,                             h        i l
                                                                                                                                      ovv'           % illidh'r conl ditiins of high lli
                                                                                                                                                  ) l'                                                              ll llhl .ognld
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              a
'oilltlailli t o flr'ilpl alild ai illi'il Imi (111flillii,                                                                  o',er fto% Illder Ilic coliditilis od'hlw I('hitiolg

                                                                                                                             plrel'\l           11ii aill(il I sililill fill''c , ill oll'i"Ewsrlli
    (         c h            I I ) .;I    ~ t s al 111      ll ll Ili       'lilillgiv's hai\'                               C
                                                                                                                             ( iill b cwaii sillc .
Ill'ill di-vvlllpe                  which hiavi' Ilad al polsitivel im lll-                            il Iljd
p~rlldilitiii. H ighlights iil'soliil                             1*1fthcmiu         .r                                      It, aiddition tol aichit-i.\                        i,(.l iiliilidiatcl R & 1) 01)ic
                                                                                                                                                                                                               jciive' ,
itciiev\li-itiis ii1"-v
                      giili                           be'low.                                                                the' \w rk                                toge\' mdra.l'l ai I'vle we'd ri'4onall inte(rest
                                                                                                                                                                                    e'll




                                                                                                                          711

  inincreasing yani productionl.th local consuptuion
                                 Io III                                                  C/adn.rp an/ri'.,. Other Iea itnlrs which have

  and export. It was realized that lthe a'ailability ol'iigh-

                                 i                                                       ('(Jlriibl l to itsictess in ihe
                                                                                                           s             (aiibheaillan (uiiral

                                                                                                                                          n
                                                                                                                                         ,c 

  yielding virs-tested planting liatcrial aloe could lot 
                               Allielica are:
  imiprove Vain prdultction anid vlort, and tli(e work

 se'i'l      as a c.tal+.'st iddless Snlli
                          to                            olflle other                     -   earliness when 'oiiiparel        with oilher saiielies;
   r d               ro
   i      lii:tioti Ip    blems.                                                         -   shlorter Plant stillure, which allows the use of'shrtcr
                                                                                             stakes and reduced IN
                                                                                                                tiig;
 The d(e'clolmiiiet ol' c(olliletly iic'hallizcd sysitill of, 
                              heavy-willed       ruits with firn skin that iniireasi.s shihlf'
 ya i peoductioi aind isclieilt. of'egistereil growers to 
                                  lii iold
                                                                                                    il'ii's
                                                                                                 nstlrage             losses;

 piodlie ijlidity v'irus-t std iltinIluiutia 
                                           -   incnrporation ofl'tl''J"'       6h1us.issioll willhoill
                                                                                                                            fbir

 Clltrihilled signiificauntly i icl'icsuscitailii ofl'ile yaii 
                             uttailiid lucdicc rcduces daluagi dliii.ig storage as
 industry ill Barb'hiuos. l)uuiuu thi
 l-)-l1(i scasoii, 8'Y, ol'
                                      c idw                                                  vcl as allowiig i.uiiaehiuili har'cstintg;
                                                          7
 the .it'ihlal          ai)
                    to 'uuItilizeif 
 viris-ue-siid plliting                                 higher      hhl thau o lher varictis.
                                                                                                          Is
 Ilatcrial.


                                                                                                     reduc
                                                                                        "hrms fiiatillrs              pilinhl'liol and, ittie salit

                                                                                                                               ('(sIs
 The Impact of Tomato Variety Calypso in 
                                               tilie, ilulcase Niilds.

 the Region

                                                                                         Iii rccci tim. '
                                                                                                        (:ll(              is fiiiicl lfu\'or a uuuluhir
                                                                                                                                           sith
 A wvide rauge ofv\cgctiilvs is gi%\nli iulthe regioi.                    ( )K          olgroweis ofratilig s.stielis u":iiiih15rcoicr Cultivatiio.
 these, to iato ciiiljiics ilii most iiiliritiuit losilioi.

 Incriascd vi;ir-rouid pmdtuctimiu ol'this
    coiimoditv 
                              \tililits itdetuu iuiiuig ilhc  cxlilil 
 Calypso is
                                                                                                                                  to which
 Svild I'l depwildcuuc(oil 
 iilipnlis 'loiu exutra-'cgioiual
          dlce                                                                           used ill tle lgion andul, ltIeuc, til- iupal it is makiug,

 S0iTI'i Miil wouldi ll 14.lialh. Silly\ ill 
 

       s             fll a                    ihiosi.                                             ihuaia
                                                                                                  that au'     risV e 1.sliiiati alu'ca 
 In

                                                                                                                                   il'ih        plaititcd
           with cxteusi. loil[is iidlistri.s.
  oultrics %%il
                                                                        C alypso il (Ce'utral Almelrica is flY .       h total aria uli

                                                                                        loitulato. his igiu' is Ihiscd oi sales ofl'sed Friouu in

    1n
 "Ihl'            \.Ifi([\ "C u'l
                tiu              )p,i, iciili ol"
                                     lih                                                  tliajou siupplie's nI' if( is, seerd ill Oh I ISA.
 c'opil:ar lo~llut(+)
;I      ti\vc
   hic't'dili,
 iniliatcd hb't\\'CC'l
                        ip+.gail                                                        ,A\plrI'xillitcly I6Il'+o
kg ol'se'cd m\cn. so.ld4 ('.vut
                                                                                                                                          1        rad

(C,,RI) itld thir    [Inctll. Pll'l'l
                I)(.Il     of      at
                                    hol;
                                       p,and                                            Aicni('all 'ountiecsillIlof;.-). rc.ln
  vscliug all ilrcit .16.')(.
 luiicrlmtiouil liogrilis. I 'luii-siti of' lhi'ida. The 
                              li'4ci 'sculivatel ill
                                                                                                             ( :;lv sii.
<'(.qptrati\v (.1,          plll( lcd it 11n11 ..rol't
                                d      
                         lllf hi-clding
hioiirs %% mhr sd'hledcl lilr aIdlitpthilit iii
         ih  e                                                                          Sals of,( :il\pso stcd lii iwot uutil.r silpplit.ri. ill
   li rl ll  l                   ,
            ili riiii hll illi illhc \\Owtlumdi"s.
                          '                 s                                          Truiid;ad imd Tob go iiullolll loo kg iii 1off5, iiI
                                                                                                                                   to
  olisiidcra!)JI .oillipri la iil t4 disasi   )lid t;ilnlO
                                                  i                                               tiha ilt iles
                                                                                                        H iis                            ti.ls
                                                                                                                      into auljj illixiu I t( lls.        lari
iisisiu! ,(v% It ( ollt(i     oil
                               151    iii       ii \ ils ii                                 o
                                                                                       ,\IOIll llive csiillijle of'hli l        illease ili iIi      Il
                                                                                                                                                      1 rtltl'll
Oe I"st 1lOw ili"s (s i, i 
 snuici i reIhlese. afir ihi,
                 h                  h                                                  in ulln iii
                                                                                                i
                                                                                                fl      1riui' uilii.i ( %lVlSOis T Y$ 2,24-, lIHr
hrcu'ilin \ s;i,
            ll  ue     lilk-sciie l l i waliia
 . ill                                  Ilnlarl,
                                                                                        I'd         dlivcd fiu llhigh I'     yils      liIT irou llioll
                                                                                                                                           lii.
ti ils ill riliila
                 aii( %%is iii          n
                                  tiiii andiI lid l
                                                il                                     co,nstis iil h lti' Iilil   uililliuy. 'lhiis. (:;lV.s   hIriiln s
( \ I              gling
         hbI rwlts Ihc il ullls 1ill)[wiitd Il.S'i
                               wk                                                      jilltisel+ vatilii S '$I illillioill Itlitill'S Firiuerps
                                                                                                        s               I
 ilillhi l r illl and cllhi l ii
                ii i"
                                        iiiu lill T rii(sl(Ii.
                                                                     iI'                     yir .li

(,l suIis aIllillfl
                 ,lih-sijldii \ iiiv lpillliriv
                             ',                                                            d
                                                                                       ] I is      [Ihll-si iiiiis. iuu'ii;i:,'sid
                                                                                                  ll                                   llllilO            f
                                                                                                                                                    fir inl ..1oh
     li
siiitcd ihiis c~ lo, isl
                       ii                    w \est iniji"s % i ille                   11h.( irllh
                                                                                                 iali l         l                   niwii a iil [lit,
                                                                                                                                       i
pI(hi iiili lsh iiii k.i ii    us niiil iihilisiv hasis. It                            (:;iirrIih;iii Islalids) ri Sihiug fi'iii i li ss        il~is)
                                                                                                                                                 lf
              will
is Cspl iuhIy %%Il lhi  I ii l 5 iii ii iI'llfig siical i\
                                         I'1r 1                                              (iixillii's to TT$ -i i jlilliull (I is $,-).(
                                                                                                                                          Illilli(ill) fil
iii ih ( i:rhill
    l                  iii it..l
                       ;111h           iiih ifu%
                                               ljiu iiiilhillill                       \ iir.   I[rtoi Ihi'iasi
                                                                                                             illahlc i.Siiiliu liiIhiil (allypsi     his
cni   iliins. Ii is ]ilul I1,i4liiuih ii I sit, ii li
                                               i -s                                     hIi ii'i siil( ;i Ia if-, his' ii h lw p i t livi
                                                                                          ' (                             I                      iii s,
siri y li is il..i                                 <
                          iiiill ini      ii ivl-msl
                                            l."      ib
                                                      hgl 
                                i giili I(i riiu u ' s Iiiiu iis li iilsigilig i- illipll
                                                                                                      ih                 r                            (,

resist ail I(ihuuath        e
                            i      ;a1ld12    lm'/'uuumjmu.    to I ulifil/iuu.        VallivI'   o
                                                                                                         l i,
                                                                                                       1i1t pcriud is T'$
                                                                                                           i                    100 Illillilll (U       $211
aidto .;Sli'mluu ,Iiluuu Iu i I 1i lil+isli kilwV i Ilhi
                                 +                                                     uillin ) -          rui a rsialre h puoriccl
                                                                                                        li's                     iosliiig int)lli'i
Iolh'raliith eail:hkliglit disc'aw liiei, b\,
         I                                        u        H                               TT$ .
                                                                                       Ilial uI luillilu ( SI                iS i      ).
w/Ili aidilHil :i(,i iiosait- si ins, o Ihlat,ilvl
               li                               (      pso
    h
shi hl I1( irisiti sil l u('lilioi . hiii iin
                                         ,cli s
s 'iei ugilili ri,+
           tesIts
             '                   itddiiioi'll.l
                          iVulidii                  . ioih
pllills            k li(     to
                              oiiow i sis iilIiililcie
                               Il                                iaiiil hiii,




                                                                                  79
  The Contribution of Research to the                                                                                            Suhli                 frctrt                  Ilreso'h (gll(sllv.ls
  Livestock Sector                                                                                                               wereu tslilulv               i) jilojvcI stall in ille Cawalii                           aind iii(
                                                                                                                                 Yuicatan            Iiliisilla ill Meicos.               .ssisd t              :ii~ "fns
   Tlli ljvesls)(k sx'ssiiis iii lii( Caibbelian in%      .1''iiri                                                               llavv beill (.il(itssi, Inlly.sil whijil                         haves' I~tll set to
                                                                                                                                                                                                       h
  extesive' ranigeland SNSiil            i     jill(neiorI ss'l( al       (4                                                     istllil-s
                                                                                                                                 otse                       iii jiastiiiic issiniil and th
                                                                                                                                                                                         il5ljliiit                             in the
  in ((lisivv zerss-gii .ilg *. 'sti III s Isi
                                           )            sii tiitied ii Ii                                                               Jrois: and sutiriipics. Thiis litgissi is actully~ llc ccilitti




                                                                                                                                 usib if, hivct~sik li-clliit                 sNisiii,.
 Liveistock priiitini Ialls lai- shoirt ot iisiiaid anid
 pl1c5vil itissilis. ssi       slsli Owihigh~ljplssjsssiini ssliss-                                                             hiSUIIS hIMVV.   .SlssNII [11M OWiISV0hlkiI' -ihjiil
                                                                                                                                                                  '       s                  tid

 prodinisig, Ill%-(Iliiulii\ plsiiiii( si lld~ lii.8Ill~i                                                                       li~f0UCliii'  iVIgIIIIIS is WCl is gl;1s(Ss tssilldb III lilli

 stoctk ;Iiii jslstsiis~ iuiigii      Int dwi plast, till[(                                                                     basis ssl moilst sysins     dvigr     iiio~ijls
                                                                                                                                                                    toi~ii           h'st-ssck

                                                                                                                                                                                      k

  imitioi
               (silssii
                       ll s lisisi gissi
                                      en                  ills i5ll-        siidlfgv N-goilivs ill   lhlssilli    ill iisIlil l   Itsol      ihililoco 
 oillv

                                                                                                                                                aitaiiiiv                         ~iiis
                     lsss~s                  isiiiig          s\siiis. Plans loti 1111lii~i1ssl~ljus                            ssg ihlis(slsiil              sg

 CibbeanI                  l~ivsi515       l'siisls             sjllstoiiiil                         ;1ilii\itoks illssgsidIil liiglisiuii~liis prduts iidiii

                                                                                                                                                        i
  iI IcI Isi.s% 14 Is sIsI sgit
               si                                         sss1-ocdt
                                                                 lat                sIil
                                                                                     [(Iiiih)                    1                     ilssnst~it          lis lllssst1
                                                                                                                                                                      and               h~ilIssaiI lis'aib is itlii


   it iljti            ands sxjsiic                  psoisls           supiclilsls isijislis
                                                                                          wll                                   dw fa L~l islsiissiiihss of this lvisghsl if)                         lhiissilo       ililore sill­
 Ilosis onsisil               (Isc Iri          i
                                               on ;if %cl h
                                                        % i~sI                  s(;11 .il1.
                                                                                    S           isit~ii                         sufiieniit itIi imiiil plissliisis ands isl s1.)ss l a sisitiildc

                                                                                                                                                                               i
 vwhilli.s .costs                                                                                                               cconomsiil tir     loissi ii livstocsk l~o iiiiis. Fil %%ofi
   kini
                                                                                                                                .\itigliti Isis llsii            I\ ijilrithi             lt if shlizd hei IsssilIs
 Ill FtslsIsI'    1()- 1 lit- I 'isiss Sit\ of illis Wcsi I1l's                                                                 till tilt- ( :iisll                Iio plssisis         is' Il 11si
                                                                                                                                                                                                 lsgiiiiisblsss hs~i­
 Iisiigr l5Ltiliclo I's       ( ssis isiliaiss ofi \ilihlw
                              I                                                                                                 proissls aliji,.i             livsil 5IcIIvIlsss               andi bassil iwyiliisiilins,
 Tiniial               an       liis m
                                 ei             ss
                                                (ill l i            \ligsisi I, 1(17(.          sssfitl      sl
                                                                                                             It                 b i       isii.g lora~lI\ gilskk Is flsitgvan                    i
                                                                                                                                                                                                gii           l im
                                                                                                                                                                                                         l1 i g~i s.
           dwpo             sl(t%;s
                                pssci              is,(       I        ).
                                                                       fl~

                                                                                                                                s viral I il     . llligl-lc~s iiii Iiis'ils 15.\ 15 esli l lis

 Tll masii ll                   i      i vs        ifll                      \\[-;s if. Iiitil\
                                                                              I(-51                                             ls\i      IsFiomlv ixgiiiis Phicjs lhssiil slistitI legiiis

                                                                                                             1
 .illplhsill              sosldpiliisiis             ItillI~s            lvllllcs glasse                   and                   sfitsIthlij suijisili'ls             fill       iiic       l
                                                                                                                                                                                           ci issis ssllivs~stssk his

              lalhis5/lsgiil ls
                         ,siss                        Is,] (lisiil( ii Ifiii                    ands 1)                         lsssii imissiitcds.



