DEMOCRACY by yudhatrip

VIEWS: 18 PAGES: 4

									                                      DEMOCRACY

I. Definition
Demokrasiadalahpemerintahandarirakyat, olehrakyat, danuntukrakyat.Begitulahpemahaman
most sederhanatentangdemokrasi, which diketahuiolehhampirsemua people.
Demokrasimerupakanbentukpemerintahanpolitik the
kekuasaanpemerintahannyaberasaldarirakyat, baiksecaralangsung (demokrasilangsung)
ataumelaluiperwakilan (demokrasiperwakilan). IstilahiniberasaldaribahasaYunaniδημοκρατία -
(dēmokratía) "kekuasaanrakyat", which dibentukdari δῆμος said (demos) "the people" danκράτος
(Kratos) "power", which munculpadapertengahanabad merujukpadasistempolitik the 5th and 4th
BC in negarakotaYunaniKuno, khususnyaAthena, menyusulrevolusirakyatpadatahun 508 BC.
Berbicaramengenaidemokrasiadalahmemburaskan (thrash) tentangkekuasaan, which
dilandasiolehnilai-nilaidanetikasertaperadaban
ataulebihtepatnyapengelolaankekuasaansecaraberadab.Iaadalahsistemmanajemenkekuasaan the
menghargaimartabatmanusia. Pelakuutamademokrasiadalahkitasemua, every person who
selamainiselaludiatasnamakannamuntakpernahikutmenentukan.Menjaga
demokratisasiadalahmemahamisecarabenarhak-process rights kitamiliki, menjagahak-hakitu to
siapapunmenghormatinya, which berusahamelanggarhak melawansiapapun-hakitu.
Demokrasipadadasarnyaadalahaturan people (people rule), and in the
demokratiswargamempunyaihak dalamsistempolitik, kesempatandansuara same in
dalammengaturpemerintahan in duniapublik.
Sedangdemokrasiadalahkeputusanberdasarkansuaraterbanyak. In Indonesia, the berwatakanti
pergerakannasionaljugamencita-citakanpembentukannegarademokrasi-feodalismedan anti-
imperialism, dengantujuanmembentukmasyarakatsosialis. For Abdurrahman
landasandemokrasiadalahkeadilan, dalamartiterbukanyapeluangkepadasemua people, people who
bersangkutanuntukmengaturhidupnya danberartijugaotonomiataukemandiriandari,
sesuaidenganapa the diaingini. Jadimasalahkeadilanmenjadipenting,
dalamartidiamempunyaihakuntukmenentukansendirijalanhidupnya,
tetapiharusdihormatihaknyadanharusdiberipeluangdankemudahansertapertolonganuntukmencapa
iitu.
II. Before the Democratic Reform
DEMOCRACY vs MODERN CLASSICAL
Hearing the words that aspiratif.Tidaksalahmemangjikadiartikandemikiankarena
demokrasiseakanmengingatkankitapadasuatubentukpemerintahan
demokrasiitusendiriberartipemerintahandarirakyat said, olehrakyatdanuntukrakyat. From
segietimologi, istilahdemokrasiberasalYunanikunoyaitu berartirakyatdankratia demos that are
artinyamemerintah. Menurutparafilsuf,
demokrasimerupakanperpaduanantarabentuknegaradanbentukpemerintahannya.Seiringdenganber
lalunyawaktu; democracy mewujudkandiridalambanyakbentuk, sepertidemokrasibarat (liberal),
demokrasitimur (proletariat), and so on.
Democracy, dalampengertianklasik, first to the 5th BC munculpadaabad precisely in
Yunani.Padasaatitupelaksanaandemokrasidilakukansecaralangsung, munculpertama modern
times in modern Amerika.Konsepdemokrasi
sebagianbesardipengaruhiolehparapemikirbesarseperti Marx, Hegel, Montesquieu and Alexis de
Tocqueville.Mengingatsemakinberkembangnyanegara-negarapadaumumnya,
mengakibatkanterjadinyaperwalianaspirasidarirakyat, which
disebutjugasebagaidemokrasisecaratidaklangsung.


Classical Democracy
Bentuknegarademokrasiklasiklahirdaripemikiranaliran the dikenalberpandangan a tree partite
classification of state of ideal dikenalsebagaibentuknegarakalsik
membedakanbentuknegaraatastigabentuk-tradisional.Para penganutaliraniniadalah Plato,
Aristotle, Polybius and Thomas Aquinas.
Plato dalamajarannyamenyatakanbahwadalambentukdemokrasi, kekuasanberada in
tanganrakyatsehingaakepentinganumum (kepentinganrakyat) lebihdiutamakan.Secaraprinsipil,
rakyatdiberikebebasandankemerdekaan.Akan tetapikemudianrakyatkehilangankendali, which
disebutAnarki.Aristotelessendirimendefiniskandemokrasisebagaipenyimpangankepentingan
people sebagaiwakilrakyatterhadapkepentinganumum.Menurut Polybius,
demokrasidibentukolehperwaliankekuasaandarirakyat. Padaprinsipnyakonsepdemokrasi which
Polybius dikemukakanoleh miripdengankonsepajaran Plato.Sedangkan Thomas Aquinas

