Running Tips

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					                                   Running Tips

                      Running Shoes - Fit & Buying Tips
 Running shoes don't need to be broken in. They are made of synthetic materials
 that DON'T stretch, and the cushioning is ready to go, so they fit "right out of
                                   the box".
      The way they fit the first time is the way they are always going to fit.

      Running shoes are used for running, so they need to be roomier than a
      regular shoe. Why? Remember the force of heel strike… each foot does this
      500 TIMES EACH MILE, so your feet tend to spread out.

3 Keys to the Right Fit:

   1. You should have about a thumb's width of room at the toe. If you can't
      wiggle your toes, then move up to the next size.
   2. The shoe should hold your foot securely around the midfoot (arch and
      instep) and at the heel, with little or no slipping.
   3. The shape of the shoe should match the shape of the foot (more on this

What's Your Size?
RRS fit testers are real, live runners with all different types of feet. They try on
every shoe we sell in order to determine the fit. The shoe manufacturers do not
supply this information.

If a fit tester's foot measures a true size 9, but size 9 ½ is the best fit
(according to the 3 keys above) then this shoe would be listed "1/2 size short.”
There is ½ size difference between their true size and the size that fits best.

Because sizing varies from shoe model to model, you might find shoes differing by
up to 1½ sizes in a runner's closet, yet they all fit! The shoes all look the same
size… only the number on the shoebox is different.

Bigger is Better!!
If you aren't sure of which size to buy, it's nearly always better to choose the
larger size because much more can be done to fine-tune the fit:

      change to a thicker sock like Thorlo
      add a replacement insole; these are thicker and more durable than standard
      adjust the lacing to snug up the fit (lace lock, for example)

If a shoe is too small, there's not much you can do. Since running shoes don't
stretch, the only option is to try a thinner sock.

The Last Comes First … Or, The Shape of Things To Come
Each manufacturer has their own last (or foot form) that gives the shoe its shape.
We carry so many brands because they each have a slightly different idea of what
the ideal foot shape is. There are 2 main differences:

   1. Volume: (high or low) - some shoes have more space at the mid-foot to
      accommodate a high instep, such as New Balance® SL-2 lasted shoes. Others
      have less room than average and are a better match for a low instep.
   2. Curve: some people have feet almost as straight as a ski; others are almost
      as curved as a banana. Shoes vary nearly as much. The amount of curve is
      usually linked to running mechanics.

Shoe shape vs. running mechanics:

Motion control: excessive over-pronators, in addition to low arches, generally have rather
straight feet. Motion control shoes like the New Balance 587 have the same straight shape.
Stability: the majority of people have some curve in their feet; that's why the semi-
curved shape of a classic stability shoe like the Asics GT-2000 series fits so many people
Cushion: efficient/underpronators tend to have feet more curved than average to go with
their high arches. Shoes like the adidas Response Trail are also more curved than average.

Tips to Know if Shoe Shape is an Issue:

                 If you say this:            It means this:

                                     -shoe doesn't have enough
               - can't close laces
               - laces closed up      -shoe has too much volume
                                      -shoe is too straight
               - big toes squished
                                       (curved foot runs into shoe)
               - small toes           -shoe is too curved
               squished                (curved shoe runs into foot)
               - tight at ball of
                                      -shoe is too small, size up

You Be the Judge!
Be your own "fit tester"… consider these points when you're trying your Road
Runner shoes in the house.

      Where is the shoe roomy or snug? (toe box, instep, heel)
      How does the shoe feel when walking or running? (cushy or firm)?
      Does the shoe feel flexible and responsive or stiff and stable?
      Does the arch feel low or high?

                              Running Shoe Terminology

Running Biomechanics

Gait Cycle - the progression of the foot as it heel strikes (phase #1), rolls to
midfoot (phase #2), then to toe-off (phase #3)

3 Phases of the Gait Cycle:

   1. Heel Strike
      Running is a "High Impact" activity, meaning that at some point, both feet
      are off the ground. How much impact? Want to Guess? A runner comes down
      with 3.5 times his/her body weight. What does our body need to do with
      that shock? Absorb it! Cushion it! Dissipate it! Disperse it! If we don't, it
      travels back up the legs, causing injury.
   2. Midfoot phase
      What do we have in the midfoot? (The arch!)
      3 Types of Arches:
         o  Flat - flat arches are extremely flexible and require a great deal of
          o Medium - neutral arch is ideal and requires a degree of stability
          o High - high arches are extremely rigid and inflexible and require little
            if any control
   3. Toe-off
      The toe-off tells us what type of pronator a runner is. Most runners will look
      at the bottom of their running shoes and conclude that they wear out the
      outside of their shoe because the outside heel is worn. From this, they may
      conclude that they need a cushioning shoe. Most are wrong! Everybody wears
      out the outside heel. It's the wear pattern at "toe off" that will determine
      your rate of pronation, and therefore the type of shoe you should be running

What is pronation?
Pronation is the natural, inward roll of the foot; pronation begins when the heel
contacts the ground, the foot then rolls inward to absorb shock and transfer
weight to the ball of the foot as it prepares to push off. It is a natural and
necessary motion for running and walking.

There are three types of pronators:

   1. Overpronator - The excessive inward roll of the foot. A flat foot absorbs a
      lot of shock. It's very flexible and needs support. Motion control shoes work
      best for overpronators. The symbol for our shoes that offer motion control.

   2. Neutral pronator - The foot pronates naturally. Mild pronators disperse
      shock effectively. A medium arch absorbs shock moderately. Stability shoes
      work best for the neutral pronator. The symbol is for stability.

   3. Underpronator (Supinator) - the lack of sufficient inward motion of the
      foot. A high arch absorbs less shock. Cushioning shoes that are highly
      flexible are best for the underpronator. Only a small population truly

For the three types of runners, there are three types of shoes:
1) Motion Control - built for the overpronator

2) Stability - built for the moderate pronator (neutral foot)

3) Cushion - built for the underpronator or supinator

Next thing we need to know about the shoe is what shape is it? If we think about
the medial (inside) edge of the shoe as a steering wheel, what direction is a
straight shoe steering the foot in? What direction is a curved shoe steering the
foot in?

Three types of shoe shapes:

   1. Straight - shape found in motion control shoes built for overpronators
   2. Semi-curved - shape found in stability shoes built for mild pronators
   3. Curved - shape found in cushioned shoes built for underpronators

Last thing to know is the construction:
There are three types:

1. Board - Cardboard piece in shape of foot bed that adds stability

      Purpose of a board last: Provide full-length support (not common in running
      shoes) (Anyone have a bad back? Anyone ever put plywood under a mattress
      or knows someone who does? Why? To provide support. Same concept as
      Board/Combination lasts)

2. Combination - Half board in heel, half soft, moccasin like construction in

      Purpose of combination last: Provides stability in the heel and support in the

3. Slip - entire foot bed is built like a moccasin to promote flexibility

      Purpose of slip last: Provides flexibility
There are shoes designed for heavier weight runners and shoes designed for
lighter weight runners.

      Average male weight 165-180 - anything below range is considered a
      lightweight runner, anything above is considered a heavy weight runner
      Average women's weight 125-150 - anything below range is considered a
      lightweight runner, anything above is a heavy weight runner

Shoe Materials:
Shoe is made up of three parts:

   1. Upper
   2. Midsole
   3. Outsole

1) Upper: Holds the foot in place, protects the foot from rocks and dirt, has
synthetic leather for durability, mesh for breathability and reflective material for
2) Midsole: Most important part of shoe. There are three materials that make up
the midsole:

      EVA - lightweight, foam-based cushioning
      Dual-density EVA:
         o What happens when you double the density of something? It gets
            stronger, firmer, heavier (twice the mass in the same amount of
         o We call this dual-density EVA a "medial post"
         o Medial - because it is on the inside of the shoe
         o Post - because it has a beginning and an end. The length of the post
            determines the amount of control
         o very durable cushioning
         o More durable/stable than EVA, weighs more than EVA.