 Jsraliss              III sissisisc iss                  liiill        Ish      c\jslsiil                                      Thist ( :ARi
                                                                                                                                           R           ( )MI           si       siiss ;Imsiiilii
                                                                                                                                                                                 fes                            ssliisissk
                lill
              iii                   silist(i\ c silsi Ilsii                           Iisssi1s11 Isrliinig
                                                                                              k                             s 'Iviiiss itid poissils                     N\swlis,          I isiissiissii is1 tlis ilissis
55 slsisis.                                                                                                                     ilisi         sl'ilis ( ;ilsiii                ljsssisssk hFiriiis             sins his
                                                                                                                            sol-osslissss.                   h
                                                                                                                                                  sluis lisilit      sll     ill \sliqit, :is
 Tl  i(iclsiiaii      sslssi-slslir an jsiiitcs
                      ofsi            iiisl                                                                                 %%sl sssi k (ssishiti
                                                                                                                              rIis                      is ssiiisi plits (it Iis region
 i asss miis Is.gisiiiss hsis ssI  sl
                                  rdal ilitsii                                                    lsiiiL                    Ch iidlssh Bslizes, Jsuicsis iiii ( iiosii has r~ial k
                                                                                                                                                                         alit)
 plogai          ssif
                 ovcr           e      asts li'       .s     ~ss.                                                           inicaistedl tlsli it %%i~ pssill ts IsssicIiiid %%(.Ii­
                                                                                                                                                   illss~
                                                                                                                                   idlfdiliii prIII-  is'. loisgit~ gvrissss sissi1.lsgiiiis tll­
 lIn \sit.gii;s, fisi f'isiijsi'                      s1lisilst              si-d     lisiit           I    sj
                                                                                                            ci              lisslis                 S\ssisan
                                                                                                                                              abisssle         sill.    iiisst sosil and lsiiit

       jsssiilis ti                      s I-t
                                    olllsmo lslii. a                   o(i ill diii              ss
                                                                                                la s         l              c n ito s

 17""s1  iissill1 hsiss"Isi" i (till(': ('i11siis. lis    5io-s                                                             A\ Milk hoissslions S\tcini h'isult wa~s iiiiitsi by'
                                                                                                                                                   s
 sjssssst    Ifil his ssnst isii
                    l                msil gissssjs osf.Aitiguia                                                             ( \hAhR us ss)
                                                                                                                                     [( l       hwdIis
                                                                                                                                                   %%ssik stiitsih ini Antiguas to, all
-liii'.'\ siassfiii s-iss s Issuisll s(its s  -,s   ssid ls     iI                                                          usslsl.gisslI\ iiihlssiit                     aisa ssl(     \hRh( N, the
ilhi      sslsiis                    ils       iniliisiisI '11ss psisgisillss                   iS'iiiii                                              s(i~i                  It jssislsds it tanis    inkasge
                                                                                                                                                                                                   t lss
pissdiisd it lm                       icII..
                                       pss             stlisil igississsiiiis
                                                      ossl                                                                  list\svssui hsg                   psisssliissi        u-Isssissi andiisl                T1
i.1is11iatclisliss; ilsi                    gisissil haisls, hisgsi~                           icls                         iitiliizitissi sslis1.,silc Isuiltls i~    li  IsWsiss ish
qualhity, jsisss              ionss        pai            iissirigl                 slissssstan
                                                                                             jis                  I         iliii jissd flaigis (lss lisstik Iiissillisi. Tiii Iiii

tliiiss.ck dlpc                        It'js~lsl c                 liv(r cilingii ;sliss              srailgld              fisils           usol          si tlissiii sili-      bulksll of           itil(       lillirin,   silw
tliisil       nity tossro
                       ?il                 tisgil.                  ssuli ill
                                                                     sntbeIixilitis.                                        reg'Isin Nfsiium Ils laiug-sssills i'Aris likfs                                      ii v i
                                                                                                                            MNlissI-                 ildn sl'iilgcdIliiit
                                                                                                                                                    'hii                       livi Rcgiili
Whicreasl              miosti illii            hiroisinug gisses besing Isuish ii                                           I ivsiisk           ( iululx, wsill iisss biiiil. As wils lfin-etll ill
Al\uii,'s        isiigiiiits(            ini tli      grasslandls iii i~ust, ( irltihl ainii                                (his hiiiiis,              Isl Systemsi          isl gihis/hh-goiii priissihiitisi and




                                                                                                                      830
   Utilization to he developed would, to Somne cxtenl, be                                                                            close to .,ooo lit. Thus tile internal market was seen as
   amenable to lodification to suit fairms olrvarious sizes.                                                                         considerable, with most ofthe commodity being used in
                                                                                                                                     snack-lbod preparations.
   'Social and ecolloillic Condlitions Which have prevailed in
   CARICOM hav'e Ia\vorcl Ihe imlplriatiol offrclatively                                                                                 i\ili tih continued declinc ii Ihet producttion orcopra,
   inexpensive livestock productls from oltisid lie regiol.                                                                          lifte ma jor iraditional source of'cotking oil and oil Ior the
   WVhere livestock industrie; have flourished Ihi(y have                                                                            coSlltlic (industr', the potential ofrpeailt as a source of
   been based ;almost excutsiveclv oi low-cost imported                                                                              oil i:; immense. If1pealnlt were to I), tililizel for oil
   fecdstulIrs. ]'he Milk Prod uctiton Systems project                                                                               production, the by-product cake could be profitably tised
   atteimpted Io retrse these ('cils by idhitlti'ing                                                                                 as ; source oliJrotih in animal leed.
   appropriate I 'rage-based ssills     for tih region.
                                                                                                                                     I'valul (all tolerate \%,ilth( limits ofcliniatic and edaphic
  This httlllis's Illon' ilOllprtlnt as changing econc)lh'                                                                          ('01itlions, and it 'all therl re be groll\' ill .1l ihe
  conditions ali a wsoseilig ofilhe I'lo's oftrade itr all o,                                                                       ( aribbean conllirils. V!t'en properly dried and carcfilly
                                                                                                                                    C
  the co nlltries fllh i       ItIll have I6l1icl a I'exlilillatilil ol                                                             stlred, Irallsportatti(ll ol       ealllt call be easily regulated
  the ivt-stl(ck situation. l'or ohviOtlls ltetasmls, iw' is                                                                        to Ilal     til t- existing iliter-isla l( arlangelents. Peanut,
  illitieastd ilite'('st ill tdw losl l ts lit. tIl hprlllletili of'                                                                  ll'rliir, d(o Iltt plislli till- l)ro lli ns exlerienced ill

  111 e ili',l ;liid milk fi'ni  mfIralgs llln Ir it olthl'rwvise                                                                   tlhv rliisp)il;tiliOll t ofeish fils      alnd vTgetalies.

  ililUlstd il illdernlliiizet(I i)y-piId(its"

                                                                                                                                    Thc1 regionial avcrag yield olpeallil eits low (around

  Ill       Suip rt ttlftl research ittl ltviIhllpiiclilt tii list into1i                                                           I,ioo(kg per hi), whleras ii tccliology placklge,

 fttrage-baised aniillproll           tlliol ss iliis, CAtRl) lilts,                                                                developed IvyCARI)I, had conlsisitentln
 o(J l! Ow laistl ive' %'(;1s. llli\ cd h \%lirdl s vv(d proidul oll                                                                                                         yil'llded .I,ooo kg
                             I                                                                                                      ptirr lilt iiill          y
                                                                                                                                                             lr        o
                                                                                                                                                                       , I'-sim-.(       lotls. 'I'liere'o~re, {'ee         ll    alror,
 activiir.            Tll hlclstitllt, ILi                         rstahlisil                   ll      ritiIS s(Tt'                (:,ARDI's          yild Were a'ttiabiieh                      Iy fariers lising lie
 fillns il Alilifaild                             "Trinad.             Tishi          ull t           isbii5rliit                      S       elil               lo             th)erekgllllrr
                                                                                                                                                                                         wt;l             aI            h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 )l% yihld

  toml     firlanli'i b)\ Ohw i lmlall ill ll i Ilta
                                     h               I     ttrincr
 p~roIdlioni~l c'il'r \\ hhhin ihl( M ilk hI i ncll'liin SysM(iill
                                                                                                                                    hsc      se i      ih'    rriliris      iAihl                                       iiliel    St.


  Iroject        ill (liailga. (;                       igsln                   titi .I I                 tir;,which                 It wats, ag       in         h        lislball.ki           Iltal( o ARbe I es a lishedi
                                                                                                                                                                                                (l
 hi(         . I)
                wv           ti ll((
                                  t      f li        iII       tlocr
                                                                 li.             li ai vr                 '   ill ll          oi       v'eltlp ll Trec'hnolo                        welolhilen .le t jiroje(l,tillided by
 illl)rll            slp       i's,          vll 111 1.I
                                              ,                         riii fllg t                     I all '     , iver           t' El     lro      iil Dee           lo mn          t Food throl           ill h   (   ril    ll
  ,ijgt kg       llld-c.,d     waslllllcll 
                                i     mlv           1 til lilil'l lllI;t'lt
                                                                                                    t ch                            Btot     fltl-t ef         Tli
                                                                                                                                                              itr               ca l' l-s.
                                                                                                                                                                                's              i, ti-lize, Si.
                                                                                                                                                                                                ilos i    b'lclis
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ]'ve
   Ilst tll'lll,     (.ii kS.) was 
                                        std. M uch (f'll, s-cd
 ('h.)15
                                                                                                                                    Kills,
                                                                                                                                      ljiint     l i t.Vinci       'tlllho iverll obI jec:tir %asto l
                                                                                                                                           ikigi            1
                                                                                                                                                     rllar .( %511s
                                                                                                                                                                 sell oi)lt it gilvl' r l (,l('
                                                                                                                                                                                             ti     oll
                                                                                                                                    enivtiopiaie til               i
                                                                                                                                                             l( lheds oftlahi-'egion bg lll-Ill
                                                                                                                                                                                      r
"hryli                             leilfilil]]l,                                                                                                        nd IallndacllidItr
                                                                                                                                                                      anididisration olfapproriale

aitic           til riI      agiteies, I                    ili(      a , 1sen i                       'iyl ao          I )         tveh oh l '
                                                                                                                                     l                                   rr.

iimprovel               asaltesli and estalias lihilait "blnilks"
    tlil i l lfi     rel ion.
]Ilrgvi-sc'il I I lI I, g vI
                                                   Thi,ilbiee
                                                      l                              dli(h
                                                                                        li el             smil l a                 Th] e it g
                                                                                                                                      Iretr(!'                    a IirtnS
                                                                                                                                                                        iln     pelllIcnlst' i gllhr ill l cis plnned
                  rI                                  II
                                                    IfIv             .~
                                                                     SUIIioI(Is aiii( olh(r ling I-ct                              to conin           ii I)r Ih
                                                                                                                                                              I          if-(-ye rs. I Iowi'\erI, be ' ae l
                                                                                                                                                                         e                                       te I i             h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ll
                                                        o
s ilt c , I n Ba r ba d o~ I) T
                        s,                          t        lia     oll{ iil r o v\ed i);i llire(w e le                            ti lt ipr()i vc ih t          is r e'a ed(Iha l il iu h Ino re %, lh la ,le
                                                                                                                                                                         liz

eshatlit'hc[il hit                                an.(I ii                         re
                                                                                tioi n, Sonwriri
                                                                                           l(,'ar                   g iitii        hitormtion in(llh
                                                                                                                                                   CAe obtallned ifthe                                         lrjh wetei           l
  lClR )lii           ,llhil
                           ag           %loi, (list ril                li            i
                                                                                    ll.         l illii       oil                  extendedoi           inludle I                    tllhz8/8(1iod)["l
                                                                                                                                                                                            p                    Wisol,          from
 ev(siol-liol                stra.('.    ogiin                                              l        isollledillrd lo                   iMarch datie wastid,
                                                                                                                                         lelill                                                          'ai    1 i98.1. This
                                                                                                                                   was p)articularly, iislf il                      h    atit     gav      morTIne
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 timie to foilly
The Contribution of Peanut Research to the                                                                                         (hevilhp, nl(ldif anl(i te'st smnall-sc'ale agriciltl'!
Industry                                                                                                                           11(iipmnelil andI maci'hinery; this; aispvc'l {)fthe projeci
                                                                                                                                   being orfma joir iin, o(rtan:e to Ihe developmntn of
Withhin the Ca~l ibblli, i)(aliliis aire Itself \\idek$' as                                                                        siicressfiil p~eanutl prodmhion~i systemlis f I die regio);.
ii toast~edI or salle:(I snactk-lbod(, ais ipeaiiit I~httr, and in
s4ewt ral colilills.      llilt[, iii¢)e impo)rtanti o)il is extr'acteld                                                           The Iproiect generatiied immnii se initerest i peanitil
                                                    ,
               I'ltiIeiili     h       !71    ,   Ielieeal(r                         eerprhneo)                                    Illduction inl all GARICC)M c:oulntries and(eslpecially ill
CAR1{II oil lihe agrolilnmy ol'ihe c'rop mov)\ed intlo lIhe                                                                        the p~rojectl countllries. hit Belize, pr(odiition junped firon
                                       I
(hevelopinn stage, rcgioinal ainnual iprodilocion wa';s lessi                                                                      lil esliinaedI i,oo)o kg i I(tMlo to )(Y,llol                               kgl i i98i and
ihaoli I,itto lilt, with imlports fromn extrii-regionlal So)lir'ts                                                                 theli ieaked         at I,-io,ofpo kg ill i112.




