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Marine Invertebrates no backbone

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					Marine Invertebrates
  (no backbone)
 Sponges, Cnidarians(jellies), Comb Jellies, Marine
 worms, Portuguese Man O’ War, and many many
      many many many more fun things…
   …I just felt like typing many…many times…
                         Sponges
   Sponges are interesting organisms that can grow quite large.
    Sponges are sedentary(attached/non moving), like a similar
    organism called a Bryozoan. But, the also similar Rotifer, is
    capable of movement… The animals found in all 3 of these
    groups are multicellular, bottom-dwelling inverts.
   The sponge has only a few specialized structures. 2 layers
    of mostly undifferentiated cells; an inner layer called the
    endoderm and and outer layer called the ectoderm.
    Between the 2 layers there is a jellylike material called
    mesenchyme. What a fun word huh…
   Sponges are in the PHYLUM PORIFERA, meaning pore
    bearing. Since they inhabit the seafloor-duh!, from the
    intertidal zone down to the depths of the ocean, sponges
    are considered BENTHIC, or bottom
The sponge-diagram
      Life functions of the Sponge
   A sponges body has many holes or pores. Food particles
    enter here at pores, called Ostia. Water and waste exit
    through the large hole called the osculum, usually located at
    or near the top. Inside the sponge are collar cells that
    contain flagella, whiplike tail structures that beat back and
    forth and aid in water circulation, and “food getting.”
   Other cells called amebocytes are found in the
    mesenchyme, also ingest and digest food. Digestion in the
    sponge occurs within food vacuoles inside the individual
    cells…similar to that of protozoa..it is intracellular.
More fun with a sponge…that kinda
            rhymes…
   Sponges aren’t exactly…responsive. Its not
    going to run away if you touch it…I
    know…shocker. It lacks a central nervous
    system, so rapid reflex doesn’t occur. It does
    have muscle like cells called myocytes, located
    near the ostia and oscula. These can open and
    close to allow water in or out. Most think this is
    a defense mechanism.
      Reproduction in the Sponge
   Sponges reproduce with the typical egg and sperm set
    up. Some will release eggs into the water as larvae,
    some will disperse and settle to the seafloor to start a
    generation. Individual sponges can be either male or
    female, or can have both parts at any time…YES, I AM
    SERIOUS. They are hermaphroditic, and can self
    fertilize themselves. Sponges can also reproduce
    asexually via a process called regeneration. If a piece of
    a sponge breaks off, it can regrow into a whole new
    sponge. Some other inverts do this…like most sea
    stars.
               Sponge Diversity
   Sponges are mainly marine. Although a FEW species
    can be found in freshwater. Typically found in warm
    habitats/tropical seas to cold polar waters. The bath
    sponge (Euspongia), lives in trop. Waters and is very
    common. Sponges have a commerical value to society,
    but many are now being replaced with synthetic
    sponges. It is estimated that a single Euspongia can
    filter 100 liters of seawater in an hour. Sponges also
    recycle minerals back into the water.
   Sponges like the yellow boring sponge (Cliona) grow on
    shells of clams and other shellfish. It uses an acid to bore
    into holes in shells in order to attach to them. This sponge
    also recycles calcium carbonate back into the water. Living
    things, like sponges, that grow over the surfaces of
    substrates are called encrusting organisms. Barnacles are
    also encrusting…FYI.
   Some sea stars, snails, and fish eat sponges, particularly
    young sponges. However, few animals overall eat sponges
    because of their hard mineral matter, such as CaCO3 or
    Silica. Sponges have a rigid structure and spines called
    spicules. Some have elastic fibers called spongin. Sponges
    come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and colors, as well as live
    at various depths…Some sponges like the basket sponge,
    grow large enough a person could sit inside them.
   Yellow encrusting
    sponge. LEFT TOP
   Blue encrusting
    sponge…duh..its the
    blueeeeeeeeeeee one.
    Bottom LEFT.
   Basket Sponge
    Cnidarians- “animals with stinging
                tentacles.”
   Animals with stinging cells or stinging tentacles are
    classified in the Phylum Cnidaria. Besides jellyfish and
    corals, the Phylum Cnidaria includes sea anemones,
    hydras, and other similar animals. There are more than
    9,000 species in this Phylum, and they are divided into
    3 classes- the Scyphozoa, Anthozoa, and Hydrozoa.
   One of the worlds most toxic animals is in this Phylum.
    It is the Box Jellyfish, found only in Australia. It is a
    small, clear, extremely long tentacled jellyfish found off
    the coastline.