3) Outsole: Has tread for traction, flex grooves for flexibility, protects from dirt
and rocks. Made of two materials:

      Carbon rubber (durable - same material as tires)
      Blown rubber (lighter, more flexible, more cushioned, not as durable). Blown
      rubber is rubber with air
      injected into it (blowing a bubble with chewing gum)

                               Rotating Your Shoes

What's your biggest fear as a runner? Injury, of course! It's important to do all
we can to prevent injuries. Shoe rotation is at the top of my list. Ever notice how
your body "signals" you to buy a new pair of shoes? Running in worn-out shoes
results in aches and pains in your legs, knees and hips. You can prevent this
unnecessary pain by rotating between two pair of running shoes. How's it work?

   1. First, start with two pair of shoes that both have less than 250 miles on
      them. If they're the same model, mark one pair as A and the other B. To
      rotate most effectively, keep track of the mileage you've put on each pair.
   2. The newest pair (lowest mileage) should be used for your longer runs and
      your competitive racing.
   3. The older pair (highest mileage) should be used for your shorter runs,
      inclement weather runs or your off road runs if you aren't using a trail shoe.
   4. Keep the older pair in the rotation until you've run 450 miles in them. At
      that point, it's time to "boot" your old pair and bring a new pair into the

Continue this cycle and you'll be doing everything you can to prevent worn out
shoes from placing you on the "disabled list." Effectively rotating your shoes takes
the guesswork out of replacing your shoes and saves you money because your shoes
will last longer. It will also save your body from the "wrath of the worn out running

               Trail Running Shoes - Is there really a difference?

With all the different styles of trail running shoes on the market today, you might
be asking yourself, "Am I missing out on something by not buying a trail shoe?" The
answer is yes and no. The question that I ask you is, are you a trail runner or are
you a runner that runs on trails?

Runner that runs on trails
In my experience this category accounts for most of the "trail" running done
today. Virtually every runner I know that falls into this category runs on trails or
on the roads in the same shoes. They use their road shoe. Sure, you can go out and
buy a trail shoe for those days when you hit the trail, but you don't have to.

Trail Runner
You take your trail running seriously. You look for new trails all the time and the
harder, longer and more rugged, the better. You will run on the roads because you
have to but while doing so, you have a swift rocky single-track trail on your mind. If
this is you, you need to look at the various trail shoes that are offered. These
shoes have extra traction, trail specific support and in some cases rock busting
plates to protect your feet. The faster or more agile you are on the trail, the lower
to the ground, more minimalistic you want your shoe to be. I have friends here in
San Diego that do all of their trail running even on super rocky trails in cross-
country racing shoes. The larger and more lumbering you are, the more shoe you
will need. The point here is that there is a trail shoe for everyone whether you are
running to get away from the traffic or getting ready for the Western States 100-
mile trail race.

                      Racing Flats - Do I really need them?

You need a racing flat if you are trying to race. By that, you may just be racing
yourself, but that is a race. Time is important to you. That doesn't mean time to
run or time to wash the car. This means your finishing time at the next 10K. If this
is you, here's what to look for:

      The lightest shoe on earth - If you are planning to win the race or maybe
      your age group, grab a 5.5 oz. shoe and hit the road.
      A lighter shoe that works like your training shoe - For most of you, this is
      where I would go. Almost every company makes a racing shoe that
      compliments their training shoes. For example, let's use Asics® for

                       Your current
                                            Your racing shoe
                       GT 2060              Gel DS Racer
                       Gel Kayano           Gel DS Racer
                       Gel Cumulus          Gel Tiger Paw
                       Gel Lyte             Gel Magic Racer

                              Running Gear Essentials

Running shoes - At the bare minimum, a runner should invest in a good pair of
performance running shoes. Running shoes are the tool, the sword, the equipment
that a runner relies on to keep them comfortable and injury free. If you've ever
purchased the wrong pair of running shoes, you know what I mean. Don't scrimp
when it comes to buying a running shoe.

Running socks - You've just invested in a great pair of running shoes. Take the
next step and find a sock built for running. Heat, which causes uncomfortable
hotspots and moisture, which causes blistering, are your feet's two biggest
enemies. That's why today's performance running socks use the latest and
greatest fabrics designed to combat heat and moisture. For instance, the
performance fabric CoolMax® is built to wick away heat and moisture, leaving your
feet cool and dry. There are other socks built to add additional cushioning into
your daily run. In any event, the old cotton tube sock we all grew up with just won't
cut it.

Running apparel - As with socks, running apparel has also come a long way. The days
of the cotton gray sweat suit, (you know, the one Rocky wore!) are long gone.
Cotton is a great casual wear fabric. But when it comes to running, cotton is Enemy
No.1. Cotton absorbs heat and moisture and keeps it clinging to your body like a wet
rag. Doesn't sound very comfortable, does it? At Road Runner Sports, we carry
only the most technical running apparel built to keep a runner comfortable. If it's
hot, the fabric will work to cool you. If you're cold, the fabric will insulate you. If
it's raining, the fabric will shield you. Running is hard enough as it is and
performance-running apparel will keep your mind on your run and not on clothes.
Plus, these clothes look great!

Running accessories - I don't know where to start. Are running accessories
essential? It's up to you. I have friends that never take a run without their
Walkman. Others are slaves to their lap counting watches. Still others are using
performance nutrition products before and after every run. We're all different.
The one thing we do have in common is our skin. Runners expose their skin to the
harmful rays of the sun. This is why sunscreen is the single most essential running
accessory. Whether it be spring, summer, winter or fall, sunscreen can help
protect us from the damage harmful rays can do to our skin. Other than that, it's
a personal thing!

                    Running Apparel - what you need to know

How to select your shorts, shirts, and running suit
Compared to hockey players and skydivers, runners are lucky! Other than a good
pair of shoes, you don't need a lot of expensive equipment. But you'll need a few
articles of comfortable clothing. This section provides a few tips that I've
gathered through the years to keep you running comfortably!

Choose elastic-waist shorts that fit comfortably. Many running shorts come with a
slight cut at the side and are made from synthetic materials that dry quickly,
breathe well and allow for freedom of movement. Some styles feature built-in
liners or briefs. The briefs replace your underwear and can help manage moisture.
If you prefer wearing separate underwear, go with CoolMax or a similar moisture-
managing fabric. If somebody suggests cotton shorts, run! Cotton absorbs and
holds moisture-the last thing a runner needs!

The one item most new runners ignore is the shirt. Once again, avoid cotton, which
tends to absorb moisture and hold it in. Because it's slow to dry, a cotton T-shirt
can get soggy and uncomfortable and even cause chafing. A synthetic-fiber shirt
will do a much better job of wicking moisture away from your skin, keeping you
drier and more comfortable in hot weather and warmer in cool weather. The most
well known fabric for moisture management is CoolMax®, a polyester fabric made
by DuPont®. There are other brand names out there, so you'll want to look at the
label for key terms like "moisture management" or "wicks moisture." Aside from
the fabric, the style of shirt you choose is up to you. In warm weather, 'studly'
guys prefer to wear singlets or run without a shirt. In cold weather, proper
layering makes all the difference in the world. See the special section on cold-
weather running that follows. Half-zips (shirts with a zipper that goes from your
neck half-way down your chest) are becoming increasingly popular because they
provide extra ventilation on warm days but can be zipped up completely in cool

Synthetic fibers have come a long way since the 50's and 60's.


      manages moisture, wicking it away from your skin
      dries quickly
      feels like cotton


      sturdy and durable
      feels like cotton
      dries quickly
      water resistant


      dries fairly quickly
      not as breathable

The most popular fabrics for shorts:
Supplex Nylon
This durable, cotton-like fabric feels sturdier than either Tricot or Microfiber. It
breathes and dries quickly.

Microfiber Polyester
Very lightweight and soft, Microfiber feels a lot like silk. Microfiber is very
breathable and dries even faster than Supplex or Tricot.