                                                                                                                              81
  In St. Vincent, the Marketing Corporation was able to                                   quantities, it is now cxpor d coin nerria            lIv ooher

                                                                                                                                                 t
 purchase 67,00" kg olpcanut in shell at Et:$.I .. I , p :rkg                             Caribbean countries.

 in 19B2, whereas none was sold through lhat agenicy it
  1981. Oflthese, .15,oooklg
                           were exported to Guyana and                                    Several items ofrsnall agricultir: equipment and
 4,500 kg to Trinidad.                                                                    maclierv to icrease Ihe elli'icicv, reductlabor costs
                                                                                          And east tht, ork inpeanit Irming, wtc designed and
                                                                                                       w
  JIall project countries, fIrmer acelitanlct ofrlhe                                      felvt!cd through I1w En.ginevring Workshop inSt.
 introduced technology was high and among the small-
                                     Kilts, insupport ofthe production effort.
 farming communitics, peanu has I[tcomie Olle tftle

 prefirrecd crops. 
                                                                      Conclusions
 In Antigua, projecIf rmuers (wNht ad not had previous
                                  h                                                      Th lifregoing is hil illustrative ofrsoin oillhe ways in
 experiencc of'gro ing Ihe crop) were able to tluhic\'t                                  which agricultural research carriedl h (b,AR 1), with
 average yields ofover Ihoo kg per ha during Iwso                                        ti suppl(iort and tolaboiration ofthe national research
 crolpping sasst'a - i'hightst yield oltine(d Iing 
                                     Ssts, Itas Illiatc       0o1ril)lh:io
                                                                                                         i I)oSiLive                           toijo(I
 etqival(ltt to Vpl:o kg per ha. 
                                                       prtdltioin.

 lit Belize, also, yids were recorded avvraging iiearlv                                  'l'lhe regional tla!Illoftlh Intistitlte, with atphysical
 I8oo kg per hal, with several [irilirs producing over 
                                  Iresenee aiid illfrastrictuir' inll ielli'or colltries, hias
                                                                                                                              1
 ,2oookg per hal. 
                                                                        iaciitalcd atstrong coimlmnication liIk tiiotlg

                                                                                         agricultural scietntists in all (tolltitri(s. Thronghu this

 The St. Villc       lriirs.
                     Can        , 1r
                                  wr     mtor 
 cx[wcrieiuced iin                        liniklg  ti d sVSlll ofittworkiug, tollloin lrolehlms

                                                                                                   n
 p-antitt growing, geilerall,\' (I a vit d l'tv'r 

                                prtuhi                                                   (for example, [he elucitition of uid lel 'yellowing of

 2,ooo kg per h iii the min llropping st-soii. 'Tli(b'st                                         - XI'tnhoma tgili/Udim -- whih had caused ;li
                                                                                         ''allllii

 Ir'ltitrs' yield record'(hd was 3noo kg ptr ha, itlertas                                alnmuost total dtclilt intiillouctioti ofillis root cro) il
 project staff wr' ihh' to pro(duct Itee(uifialciit of'                                   lii' Wettelr islands of lflearibteaut) has fn'i(.l (flot, in

                                                                                                                      (
.t,7(10 kg pcr ha fliuli o.,3 plot.
                            hia                                                          a 'ost-('llcli'(
  Iellneir, thlls clhivig ecollotlies ini the
                                                                                                                           a
                                                                                         regioil researh
                                                                                                      mcllint.
 Tt'er was a great ilrttvrm(ll'l I in i' so-call'd 'catlh

         1
crop' llantd i Nov'nt'mu i,and1 this coold le umaiinlv 
                                 Amtng the [it(.iis iitiiirihling to Ih'Sltcc('s of'
attriiutcI to t"
              ilnic('%Iv intoce(I var1itly   N(C-2,
 vhos'                               (:AI)l's ecar(t'liffris inr' gitonal lfiId purodaluction,
seed is nIoii-(l(irtiuull.     As a colist'plq'lict", iiliil'                  til '    one
                                                                                          (Jilt     lol
                                                                                                      itlde:
fll'rtitrs ioW regulrl.v  fplanlt a st'coiid crop. tliri'liy

                  Ilii;lrkc( anid also esturilng sttI Sulylv.
snmoolilgttit tile
                                                                      (i) A chlar recogilition that tlt          searclh alra was one of
                                                                                                                                       i 

St. \inttn       ilriit'ts    hi    Ito%% accepted N(
                                        folly                     -2 ;,,f                    iitional/ regional priority.
art particularly iiiipresscd wih yied, nlt qluality aml the
case with which it can hv liarsesled.                                                    (ii) The researclh I)rltlilv was w'ell-eflined and there
                                                                                              %%-sa w,'ll-traincdI i'adrte o'sitciltists sh'llo could
Fariimters iisully hid lno (lillicluly hiiiiirkt'tiiig thteir lts                                              (
                                                                                                 itnnlovale Iit' hellcthlogy
                                                                                                                           rt(llire(i filr its soltioii.
at a prict high etough Iorealize a 'erv satisfiatry gross
moargint. Host'ver, in Ielize, the Nlarkt'ing B(oard was                                 (iii) 	flit coilhllitlmlt'mit oflhte resour'es ol'intiiher
unalle Iti find exporl moarkets i)r griellly 

                                       Ili,"         oit''cast'd                               giovertiitmets, aloiig with finatciil siupfort f'ron
irtodtcIhionit     1i 182 (1 5-t),t0t) kg). Thlis SitlI aittil,
                    9                                                                         dturit'l{ t     'ii('s,was assnrid.
however, was pot lo od tIbt inthat CA RI)I was able
Ito(ncoilrage laiteirirs to hltlcess (il'iSt)I)       Ilii tiwsI litIIS till            (iv) 	 ((ood linkag's wi         thlIAR( :s.
tle faritn, atd Ihe cro1) \v;s l hen all    i'tiisiiit'l     Itically. In
a furtliv, elfibr Itoretoltce (h'l)r(tln'cli ol oversias Iraife,                        (') li Ibt abstice ,,f'a  strong extelsioln aril it Ime
a lrotessilg fiacttory ito prtotduct, puilli Iluttt'r (aid                                  Iational systemll fi- teichntlotgv transfer, the
possibly saclte     iltits)   was estaltlishetd ill I 9. I .                                 itlitiOvalrls     of't          V''(" 

                                                                                                                      is't(]rnt willing to find
                                                                                                                       ei('
                                                                                             t       ie     .lisiist ('ulire that ll('
                                                                                                                  i                 Firmiers   et'llfjtilted.
    intrtdutin ol'the ( AR)I tehlogy fir
'flr,                        )l                 ipealill
prodctiln hos fed to a rcgioal traied i1iypslti. The
                                        g                                               (vi) 	 Whlni     llth iifrastruic(turt existed for easy access to
variety NC-2 is demaning ot gvpsim litr good yitld anI                                        tipl)ItIS (agrott'cht'liliCalS andh rc(lil) and was
                                                                                                                                  C
qiality, aid silnce it is avalille inJailiaica il large                                      suppttrted by pirtope(r Imuarkt'tinug arralngel etnts, the




                                                                                   82
     impact of research was greater.                             policies for the regional R and 1) effort, determine
                                                                 priorities, establish the research agenda and assign
In May i 9IB6, the ministers ofagriculture of the region         responsibilities to the various agen ies. This
agreed to the establishment of a coordinating committee          development augurs well fior the future ofagricultural
for regional research. This would bring the directors of         research and the contribution it can make to the thrust in
agricultural research from the national systems togeticr         hb:od production.
with the regional agencies engaged in agriculture, to set




                                                            83
                          DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSV)NS OF PANEL I

                      THE ROLE OF RESEARCH IN INCREASING FOOD

                                    PRODUCTION





    "l'hlesubivet %%'its
                      applroatcht-d ralleri.+ dilli'c-ntly by' ilhle                                       ;tco
                                                                                                             e'        l   sls Stllt     conlsidcrl:ilble            assist~ .. , wias
                                                                                                                                                                                e                     needed'lll< n
     lour spaktrs, with tie rcstilt that ire'iullilni gt'd firo'il                                         solic NARS, with tilt- developiiiment of' Siitaih.i
    a dtlilcd   it:.otllll
                        il    t    iesillhs ullivcstock iiiprllovelnt
                                     -h                                                                        iethodologies I' fI'ct t:olliniiilg cost-! t vIicIit alllvses
    rescilrci 'i a Singh- clonliilitrv, Illi!h ih nipaet i" 
                                              ol'f gricuuill
                                                                                                              a                        l esearh progr.miis.
    results o l5 I'tVirl cIli)s Itf liv stllck acijeved by

    a regiinl orgiii           oniii i 1wcl-idC(ilinCdi cgioll anid 

                                   i                                                                        'lhe proctss of'"seliig" rtscachits i coniioii good is
                          t-I
    it r i ' v'js oll I , I(4io iII lb. oI nit.-S. li h, I o I rvh4 w o I*
                                gIcl'
                                                                                                             t      il uled Illih c l IIt. iti Ill oStlohr ies t
                                                                                                                                                     I             hI'ders iI
                                                                                                                                                                    .;I (
    livic s iili rtescail h ,NiI ll (i t .h4pliilei ill a i lir r lil.                                     tIe ,olic -iiilkig, and jla iig         pr4l44sse(s llf
                                                                                                           goict II(l'll'l. Althotilh rt-cgarded 'm, tiil illit's as bI~tln<
 Th.'ll , l dih oif'iflvct.a17ct It'l I[o ;i \\ idv.-I'lil ilig is                       siotnill          hlsidlli i lly) lac'lt ia-olritlnld ([peei]lhi s with sollit.
    which is siiliill l i 'l i           ell
                                      liltc lollh       ing col llic llaiV.                               .listilfcalin 411 4Uisi lll), litilt\so.[11\ , rt'sl1h a 
he ii' l
                                                                                                                      to ll                                             el
                                                                                                           i'tc'tlrded Iilc\            , ill      ei l     h shi
                                                                                                                                                             u         otil't illl'chi               Icaideri i

    JI+ i'   iivhi'lies       hii Iool ji'l           iioI i       iislv'     il       Si th.
                                                                                     astIliig              plannilS.        tt           T        ll t. inI           itios Ii n
                                                                                                                                                                        )i            t lislt'              botlh Ihc
 livi. liIcl,:                                                                                             lintioiial ad iil ti-uliiiirv                      regiona iiiilc
                                                                                                                                                                   i                                   o1
                                                                                                           jiroj           oitivitiih
                                                                                                                       -oscd                    ;Iliil a
                                                                                                                                                    (I         ibht, ile. ricisiiii,'l                 I, i iggesIt
                                                                                                                                                                                                       l
 - Ihl teliii'al
               i                 i
                          l1,.ioIr ini.t              oii          s
                                      Iil     tic           as t nijo        ii
                                                                                                                                                  iiit an i
                                                                                                                                                         i                 o
                                                                                                                                                                      hildei ri          t       .
                                                                                                                                                                                                 o' etlis
  - Il.  institutionail hi'lliiewlrk"

 - thle I t' itlllh S\.",tsiil 
                                                                          The lolpvir i-c'¢lant
                                                                                                                                                   •
                                                                                                                                                   oI*'l'tS,'Irt'
                                                                                                                                                               11            llil:,              lhccsn
-     dwl Iwcthillolgy irillo l.I./-i.          l~i     ll svsMt'lll                                      ilIIII)l'l       1Citl s nlialu'l Ioillillll iW llrolns MlT' MIT'r llet
+- dict iprodil.,                                                                                         and attetionll ca+ll be i                                                              ,
                                                                                                                                                       n'I~ toi l
                                                                                                                                                         letd           t,e) Il iirit)               aiti\itics,

                                                                                                          such tls fruits iid txt.ics 1i61 vxpIitl, Illdilioil                                          local

A lluho i lu h ll s       iiAers W l l ' Illll i
                            k                               liis     i sti ji orti ig        t   h            rui ce lods a n d s' oil. l -i il C
                                                                                                                etnlc                                                                                   lt, d tie
                                                                                                                                                                                                      i %%a'lit

                                                                                                                                                                                                         wili
eOliit'nljoil Ihat a itiilliirl i glliciiril, anil                       IriItlitiiir 
                   jlrtniiitlit     giv't1l1 Ivil i            -iit-Scloicito lll it llt acors, is Il
                                                                                                                                                                              fi
I'tl   lt'rh ill pairtic ulla r . it-c d d .<S i li n g a nld s lis tai lCe 

                                                                            d                             pri nlit illil otl'a n t- i, w h e nl a s s ig n iin ' . pi orim .sto l wo rk oill
                                                                                                                                                                         itiv
 illitill 5Iijll     14)IISIllv
                       i      lljiliflilt,   aii colliithg

fllinilhi4, ill oidy~ mlit. ct . '+ s Ihlc ('xistellcc ol'lsiich 

                                  a +
                                                                                                          th gItinerlti       otiv                 iologits vihich          liii vai so widely
                                                                                                          ats tilt, Ilied to b l abo                   avi ng l
                                                                                                                                                            lh        li tiol<iil ilid laborl
suppollrt cilr'd its +iita
                        I           rol o     illu llolly Iicllr I') 1h1v                                 iilt(.Insi\,(, i llinother. I I is siilly'x                       illtpw waill whenl
Sil (t'5sSi i Ihillicl I 'gi'Cti i'tscal'h ploi'ills. l                            v lit'lls                                hlod
                                                                                                          assissitg                 scti                      c
                                                                                                                                                ily tieiids aiid assignlii g rlles                          lo" \%tlk
ol' isili li Illv Isithd politica ilj lut a                                        hllligi
                                                                                      I1,1                oi   ltlaili've ilops 10 col iplisie fli     tll liial
expilicitly di hfit'd, \(I( imliitil iu tiilos' jia                         i-S which                     fliutt tioIs ill tihc vailila ility ofltijor sit.ji lootds.
 'XlellSs-cd IIh- impacllt oll'rlira            -h in Illalillilit,-d or all h'isI                        jotint lllilihlg, bo                  cll      n
                                                                                                                                                        eco'l omlll sts anid blioloi
                                                                                                                                                                  i                                     cital
qianiliiihi a        l'lllS.\loho
                              l              i
                                            isit ssi'       II       li l lilailins,                      ScitliliSs, cill go a loilg way to aidiiI tr                                       .
                               SSilili.( Ito jlitliciails alsto,
aind it liliay citifid tit'l i v l
     ls Iht tliAifll-Inliclis 11in oiv phl'c olh.t-ilsa i                                                 Tlhl Ietsearcih VSlyllil isll                    , aitIs       stlitiliiiilg, ar.
aline ailllliiling, tlive            lilliiCs the totail lilaiollilil                                     dcaht with ill ililirn detail byl Plliel I I I (t(I.v.)                                bill ii fiuw
agriciilliial rstitich lludlgt. A iiajtir task for NARS                                                   fiattirts aiid issiies wr-c iis-d aollill its riole and
would In appeil'      to e tilh neii first to oblitili                                                    activities. rithcipal ati ng iitse Was Ilte llservation
quatiial e results and tihni to "hard ill Ili is                                                          tihit aillhough tller Was full agrelniutit oil lte tcd fillr
iiiForrnai lI 14o
                gviiiinemlnl. I ithis colileclion, ther, was                                              splcial training if research cadres, anid in parliciular ol




                                                                                                     85
  research managers, andl meeting appladd tilhose
                            the                                                  to assess (iluantiativ            d
                                                                                                                tiltegice ofl' ltirits of"
                                                                                                                             h
  efforts recorded, there was no refierence to the role of                       aiational agriculntural research s ati.
  research vis ;t vis the universilies, nor ol'the role oldc
  universities in tie research System,even1 tsattraining                         Considerahle enpliasis was given to tiet- livd firtratlv
  partner. Although it was suggested that thin :night reflect                    im'proved systems ofvaluation, especially with regardito
  an old notion that research and tcfthitig should rVnliil                       tIle quantitative evaluatiot ofilie imjia'ct ofrescarih and
  scparmt(cl, this isunlikelv given the wcll-fuoc   tieted                       not just to its qualitative aspects. Such evalutio should
  history of the advantages accruing to aIclose association 
                    lie tivisagcd if) ti, &fisignof'prgraills.      a
                                                                                                                                 it
                                                                                                                               fand ih-i
     m
  ill any colntrics. l)iscussion was stimolitlatf. fhowever, 
                   ('intiInitis monitoring i'o(i'is '.lild  Ie .1io iltrgul tll   t
 anl details ws'ere Iloted ol'training programus given at o-
                    of'rogratm ldmning and imphf'irnlitadti. Not t tnflwill
 by internatitnal and :',
 gituttl urganiza;.ons ( IARCs 
                       SIhCit
                                                                                   I        itf i I   tiki ioItl sVIIISIt          'rf
                                                                                                                            , i I (T 
 ililitvy
                                                                                                                            I
 including ISNAR, IFAIt, ,',),         ICA,\) id th' IlndiaiI 
                  at thltpolitic'al lvcl, it will also nc'rssitate clos r"