Box jellyfish (sea wasp)
                        Jellyfish
   Members of this Phylum Cnidaria are characterized by
    two cell layers, and a saclike digestive tract, tentacles,
    which are long, flexible appendages, are arranged in a
    ring around a central mouth, thereby giving these
    animals radial symmetry.
   A network of nerve cells and receptor cells make up the
    nerve net, which is a simple nervous system. Impulses
    do not travel along definite pathways. Instead, when
    one part of the body is stimulated, the whole animal
    respond.
                        More jellies…
   Jellyfish are members of the Class Scyphozoa. All members of this
    class have an umbrella shaped structure called a medusa, with tentacles
    hanging down from it. The medusa is composed of two membranes,
    the epidermis or outer membrane and the a gastrodermis, meaning
    “stomach skin” or inner membrane. Lying between these two
    membranes is the jellylike mass called the mesoglea. The lightweight
    structure, shape, and thin ness of the jellies, as well as the material they
    are made of allow them to float with ease. Jellyfish are typically
    considered a zooplankton. They have limited locomotion (
    movement) and are often found washed onto the shore/beaches.
   Jellyfish carry out respiration by oxygen absorption diffusing thru the
    thin tissue of their cells via the seawater. Waste gas, CO2 will diffuse
    out in the opposite direction. The entire surface of the jelly does this
    diffusion.
Diver and Lions Mane Jelly
    Jellyfish feeding and defense…
   Jellyfish use their tentacles for feeding and defense
    mechanisms. The tentacles contain stinging cells called
    cnidoblast. Inside each cnidoblast is a coiled threaded
    barb called a nematocyst. This usually contains the
    toxin.
   Nematocyst can discharge from either a chemical or
    mechanical stimulus, and can also discharge even when
    the organism is non living.
   Food is digested in a saclike cavity with enzymes that
    dissolve it. Waste products are egested, or expelled,
    through the mouth. The medusa in many jellies is
    sticky and can also catch food.
    Jellyfish jellyfish jellyfish jellyfish…
   Jellies have separate sexes and can produce both sexually
    and asexually.
                  Sea Anemones
   These look like colorful underwater flowers and are
    members of the Class Anthozoa ( means “flower
    animal”) They also posses stinging cells radial
    symmetry and a nerve net…like jellyfish. UNLIKE
    jellies though, these live as a Polyp, attached to a
    substrate by means of a muscular foot. It is stationary
    or sessile, and has limited movement. If you touch an
    anemone, the animals responds by contracting and
    closing up all of its tentacles and brings them inside of
    its fleshy polyp.
Feeding/Defense in anemones…
   Stinging cells are used to obtain food. Tiny organisms and small
    fish are paralyzed by the discharging tentacles when they come in
    contact with them.
   Little shrimp and clownfish can often be found living unharmed
    within the tentacles. This is because they have a protective
    covering of mucus that protects them from being stung. Certain
    clownfish will only associate with certain anemones. The shrimp
    also serve to keep the anemone clean. Both the shrimp and
    clownfish get protection and food from the anemone. This is a
    mutual relationship called symbiosis. These “participants” are
    referred to as symbionts.
   Feeding occurs in the anemones mouth and digestion occurs
    with enzymes after the stinging cells do their job. They engulf
    their food completely surrounding it from the mouth and
    bringing it in.
   Reproduction is either sexual or asexual.
                             Corals
   Coral reefs come in all shapes and sizes. Some are huge, like the
    Great Barrier Reef in Australia, which is about 2,000 km long
    and 80 km wide. However, the organism responsible for these
    reefs is so small it might escape notice outside of its stony home.
    They can only be seen through a microscope.
   There are 2 types of coral- STONY (hard) and SOFT corals.
    Stony corals are made of a hard limestone material like calcium
    carbonate. These form massive structures and include corals like
    the brain coral, staghorn coral, and star coral.
   Soft corals are more flexible and are like a fibrous protein fiber.
    They look similar to plants and sway in the water. Examples of
    soft corals are the sea fan, sea whip, and sea plume.
                 More coral…
   The basic structure of the coral is the coral
    polyp. The polyp resembles a small anemone.
    Life activities such as ingestion, digestion,
    sensitivity, exchange of gases, and reproduction
    are similar in both anemones and coral polyps.
   Coral is considered a COLONIAL animal- they
    are attached to one another by a thin membrane.
                CORAL REEFS
   The reef is a massive rock like structure composed
    of CaCO3, which is built by stony coral polyps and
    the organisms that live in them.