Tricot Nylon
These are the shorts you remember from the 70's running craze. They're silky and
shiny and are made from a fabric that looks a lot like a woman's slip. Tricot dries
fast, but it isn't as breathable as the newer fabrics. The biggest benefit is the low

Sports bras
Sports bras, or fitness bras, are strongly recommended for women runners.
They're specially designed to minimize bounce and discomfort during exercise.
Take the time to look around, and you'll find a surprising assortment of styles.
Many can be worn as either an "outer layer" on warm days or under a top. There
are lots of features to choose from, like padded straps, zip-front styling and
molded cups. Some styles look more like conventional bras and are meant to be
worn under a T-shirt. Larger-breasted women who need extra support usually favor
these. One thing to be mindful of is that not all sports bras are created equal. If
you're on the voluptuous side, look for styles that say things like "maximum
support," or "for larger busts." Don't be afraid to wear two bras, one on top of the
other, if that provides the additional support you need. Hey, who'll know? When
you're shopping, try on several styles. Do a few vertical leaps in the dressing room.
You won't regret spending the effort to get the bra that works just right for you.
As usual in running, fabrics are important. You'll find a lot of cotton/Lycra® blends
out there. Beware! Cotton is naturally supportive, which is nice; but it does a
terrible job of keeping you dry and comfortable. Supplex/Lycra feels and looks a
lot like cotton but dries much more quickly. Nylon blends tend to be the least
supportive. You'll find that most fitness bras have CoolMax® liners to help wick
moisture away from your skin.

Running suits
Running suits these days are as technical as shoes. They're made with high-tech
fabrics that are very breathable, allowing moisture vapor from your perspiration to
escape while preventing water and wind from getting through. Go with the suit that
best matches your weather conditions. Microfiber suits are silky and do a good job
of protecting you from light rains and moderate cold. They're extremely
breathable and comfortable. By the way, if you're looking for a running suit that
doesn't make all that "noise," microfiber's your go-to fabric. Activent® is
windproof and extremely breathable. It does a good job in cold, windy conditions,
and it resists drizzle and snow. Gore-Tex® is the monster of foul-weather fabrics.
It's both water and windproof, breathable and extremely durable.

Many polyester fibers are now more breathable than cotton and warmer than
wool. And runners think they're cool.


      soft and silky
      very lightweight
      dries very fast
      water resistant


      extremely breathable
      water resistant


      very breathable

Protect yourself from the sun!

      Wear a hat with a brim to shade your face.
      Use sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or greater.
      Don't forget lip balm with an SPF of 15+.
      Wear a shirt or top that provides good coverage.
How to use layering to beat the elements
Here's a prediction. You're going to like running so much that you'll want to run
even when the weather's awful. That's why you need to know about layering.
Multiple layers of lightweight clothing keep you drier and more comfortable than a
single heavy garment. They retain warmth while venting moisture to the outside.
Remember that the layering guide is just that-a guide. Some runners in very harsh
climates need all three layers when they train. Others, running in less severe
weather, may need only two. It's your call. Let your individual running habits and
conditions determine your choices.

Base layer
It all starts here. This layer must move moisture away from your body to prevent
chill. Cotton won't work-it just gets soggy with sweat. A fabric like CoolMax®, on
the other hand, captures the moisture and moves it to the outside. Your base layer
can be as little as a bra or singlet and briefs, or as much as a top and pants.

Mid layer
This is your insulating layer. It continues to move moisture to the outer layer, but
also traps warm air for insulation. Don't make this layer too heavy or too tight
fitting. You might overheat!

Weather layer
This layer protects you from the elements and completes moisture transfer by
releasing perspiration into the atmosphere. Your weather layer could be a vest, a
jacket or a complete breathable, waterproof running suit. How cold and wet is your
winter weather? That's what determines your weather layer.

Quick Layering Tip
As the temperature rises or your activity level increases, remove layers. Add
layers as you get colder or the temperature drops. Take off your hat or gloves to
vent quickly--as much as 70% of your body heat escapes through your extremities.

Layers for the legs?
In most cases, one layer for the legs is sufficient. That's because the legs do not
perspire as much as the torso. This layer should be made from lightweight,
synthetic material. It should fit tightly; yet allow full range of motion. In addition
to moving moisture away from the skin, the fabric has to keep the working muscles
warm to protect them from injury. A second layer should be added on extremely
cold, windy or rainy days.

Hot tips for cold-weather runners

      Begin your run against the wind. On the way back you'll be less likely to get
      chilled from perspiration.
      Don't overdress. You should feel slightly chilled during the first 5 minutes
      of your run. If you don't, you may be dressed too warmly.
      Always carry a hat and gloves. If the temperature drops, you've got
      Drink fluids before, during and after runs on cold days. You might not feel as
      thirsty as on a hot day, but your body still loses a lot of fluid.
      Don't risk injury! Warming up and cooling down are even more important in
      cold weather.
      Exercise indoors on really cold days.
      Use common sense. Don't take chances. Run with a partner.

The percentages on heat loss

Heat loss in wet conditions
Loss of body heat occurs up to 32 times faster in wet conditions than in dry

Heat loss through the hands and feet
As much as 30% of your body heat escapes through your hands and feet. Wear
gloves or mittens and the right socks!

Heat loss through the head
About 40% of your body heat is lost through your head. Wear a hat and facemask!

Heat loss fact:
A total of 70% of heat loss is through the extremities-head, hands and feet!

           Heart Rate Monitors - how to select the right one for you

Heart rate monitors provide a personal solution for anyone striving to achieve a
fitness or performance goal. If you're committed to running, this may be the most
important purchase you will ever make.

Entry Level Monitors: If you're a beginning runner, or just new to heart rate
training, these entry-level monitors will suit your needs perfectly. The entry-level
monitors are designed to integrate easily into your everyday running. All of them
feature bold numbers, one-button operation and track time and heart rate

Advanced Monitors: These monitors give you everything you need to know to reach
your fitness goals! Counts calories burned, percent of calories burned from fat and
automatically determines and guides you to the safest and most effective exercise
zone. The Advanced Monitors will give you the best bang for your buck if you want
more features than the entry-level monitors offers, but don't want all the
capabilities of the Elite Monitors.

Elite Monitors: The Elite Monitors take personal performance monitoring to a
whole new level. These Heart Rate Monitors can provide you with critical data like
VO2 max and nutrition expenditure along with training conditions like temperature
and altitude. These monitors can link to your personal computer so you can visually
analyze and track your personal data. If you're truly serious about running and
your personal performance, more often the Elite Monitors are recommended to
truly gauge your complete progress.

                     Simple Blueprint for Effective Training

The Four Rules of Running
You've probably figured out by now that running isn't like other sports. For one
thing there aren't a lot of rules to follow. There are no "out-of-bounds" or
"offsides" or "celebrating too much after finishing." But since it's human nature to
want at least a few rules, runners have made some up! These "Four Rules of
Running" should become the foundation of your running program. They will ensure
your continued enjoyment and improvement as a runner and help keep things fun
and interesting as well.

Rule #1: Stress and Rest. Your training program should consist of a combination
of training stresses followed by recovery. In other words, "hard" one day, then
"easy" for a day or two, and then hard again. This "hard/easy" approach allows you
to continually improve your fitness level-and stay motivated. "Hard" doesn't mean
that you're sucking wind at the end of your run. Maybe it's just a run where you
increase the distance or speed slightly. "Easy" can mean a day off or a shorter,
slower run that allows your body to refresh itself. Using this method from
workout-to-workout, week-to-week and even month-to-month, will help you avoid
the beginning runner's #1 Mistake: Doing too much too soon. It'll be easier to get
out the door when you're not sore or tired all the time.

Rule #2: Repetition - To improve their free throw shooting, basketball players
practice shooting free throws, not jumpers from the top of the key. The same
principle goes for runners. Your body improves at what it practices. If you want to
be a better runner, you got to run. Adding other workouts like cycling or swimming
is a great way to maintain or improve your overall fitness level, but putting one foot
in front of the other is the only way to continually get better at running.

Rule #3: Variety - The body adapts pretty quickly to a consistent routine.
Without stress, there's no stimulus. When that happens, your fitness level
plateaus, your motivation weakens and you stop improving. To avoid this, you should
vary your training from day-to-day. Use different types of workouts. Vary the
amount of training. Emphasize different types of runs for a period of time such as
a month.

Rule #4: Gradual progress - Sure, you'd like to be fit and fast tomorrow. But it
just doesn't work that way. Doing too much too soon is the highway to burnout or
injury. Instead, think like the tortoise, not the hare. Take it slow. Increase your
training gradually. What's the rush, anyway? Be in it for the long haul.

The most common mistake made by runners:
As your fitness improves and you start moving along at a good pace, you'll find
yourself wanting more and more. More distance, more speed. Don't make the
mistake of doing too much too soon. If you run too fast for too long without
recovery, your body will break down. Instead, increase your running by no more
than 10-15% per week. And every 3 to 6 weeks, take a "rest" week and reduce your
mileage a bit. By keeping this simple check on your enthusiasm, you'll stay healthy
and steadily improve for weeks, months and years.