 Institute o'MatntnageInt? 'rainting. The fitriltr                               iotcgraliot\  with the test lielhc
 iisititoional i'ratitwor'k

 strengthening ofi'atiotal i ;eLT'i sVsleIts dfi't)(fids in                                with
                                                                                Cotllt't''l overall r1'rhfutjinvit'. with which daiy to

 great iliasir oin planned dev'lopinirltl tit' f
                     the                               tlltlallr                dt           are uSSetiill SOf'rctlItIt lack .11g.

 resources to stafftlitci. Thus the institutions comtprising                    Allotitgh dt "i'v
                                                                                           t       t-k
                                                                                                       " 

                                                                                                     V,.'oI tJce,'ft il'i'sitifh is tlmiost
 the system lted to coiunsIdr very carefflly ic' Specific                       ait itig of'i1t    past., the   is still
                                                                                                                       sco,)e flllIer

                                                                                                                             liii'
 taitiing prtograms lhey will otccd, th- halaicntfl'skills                      itliprovetnrllt.

 atid discipli's required     it the rxtttit which t(.ey

                                           to
 thtniselves call play a  'ill thal illiii througho\h 

                                            g                                   An adetloiate inistitiutional l''iiillrk   is a Ircc'ssar\'
 pri Iatitoilr\ ciiilo menfivi'itt,

                             gradualte t'ituiting lutifities 
                  (colditio lilr   itc'';ased htl fi lodhtlioti..r\i(es such as
 aindtogIlanl; fl'exalelr, 
                                                    ctredi, itisti'aiice. mivikets, stotage li'iliirs, romds,
                                                                                access to inputts, attractive inilt/tltpu    ifti'r
  flt.sctintifiic tlivitit's falrstaid ill dtw innnttirs and                    1clattionshijs, ind te titical assistallc'. fi6' examptfle.,
 r'giots ('s rctt'dtli"
                  Iby       sli';itl's sliowdi a widrl"                         titlist fc loviidr d thcv  fiiiicii'etr. \'hen thse art'r nt
 ti'gctit    appltaii, vihsptially    iiislthi as itil use ofif                 providcd, it coold lappell,         as inL.atin Atrit'rca. fin'
 mtiodlrn Ifiitthcltholot  \\;Is itii'etrit. \While ill svstrtlls               rXillpli, Iatil ai
                                                                                                 firnoittr         tniglht find it t tlor pofillalhl
                     \.ilhl, 

 WVr''cCOMtDIIV'IsailI    andl otlizcd,  l()llot-'.1 l X't'vlli()lnal           subhstitunte'lol     lt' e
                                                                                                         +nsi\+r     ld liust-
 inputls, o der
 to
                                                                                                                            for        inll
 research mtttids (cotiptritefd rxjicrittiental livoitl,                                   his
                                                                                pl'tithu' lhmod. Tltr f)rstt     itld fittirr rtionatlitv ml,
 mtodelling. anal\sis. ttc.), views wtc slialply tii\'itgrtlt                   sit'lh a cast was ilistit'td  Ibystit patrli'iilmls tutu1
 rt'igitliiL, dhtapiliC;itio of'tei'itiiqtirs driving 'ront it                  Al'ica, wirri firrssttcs o   ltAtm ivtady int'r'Lsing.
 l'utntirrs c(ience.
            (its       While oil( otltc ki %-now~t splttfrs
     st''i't';il iirtiifpait, li'lt lat smthl, wotrk shlo l fir
 altint                                                                            prt'ettl
                                                                                f'hr            lisitt' mfit'liu       l tt o h 'tit was ratlir"
                                                                                                                       ,ld
 ustlt Ii lt drvvlfprf-('mItry ''etuis          tf-'t''lhia't'.", fitl           akcti lii'gwttcd illll   a limr pti        , rflert'ting some
 A     t ( i n iti ''l''itsihg sctle) and tt llllivilsithi's, 

               h                                                                iclt'u' tul'isulillitn ttftltt rtsr 'hissstr'iuis olit rest tif'
                                                                                                                                            tic
(+thwrs llilcd OIll[ ll|I14'          ~
                                    l qIcts
 zil living
                                    vt l    (la                                 dic ills[litutiollal fI+aI'IIt'w(H'k. inwrl+Ii-doll
                                                                                                                   M olt.'(                Jcmt' lxt(l

  itt ltjor
          ot') t:'thi a(ilitag omits isc olsi'h It'Ithiqius                    the ag'icittu'al im'srt'ch sstrtu ;mtl tfhre ttl','

                                                                                                                                r'trsl
 inthe dvltloi g cutit'irs. Yr ;ugait, (til(, .,tfhr                                 If
                                                                                tistintit     f't'll
                                                                                                 tiiu:s\sttk, atsslit'istruf ulovi', srritis
fItts'lists dt'pIhId ii'Mit that his 'iintry was is vit
                   Ihc                                                         a iITVssait,' ttlitin       flit a ition. dtynamic. afiprotfi Lte
 inabe o tfi tfit- ,I sttluag.s ot'ising such it''itli(lo's,
           )                                                                   indi realistic' 1st to f'hic t'lontittgirs fii' init''c;sd f otdI
haimn lirilt.r tr nlt'd
               fil-r         lllailp inot ll( +sSarly%
                                     l(v+.r r       cT                         lpn'docu+
ll.

Litililhis. 'Iis qurstiiti wis ntlt imsm'd tta         i'clitsitiu.
It(ill ;uit'i, fititm.\tr', tlii .imIlla ' lilt stronglv lhat
                                      jt                            It\was re,,'ritrfly  sltctsstid that it itl
                                                                                                          iif  point l'rt''arc'h
                                                                                                                    t
;iM' tusrl'i systrlit      itlff mh'l':.fpliiing trd adting              ith4r it tt's' fllils, itnd sumr sprtkris tmdri'
                                                                    is ill                                                  the
such trt'hhuiiqics toits towitltrs titlist no( htc   istraiti               that
                                                                    pointt it waitsa itioral nrsl)ttsilility itf'r'srcat''h
Ir+mn docing +o. lhe,olINil n vl itcxti
                                     Shoul~d b l h llcScr\'ic',s ti)lislr li th lis wa s doh Thrv c'tl li ngh+
                                                    lt       -                   c                          l.
IcihniuqIcs Cltuflovcd aol tIr uct hi i(t.,ics 

                                            h'intg                               flif 'iontien til'lhr
                                                                                                    isistc(Il(' ota widtga t wimitr til'
de'vvhlyrd shlohl hrehItt(.r
Iih~ond Ilhiom (hu past to                        loic'ntial .vidhs (i.r.
                                                                                                     tllost. 

                                                                                                            oli il'd ;it Ilh'Xp l~livrntal
                                                                                                                            C
Ot' lo' l 'ihililuihity  tiltrsit rc'rs lit
                                      al      ntioiial                         h'lvel) vithls tibfitd
                                                                                    and                            bI fillill'uts
                                                                                                                             \s';is li'titly
itustiloiitl f'',ttItir('i'k+ ft iav It suiggvstrd that thic                   citcd. Itwas Ilso stressed that ini lrgi<nltS
                                                                                                                          tl'Ai''ir           tnd
cttut lit whi'h such mni c'tn h tl t s isutitlhr'y'                            thu ( :u'iftliil'u Basin, limtd thlitits \%viv growii g

splittin and l'iispai Ills, gei'tict ligilcr'iug in plants
            I                                                                    la'tmingf attil lha slii'iil ifll shoIld fi' mictf'
                                                                                                                       tis                      ,

                                                                                                                                                v
atd advancd hiilitolgicDllsnto t           'tit. emphyed,                      givi't\'uutuclts tosltcglil         h i'ici(tul,i-l 1t(cfu lugv
                                                                                                                   ti
coiuifIl et ustfd its onte
                         olit'   inti'utlis ill flutrc ,ttenipts               tiuisfit'l sy'sullls. hAui fill'hs utf'sui'u'csslhl illttucuis ill 

                                                                                                                                                id
                                                                                                                                                I




                                                                         11t
prodtuction b.y
              somtle cnitries         (e.g., Zimbta~bwt.) were                         dhin losses in tIll( 
 and fitl
                                                                                                         Iture                     tllotlitee made finll thie
higlhighlted.                                                                          curren and polenlial utsvFluIness or'th'ose vorkers vhto
                                                                                       woulId lhlerwise. be tonsiderted ats lost.
As imiportit itselss ntiwledge is ill- lhitid prtdtuctiotn, sio
               n k
is tit ststnt (l'transftr ito tiltirtner, atnd tmotst papers
                                 l                                                     A potint only mat~trginallyIs dltit with in il papetrs
 rtet'ognized this poiti. They ;ist ptiitd   oult, htowever,                           plesented but bu ,gltout ill i disttssion, was that

                                                                                                                          O
that di Statuis given to this cotmtpottent SeestS to he lower                          (lichlo      is
                                                                                                  l\' a ve%"coiltiitlta challti't'l"         titit

tit   (liii assigtdit)
      it             tt-   tt'se;trclh rtotitponeit 'liThis ill                         lirming ector l'inliv ttittries. ( )It one hnd thtrt
                                                                                                                                     tilti'

gentral, has resolied illxetilosit servites tt1 tllralintig
                            e                                                          is tit itarke't-otritittd fatrter wlho regt rd's nes\
the" first liletti, \shirh ill n his tistlitl illihmtin"
                             t                  s                                      kitlttssedge its it 'it5'ssti y iniput lilr
                                                                                                                                 it'tased prtilits. ( )t1
            bith
pro+iirt'ss, ill        irrtims iii tut'tloi caltti tovtio
                                                  i                       atind         il' otthtr hlld lhteit' is it t.ltiliotl fiitr'     wshi sets his
int hital icstilts. "hten- ,e'etms ith- an idl'. , stock of'                           ]iriollitts tt ilesimleh' ltotdittitoll ol Iis ltaild illI Itlabor.
know\v(ledge and l 'ticsotrrt-s is noltbe(ing ost'e )\
                             tha~t                                                     'I'l+:l
                                                                                       "rhy        r. ofl'lhrse'
                                                                                                              opsle)))s varie's
                                                                                                                      s       Ivl'()ll
                                                                                                                                   c'(lilrv Ito

                < 
                                            t

Iprtducri's.* .%(\vtralhi ov'aliv'e lsli'~ lt
                                  m     th l                     r
                                                               f',                             Not
                                                                                       (ooni lIII'. aill     tt'thnlcits     au-t
                                                                                                                                Scalle.
                                                                                                                                     Int-llll; t(lr
                                                                                                                                             h
develpeliI       sslll '
               ill         liitrjs th.\stii. \hijicl aitti ltit                        It'etli'h s\ sitms as %\c'lI is 't'tllshitt      srtsitt'.ild
   m\ierica't'
           iitlrl. \sith itlsviltilt.oi., itu'stidIei    lid                           nittiptt
                                                                                       islitiitt       itt      otks, slrIitot   aci(liltel vl t             Ihilt
by\the'ir nil1ihbmihl      tcoueiiis,~n
                                     howLi\'tr                                         dlirholly. Tht'l
                                                                                                      pa)is~           fiollA\li'h'i
                                                                                                                                   anid As'ial
                                                                                                                                             hclidet(

                                                                                                                                                    Ito
                                                                                       aidlhtss+Illonr ihlcpligh41t
                                                                                                                 ol'hltic   ll tr'adlitionai~l rir~

Illhis+h is lii oillh idw l 't-csilr(~
  t   d                  l         1\ is-i'l-vis (he'                                  \\ihMlilste     l'l~illin
                                                                                                              .A\lltrit'a
                                                                                                                       Itiith' Il ili'i
                                                                                                                                  14         lizt.

                                                                                                                                                 ove~r

'xtilsittli strvi'ts
 lititittgirtg point\.itss nid
                  . i                                                                      tyt
                                                                                           llh     itsfliiiit. Th littd fillexibilhit' ill rtistlth
                                                                                                     l
                                                                                                                      ,

                                                                                                                           h
I't'alldinil
           llthraihi-dhii rr[lii
                               in.sc.iit-h 

                                       andi(

                                           tcXil siolli                                P)rl.railis,
                                                                                                 llie'rl-C-b)ecrliltoi r
                                                                                                        rt'c                         airlillotilil tnce
                                                                                                                                             impoltrl

sirx ices.
       u       lAliihs     ut'l'gv    Iliit a
                                      fi\t'n titithioi
                                                   ii           "il\I                        ;itt Iii ,i tlo , ill
                                                                                                                 it'    t    ittit.tI e l, tilt- Sit-illed
toolicls iiiI.atiin

                  Ameitrica';itht. oken~i ove'rhlooked( I'It                           s.t-roild-gliiioin p)i'ihholls
                                                                                                                    w\hich So<
                                                                                                                             ht'sclietcrly
thill
    ill~in)'     .i(ilst % h'it- Ih ll
           loll-ss        l.'ilt     n              tioinal
                                                          rtesc;ri'h                   vars od'h t (I
                                                                                        l                I ruvo IlIIio
                                                                                                     rrtI'ev         II.

                                                                     •

Sy'stemi
       ntvi-dlelts"+s
                    -omlinuvi        tolir kll i
                                         i h        l( lriv'i.c
seto~r (ohlhtirromiinlls m)id sholdh    tilhvito be
                                                  lt
irega+rded'( its.
                ailliprortlit chan ilt- reac'ithing
                                                 Ihle                                  "    iLter tile.invetting If.E'lliott hlaaihed thatthis
                                                                                               it)                                            lagl-tnl
)rod tIitIt.        the
               ""llts attuahl oiit'llliitll    illvirt.t                                        e lsngits 10%ars
                                                                                           cottllll.    s
rt'stliihtrs iihl lie. tinsiehtt'tI       vlti. issessitg braii




                                                                                  87
              AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN LATIN AMERICA AND

                             THE CARIBBEAN:

               INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND REGIONAL

                               PROGRAMS



                                                                                          Martin E. Pifieiro
                 Directr (6e'iteraI thentr-Ii ericani llt
                                 I     i t                  /or (.C'oope'r.li e it u l e (l..I ) (.CaonIciecd,. So t,
                                                        ulittle                                                     /cit, (C, ta
                                                                                                                            i Rica.
              The author extedriehit appeiation.fi ccceralian //llcne ../ila EI"/artdc lieth t, in the
                                                  the                      I   and                        pteation o/Ihi deemen.