Modern Democracy
There are modern tigatipedemokrasi, namely:
1. Demokrasirepresentatifdengansistempresidensial
wakilpresidendanmenteri the
membantupresidendalammenjalankanpemerintahan.Dalamhubungannyadenganbadanperwakilanr
akyat (legislative),
2. Demokrasirepresentatifdengansistemparlementer
Sisteminimenggambarkanhubungan the
eratantarabadaneksektifdanlegislatif.Badaneksekutifterdiridarikepalanegaradankabinet
(dewanmenteri), sedangkanbadanlegisletafnyadinamakanparlemen.Yang
3. Demokrasirepresentatifdengansistem referendum (badanpekerja)
In this system there is no division and separation of powers. It can be seen from its own system
in which the Agency executive is part of the legislature. Executive body called the Bundesrat,
which is part of bundesversammlung (legislative) which consists of Nationalrat-national
representative bodies-and standerat which is representative of the states called cantons.
Based on the results of research conducted by the American Institute of Public Opinion against
the 10 countries with the best governance, among which Switzerland, Britain, Sweden and Japan
in the last position, it can be concluded that the characteristics of democracy (modern), namely
the existence of universal suffrage, representative government, competing political parties,
interest groups have autonomy and general communication systems, high frequency of literacy,
economic development forward, the magnitude of the middle class.

III. After the Democratic Reform
Dated May 21, 1999, victory has been achieved, we escape from the authoritarian New Order
regime. Very historic event that took the lives among the students. But we all like - if forgotten
the name - a name like: Hery Hartanto, Elang Mulia Lesmana, Hendriawan Sie (Event Trisakti
May 12, 1998); Sigit Prasetyo, B. Norma Reliano Irmawan, and Teddy Mamadi (Events
Semanggi I, 13-14 November 1998); Yap Yun Hap and Dani Yulian (Events Semanggi II, 23-24
September 1999), Yusuf Rizal and Zaidatul Fitria (Events Lampung, 28 September 1999) ;
Meyer Adriansyah (Events Palembang, October 5, 1999); Mozes Gatotkaca (Events Jogjakarta,
1996); Syaiful bya, Sultan Iskandar, Tasyrif (Event Bloody April, Makassar 1996). Dozens more
were abducted and disappeared indeterminate rimbanya, to this day, as Wiji Tukul (M Fadjroel
Rachman, Democracy Without Democrats). Due to the drop of their blood, democracy in
Indonesia again we start with a new sheet (Reformation Era). After 10 years of the Reformation
Era menggawangi democracy in Indonesia. Then how the condition of democracy in Indonesia?
Cases of human rights violations that resulted in several dead heroes of the Reformation to this
day is still dormant. As if - if the leaders of our country has achieved power in the name of the
Reformation have forgotten the struggle of the heroes of the Reformation.
The passage of Law - Law on regional autonomy in 1999, up to now is still far from our
expectations, to establish a democratic society. Local governments also tend to adopt a culture of
corrupt New Order regime. The fact that still disturb or disrupt our expectations about a
democratic society.
ABOUT FREEDOM, JUSTICE AND WELFARE
Every human being on earth dilahirkakan have equal rights both in the economic, political,
social, cultural. Recognition of Human Rights states to human dignity. Another completeness of
the dignity of man is freedom, but still limited. Violation of the limit it makes no honorable man
fell, the drive will encroach ialalh self-aggrandizement, that feeling is never satisfied with the
gift of God (Nurcholis Majid). In the concept of democracy is embodied freedom (liberal
democracy), but such analysis Nurcholis Majid, freedom has limits. Or in other words, that
freedom must also consider the public interest. An atheist could not be a total atheist, as well as
freedom.
Joseph the merchant pulp to end his life by hanging himself, by reason imaginable - eclipsed by
officers policing the Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta (Kompas 27 / 3) and the death of a
toddler in Makassar in because after 1 month of fever and is not treated and diperiksanakan to
the hospital on the grounds absence of a parent to meet the cost of their child's health expenses
(Compass 2 / 11). Two of the many stories that have made us breast stroke, and this is a form of
injustice in a democracy in Indonesia.
Yusuf Who is the merchant porridge in the eyes of policy makers? Joseph was only one of the
urban informal sector to earn a fortune in (non-tax) to be and desperately need to be disciplined.
If we look at from the perspective of the issue of eviction terhadan Joseph democracy is not just
a problem of order or even count - a count of the numbers, but rather to the issue of justice,
poverty and moral calculations, as well as the fate of the toddler from Makassar. And this
became one manifestation of the injustice of their rights - human rights, and indirectly is a
reflection of the failure of democracy in Indonesia. Then why should a democratic system in
which implied will of Human Rights, which in its realization rights - such rights can not be
enjoyed?. Democracy only works legally - formal, and can not loosen the shackles of the
structural trap enjoyment - legal rights. Democracy is merely a name yet on the implementation.
Eduard Bernstein believed that the transformation of society towards capitalism that socialism
could be reached by people not using the revolutionary road, but could use the path of
democracy. So if democracy has not been straight, we will undoubtedly dream of a welfare state
will be difficult to realize.

From the above brief description is enough we can learn something about the way democracy is
escorted by the Reform Era, an era that does not fall from the sky just like that, but struggled
with drops of sweat, blood, soul and even became tumbalnya. Likewise with the issues and
problems discussed so much the public is about freedom, justice and a welfare state.

								
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