"Run-Speak"- a guide to the running training lingo
Long run
Long runs are easy runs that test your endurance boundaries. They are performed
at a "conversational" pace, meaning that you can talk and run at the same time.
They can be as short as 20 minutes or as long as 3 hours. It just depends on your
ability level and time! While building your long runs, feel free to take short walking
breaks. Time on your feet is what's important, not pace. Heart rate target zone is
less than or equal to 75% of maximum.

Stamina workouts
Stamina workouts are steady runs that will help you feel strong as you go long.
These runs are "moderately hard," and slightly faster than conversational pace. A
good stamina workout might involve alternating periods of running strong for 4-8
minutes with periods of jogging for 1-3 minutes, for a total of up to 30 minutes.
Heart rate target zone is 80-85% of maximum.

Hill workouts
Hill workouts are repeated strong, fast runs up a gradual hill. Your pace is the same
as in stamina workouts, but the effort is more difficult due to the incline. Your
effort level is hard to very hard. For starters, run up the hill for 45-60 seconds-
once, twice...up to 8 times. Jogging back down the hill to the starting point serves
as the recovery. Heart rate target zone is 90-95% of maximum.

Stride workouts
Stride workouts help bring your fitness to a peak. They are short, faster runs that
are performed once you've developed your endurance (long runs), stamina and
power (hill workouts). They're fast and fun. Try alternating periods of fast running
(not all-out, though) for 1-4 minutes with periods of jogging for 1-4 minutes, for a
total of up to 15 minutes. Heart rate target zone is 90-95% of maximum. Stride
workouts are not for beginners. Only attempt them once you've developed your
endurance with long runs, your stamina with stamina workouts and power with hill

Recovery jog
Recovery jogs are slow runs performed in between faster running efforts. For
example, you might perform 1-minute recovery jogs between fast runs of 3
minutes. During this 1-minute run, you would slow down to a very slow jog, maybe
even a walk. The goal is to let the body "catch its breath." Your breathing rate and
heart rate will decrease, and your leg muscles will revive themselves a little in
preparation for the next fast run.

Never go into a workout "cold." You'll shock your body (muscles in a resting state
aren't very pliable) and increase the risk of injury. Instead, warm up with light
jogging and stretching. This increases the blood flow to the working muscles. Begin
your 10-minute warm-up with some light stretching followed by very slow jogging.
Gradually increase the pace to your normal running speed. A thorough warm-up is
required for all runs, especially before workouts like long runs, stamina, speed and
hill workouts, as well as road race events.

Mirroring the warm-up, the cool-down is a period of light jogging and stretching
designed to protect the body from the shock of a sudden stop. It gradually returns
the body to its resting condition (slow heart rate and relaxed breathing). It's a
great opportunity to work on your flexibility by spending a few minutes stretching
those leg muscles.

Workout formula
Workouts are sometimes described in what looks like some complicated physics
equation. Here's the key to breaking the code.

                 Stamina Workout: 4 x 3 min w/1-min easy jog.

This means, after your warm-up of 5-10 minutes, you run for 3 minutes at your
stamina effort (moderately hard). Then you slow to a jog for 1 minute to let the
body recover from the faster running. After the minute, you begin another 3
minutes at your stamina pace. You repeat this combination of faster running and
slower running for the number of times listed, in this case 4. You then cool-down
for 5-10 minutes. In total you have a 36-minute run: 10-minute warm-up, 12-minute
workout (4 x 3), plus recovery jogs totaling 4 minutes, and a 10 minute cool-down.
If you were supposed to run for 40 minutes, then just add 2 minutes to both your
warm-up and cool-down.

Heart rate training zones:
By using a heart rate monitor, you'll actually be able to train less and benefit more.
Before attempting heart rate training, you'll need to get the okay from your
doctor for a maximum stress. Training is more effective when it's done at the
proper heart rate.

How to determine your maximum heart rate
First, get permission from your doctor to run a maximum-effort test. Next, buy or
borrow a heart rate monitor. Then head for the nearest oval running track. Warm
up for 10-15 minutes. Then run a mile (4 laps), going all-out during the final laps. As
soon as you finish, note the highest reading on your monitor.

Achieving your peak fitness level

The four building blocks of peak fitness are:

   1.   endurance training
   2.   stamina training
   3.   stride training
   4.   peak fitness training

1. The Endurance Phase
During the first 5 weeks, you'll concentrate on improving your endurance.
Endurance, how long you can run comfortably, is the foundation of any runner's
program. During this phase, you'll gradually increase the length of your longest run.
Your heart and lungs will become stronger and more efficient at delivering the
oxygen and fuel required by your muscles. A good rule of thumb is to increase your
long run each week by about 5-10 minutes. By the end of 5 weeks, you could add 20
minutes or more to the length of your long run! Piece of cake, huh? You'll notice
that at the end of the phase (the fifth week), the lengths of your workouts will
decrease. That's because of the first rule of running. (Remember Rule #1? Stress
+ rest = progress!) You'll follow the hard/easy approach on a monthly, as well as a
weekly, basis.

Warming up before each workout
Make sure your muscles are limber so you'll be ready to perform your workout
safely. Your training session should be preceded by an easy 10-15 minute warm-up
followed by several minutes of light stretching. Don't forget that warm-up and
cool-down distances should be calculated as part of that day's total running time.

2. The Stamina Phase
In the Stamina Phase, you'll move your attention away from strengthening the
heart and lungs to developing the muscles in the legs and rear, just the places
you'd like to see a little more toned-up! Because you'll be focusing on a new type of
training, your total running for the first week of this phase will drop slightly
(around 10%). This will give your body time to adapt. You'll also continue the
stamina workouts started in the Endurance Phase. For hill training, any hill (or part
of one) will do. Find one that's away from traffic and has a nice gradual slope with
no major obstacles. Your runs will last from 45 seconds to a minute. You don't have
to sprint, but try to increase your effort slightly above your normal training pace.
Start by warming up, then tackle the hill 2 or 3 times. Recover by jogging back
down to your starting position. As your fitness level improves, gradually add more
runs. Remember Rule # 2: If you want to be better at running up hills, then run
some hills. After this month of training, you'll welcome hills instead of dreading

Proper Hill-Bounding Technique
Find a quiet dirt, grass or paved hill that is at least 100 to 200 meters long, with a
moderate to steep slope. Move up the hill by springing powerfully off the balls of
your feet and your toes. Use an exaggerated high knee lift and equally strong ankle
drive and arm swing. The key is not how fast you get up the hill but how strongly
you push off and how well you maintain your form. Rest briefly at the top of the
hill by walking for about 30 seconds until you are somewhat recovered. Then jog
lightly and slowly back down the hill. Rest for about 5 to 10 seconds and run up with
crisp form again. Finish with a 10-15 minute cool-down.

3. The Stride Phase
Now, this is not all-out sprinting-at least, not at first. It's gradually increasing
your pace for small portions of some workouts to help your body get a little more
efficient and faster (your legs, stomach and even your arms will also get stronger).
As in the Endurance Phase and Stamina Phase, you'll gradually increase the
duration of the workouts. This will provide jolts of variety and motivation, along
with improved fitness.
Work on concentration and relaxation!
Great golfers and baseball players have the unique ability to blend total
concentration with total relaxation. Great runners are no different. Stamina runs
are designed to help you learn to relax, while holding your concentration, for long
periods while running at a somewhat challenging pace.

4. The Peak Phase
In this phase you'll "top off the tank," and have some fun while you're at it. With
your stride training increased and everything else reduced, you'll feel like a kid,
and zoom around like one. As in the Stride Phase, you'll run fast for a short while,
then rest until recovered, then do it again. You'll boost your fitness level and burn
tons of calories. The workouts are intense, but loads of fun. They'll leave you
pleasantly exhausted. At the end of this phase, you'll reach a peak in your fitness
level. So why not take the time to participate in a local running event? Your legs will
be fresh from the reduced training load and the faster workouts. And, you'll enjoy
the satisfaction of reflecting on all the great training you've done over the last
several weeks.