     Introduction                                                                                                     l i r       I ,iI Iit
                                                                                                                                      ;      tr iI ' .I elli ' lo
                                                                                                                                                   ;            eIll(I al'ca I , i I I
                                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                      .\Ilr                   ee
                                                                                                                                 it'll l Ic ( :; ilcdwlh[ ice.1 %% 'Ie
                                                                                                                                                                  Ii   lhIc. . Ill l'%.
     lhe 4-'cm eoc piiilrlc ill [ll. i4He',Ihas illt ctillbi h
                llie                                    al iIlel                                                       lsI         ir licctiicg lldic %% ;I if il
                                                                                                                                                        orld eI
                                                                                                                                                              t       I al Ierliric diti'cs
                                                                                                                                                                         r
           r hclece loit.
     o liftI                 %el T 1. c\ w.t[tlcrl most
                                        I          dr'Ihil                                                            iirickcti.

     c'oleec n'ie"e

                 ee'l.;ctiri .\orfLatinice l       (
                                                 lhc iil:.oibhc llhas

     vc rstl    d Ir todte iletiecr,iit
                               wl              ooe itioccs ire iicie'lclioll:

                                                                           l                                           lhrc IlIwill ,elnh'llal gloe I ri l       l'il J icers 
 hl ink
                                                                                                                                                                   im             hiaes
     mifllkf ',.,',,i lI hevrtreloW
                      .           r      1.re, h- m ,m Ill i i l                                                      li4    i11                                                              ll 

                                                                                                                                -'o.I Icl r.tl Ii           , 1
                                                                                                                                                         er;ill 47o tee    flee           Ie
                                                                                                                                                                                         ie 
 li l
     l ofhecl'       I t",. %.ilethese
                         cd
                        rie                      ecllv i i.,          in tlit-                                        Iiqie       I 1.182. 1hi.
 ll oli li lie
                                                                                                                                                       m           w     t      l       Ilieelcigin
     iletlci lioirne                    , vcc h pilc
                                            .4lc             ieliilij",             cir
                                                                                  ,itli
                                                         t                                           %%
                                                                                                     \\cb                   i I ,-;1ie
                                                                                                                                1                    c
                                                                                                                                              pcIlrlet cr    \ hit1hill ie;ct,. cases livid
                                                                                                                                                             %i
      ll      ij s      r l i eile int
                                    .1          m hIt,li e ri.rnci,,i I                  ,lie-
                                                                                         1t                              rkli i ll eI. er l
                                                                                                                      Ich              l    es.           t . I.i eri ls a d (rlil          iltcll

     mtid 4,
        1 'e,eleecie .11ld hI(1:1ecj iI -. i,
        l e        ,         h         l ics,.                                                                        iieeeie i lic,gf-m' e.'

                                                                                                                                           i el4-%iecp'illf-ilt ill Ihere-ijri. 'Ic
                                                                                                                      Ilt rlles%, el
                                                                                                                                illi eell i              s
                                                                                                                                                        hissil1.1lill is          lial. ill
                                                                                                                                                                                          II'lcilt \c.lrs,
 'IT p.                                                ,
   hi-,        c
            %%ill
             r. pl,,\  i     ll il
                              I       , 11I5 liIm I                                                         iri
        -LII( ,.)it --.s.llili,, .t111d ; s.ih'\\ thatt i, .LtlN
 illltl'.l                      .
                                                                                                                  e   \  r tlevlw
                                                                                                                               lilr iIcfall ia ter Ifill lc
                                                                                                                   rv"-.,t'dr'dilldh,\\ ,d'(.\14'r i1il I I'soll cs od\'-ills
                                                                                                                              Ill
                                                                                                                                                 ..                 eiill
                                                                                                                                                                       h1. r
                                                                                                                                                               I
 \lictjieif. ezis           11I,1 reeti 

                                    cll
                    e,'si rd.'c Icel'\t,                                                                          kind',.
 ,il if III ,Il pl,,ec i,,1 impIc 
 l ,1 'Ill % 16r

                    l(it'll                 ,6it c
 I(.l(li\.c       ill ieIC      e I
                           (.4olllc . I If)\\ e ci. i, lee
 e ildilils ill

                                              \                    l
 t         icitrlction matke eic e. lagi lito Iecdue
 ti11
              e rlu           cl          r       I      iil        ol'elcc                                                        1No. .
                                                                                                                                      I      Im ill .\rccr ecif.: (c;1c 'l\IIdifi
           ql h     ~           ecciies, ,., lec ic cl le
                eel ', eei. e.i,.              l               cc,  c~I l                                                                    re,., iIehIlll.i, ie.ree ci ll
                                                                                                                                                                               atllcS (elrt\c
                                                                                                                                                                                           Ill

                    Ilee       I( eeeitiec of Ied n l kct
 pelilics i, . idopcd i ll Il c,oc 
         ,                                                                                                              -   ­      -      ­
 I eledilit l.sicd ill.ie ,lrl I, li Ilcill.    n
                                                liS I tiec r",                                                                                                      1 ,-7           7c-l8c 1        l~he.i.
           11cri '  i ,,lnd II,'~(.,(
                         t," I
                          ll    1 1,'       4
                                          o, tlwio ill   Ihr"
 ;lrilicehlil            w         el
                                    d        l
                                            cl i, ec\\Il.si ieirdli Sc.el                    .                        lotal                                          .6...-            i.         11.11
 it-scrl       h     clicclilr. Ilie
                             .cii               locc.lli/,c l icesilo
                                                        il lll                             ciIin
                                                                                              ill                 A\~li'c11ih111.                                    3.5              3.7         2.1
 thissec lo,:-.               s
                         illlll .sc- iell       c c\                    eil
                                                                       hriccic      e
                                                                                   e-                                 \c trh r           leri Ilia
                                                                                                                                                 lide                0.l              1.2         01.1!
        i ii
 illllrll 1;                 c   l4,i,;e
                                  / it'          cIl
                                                ,ll Ie. i        c II I lIieci
                                                                 jil                     l illd
 Ilcicrd t de\ elIe ,i i4- si le el icrIII i,cili
                                               e                                                 I                    ll dllclioncl

                                                                                                                       elelr
cci e lc ,li ll

                                                                                                                        e
                                                                                                                      :r1 s                                          0(1             357          2.5
Economic Reactivation Through                                                                                     livist,,k                                          .A              1.3         -(1.3
Agriculture                                                                                                       I"-dslllkt

                                                                                                                                     ,
                                                                                                                                                                     I.0             3.11         1.7
                                                                                                                  I",oodsll lerl
                                                                                                                              l               i'llis                 II               1.3        -11.7
Tlcdiai       , IlilliA iti if'          llt           s Me.1 cc lrirr               eclitell
                                                                                      '                           I e,I.isieIeIf         clrej11                                       .-I         I.10
(lecilcecej         I li i rle'
                              igo..As ille\i'rIllle, ;I P')t WlII I'ilt
                                                   (               i                                              E'
                                                                                                                   x                i ,,l)s
                                                                                                                                ll) re                              2..A             5.-          3. 1
fic           li.          l iri
                        illil rele         tee1 olt,, ee1-( I
                                                         1                cs        lthr least
ti              e('ildrs,
           IrI-re    . \gri(            ec I
                                        i lia
                                        I        erod
                                                    ti         rlif
                                                                ll             elas
                                                                               c\pel i     eel                    s                      1
                                                                                                                            cI :I II)11. l ll ll1 ccr i.
       If e/l
            l leer e;ecita ill ( ier I lle iNi, "abh . I ), il( ill
            rt
            c        a               f
cases srrli ilslivi-cstoc-k, iirossi Ili b leerr rLli'i
                                                     leliV..                                                      'I'llispillit ce risis is I etchud\ Ifl(.
                                                                                                                                I'                 h     lilowihng
                                                                                                                  lirli lerris:




                                                                                                        119
 - The cotilltries an. incri-asing1% Illiabit. to geill-rate
                                    .                                               ill till- ilgrit-1111111-al st-clor thall ill othl.l. arvas ol'tilt.
      interlial savings with whicli to Sustain long-11.1-111                       ccoliolily. Ftirilivrillort.,                     polic    colldidolls ill-v
      ccolloillic glowill. Thus, ill%.(.Sllllt,.Ill ill key sectors has             I Lvoraljlv and dw wdolological ilillilovatioll procuss is
      bl-1.11lilililt.d. a sililiklioll which has        rXilcerbalt'd             ildequale. agrivillillit. could not have all illipol-litill
      ill I-ccent N.(.;;;-s In. (-vvI-gI-o%%ing v,                                                      oll ille I (-Sl ohliv 4-colloilly. 'I'lle
                                                                                            ing illipm is %ollldbc 1(.It:
 - The colliltrivs F I(.(.incl.-asing (fillicillIN ill oblailling
   forrign vxclliuu v tilloligh expol I (Ille to 1:111ilations                     ;I)    I.o%%I.I- Iclaiivv III ices for loods and raw loall-rials oll
    associated %% plow( liollist ;, vilds, 
 Ll vall.l.
                 illl                                                                     Ili(- natiotial and inicroational niarkels woold maliv it
    competiliolt fi.olll dt-%vlopcd coullif ivs, and 
                                   possiblc to illcleaw o%,(.t;tll dt-flialld ill Illv vt ollonly as
    a substalitial sol-IIIIIS ohnally 1))(141114
                                              is.                                        it %% little.

    Efforts to, lvilcti%Mc national indlisil ics Ila, I. brell sel                 b) Till- gencrillioll of it Illitiol. 1-collonlic sill-plus woilld
    back In high invesont-iii (Irmands ;tnd tilt, !)I                  ol*               1.611161cf. doll)cstil, saVill."s and capilill lorillillioll fill.
    Ii ado. bill Iivrs to ploln I ilidusil ial ploduclioll ill                           ill%.(.Stlll(.Ilt ill (1111cr sectols ol'Ille ecollooly.
    d(welop'-d ( (1111111 irs.
                                                                                   I-) N(-%% piodocts lit, lit-%%- ol'kitim ii prodiw(s %,.ould
                                                                                                                 ijws
    Lillie ol'Ille mililabIc lcclljlokl" has            ildopled,                      be initoduccd, alld IIIv dcloalld %Nooldglow lol
    (11-spile ill(. vilivigem c ohle%% firl-ds ol*l)lo(lll(.(.Is (14)                  processed goods NN hight-I
                                                                                                             ilh             %allic.
                plofilabilit\ ) iold doill'-slic and liol-rigil
     onsoincis Imailiet saturaii(ju and tilt- ];I( kohit-w                         Present-Day Conditions of the Demand for

    oplion             Illoducisaild nc%%
                                        11-chnologirs to                           Agricultural Com modities


                                                                                   We have argiled thal 1111(fl-I colldiliolls (11'

 Till' MliCUIllitill S111111 ill I.;1liIIAIllVIiC;I isI'Mul gillt; its             v\lernal indt-bledlirss and capitill lestriclioll. till­
 olle ohlit. bvsl illiel li;tli\ csa .Iililblv to 1114-mullilivs fill, 
           ilgricultill-al Ni-clor isIt-vint-IL"ingasall 1-rollonlicaclivity

wa%%alicning (.4   wimnit.           ill midt-i divs.. conditions. 
               ill a I'llvill-abic positioll to plonlow overall I.(olionlic

Then. iov h\o lvjsolj 1"I IlliN. Ill (114. placc, 

                                                lilsl                               -Ill%%This silliation. llom-\ 4-l-,s slibil-cl lo Ilic

                                                                                          Ill.                             i
;Igli( 1111111-al

                p1odIl( tioll ill I..Ilijl Alorl i(.,l II;IN                       icsintints (ifdmocslic and %\()I d inailiel (Icilland.

                                                                                                                         I
CoIoI);II*idi\ v a(k .111laqrs m (.1[Ili[( of othel coolill ics (of'
 dw \N ol Ill, duc to [lit- ahundillwo. of Ilaillial Icsoill-cus                  'I'llest. I I-sil aillts (ill Ow (Icilliold sill(, alld Illvir c1li-cls oil
 ( I'llid, \%awl .             I n Ille Second place, capital                     III(. Inal kel and pl." vs of iti. l icollill ill plodorls Ilavc
ijiv.-stinviii jwcds IM li%i-stock ptoducfion pci tink if'                        a xilill illipact fill till- lliltille oklgrit oltill-11 (Irvelopilivill.
otilpill .114.less 111,111 oFfitlivi scclols 01,11111
                        Illose                                                    (                  dw\ hold ouliol illiplicalions till. dic
(Tollolll , pill lit 111;111%
                            indlistl                                              Inagni(lidl. alld (joalitalk.t. cha lacicrist ius of,
                                                                                  wchliolo"ical innovalioll ill Ow agricilltill-al scrim.
Uliclillivatcd li Ililt. hold k ilo 11011g(.1   vasilv available,
and        ill c ( Ival Signs III;.I Ow v\pallsion .11*111f.                      The               S(,(lor, and pal licillarly ill agriull II Ilre, hils
               Ii-olitil.l. is losiII4 impol 1.111(
                                                  4,as a sotlice of,              lladiliollall\ bvi-lot ilw             Stollc oh-colloillic
giowth. Nvvi-dirless, Ili(- piocrss is no( hilly comph-tc,                        (11-v(dopliwill ill Latin A1114-licil. Ploduction was
and lo daw has illlom-d illv w4ion to cxpalld prodliction                         Vxpalldvd 11%.   Inaking list. 111,111ccompantlivv advaillagcs
M a cost It)\\(,[. Iliall thal ill 'itlicl palts ol'ille morld wilh               oIv\l(-llSivt. land resotliccS.
li-wrl 11,11111al wotlict-s                  lvpoll).
                                                                                  Envilolloll-111al (olldiliolls \%I.I(. ill(.;[] fill. I)f.o(lll(.illg
Whill. Ilv\%Linds ( ontinlit. to bc opf-Ill.d. 1114)(1cloi/alioll                 Willperale zoll(, I rops and m.rt- m-11 silited to dlv
ol'aglicullolt. and (11*111v    inclall v( olloilly has wilded to                 ('111fivalioll of,11-opical clops not prodoced ill industrial
I)IISII (It(- Iabol lon.f. illo) orball activilivs. AS a if-still,                (.olllllli(.S. Latill America Own-fin-c villciged as a major
therv is a             shol lilqc 401   tifillial labol . and                     slipplit.l. ol,;Igli(.Illtlll;il goods Io li-cd I-collonlic
                  pills aw im rvasillgl% lit-cf."Sal % In                         developlilvill and il glo\% dcliland in illdlls(l ial
                                                                                                             ing
gelivrill, tilt- Irgioll Ilas illcivasi'd its list,                               ('011"DiCs. 'I'll" Wgioll COolitills IMICIV 7-5 Pt"'C"'It 0i'dw
(Ill-olli'll loodi-1.11 illpill's alld 111al Ilincly, 1111IS
                                                          Irplacing               %solld's  Pol)"Litioll, bot I"oo, Ili(i,-, It) 197o it gell VUMI'd
labor ill prodoctioll.)                                                           I'Vild\' 7.5 PrITTIll (11,1114.
                                                                                                              wolld's lolal expor(SoHilod
                                                                                  silills,             ;Md loba(To. Flo", 1975 11)       1979, this
          gifillcill stiggl-SIS Iha[ 11-m-livalioll is Illon. fi-ilsibb.          pvI( villagi. had fillIvIl to              I.-) privi'llf    Ilited