   Living with the coral polyps are specialized cell
    organisms that aid to absorb CO2. They are called
    zooxanthellae. These are a type of dinoflagellate
    that are captured by the coral polyp from the
    marine environment. These aid in providing energy
    in the form of glucose and sunlight to the coral, and
    the coral provide a safe living spot for the
    zooxanthellae algae. It is a symbiotic relationship.
                      REEFS
   Reefs are found in tropical areas around the world.
    The water must be warm and have plenty of
    sunlight. Corals are found in water shallow enough
    for sunlight to penetrate, to provide warmth and
    high energy amounts to the coral organisms.
   Bleaching on corals can occur from to much UV
    rays, as well as being broken in heavy storms,
    waves, and even being run over by large
    boats/vessels.
Brain Coral
Staghorn Coral
Sea Fans and Sea Whips
             Hydroids and the
    Portuguese Man-O- War (Man-of-War)
   The Hydroid is a Cnidarian that closely resembles a
    plant. These are members of the Class Hydrozoa.
   They live in intertidal and subtidal zones.
   Hydroids are actually colonial animals, made up of
    many individual polyps that function together as a
    single organism. The snail fur (Hydractinia) is a
    hydroid colony who’s pink and reddish growth coats
    the shells of many ocean animals like the hermit crab.
    There is a hydroid that is not colonial, it is the
    Tubularia, however, most hydroids do live a colonial
    life.
                   P-M-O-W
   The Portuguese Man of War ( Man O’ War) is the
    most feared of the hydroid colonies. It is not a true
    jellyfish. It gets its name from the British sailors
    during an 18th century war as an insult to a crew of
    Portuguese Soldiers. The man of war (PHYSALIA)
    is a hydrozoan because it is a colony made up of
    different types of polyps. It has a set of long
    tentacles with powerful nematocyst. The sting of
    the PMOW is very strong and powerful. Many
    people become ill from the sting. Death does or can
    occur in rare instances.
               More Port. MOW
   The different polyps that make up Physalia are
    adapted for a variety of functions. One kind of
    polyp makes up the gas filled float or bag that keeps
    the colony afloat. The “float” resembles that of a
    sail. Another type of polyp makes up the stinging
    tentacles, which can be several meters long. And
    again, another type of polyp makes up the digestive
    mechanisms.
   These are often found on shore, washed up because
    of their inability to move against currents and the
    “sail” often directs them towards the shore.
Hydroids
PMOW
INTERESTING REEF OCTOPUS…not
    related here…showing you..
         Exploratory Questions…
   1) Compare one of the body systems of a sponge with
    that of a human. (think of one!!!!) Describe how they
    are similar and/or different.
   2) Describe AND Draw how a sponge filter feeds.
    Include the labeled “parts” of the sponge.
   3) Define ostia and osculum and explain how they
    function.
   4) Explain one way that sponge larvae are more animal
    like than adult sponges. THINK!!! ( it is NOT a
    “notes” answer…THINK THINK THINK!)
                 The boat debate:
   Doctor                     Girl- 6 yr old
   Engineer                   Father of boy
   Judge                      Mother of boy
   Lawyer                     Grandmother
   Police officer             Child in wheelchair
   Fireman                    Adult Entertainer
   Priest (any religion)      You
   Boy- 6 yr old              Captain
   Pro- Athlete               Mechanic
                       Sponge Review
   ______ are in the Phylum Porifera. There are about ___ different species and
    most of these are _______organisms found in oceans and seas. A few sponges
    are found in the ______ zone, but these are small and not brightly colored.
    Sponges are _______ that trap ______ from water as it flows through them.
    Sponges have no basic body arrangement and are said to be _________.
    Sponges live attached to one spot as adults so they are ______. The skeleton
    of sponges is made of a flexible protein called _______ and hard fibers called
    ______ which are composed of Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or silicon dioxide.
    Sponges are full of holes called _____ through which water flows into their
    ______ bodies. Sponges are the simplest animals and lack the ______ level of
    specialization like all other animals. Sponges do have some specialized
    _______in their bodies. Special cells called _________ line the pores and have
    _________ that spin to pull in water. ______cells at the base of the
    choanocytes capture plankton from the water and start digesting it. ________
    are special cells that carry this food to all other parts of the sponge. Waste and
    excess water leave a sponge through a large opening at the top called the
    ________. Sponges reproduce asexually also and are __________, producing
    both eggs and sperm.

				
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