Eating during the Peak Phase of training
Contrary to popular belief, a huge carbohydrate-rich meal the night before a race
isn't the only nutritional requirement for peak performance. Throughout the entire
peak phase, remember to eat a mix of simple and complex carbohydrates, as well as
protein and fats in moderation. Ideally, your diet should consist of about 50-
70%carbohydrates, 10-20% proteins and 20-30% fats. Stay hydrated every day,
drinking one ounce of water for every two pounds you weigh.

                 Running Nutrition - Fuel Your Body for Running!

Eat right and you'll run better. It's that simple. Your body functions best, and you
run better, when your diet includes the right kinds of foods in the right amounts at
the right times. The following information will enable you to put together your ideal
diet, one that will help you achieve your ideal body weight, and get the most out of
your running. You'll learn the basics of good sports nutrition. Finally, you'll learn
how to hydrate and fuel your body before, during and after your workouts. We'll
start with information about the right kinds of foods. Ready? Here goes!

There are four substances that the body requires in large quantities in order
to function properly. These four substances are: Carbohydrates, fats,
proteins and water. These are called the primary nutrients.

Why are carbohydrates so important? Here's the easy one-word answer: Energy!
Carbs, as they're affectionately called, provide a steady stream of energy. So why
not just pig out on carbs? Bad idea. The body can store energy from carbs, but only
in small amounts (think of a storage unit versus a warehouse). These small amounts
are used up quickly during exercise. After a quick jolt, you're running on empty.
And you can't overload that storage unit either because the body punishes you by
turning the excess carbs to fat! The trick is to store energy by eating carbs on a
continuous basis. Experienced runners eat the right carbs in the right amounts at
the right times! Carbohydrates are also known as sugars. Experts recommend that
your diet consist of 50 to 70% carbohydrates. The standard unit for the energy
your body uses is the calorie. Each gram of carbohydrate provides 4 calories. Got
all that? Be ready for a pop quiz at any time! Now, to continue-carbohydrates are
either simple or complex.

Simple carbohydrates
Simple carbohydrates are the most basic form of sugar. Examples of foods
containing simple carbohydrates are candy, fruit and sodas. These foods can
provide a quick "shot" of energy-but it's only temporary. For this reason, you
should keep those simple carbohydrate snacks, like grandma's homemade fudge, to
a minimum. But feel free to enjoy a treat now and then, especially after a good run.

Complex carbohydrates
Complex carbohydrates provide energy on a more consistent, long-term basis.
That's why experts recommend that the majority of the calories you get from
carbohydrates be in the form of complex carbohydrates. Foods that are high in
complex carbohydrates include cereals, pasta, breads, rice, and potatoes and
vegetables. It's important that you maintain a diet high in complex carbohydrates
to support your running program.

The "little things" that make a BIG difference
Performing up to your full potential is often a matter of balancing a lot of little
things. For runners, the little things include meeting your nutritional needs,
working on your strength and flexibility, as well as controlling stress and
maintaining mental health. Successful runners set challenging but realistic goals,
plan carefully, train patiently, eat and sleep well and cultivate a positive mental
outlook. Attending to the little things not only creates athletes, it's a key
characteristic of those who achieve excellence, variety and balance in their chosen
vocations, relationships and inner lives. Each of us can improve upon a few of the
little things that make a big difference.

Fats, in general, get a bum rap. There's a lot of confusion about how much fat is
healthy in your diet and the type of fat you should be eating. So here's the scoop-
your body needs fat. The problem is that fat is strongly linked to heart disease
and other medical problems. More scoop: not all fats are created equal. They're all
okay in limited amounts, but some are more okay than others. Fats are classified as
(1) saturated, (2) poly-unsaturated and (3) mono-unsaturated.

Saturated fats
Saturated fats are easy to spot because they remain solid at room temperature.
Common examples include lard, butter and cheese. These fats are required by the
body in small amounts and should be a small part of your overall fat intake.

Poly-unsaturated fat
These fats stay semi-solid at room temperature. Many margarine and butter
alternatives are made with poly-unsaturated fats.

Mono-unsaturated fat
Mono-unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. Examples include olive oil
and most other natural oils. Some foods containing mono-unsaturated fats have
been "hydrogenated." Don't ask what that means but it's not good. Just avoid
them! Recent studies have shown that diets with a higher proportion of mono-
unsaturates seem to reduce risk of heart disease. As a result, you should obtain 20
to 30% of your daily calories from fats-with more from mono-unsaturated than
from the other two. All excess fat in your diet is stored in your body as..? You
guessed it - fat!

What does "low-fat" mean?
Low-fat foods are foods in which 30% or fewer of the calories in a serving are
from fat. Yeah, that's a head-scratcher, huh? To figure it out, read the nutrition
label on the package. First, find the total number of calories in a serving. Second,
find total number of calories from fat. If the second number is 30% of the first
(or less) you've got low-fat! That doesn't mean you can go on a low-fat binge! You
lose weight by eating fewer calories than you burn. Fats contain humongous
amounts of calories-9 per gram! When you eat less fat, you reduce a risk factor
for disease, but it's no guarantee you'll lose weight. The key is to look at your diet
as a whole, and find out where those calories are coming from. And don't forget
that the amount of exercise you get is just as important as what you eat.
As you exercise and eat right, you'll feel your body getting stronger. Why?
Because of the protein you eat. Protein builds strength in your muscles and
tendons, and helps them stay healthy. It also provides energy-4 calories per gram.
Meats, eggs, beans and nuts are common examples of foods that contain significant
amounts of protein. Experts agree that runners need 10 to 20% of their daily
calories from protein. However, most people eat two to three times their protein
requirement each day! So many burgers, so little time!

Like the surface of planet earth, your body is mostly water-between 60 and 70%.
Although water does not provide any energy (or calories), your body requires large
amounts of H2O in order to function properly. Water regulates the core
temperature of your body. As you run, your working muscles produce large amounts
of heat that must be dissipated to prevent the core temperature from rising
dangerously. To dissipate this heat, your body perspires, and loses large amounts
of water. As a runner, you should consistently hydrate yourself during both warm
and cold weather, so that you never become thirsty. By the time your thirst
mechanism is activated, your body is already suffering from dehydration-hurting
your running and putting you at risk. You know you're drinking enough water if you
urinate about once an hour and your urine is clear. So-gurgle gurgle-drink lots of
water, okay?

Basic "on the run" nutrition and hydration guidelines

Consume 25-50g carbs 1-2 hours before exercise. Try an energy bar, bowl of
cereal, bagel, and fruit...your usual diet. Drink 8-16 oz. of water or combine with
the above in a carbohydrate drink.

During run:
Consume 25g carbs for every 45 minutes of exercise. Go for a gel pack. They
typically contain 25-30 grams and are easy to digest. Drink 4-8 oz. water or diluted
sports drink for every 15 minutes of exercise.

Consume 25-50g carbs immediately after exercise. This can be a combination of
food and drink. Of course, you will need to re-hydrate with water while eating an
energy bar, bagel, or some form of carbohydrate. Or, you can drink 25-50 grams of
carbohydrates in a sports drink if you have a hard time eating right after a
workout. Begin drinking 16 oz. of water for every pound lost during exercise.
Continue to drink water throughout the day. Consume another 25-50g carbs 30
minutes after exercise. Consume 50-100g carbs and 20-40g of protein 1 hour after
exercise. This is a good time to eat a well-balanced, sit-down meal. Soup and a
sandwich, salads, whatever suits your tastes. Chicken and tuna are great sources of
protein. Consume 50-100g of carbs per hour and 20-40g of protein every 2 hours.
Continue to do this for 6 hours after your run. You will find that by following this
routine, especially on your long run days, you'll feel refreshed rather than
exhausted after your workout.

The Golden Rule of Fluid Intake: By the time you're thirsty, it's too late!

A reduction of only 2% of your body weight through fluid loss can impact

To avoid the dangers of dehydration

      Drink 8 - 16 oz. of water 15 minutes before exercise.
      Drink 4 - 8 oz. of water for every 15 minutes during exercise.
      Drink 16 oz. of water for every pound of body weight lost after exercise.

A note on sports drinks
For exercise lasting more than one hour, try GU20, Powerade or similar sports
drinks. When consuming a sports drink during exercise, water it down to half
dilution for easier absorption. Higher concentrations of sports drinks are good for
after the exercise session when the body is most receptive to absorbing and
storing carbohydrates.