                                                                             90
 Nations, 1979- 19110 S WtjkiiiI Yea;rbook).                                                                          diroppedl sharply atsfihe stagnation oil                i   sages

 'Ilie expdilllg potenItial oiji iieriiatiolilti ra,                                              wiuti its
 cyclical tiilds            anottil                de111li-irilrtitg tertlts ii traldc,                                Ille (illm. oll is delilt haIs ieti   Ilie gettetai slultj ill
went liand-in-liatli with atdomestic tiarkect which grew                                                              recenit ve Irs expt-rititcl by Ille iindulstijal sector, which
quickly and steadiily. Tis %%was ill pat io raplid
                               tIi(e                                                                                  had llaliiillcd (lie dhemanid fin. agicuituraiy hiaseti raw

 miigraionl      Fromi         Iliropei       and( a high birthi rate. Tilt                                           sutisaiied overall average alllllai growth rtils oliteariv
poliatio        iii   i   11       o~rl tol     I qfll    ,-1'V    1110111
                                                                         2ll(       tlliliilii          ll Dsivili            perrellt             as oI ll
                                                                                                                                            lblt              ofl grollh     as 1)1111 ilegatwte




112 oillil~llj            I)VII     I     I   f, IlI        I 11       1).1 IIIt                                      il         ca s




lIl-Ildlil X    1141           alliaol 111111 alld            ill.some till
                                                                     I                  l,        111                Icclica             loul           n visl             lludcr c4

   il
IMS~        t1~iol illsWI~l 111IS,hllo11
                              o                                    I    -4 Illill1ill                                 be1ioiiditilgltingo    Podttll conlilcic                    t    n   lels

 h Ill ,1      lltallco           isplt        l       1111111 ljff I ioillf go
                                                        of                                   il    and
 commodcities, Ihavte lr'-rralcling illtilic':ctliis lilt. tiln 
                                                                 These tcicl iilhgicl inluits ;Iti jprtucl by inclnstt's'.
 design ol'technlohgic.l stnaltigies in lati \llmricac. 
                                                                          Iths ctcrges ne ii'the: gictest iicitiliigi'all

                                                                                                                                                                                      ,
                                                                                                                                  dilictiltis and oii. il'Ilt       tllcost secc'iO l dlhillllas liil

 This ipatcr will nt git' all inxic:                                                acaticlsis
                                                                                 vcc't         tct 
                              ccitlliicnce policy' in li' i'itilictlits I I'l.atl Am rita,

 chli:actcri.stcs lihat such a tlrit'l                                         ' shild upossess. 
                                csost.cwi'itlh               ilin
                                                                                                                                                           ' vluitc       tiicts ic'ritlhtttIil exliots.

 Hossvier. we witicld like iti licw :ittitttniill tilihrv itictis

                                                           t
 whcicli :cp ii'ar t-sj .ically iiocltjcc t: a) atjtic\'s tihat 
                                                                 II is '\istlcii thcat ti'cctiltigtc':l   cnnoiit ccit 'cictlttrial
                                                                                                                                                                               a
 ssWttiit cctAi         :
                   ;ci1 M444Iti'Sitaict
                                    stiic i af':ciC tcltuiI 
 illils

                                                   gIi                                                                            plu'    iicic,. andt! th' ii'stlting ability li voi p tv in
 ol'inidiiciisiil origil; It) ac'c'iss ti) sltati'- dilti-art 
                                                                  i t        ic ct~i cinik'it, drii'c ann ili'iqi cat i'. ply of*
                                                                                                                                                  Il                      nft
 tic        l oi         , s c h . i i"genctit'cs; aind ') tl -dv'rih;jicil. 

                            c                                                                                                    tiittcilologit:al llints ofi n t i il tliii,                  o 
 il
                                                                                                                                                                                    ticl iitgnding ie
      ici i l            i'od
                            nts
                             'lI   t'cl ic agi i'cltil'..
                                                                       Itoicl r olictu an knioishdgt          id av iliclh. it 'iosts

                                                                                                                                 +c'otlpilribh.ill tho..w cl'l rd ill .nilitor conflicting

 The Importance of Technological Inputs                                                                                           c.iclitc.ics. I)iiMrs tihis cccn that ill ouc 'oritcis sitili
                                                                                                                                 iciliti' iolit'ics to il cIilq andi ilcoti'ti iilcstriis \ Iii'in
 Tilv a rii'ctllni l pi lccttioi                                    tli%IIt '\ljc'iI''           t''ld ill tli 
                 ssill jiodct ' thtltliigit'l inpuccts fir act'ic lturc'i'.
 indiicsti~a i] d %,,Ii IIIl                                   t
                                                       cillc ciI  lt'i'Itijlit iccitllnivs is

  itl'irci t cllt+Icllc'
                       oli 'itt
                            v.I                           ii'l 
 hiicti sitii;      1ctiithcistll
                               Tis       l itii ia+ciot lci' 1ics\sii'l  s-ittitit I'cali gl thal
 dcccai'',. lhv icl acit is                             l      pl i clittitlal ) l i il       i 

                                                                                              w                                  n1.11\ ( iillilti's ill Ltatc Al'i'c+it i'tp'cia ly tilno . t'Iwhi'
 .i c tia          ti'ic
                       'i    l I Li' r 1m 11itill lt. jcti. is
                                                 , t                                                             ill 
             tit ll tt unc h'rg                a iitlor in l titriali/at       itcl ccstic

 Ic'ild      iticI ll t t ritt /tIIitsI
                                 iI                    .

                                             i . 'itI t(tIhIlqI
                                                 F                                                                               iIiIIollt,,itsv h .ch.c         aio, ha'tecdv l         d iii di strial sectis r 

dc\        hlop lf-t      ,%   ticd.vtilti.'c Ii ll itiiii%
                                    r                           ,                                               i tilt           \%shii'h
                                                                                                                                 cttcc                        itctlccnli'
                                                                                                                                                                o oul          i i itctc ofh . ijndlistl'ia

     liiis 1ritici l         t       l    ,i     l icilic..in                    tat          hi'iit                                      ' ltV
                                                                                                                                              i         i cI
                                                                                                                                                           lilta         g i 'ct; ciii ii                             itcliciiol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                rttctcs.      ttlih'cicii        cii

          lhill gst' l, ih tiiic d i! Ift. it.t
           iji     i
                 iiaki isc ,       i          (
                                  ltIt      ci'     pi rn d "11
                                                           ,ii' sitt.                                                               ltlici'.        lo'i'c'albic' l icci cil ' icic':vcizct irill '
                                                                                                                                                                      o                 c
  iiit liHitlinltcitla itti' Iili      citri<' i'ill t ..tl ,.,utitc .is li
                                                               i       c                                                          inclcclii'Ic . I+til iri' l t ['i ctlgl .
                                                                                                                                                                          cd       t   ccccI'hxiit is
                                                                                                                                                                                                 '
 ii '           'l
            t1l% ii' ;o l hf Ijc     ils        , lci' i
                                                   .c        gc ;is
                                                             i            cc                                                     l Iciicl iolithid.
                                                                                                                                 c               unlc \\ hi,h                dvcic
 Icci icil            ) li' 1titlIt lic Iii1-uitiili I
                                            l                                           , l i itiii           s Io,'.tili\'      I.w;I iic'd st inltiuic tic ;Iivi' c ilii
                                                                                                                                   ,o(                                          titusit
                                                                                                                                                  ol i~n-thqmt.. i s+,tll~ltcI Io va 
 ixicccul
                                                                                                                                                      1.                          VIioHI
"'I e %\
  h    idv...lvt+d owh.,"                                111.n1n1ah"
                                                                .I.1"u,, ht'joi As.Jlla\~t                                       handltic'apls.\ hit~h dh' lc'v oIl .o
                                                                                                                                              A                             i     'l l 'o llilehxilx' is

 ltvt I            illilct        ishiit         d           cisu,l t i
                                                                ,               .1 s glml
                                                                                       ,,l                                      i'il           edi,)ct
                                                                                                                                                   l         ,.\'c, citcici'll
                                                                                                                                                              '                                       illpli           llci cconllit' i s ()'
in     rcl(n,Ii
          i                  hI i' iI
                                   itc]illt(i s         It     i   II      if      '          il l I :
                                                                                              IIo                               t'lns         ic' "
                                                                                                                                               ill         ici cllcu'i
                                                                                                                                                                    l            t'il clit'           kc
                                                                                                                                                                                                      lizi'i     ocl     txi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           c     ccik'tcli V
-wt'illaw d 11                   pllo     m r.d,I
                                     (. ,II'vltl[i n u i .1s-     l
                                                               otIIi                                                             InIhv
                                                                                                                                    IIvil              Inl'~ . TIh cI o
                                                                                                                                                        I,~'t
                                                                                                                                                          rhsl| v 'I
                                                                                                                                                            . lt,' Il l f f0 41if)Il c+a IIf)Iv iI
                                                                                                                                                                                    Ix I         t't
F~or v'xaIll1 lh., ill Ilhc t".hl'd Slallc'. halflv't l oss ill(. flow~e                                                        mainta~iln div . 1o'ht.h 11 [l o ('tltlillic"
                                                                                                                                                t             .
1. l w l it lilt ;11H~ , ifn lis,,d lIm t quil ill,
                         .       is                                                                                             C"omll ilivr'lics, r I ft vd.l, 11 cl+', ~
                                                                                                                                                                         l lo~rl.+ Ividth111t' , h \w
indhnw i i;lll\ ));I,' (I il Uil, IIlcclhil 11c[t.al. [,),!.: ;).that                                                                tlint' ht!tu~t'aw
                                                                                                                                               po       v h'tii-w k,,ow ledgv lo ,t'ctcn byv
                                                                                                                                                                   fi

                                                                                                                                 cat'lll s ill onci' stiuls ha s Ii to i' 'cli          (.i' cii
                                                                                                                                                                                             o'lcc'i" 

 lh' I'tict h iic
           hi     i, ,i     l l Ilipdi, lc lil :\ctii' if. i
                                            il                                                                                  inl ,tic ic '.ssitl sIloii illl'rcciicllll litc's, iplliti
                                                                                                                                              t                                              g ill

ic's' intlv' si Ic iIit, [ i. ,I i i tiiii i'l ccl diith'
                                                       eii                                                                      a, siltii' ci 1 'iitl ti l i      ,,Iij l\uiistis, 117 0).
                                                                                                                                                                    Is
iciciitlcciiiict , illt's t. cc 'iic4.1 '
                                    i 1   icllil l I (;il
I.ioth'g1u IM [aic'I cI l'ii c. l c iI citw
        ic 
 ic         .                        +tt'ijcc'                                                                      It is tlicidciut             of 'ivssacs
                                                                                                                                                                       \to i iciccilIit:cc'tilci cisc-i'-b
                           In i I 'cilt        \ c .         F i        \ Il    iIi'.        cII dw
                                                                                                 h'
                                   I ;i      llx   iillatiill oltlic sit                  atini    c'llcccliucclicg iciduls              ities
hl'iiict             .iiil
                      ,          ' c l ti ci
                                        hs.                   kils ,li':cilizi ,'ti                        ' islu'tl            \i ic h ipr dnuct'i                  i       tcclr1cl         ccc
                                                                                                                                                                                    il:tpii , and                      i l     llil
  cii" c'l ci.. hiih i\t tll-' I.s i ,ll lilcittic.' had
              i                    k                                                                                            i':a iu it ili','h-a h    I nt"y dcivi'lli :stliu ly oIf
                                                                                                                                                                 t
golc%% j'l kilts p l i t' III I , i
         iiIf                              M                 -ltot: cull).                                                         i l c'n'ul Ic'htiil14iuacl iclilis ccch'c conclitiis oI
Ilhr Ni ill ,pluc'm l ( Ii llt i .li ",c,ii'it i,'s a nd l, Iliiids tl(                                                          'ciuc ic ic oii l t'iti''i's,. In ccn t , il:iti.'s     s
       1
Slit )            p'iisis i%i.ill              (uc , sllg,11                    '. cIII si\ hiill s is                          hl        ltni'u 'itolillI         l' l iliiliitt'lhics. inv,'o ll bvi lltc''isS                      l's'     lt
siiccmi k sdI
        Is                       ci,                    \cv i lch'ilit
                                                          icl   it                       '             c          iciccc         fill( v          't t ' ii"si ol cccl
                                                                                                                                                               i 1 ''1                         i
                                                                                                                                                                                        ni,,ccc.lh               mporting icildicts
                                                                                                                                                                                                               icicl
illl i Io              il        r   Iltnllt'dl iitx :itLasi'l (tiitsic i'itl ul.. T hA
                                                         h                             '                                        lccl.c' :l~ 'tvi
                                                                                                                                             i              llt 'illtcl'is
                                                                                                                                                                      cl lt'i ccll cll ' sc iso itl
                                                                                                                                                                                  c i'i     i s
cclljci t         nti'" of this ti'ihcl                luu i al iiiiliii tiici iicii'i'css                                      tluilrillIcit st                Itl' anc
                                                                                                                                                                   JicilliIflows sclicly. ( )ilic'wis',
It's i <s illilt- * 1 'c.[
                         n..1 ,I- itc i~~~t' i, tl +l l ll                                                                       11r4.hl'i i, lag'tl~
nisicli'si.cctci' i~ln' d ,iiic'usiciti' is it   ",iciacic rui                                                                  tici' :cgcicni iitl scic ', willln t tl~ a yd lr.s n€ cl'its
                                                                                                                                                                      iccc're'sii
                                                                                                                                                                              i'L        11si ct n
 ciciics . i
    I     dlia         cuII.I       iIc
                      14dIIIc dIIIicc it c iil Ifiic lusts ;IcIillII
                                                   l                                                                              ccil Icic to I ci iit'iii acIi 11d insc.I I' Ii c'
                                                                                                                                                         II     I( hI               rd-tcc'ussic in
n'uisc'iccu'ntIs'y icc(cI'.csi'i I ltlip-kclic s       l cinacticonal
                                                      yiiv i                                                                    cnIcfiicI t icn ilc(IIin  li fcS        ItnrniIictuI
                                                                                                                                                                     I*il
inl tccirns lill thisi. cl iccitics shid, lis' i lo iiih. Aii'klyill ;                                                          c'tuc iic iiii'i'cc' ss.
ctinlicitilliciic'r l ti'cad t'-'                              ic'tl 'hini.