          How to prevent injuries - and treat them when they happen

The #1 injury prevention technique for runners is proper stretching.
The fun of a long easy run-there's nothing quite like it. You're gliding along on a
quiet street or path. You've found a comfortable, almost effortless rhythm. You're
feeling strong and confident, as though you could run forever. Then suddenly-ouch!
It's your heel! That little red spot has turned into a full-on blister. Or maybe it's
your knee, or ankle or thigh. What a downer! Just when you were running so great
and looking so un-geek-like! Don't let this happen to you. Nothing spoils the fun of
running, or hurts your performance, like an injury. That's why experienced runners
dedicate so much attention to injury prevention. In this section, you'll learn
techniques for preventing injuries before they happen and treating them if they
occur. You'll also learn a quick and effective stretching routine to be used before
and after each run. Combining this information with the next couple of chapters
will keep you fit and healthy-and totally stoked!

Not exactly your same old stretches!
Remember the exercises they taught you back in elementary school? The ones
where you bounced up and down while you stretched? Those were ballistic
stretches. Experts today recommend "active" stretches. Since they mimic basic
running motions, these stretches are the most effective for runners. They build
strength and increase flexibility by putting the muscles and joints through their
entire range of motion. Stretching is the ideal way to prepare your body for your
upcoming run, and for cooling it down afterwards. During your run, it increases
blood flow to the muscles. After your workout, stretching maintains or increases
your flexibility (range of motion) so you stay loose and supple. Stretching is
essential for anyone who is physically active-especially runners. And hey, it feels
good, too! Whip through the routine here before and after each run, or any other
time you want to relax the body and mind. Why not slip into some comfortable
clothes, lay your bones down on the floor and have at it!

Don't over-stress cold muscles!
If you don't stretch before a run, you risk over-stressing cold muscles. If you
don't stretch afterwards, muscles and tendons which may have tightened up during
your run will stay short, increasing your chance of injury. Taking the time to
stretch will make a huge difference in your running program today and in the years
to come.

Recognizing an injury that's about to happen: The Rule of Thumb
A key to avoiding an injury is to recognize the early warning signs. Here's a method
for detecting potential problems. Runners call it the "Rule of Thumb." After each
run or stretch, massage your leg muscles lightly with your fingers, especially your
thumb. Get to know your muscles. Ask them how they feel. You know-"Hello,
hamstring! How you doing today?" During this massage note any tenderness,
irregular bumps or any differences from one leg to the other. Pain you might not
notice during a run will show up during the "Rule of Thumb" test, signaling an injury
about to happen. To treat it, use gentle massage and follow the directions in the
next section.

Treating an injury that has already happened: R.I.C.E.
How does RICE help you treat injuries? Well, this isn't the kind you put in your
stir-fry or throw at a wedding. It's an acronym-that's a made-up word where the
letters represent...oh, forget it. Simply stated, RICE stands for Rest, Ice,
Compression and Elevation. If you suffer an injury, or experience the pain or
tenderness that tells you an injury is on the way, apply RICE immediately!

      Modify your running program to allow the injured tissue to heal. Take an
      extra day off. If the pain persists, take two! As Shakespeare said, "Nip
      thine running injury in the bud!" Don't keep pushing and make the situation
      Ice has been called the runner's best friend. If that's true, you really
      should get out more. Anyway, it helps decrease inflammation, allowing
      healthy nutrients to reach the injured site and begin the rebuilding process.
      You can apply ice in a variety of ways. Try ice cubes or crushed ice in a
      plastic baggy. Or execute the amazing paper cup caper: Fill small paper cups
      with water, then place them in the freezer. Once they're frozen, peel away
      the paper and apply the ice as a soothing ice massage. Enjoy working with
      food? Try the frozen pea massage-no kidding, it works! Cool-packs are nice,
      but rather impersonal. The frozen margarita massage is popular in the
      Southwest. In any case, apply your ice of choice to the tender area for 10-15
      minutes at least twice a day. If the ice touches the skin directly, cut your
      exposure time down to no more than 7 minutes. Always ice an injured area
      after running.
      Inflammation and swelling are nature's way of immobilizing an injured limb.
      They create a natural "cast" which keeps the limb from flopping uselessly in
      the breeze. This was okay in prehistoric days when folks were mainly
      lounging around in caves anyway. Times have changed, though. Caves are for
      wine now, and inflammation is a definite no-no. To reduce swelling, apply
      compression to the injured area immediately. Elastic bandages are the way
      to go.
      As mentioned above, the goal is to get the healing nutrients to the injured
      area. Elevating the injured body part to the level of your heart, or slightly
      higher, encourages the flow of blood to and from the inflamed area.
      Damaged tissue is carried away. The nutrients and healing agents flood the
      area. You should apply the RICE principle to an injured area for 24 to 72
      hours after you notice the pain or tenderness. After that, you can resume
      running with caution. To facilitate blood flow, apply moist heat to the area
      prior to each run. Apply ice afterward to combat inflammation. If you don't
      notice any improvement within a week, or if the pain gets worse, check it out
      with a healthcare professional.

Don't ignore these little annoyances.

Muscle soreness
Every runner experiences muscle soreness now and then-usually for the first 2 or 3
days after you overdo it or try something new. Touch the muscle, it hurts. Move it,
it hurts. Stretch it, it really hurts. Basically, you've asked too much of the muscle,
and it's talking back to you, saying, "All right, dude, you messed with me by pushing
me too hard. Now I'm going to mess with you by causing you some pain!" You should
be happy when your muscles talk that way. The soreness signals the need for the
body to increase its strength and resistance. It reminds you to be patient in your
running program and progress gradually. That's the best way to avoid, or at least
limit, sore muscles.

These unpleasant little rascals, usually on the hands (racquet sports) or feet
(running), are caused when too much friction is applied to the skin. The body
responds by putting fluid between the outer and inner layers of skin. Avoid blisters
by choosing the right running shoes and socks. Your socks should fit snugly and
wick the moisture away from your skin (damp socks on damp feet cause friction!) In
vulnerable areas such as the ball of the foot and toes, apply lubrication such as
Runner's Lube®, Body Glide® or Vaseline®. If you get a blister, don't pop it. The
skin underneath might get infected. Instead, let it heal naturally. Cut back a little
on your running. Apply lubrication, or maybe a skin-like bandage. Second Skin® and
Compeed® are made especially for blisters.

A callous is a thickening of the skin in areas where there is excess friction, but not
enough to cause a blister. The body responds by laying down extra layers of skin to
provide a tougher surface. This is all just swell until a blister forms under the
callous itself. It can happen and it's no picnic-the callous gets so big that friction
develops between the tough outer layers and the more delicate layers beneath. To
avoid these problems, reduce the callous occasionally with a file, pumice stone or
other callous removers.

The uncomfortable irritation called chafing occurs when your clothing rubs against
your skin. Runners sometimes experience chafing between the legs and under the
arms. For women runners, chafing can be a problem with some sports bras. To
control chafing, make sure you're running in clothing that wicks moisture away
from the skin and promotes evaporation. Dry clothing is less likely to chafe than
damp clothing. Lubrication can prevent and relieve discomfort in vulnerable areas.
Try rubbing Runner's Lube® or Body Glide® on susceptible areas.

Side stitches aren't funny. Here's how to avoid them.
A side stitch starts as a slight irritation in the side just under the bottom rib.
After a while it develops into a consistent sharp pain that interferes with your
running motion and breathing. For years, no one knew what caused the side stitch,
and as a result there were a lot of wild procedures for getting rid of. Scientists
finally figured out that the side stitch is caused by irritation of the lining of the
abdominal cavity- from too much food in your stomach, dehydration or gas. You can
prevent side stitches by avoiding large meals before your workout, staying well
hydrated and avoiding high-sugar foods and drinks before running.

Treat these bad daddies immediately:

Plantar Fasciitis
Plantar fasciitis is heel pain caused by inflammation or a tear in the tissue on the
bottom of the foot. You get plantar fasciitis from over-pronating (rolling your foot
too far inward), from overly tight muscles and tendons in the feet and from overly
tight calves (the muscles on the back of the lower legs). A sure sign of plantar
fasciitis is extreme pain in the arch when you first step out of bed. Treatment
includes RICE plus daily massage of the bottom of the foot either by hand or by
rolling the foot over a golf ball (no tee required!) or a sturdy metal can (shaving
cream is nice). Stretch your calves frequently and thoroughly. Stretch your feet
by pulling back on your toes.

Achilles Tendonitis
The Achilles tendon is the thick cord just behind the heel and ankle. When you run,
it undergoes a lot of stress and can become irritated and painful. If your Achilles
hurts when squeezed, take action pronto. Throw RICE at it immediately, and begin
an exercise program to stretch and to strengthen the calves. Be sure to treat your
Achilles tendonitis quickly and properly. A torn heel cord will lay you up for months.

Shin Splints
If you notice a tenderness or pain on the front or inside edge of the shinbone-
"tibia" to you runners acquainted with the dictionary-you've got shin splints. This
nagging condition often strikes when you begin a running program or change your
regimen by adding more running. The cause is usually over-pronation due to poor
biomechanics, fatigue or improper footwear. Treatment includes RICE, stretching
of the calves and strengthening of the shin muscles. Want an exercise to relieve
shin splints? Lie on your bed, stomach down. Let your toes hang off the foot of the
bed (that's the end toward the TV set!) Gently pull your toes toward your knees,
squishing the mattress between your toes and the front of your shin. The mattress
will provide just the right amount of resistance to strengthen the shin muscles.

Runner's Knee
If you experience inflammation and pain on the front of the knee, you may have
developed runner's knee. It's caused by an imbalance of strength in your various
leg muscles. As a result your kneecap goes wild and crazy and fails to track
correctly when the knee is flexed and extended. Instead of gliding in its groove, it
sways to one side (usually the outside) and rubs against the bone. Yikes! Treatment
includes RICE and an exercise program aimed at strengthening the thigh muscles.

IT Band Syndrome
Another common knee injury occurs on the outside of the knee. It's called iliotibial
(yes, that really is a word!) band syndrome-or IT band syndrome. The IT band
extends from the hip to the outside of the knee and provides major lateral support
for the leg. Because it runs across, and can rub against, the outside of the knee, it
can become irritated during running. IT Band Syndrome is caused by running on
slanted roads, wearing worn-out shoes, under-pronation or bowed legs. Treatment
involves RICE and exercise, which promotes stretching of the IT band.

The difference between a strain and a sprain
You often hear of athletes who "sprain" an ankle or "strain" a hamstring. Ever
wonder what the difference is? The distinction lies in the difference between
tendons and ligaments. Ligaments attach bones to bones. Their function is to
support and stabilize joints that otherwise would be very loose. Tendons attach
muscles to the bones they move. A "sprain" is a tear (it could be a slight or a major
tear) in a ligament. A "strain" is a tear in a tendon or a muscle. Sprains heal slowly
due to poor blood supply, and the ligaments often fail to return to their original
tightness, leaving the joint susceptible to future sprains. Strains heal quicker due
to greater blood supply.

If you do get hurt, here's how to find a good running injury specialist: Like all
runners, you have a variety of medical care needs, from normal health maintenance
and treatment to specialty care for serious running injuries. The medical
professionals who treat you must understand your mind-set. This includes your
motivations and compulsions. They must also know the mechanics of running. As you
look for medical assistance, you know one thing for sure: When you ask for advice,
the one answer you don't want to hear is "stop running." A growing resource for
finding a sports medicine professional as well as information about your injury is
the Internet. Investing some time in learning more about your particular running
injury and professionals available in your area can ensure that you get the most out
of your office visit.

               Cross Training - it's the next best thing to running

Lousy weather...can't run? Try cross training! Injured...can't run? Try cross
training! Want a change of pace? Try cross training! Looking for ways to improve
certain aspects of your performance? Then cross-train! Cross training is any non-
running workout that supports your running program. Just because it's physical
doesn't mean it's cross training. Calf roping, kickboxing and bowling don't qualify.
Let's cover four special types of exercise proven to enhance your running
performance and provide an invigorating change of pace. They are water running,
cycling, elliptical machine workouts and strength training.
Cross training and injury prevention
Two-thirds of runners will experience an injury this year. Most of these are
preventable. Cross training is one of the keys to both injury-prevention and
recovery. Activities like water running and cycling can improve your
cardiopulmonary system while giving your weight-bearing joints and muscles a rest.
As long as training intensities and frequencies don't change, cross training and land
running provide similar aerobic benefits. You can cross-train when recovering from
injury and even speed up the recovery process. The best way to deal with injuries
is to prevent them. Complete the checklist and determine whether you're doing all
you can to prevent injuries.

Injury prevention checklist

              Do your shoes fit properly?
Do your socks fit properly?                     Yes No
Are you warming up adequately before each
                                                Yes No
Are you using the "rule of thumb" to identify
                                                Yes No
potential injuries?
Are you cooling down after each workout?        Yes No
Are you dressing (layering) properly to prevent
                                                Yes No
chilling or overheating?
Are you getting enough rest between
                                                Yes No
Are you pushing yourself too hard?              Yes No
Are you running even though you have an
                                                Yes No
Are you following your runner's diet?           Yes No
Are you hydrating properly?                     Yes No
Are you running on a dangerous course?
                                                Yes No
Streets with curbs and gutters?
Path with loose gravel?                         Yes No
Trail with sharp turns, drop-offs, wet grass?   Yes No
Street or road with heavy traffic?              Yes No
Cross training for runners

Water Running
It really works-even if you can't swim a stroke. Water running became popular a
few years ago when runners realized that water workouts offered some great
benefits-no pounding, good resistance and soothing massage qualities. These days
there are all sorts of exercise classes held at swimming pools, from synchronized
swimming to programs for senior citizens. Water running is a great alternative
workout for runners because it:

      mimics your running motion
      provides a workout without the pounding
      speeds up the recovery from injuries
      improves your aerobic fitness level

Water running isn't complicated. It all boils down to this: with the help of a
flotation device (like a ski vest, ski belt, or Aqua-Jogger®) you run in deep water,
performing the same workouts you perform on land.

A boatload of benefits
Because the water creates resistance to movement, being submerged is like having
an adjustable weight machine surrounding your body. Want to adjust the intensity
of your workout? Just change the speed of your arm and leg actions. Faster
movements create more resistance and greater intensity. There are some nice
side-benefits to all this, too. Your legs not only avoid the pounding of running on
land, they get a soothing massage at the same time. This increases the blood flow
to and from the muscles and helps eliminate muscle tension. Water running is also a
great fitness-builder. Your heart and lungs are stressed just like when you're on
the road.

How to get started
Buy or borrow a flotation device (many pools have Aqua Joggers available). Find a
pool not filled with serious swimmers or screaming kids playing Marco Polo. Make
sure the water is over your head so that when you "run," your feet don't hit the
bottom. The flotation device should lift you so that just your head and neck are
out of the water. When you're submerged to your neck in water, your body weighs
about 10% of its land weight. If you weigh 200 pounds on land, you weigh only 20
pounds in water.
The basic technique
Use the same running motion as on land, bringing your arms and legs through normal
or slightly exaggerated arcs. Pump! Pump! Pump! You'll feel a rhythm building, just
like on land. Concentrate on staying upright and tall. Maintain a consistent running

A common mistake:
Resist the tendency of your body to roll up into a ball while running. In water, the
lungs become the center of gravity (or is it buoyancy?) and you naturally begin to
crunch forward. Be mindful of this and run tall. Keep your hips forward and your
head up. Extend your legs fully behind you.

Water running workouts
You can perform your normal land running workouts in the pool. For example, if your
outdoor program calls for a 30-minute easy run, then do the same in the water. The
benefits are very similar. Unless someone drains the pool, the scenery isn't going
to change. To avoid boredom you'll have to be creative. Add variety by
interspersing hard running with easy running. For example, warm up with 5 easy
minutes, then alternate hard and easy minutes for a while, followed by a 5-minute
easy cool-down. It's fun, and very beneficial. Since there's no traffic to contend
with, and no danger of a tidal wave, the pool is a great place to use your headset.
(Make sure it's waterproof, of course.)