                                                                                                                           92
 A second iiccessary staige will Il hjIr tIlt .r.gitili to 1begil    Sietici and wclitil poulicies andifiii ihi( tirgalizaliini
 greater productiotn Caipacity fin. liiedrd iiiiut-ials. This        ol itscarcil and lechltttgs g(1itio s'iisill
                                                                                                       mu               tihe
 process wsill tj 16iio
            iIlav                cd~tondiins and gideilines'         ;Igi a liii         stec.tor id our. tlliirics.
clearly dtisigiivd iti sireniigliteii, ratlcr thani ssi-iki, The
                                   t
coiniptI it veiess moii r agiic m iii!r pr diicili.
                                                                     Thbe Developmrent of N~ewv Products Based
Coiccisie p~roduictioni viidvavstrs icto         hei
                                                 liniiliildtits'     on Agriculture
 part o41hit stiaitgy iidI)td, (l Stich iil appiiiiil will



an( l(
  ttopci      iiin iloflillji ii'aiil nd Icliloicitii
                svi y                                        iii            nitty ectiisiTiatl pllm-si'll. i\iiillingliis
                                                                     .it-                               u




                                                                    imipact tha t(iiISe jiiti..s.c Iliaic htild oil prinliary

Access to State-of-the-Art TIechnology                               iitodlitioll. 1 if'oI priil-iii is iliiail weill kiio'il.





loii Itsluhic ittuilmuillili Ili:.itmis in.1 il i rc
                                                 imtt Ii'.o i'.
                                                          1                     .   hi     %t colotllol)g c lilio a i l



baii i siti
   l               iliptta oiliisli    iit ittitbi 1wtm
                                                 h                   iclliiri~l jtthiit.n dwili 'indusiitiScoand illis
filmutsitiiizi fili [ ittulc il i i   %\iiltl tiputu s tI mis.
                                         hrit                       iuip ni
                                                                          c   int wliaII11gi al iiSm.i5 tli tlill 4tut lllln
                                                                               ei




                  coi (I '( Xl ol(s ss b o l rid i im alIl
                       pc iOv ll ol                                     c                  4 lp ci \   f L~
                                                                                                          iIIJ9I3v
 International Organizations and Regional 
                                                                    training. This st-colid Stage %%,its especially visible ill the
 Programs 
                                                                                                    agricillull-ill smor, whel.t. institutional developillent and
                                                                                                               training programs acquired a liew dilliclisioll ill the
 N1 tilt inational organizations and programs canic i.ito                                                      I960s Mid cit"IN' 197os.
 being with particular strength after World \\'ill- 11. This
 was ;I lime of'vigoroos, productive international                                                             These prograills werv lill-gely sliccesslill, and thl. vilin-ts
 rchitions, when industi ial countries victoi ious ill ill( war                                                illade by most ol't1w coontrics oil [Ile contillent It-d to
 were concerned about the possibility ohivw illk-I ll;Lti();Iil                                                rapid devvIopillcill ol,1111111all Icsollices and olpublit.-

 conflicts. 'I'lley launched it pvI iod ill which collillioll                                                  Sector ills[ itutiolls committed (o rescal-cli and tt-clilliflogy
 ill(CITSIS ilod iLVit'W 01*;ill ilitcl-l-clated wof lit Ivccivcd                                              trallsk.r. Tllvsc clliw(s should contillut., alid ill(criladollill
 sprcial attention,                                                                                            01'gillliZiltiOll, IMVC ifill)(WI;Ilit 1-014- I)I;L\'. TIIV\' IIIIJSI
                                                                                                                                       ;Ill                to
                                                                                                               ('001wralt. with ill(- cmintl ics, adapting [Ill- illslitilliolls to
 'I'll(- United Nafions was rvawd ill                    alotig with its                                       ongoing challge'i ill vach locill context iold to ill(­
 S SWIll 01*Sl)l'('i;Lli/,('(l 11-ClokiC,11 411giloizatiolls, and the                                          elorl-gelice ol'ilv%\ plohivills. Ifo\%twvI., olgallizatiolls alld
 ( )AS appeill-cd ill lo.111. This was killowc(I hy dw                                                         n-giollal ploglaills have begull to dvvelop a 1111111ber (If'
 rstablisillill-lit of'otlivi. oig'allizalimls obcying it % ide                                                activities that relli cl if nt.w view oFillit-I national

 rilligc ol'u-chnical lualAltus and %% collsidt-l-able
                                     i(II                                                                      coopl-ratioll and oull-li dw begifilling ofa Illird slage ill
 "ro        -ilpllic (.o%.(.[ age. I ICA. thl. of-gani/atiOll %%C                                                   1-volutioll ol'ti-chnical cooperation.

 t'VI)IVSVo(, W;IS CITMC(l ill [(112, Mid 11111S I)ICILI(CS the

 United Nations s%.;ivin. I is sp-t-ilic inandittv was                                                         This third Stage lecogilizes that di-veloping countrics and
 rescarch and training (ill- (liv Ainvrican nopics. Under its                                                  Illcil. illsti(Illiolls havi. llialurctl and that the lop priority
 Ltics" Convention, Mlich went into cIfi.c[ ill lollo, dw                                                      ohnivi-nitfional coopt-ration should Ill. to carry oil( filsks
 hislitille has it inalldatc fill (oollcriltion ill at,                                                                                                               -yond the
                              I                         ricoltill-c ill                                        which ill-c ol'soch a Ililturv of, Scope as to lic bi.
 Latill Anwricil alld Ill(.( :aribbrall.                                                                       pol-viv\N oFtIlt-sc illstillitiolls. Tllc olgallizaliolls should
                                                                                                               also IlvIp illitiatc collIpIcluciltal-Y c1liwis alliong
 11114-111illional Irchnical olgallizaliolls wvw ollgilialk                                                    developing coolill-irs llull Shan silililill. problems and

 bilscd oil it vcr\. sillipl'.. c\114-111cly allf-aclivr Ova. Thc                                              visions.

 indusil ializcd collillf ics, Imi Ily aN a 1.(.Sllll o1*111vil. efforts

(1111 dw waf , had dc\cloprd lilajol Ic(Illiological and
    ing                                                                                                        11Ciol bV Stilh'd, ill S1111111MI'\ , thill ilIll-l-HiltiOlMl
ilidUSIHill IMIC116.11 IIIM I Mlld bV IISCd fill' lWil(TIol ClIds                                              pl-ograills, cSpl-cially at IIIv Icgional level, shoold
as a lool lill. (Ickvlopilivill.                                                                               clupliasizc (If(- following (-SS(-Illi;il fillictiolls of'
                                                                                                               illiernaliollill coopclillioll ill Illis third Stagv:
'I'll(- olgailizildolls %%vrvall vIiii icill Ill( ( liallisill fill
 illipleffivilling this 11-1
                           llllojmt tiallsli.l. and Fl( ihlildll                                               a) 1111cl lialional organizations sholild do those Illings [ill.
 Ille usc olt(.( llllolov, 1( Sol\'(- d(wi-loplilvill ploblvills. At                                              whivil Ilwy aw best cquippl-d (Ior -which divy have
 [he saille lilliv. Icklivi.1%. IvSS-dvvdopvd ( oillillics coilld                                                  a CoIll paral ivc advillitit'gv) and %%Iii(.Il illcy cill) do

cStablidl dicil. o%%n illAilli(iolls and Ilaill IlIvil. o% ll                                                      bvill.l. thall the coolltrics and ill(. national

pcople,                                                                                                            olgallizilliolls. Exalliples illcludc:

Later, ill illv lobos, c\ en diollgh Ille illlcl national                                                          i. 	 Berallse litm. ille ill it bvilt.l. posilioll (1)gencralilt.
programs had achirvc4l striking soccess, divii- vision                                                                  and cilJoy access to ;Ibr adcr Framework of'
bvi,                'I'llf-v had ;1(hivvud a If(-\%'
                                                   ;mill-clicss of'                                                     histillitiollal diversil\ (Illon. silliations undcl.
t I W (I i Ili Ct I I I i V% ili\'01%    411 i I I I I'; I If Sli- I l'il ILI,I CCI II1010   y                                        to    iili;ll\,Z(. it shaw        d    ploblvill),        dic\      . shoold

williolit it collipollunt oFlocal adill)(alioll. Ill dir scl ond                                                       "'ellellilenew idem oil problvills ohegiollill Scopc alld
I)Iil( v,    d(welopilig           c(mil(lics           (licillsvikcs           S.m   a 111-rd to                      I-devillice.

I r(ball, inslillitiollal               nw(     11,111isill,    alld    11.1ill   Ict Imicill

pv1solincl. aild [fill, villb'll !:;,,I if Illow                                                    and                    national organizations hloplldlllwidemllppull
                                                                                                                   ii. 11111.1 	
st'll'-suslailled plot vNS S(ivillifir ;old wchilical
                           of                                                                                          wnhes to thv comm irs and national organizations
devc1oplovill              as   ill(- I of livi'lolic          oh-colloillif.                                          ill al-cas          where    Size      of. access        oficil       posc

devc1ollincill.                                                                                                        adillillisil-alivc            coils(     raill   is    (tcchllicill          and    Scientific

                                                                                                                       (if.financial and administrative brokcrage,
Illwi-liatiollal plogrillus m.n. adapicil Io this lit-w view,                                                          ifiliwillatioll Services).
and greater clophasis was plilcrd o.1 illstillitional
d(wrlopilivill and oll pl-I "graills lin. 14-clolical alld scil-litilic




                                                                                                          94
 b) lInternational organiiz;u ionis shoit iti ]ici/ittafehItiri.:onllI                  Theise pni iid cond(1itionis provide Iic Fral in h--lct
                                                                                                                                   i
    Coo/)eatiofl and actions diat would have atsynergisic                               fin. ill tcylaiionlaI ucgalli/atios alidi regional Jpiogiaiiis
       vffeci oil niational actiivjites Jpromlii oi'pnt m-l/ti                          andt a Ilinamate to     liiouLrage actionlillorniiij-iiiiiiar
       Mlililil, C0lIIjI~lS          id 0I'g;IiiIa!tDIIS ill tIlt legion1 MIid          '-floiis andhiegionill cooprioiiini. 'itl  iiiiviiiaititii             or
       Fronmtier            rcgittus.                                                   (his itiaittie rtcqiircs it it(-% siI tytr
                                                                                                                               fi-%orking illi(               ld
                                                                                                                                                             ie

 c) Initerntional (trganii/atiotiis shouldit bring togetheri                            ii iiisitiutiiIgroist        andi (wveoJpiliii ill regional
    Iloans' diverse insttilisfill. probbtn aliliss and(lor                              Jiigrallis such its    ithose sit ha iscjssstI.
       seeking solutions itiogh:

                                                                                        BIBLIOGRAPHY
       i. Joint d           iiuio oh ht-eopmtiu        probileis.
                                                                                        I NhlR-AN; *RI( :.N hFhAEL(P EA BA~h~         hNK
                   ii.           au
                         innaru~ire     a   nd ,,
                                               sauu      '
                                                         oii'j xpclitiiets wvith        (ID). illl i qlhh. hEuonniic ii(Id Sotil lt iogn(SS ill



 h1) nteriaiortlii oigilmi/itlions'shittlhi piovide ic retgionl
    h                                                                                   i'hhlm        NJIV         A 'j.S. il EDW)~ARD)S,
   \ili an insutit utionail intury h6oe:                                                (.V. i t8)l. I istribiiiio oh Researih Gains inl NI itistitgc




           hi'v iiiteiititiiai orgaiiiuilioii (iiuhii','es, dtil
              (he                                                                       IhI&I: lim      mEI. i',186. Teholouigical (\(. itll        ILain

                                                                                        Ill: G. Edw(5 siiStli1 (Ed.h), Tuililithgy. I iiiii~iai
         ii Pitti sit       I of titheivmli(U
                                      /m, ict tt i/i dial ti ilil I to                  Cap.itial        Ici W\ohi 1(1(1(1  Pi'ohthcr. 
 Ahe'Xiiiihti vtun
           ttoiiitr'imt potiiilht iiisliiiiatii itusiahuihilv ill siiiI                 hliiiiihuuhil .\ssiii 
 ( dthuujliiiiin18. Ilsilintthl
           hidds sucih is genclit r,.uunu,,,u.                                           \giiliulii                    Ifohic E!Xttliicis, Univijlt'
                                                                                                                   and~i\Ijt
                                                                                        toh'liiunesuoi,    Nliscchhiiuuiuui. h'uliitii    l 37- P. 53-58h.
A New Style of International Cooperation
Muihitiai lisiil whicih iuiitigith ahiti WAoihl Wart I
                                                  ii                                    Stalistiual emboouuk. Ntis \irk, N.

dlili stron~gly iillulItitii    ilIiiiiiiiui         thultiutius lIld thet              \hITS(K C1
                                                                                                 ONSTANINE V. 19i71

     htjtlpiliit of1Nii tIi cdiii Iiiiii          ci(Huhiiioui 
                        Iinnilrs          hiiiitiiii Iisiilioui andt 'hlialisiiitii
piltgi illis. Tush\ , iilil 14.              i its tii;iN it
                                                     m           jiiit
                                                                 pvi      of, 
         Emiiit risvs.     )Wor
                                                                                                            bni
                                                                                            1                            cst  Prs, NewsYiork, N.Y.
                                           ~~~~lliieiji
                                      qllvsliollill
                                      otIlcpltiaiupo              tsc ir i

                                                                     ;od1
iliv     pae;istiiii           Illc iliilisiraii-u isithul hBs  cutilii-isi,
Litini   .\iiii,            ill Iliv i4):;o is ciiituettt iuid hby




                                                                                   95
          NETWORKING AS A MEANS OF ORGANIZING NATIONAL

              AND REGIONAL AQUACULTURE RESEARCH





                                                                                    Thundathil V. R. Pillay
                                       Direcht'oinif, IFoim!.iin Interniationa~lAquacu-tliture C.,'ner (SIHAG1 Rome, Ihalfy
                                                                                                             ),



 Introduction                                                                                              ()fhhV 56(Ut so instilutionts all over the w~rld thatl)are
                                                                                                           &h-voted to al(lilm-ihlll'n. rescalrtch, III are ill Asia ilnd )hev
 iE\vell though ;iquaciultulre is l.),v filort' rrelquenatly 
                                             Far East, (mill Elto llldl G ill No~rth America.
 (liscilssr-d inl s(civyltific ('ir 'h's thll Ibrlirw , it is still 
                                      Similarly. alliong inlstituitions \'.here aIla iultlre. liwir s
 a ra th e r ne v'sS'l
                   u            -( t o l
                                 t o          i. .      i(
                                                        "mYld 1I l t-r rf'f ' to 

                                                              h      l e                                               l' e           ~
                                                                                                           ;i p a ltIilo fh r ' VSi l'C i)r )g l'i 1 ll, 2 2-il',C l As ia , ItI rMi ll
                                                                                                                                       h            l             i               T
 dh'lhm     the' twri miquim uhr(               " its lisvd ill lhe' c'llllvNI 01'"                        E'urope ariel (, ill N(orth  Aniqric'ii. Ilo\,.-v\'i, the tiet'(
                '
                                                                                                                                                                                            161r
 this l)t     .' It rrh'risI() ic c'lttnrm' tl',ty litti( orlgallisils ill 
                               and l t('rlest ill a(alllau u c re hl~~~n is str(ong ill
 fre(sh, bialc'kish i iI Illim ,'         rfm w t."h(w hill 
                                              illl()si rcgio) .
 llh nl          s; kii ' , Ililmal hitr-,h nt r and
           %-.';i\                                    i  iitl
 Il-l't tiurd't illassm Ll~ l,l 
 v, il t
                         i",s               i(.I i lvnd+HI:all illi l                                      fi'siches till, rf'ce(lit trigill (Jf'+mitim-tcuhurn, , 
mi( flic:t(r that
           pr+ ucl(: l~aui+ •h, l1.diliwjhilll, 
 beril

                  r                11                                                                      hlas sigilirvlll ililhilvc Ihic pl'grcss ol'illlaculu'ile

                                                                                                                                            n-d
 c'olisidlrvrul al 1, 1 ,        11(    plht
                                       q l r-hawsd li',himl ihlhltr\',y 
                               r-t-st'arth is that :t is !.a:t-d~ ml aive<ry largeC vlinim er tof'

 Throe' v. 111l~t+        ~lh    \ a ten '   ma
                                             \:rds 
 'llsidu'rin~g i +its
                              S tfil        l l ish, slicllilih ,aHII v'\'v il plti" lantms. Douw
 i ).t (d :..l it'( t l' and ill '41111vc 
 fhrlit h llg( Ililts

                                            (',",
                                              a                                                         to I iars t~       ~l'rmltlt    lhazardls, illtrodlictions ofc)l'(x~ ic
 atlnla -d r it, i,' . I I      c,,' ill thw filtiol it\ 4,1''.( se lish

                                 ',                                                                     slp-ctits ill,' ill manly c'lstes gl'e'ally, n-'(' fit'l(vl ofr evenl
 fll   m i lnlhl        1
                     nli s., r' iti ' t m 'ih
                              i                                 ill                              ~(h            lf)'I B l     sc' 44,lhis, t'tl6rtsa:r'~ll. ili
                                                                                                                                                         I           (t
                           lisht'    it .,.                                                             ('(ntilmuolusly Itovilllalgte th14.           ol (ulli';tlbhc spec.ties ,
                                                                                                                                                      c
                                                                                                        c'\'vn Ihlowlgh it is rv'alizct'l            hatl Illill ha;s so flit vl" aleh
                                                                                                                                                                              II                 to
S illr 'te 'I
         (       rll.l". l'hi', wssioli is, lic: impqac't andl( 

                    l                                                                                   Fully doet~l'             ica;te' mdy it fi'\%spc((i( S. This sittuatioll is
(,Ili( itrlw'. (d nv[%mf,.{ ill
                             kill                   !vhs.cllcl
                                                     a      ,I'hI sholid
                               V(Ty unilike w'hal {)hlaills ill algrici'u ilttr( orallllillll
Iii st of'all pit( , 0111l ( d'tilbrt'4l , ill dwe".lill ll '
                           ill                                                                           i~l)than hry, \v hlr producl(tionl is b~ascdl il atsmaInl     l
l'(.s(all Ih ill this, lii'h , colim., (I to ;1 1,. 111ll(c, dh'pitt'                                   ll11l1l])ur ;)I'sl)('('i(.s andl( S\ . ('IvINs, w\hich conlside le''ll

                                                                                                                                                      OIl
sim i!ill i:irs ill th{' (disiplill.". \'v I'.,'(d. \Vhile ()l'txtliz(d
                                        i                                                               It-sv: r i'll (.161itshaive l -c co(1  t ll(v: 'llll(.

        ;l ri      eshn ll 'h is. pl b l)((l:h I h',,Ihlli i ,
                      ..
                       cart                :
                                           "      vs 

   t't sll)r1',,lltlira l lrt,c ',-,vl 'lh i I m(,1l(h'r1 tha ll

                 !, a                                  (                                                R esea rch S u p p o rt fo r A q uacu lture
strolv si\ m sc.vi.i (lc.ra(des. L_lntil \.l.. i.r.
                                               rvcvn                           tl    (n vv\ell
11(m\ ill   11111\   ('asr's,   aqu~al 11ll      1n-s     ch'ill'(li    hbas                            II l'''it
                                                                                                           1-c             e
                                                                                                                           (ill   rs, Ilivtre   havet liven'l a millill   .r 4 d(is(.lissionls
c'tmi't'illrathd1I1aillk oil bihi)gicatl ap r ls..\ I t,
                                                  N                             . I I ll-              a    d 'b t., til [I,(- naltlurv and.{ exte'nt orr(-searth n(lee
if-scl (It     a h(11vl (l l(hd by lwfi\vvril
                              r                                        nibm tl 't iv+sof.
                                                                             l                         fb i tu-ll.l    urt:111n lpli ll, p~articilla~rly tIlw. Cultur'e of'
                                                                                                                             (Ie,\,
rc'aiiv'l% nliall ir'scicth imiimts'., .\ ith h~il 'IfeIl-lrsmin l                                     trt41i('ill spvv~ies tha~t ha il  i lhcpast re'ceivedI sci'ait
                                 ~
and(filc:ilitirsn liprapl op liiiitt ,I'ld r'x1wrillivils .[fi p~ilot                                  alillill . E\ (-If thotihh (' arv'still sorer'. whot wvoil(
trials. \Vhih, \'-lrv vallilble illIM Illai l , 11i   t   l
                                                          !m ogy Il"'r''                                            all erllinrts to hbcliwr ssed( off l'y            disc'iplines like
a 111111t.r. idl' li urd h, rgafliilsms has I1twell cy,,ir('l,
                      l bi                              a                                              re'pi(o(ltilin, m i itiimn, dtise~ases, (,((:, Iliv ma,ijoriy of'
W%'Wt'd hill{) pt ' lilt. lal ge'-s(ille.1 ilng Ihas hbevil
        hl                                                                                             rc'svillch'rs have'( Ibegtln to) applr(.(iatedi
                                                                                                                                                    th                    e       i'Ir
dh'\llpl 't mly\ ill at smalll 11lllll)h(v¢+.
                                           4  ;IcawS.                                                  ;ss(eillS-orivillefll              I   t
                                                                                                                                              titisciliil~ry      re~searc:h lIf inmprove

                                                                                                        n. I''(h       I     qt      tu u l         (Ah lm tgic.s.
1t is illlpl taill     lto [r'invinlll r this g.eneltral stalte of'
aqi        dwrv(lllnl
                   ri-sc.irc:h an li(-      itmthat lilt (&I'hlv                                       This typvl tof'l'ts('rlr(', aIs yout vviii readlily rec'ognize., nled(s
oi lg        r-s('ar(ch is um'cllly.disiriblule(I ill the wor(ld'~.                                            r~rIi
                                                                                                             glu:          bWtly             i!( i(iiis
                                                                                                                                                    I           '[(rIs(




                                                                                                 97

planning and organization for effective implementation,                                  practical solation wili be to organize such rescarch oni

In most countriei, fisheries do not fIriin a particularly                                a regional basis inupgraded naticnal or regional

influential sector and within the lisi'rics sector, which is                             institutions, and link tlhcmi t outreach siations in the

pre'dominantly caplur'-trii-nted., it has netver becen vasV                              countrits, fortesting anl a(lptltlion of tcchnologiies as

to find tileresolorces and motivation to orgailiz that typc                              rtequii'rd.
of'rcsearch. In fact, within fi'di'ry
                                    organizations, there
    was tcertain antitilt      f unhappintss itthe plublic                               TAC and (:G IA R obvitusly           l11d such illilihtgrad
attention that aquaculhure had starled receiving.                                       global reseaich jIrlOgrani ratler ailitious iid too
Recognizing the possible liture rle oilqiactilt're,                                     expensive ar  (,(CGIAR     siptport. Although resiai''h gaps
particularly in rural dtevelopennt illropical countries,
                                       t                                                and priorities las'            (lltifieI, 
 "T,\ wts not able tio
                                                                                                                  llite n
small all)Uulitsol'assistance legaln to he provided Io thc                              idtlitil" t suita!ile iltetli;tnistll whereby all tlic

                                                                                                                                              ongoing
sector by variotis aid aguicics, and this gav an apillarent                             activilics aid addititonal research would lind a comiinii

iimir'ssiin ol'iheavily spnsol 'dsccolr. IDcspit thil'                                   iincwrk lir      cotipralion ;idli chaitiit'lliing of'

multilicity Id'itid
                  ]roigrinis, the liagnil (tlstiltlpltrt                                atdlititual 'esoutrct'cs". Ihlw('cr, its itr I kiot\v, it

                                                                                                                                    f is
       fa;ct, very little.
was, ill                                                                                 olitiliols to min~iltaini ai(llli-hiir(,1onc 
,1' 1it.prliorityl)

                                                                                        i(                                     as i
                                                                                        area'+s "fill."
                                                                                                    fillinlg ihll st impollrtanti gapls in iilert
                                                                                                                m                                                 lilll

                                                                                                                                                                  ol'l

As .Milllm- o illi
         il'll,\            be
                            lit' il rV
                                     ill(. g.ricutlhllrichiilislt;
                                         il           s                                 ai     olilllairesi'all'ch".


have          liic      i
                     s'i i i ' cItlsl ;at
                      ll           ili           lttii' t' -eirt-lh --illy
     rste   is, Ic
                tf[int  .,suillicitill t roiltof'it.           "Il'h'                   Regional Cooperation in Aquaculture
Tcinical Ad\'isor" Coinnittl'    'lv.\( )ol'el                                          Research

Co,(nsultative (Grootpoiltnri-
                         f                     l
                                          lillliAgricltrlhl'l
 lsea;rchi
Re     (C(;AR) disc.'iSscd i ldlle
                         t t     fill q ilcllholw                                       Thw minl pollrpo(s(
                                                                                                         o)l''Cil'\tiing
                                                                                                                     somell('tiltll.

                                                                                                                                pa;steffortl's in

resrcthi illts st'ctititl iiicltiiig hi()iithi'r 1(171, hi
           i                                          and                                tlo
                                                                                           tiliiiig spiitlp il l . ii ir         i     lJaqiacUllil't i'sci'ich
                                                                                                                                         ;al
    risiCWid iltt r(cltlllr
i97.1                                       wtkitig griip
                                      , '.(AC                                           is ttt lighligt!il h     fc i Ihille
                                                                                                                           e              o
                                                                                                                                     I)(-t' lc)ei-ti;il
               ill
          )llit'i SPtlt'ti, Ij i i i     "H'73it]ld IM"
                                            
               .                             l   c hi' t
                                                                                              itttl        itleili, il
                                                                                                                     il      t   eilts,       th
                                                                                                                                   Mhich is hill                f
                                                                                                                                                            i llt 

    ittlsIo ol't,    subtistlh-i
                               itt h' invit   ei in
                                                d i     lit', inl 
                       ti paplitl,      siet
                                                                                                              Il      ili til   irlrd apl.oah
 liFirst
1i171T ( ilsilisg '. ls i '( l l iCO ii h li
                        l         i                           ivl i ws,                 \'a's ldt l ;isIith liil. i;iriisillh, A il l      FliulliV'
                                                                                                                                            iv ilal . 1

i      it ) e.(:iosllitill li l illi  9i78ils I i t l'gill 

                                          , ii         id                               lunh ii l    iv iy  t    ot iocil       pi'lrilit'
                                                                                                                          naill S lt'\ts that i h s

    i( conul  ati on;lh~l l olh .iescl. hch ill
llli,
                    io iiil         i         -h     R                                  inlivi
                                                                                             l(kl\;lilt        ~s
                                                                                                       andl I\ilu n
                                                                                                                 ri                          o lht,
                                                                                                                                        solilt.           ~sSI-l
                                                                                                                                                            lial

        Si         liil
iiilllil. Illihultilc ,it-illli                        hI,hl
                                             sym polislia iildh'r                       i'-luni       n ,
                                                                                                      i slIitl ibl.      iiike'sllhslillial

                                                                                                                   ;l, I(o
  v        l's A )lsllr'lidies
the iluslicv.            bo'"\                  i diflli      w
                                                             ii'll inS                                Ili
                                                                                         'omlirililionli rWscl';l
                                                                                                                lIlland(I cl'o'
                                                                                                                      ih     illient n thisliich
                                                                                                                                   i           .

clhiliillinig ill i r'T cllhlicial
                                (',lii'lilve(' Aqtuiaclitllirc
                                                \
ill Ky'olJtoapai ill 1(170i, c i        dvrcl~lld ill    detail
                                                    SOnllv                              I JLiving~~f l ilil\lvok ;lssislillg
                                                                                                 bvit'        d ill       ritlit's inl
 vs,
I' ;illchl     cil'l illils ill a;ilait'llhlli'rc.
                   i                         W hlehaill :1ll",(                         dhcvchl     ili Iislhillo ll.'  i
                                                                                                                    Iblil liv'                     to
                                                                                                                             vrl' s. I"M()has lit(ie 

      lSlis,
disv'ls    clli. ,lllaills. s\ll ia~           ~ cllfi'icim-cs,
                                                 , 
               aind                  ll   i r c sti
                                                                                                  i',           1
                                                                                                               1-lilt. scih'iltilic"
                                                                                                                                aqialtill        v.Thlc Fihrst

cllilliilll          clilll!s
                           lwroi.ill
                                   intho
                                       filcois
                                             diili'rl'lil s, 

                                                      \i(-%\                            \Vorl I     ympi        m                   Pondi(
                                                                                                               o~i il Wil'riil-\W'alt1r            Fish ( llhllov,,
idcais,               ailrs       cp      , it
                      lnd lil''i''lli illli' iill high1lighted(                                  16
                                                                                        livi i ll , indcnllilhcd d Ih l l yprbl                emslllll~ inl
                                                                                                                                                   filed    fish
Silo lll 1 1ih       Iil
             baisic:1I            l
                                  a   w oill'
                                          'sitgiilh'-vili l
                                                   m                                    F~lit-Ilil
                                                                                                dc\.l             o      and s'llml'lpihal
                                                                                                        liilt iiilll ical]              c.oilllltl'ies
organizaio lhli
              'a(plactllill rctscarc'h andll(                ,\r
                                                               plIilllclll.             andl l Il     Ilve
                                                                                                      Ci il iliilpim i'cst';rc'h
                                                                                                                  \edl        i'lop-tar~lill
                                                                                                                                          aiiiloll
Tlv illalilt     \%;s thIllb
          finding4                           oh'cg~illlal (lilli-i
                                         iclilm.               clif-cs                  iiiiililllis,
                                                                                               i               ichiec, raid plliogn-ss. Rtioli
                                                                                                    iiillirderi"to
        (o 'llll ecloglfical conllditionls col
  Sl)(.'l'h'S Ne."l',
inl                                     anid                             lliel                   held o
                                                                                        SNiiilpoia                 ll e
                                                                                                                 iii l aol i cl.i,
                                                                                                                                oh-'rl'
                                                                                                                                      ilal fishiclv
rt'(quiremiiuniiS
            , aqilciulltolr.
              
           in-sclrch dhocsnotl Iciid
                                                  iislhlll                              lbodhs likc hlil-Indo-Pacific IFishcr Coisi
                                                                                                                            ics                           onSil
it, iilr-iM 'd ;ill)MO iC'hl11il'l lilt
                                ll~           0
                                      iilI'riN1 1i           ~illl
                                                                ll h                    IIl.F( and ( : llllliill( fill.
                                                                                             :,)                                 if

                                                                                                                     Ilanild IVish ivsol'A li'ica;
iiislillitt., ats Owh ra
                 in   i'ii              i i cui('
                                      Ti' aigll ill l~l                                   :11"A )I, e'icrail
                                                                                                  (G                ('.411llii'il M e'ditl
                                                                                                           Fisl'rh'is       oll'thie
     i;iivli

             Tlhis,
conllilinodilit'N. o l               doe~ls [lot IIdellll Owi
                                 ollse,               o                                 (;F"(I. ), aloof Owi E111i      cal;ll 1l11.11d F~ishl
                                                                                                                                             livs
lloilililioh .'1'clize'd hiasic lvsl( 1h
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