Cycling and Spinning®
Got a bike? Get on it! Live near a gym? Get over there! Riding a bike provides a
terrific low-impact workout that:

      strengthens your leg muscles
      helps tired legs recover faster
      maintains or increases your fitness level
      provides easy and intense workouts without the pounding

Like water running, cycling is very effective in helping you maintain aerobic fitness.
But because cycling on level ground offers little in the way of "resistance," you'll
need to adjust your target heart rate upwards. For example, if your running target
is 150 beats per minute, up it to 155-160 for cycling. Like water running, cycling
allows you to perform a variety of workouts. Take an easy ride and enjoy the
scenery. Or mix things up by alternating hard and easy efforts of varying lengths.
Have fun with it. And don't forget to stretch after each workout.

Cycling Technique
To get the most out of your cycling, you'll need to use the proper technique. Don't
just push down on the pedals. This only works the thigh muscles. Experienced
cyclists push on the down stroke and pull through the bottom of the stroke and
upward. Try thinking of pedaling as a circle. Use your thighs to push the pedals
down, your hamstrings and calves to pull the pedal back, and your shins to pull the
pedal up. Then start the process again. This strengthens the entire leg and
protects you against injuries. Cyclists call this smooth technique soupplesse. Be
sure to use this term frequently. Other cyclists will be lulled into thinking you're
one of them. But you know better, don't you? You're a runner!

Avoid "grinding” in the lower gears.
"Grinding"-trying to pedal fast in the lower gears-is a major no-no, because this
hard pedaling doesn't imitate your normal running motion. Grinding can result in
unwanted muscle mass in the "quads" and "glutes." Developing cuter buns is not an
objective of your cycling activities!

There's a reason cyclists wear those weird outfits.
If you are new to cycling you might wonder why cyclists have a specific dress code.
After your first cycling workout in running shorts you will understand the reason.
Putting the wrong material between you and the seat will cause chafing. To prevent
this, you should wear cycling-specific shorts or tights that do not ride up your
thighs and against the seat. The padding in the bike shorts should be a synthetic
chamois. Cycling shorts are worn without underwear. The chamois wicks the
moisture away and adds padding. The chamois should not have a seam running
through the center since that can cause skin irritation. Look for a molded 1-piece
chamois or one with 2 curved seams.

Going for a spin
A new twist on cycling that's popular at many gyms is Spinning®. Spinning®
combines stationary cycling and aerobics and can benefit your running. Generally,
Spinning® is done in a class or group setting with some buffed-out dude or babe
calling the shots. It looks simple. And it is. But as in cycling, technique is very

Getting set up
Proper positioning on the bike is critical. Set the seat height so that your leg is
slightly bent when the pedal is all the way down. Move the seat forward or
backward until your knee is directly over the ball of your foot when the pedals are
parallel with the ground. Your body should be at about a 45-degree angle with the
ground. A hint for guys: To keep your butt from getting sore, keep the nose of the
seat up. Gals usually feel more comfortable with the seat pointed slightly down. If
you just can't get comfortable, add a gel-padded seat cover to the bike for extra

The Spin cycle
During Spinning® class your instructor will change the pace and position frequently.
This enables you to train different energy systems and to use different muscle
groups. When the resistance is increased, slide backwards on the seat to generate
more power. When you have less resistance and need to spin faster, slide forward
to create more leg speed. As always, focus on pushing the pedals all around the
complete 360-degree spin cycle

Elliptical Machines
Ask a little stair climber what it wants to be someday, and the answer might be "an
elliptical machine!" These machines combine stair climbing, cycling and running. It's
fun and interesting because it involves the circular motion of running. Like the
other cross-training activities in this chapter, it involves no impact. You work at
the heart rates and intensity levels of your running program-without the pounding.
The types and durations of workouts are the same as for water running, cycling and
spinning. For the most part, you can duplicate your land program.

Converting running workouts into cross-training activities
Following a few simple guidelines can make cross training as productive as a running
workout. Here's a no-brainer: To simulate an easy-distance run you can simply
exercise at an easy intensity for the stated duration. For example, if your schedule
calls for a 30-minute run, you would exercise at the appropriate intensity for half
an hour in the pool, or on an elliptical trainer or a bike. You'll have to adjust your
target heart rate ranges while in water, and you may become more quickly fatigued
with the elliptical machine because you're using muscles in slightly different ways.
Be sure that you adhere to the same strategies for warming up, cooling down,
nutrition and hydration that you usually follow when running. To keep things
interesting, include a variety of durations, intensities and recovery periods. In
most instances, because cross-training workouts closely mimic your actual running,
you can simply equate your exercise duration to the total of miles you would
normally run in that time. For example, if your normal 4.5-mile stamina workout
lasts a total of 40 minutes, including 15 minutes of intense running and a 12-minute
warm-up and cool-down, then the same 40-minute alternative indoor workout would
equate to about 4.5 miles. Keep these comparisons in mind as you monitor your
training levels to ensure that you don't over train.

Stair climbing
Using a stair-climbing machine can also help your running. In a recent study,
subjects who exercised 30-45 minutes, 4 days per week for 9 weeks at 70-90% of
heart rate max on a stair-climbing machine improved their performance in a 1.5-
mile time trial by an average of one minute! For specific workouts, most stair
climbing machines have computerized training programs and/or training levels that
will allow you to perform a variety of workouts. You should experiment with several
of these workouts to find those that match your specific training needs (i.e.,
endurance, stamina, stride, and peak fitness).

Strength Training
No doubt you're familiar with these words of wisdom uttered by the running coach
on the plains of Marathon in 445 B.C.. This section provides a strength-training
program that targets those muscles and movements most important in improving
your running performance. These routines are not designed to turn you into the
incredible hulk. The idea is to increase your strength to the point at which your
body can handle the stresses of running without getting hurt. If you end up getting
a little firmer in the abs, hips and buns, who's going to complain, huh? In addition
to injury prevention, strength training helps round out your overall fitness
program. Here are a few of the other benefits.

Maintain and increase muscle mass
Researchers know that one part of aging is the loss of muscle. A little resistance
training can help maintain your vital muscle mass. In other words, use it or lose it.

Add interest and maintain motivation
Strength training also adds variety and interest to your exercise program. A little
change of routine will help keep you motivated.

Become a better athlete overall
Strength training can help you become a better total athlete. It improves balance
and coordination. It teaches discipline. By building your running muscles, and those
that support them, and by following the other guidelines in this book-including goal
setting, nutrition and stretching-you'll start to become a "total athlete," not just a

Meet more people
Going to a gym to work out is an ideal way to meet people who share your interests.
It's a great place to get new fitness ideas and news.

Eight basic rules for better weight training

   1. Begin each workout with a thorough warm-up: 5 to 10 minutes of slow
      jogging, cycling or rowing plus some light stretching of the muscles to be
   2. Exercise the large muscles first (upper legs, chest and back). Save the arms,
      lower legs and abs for last.
   3. Get your repetitions, or "reps," right. Doing too many or too few reps
      decreases the effectiveness of your strength training.
   4. Break your workouts into sets. You'll be able to do more reps and get more
      out of them.
   5. Choose the appropriate weight for each exercise. Generally runners use
      lighter weights, but working with too little (or too much) weight limits your
   6. Breathe properly: Exhale when you are exerting force to move the weight
      and inhale when you are not exerting force. For example, when doing a push-
      up, inhale on the way down, and exhale on the way up.
   7. Work at the right tempo. Don't just lift the weights as quickly as possible.
      For maximum benefits, lift the weight slowly, allowing 1 to 2 seconds to move
      the weight and 3 to 4 seconds to return to your original position.
   8. Complete each workout with a thorough cool-down. Just repeat your warm-up
      routine, maybe with a variation or two.

The 12 best strength-training exercises for runners

Body part: Feet
Exercise: Towel crunch
This exercise will strengthen your feet. After all, they withstand 2-3 times your
body weight with each running step. So the stronger your feet are, the better! Lay
a small towel out on a linoleum or tile floor. Sit in a chair with your toes just over
the edge of the towel. Begin to pull the towel toward you using your toes. When you
can no longer pull more towel under your toes, spread the towel out again and
repeat. Once the towel crunch gets too easy, just add some weight (a food can or
small book) to the end of the towel for more resistance.

Body part: Calves
Exercise: Straight leg raises
Exercise: Bent leg raises
Like the feet, the calves are very involved in running. That's why it's so important
to keep them strong and flexible. In these two exercises, one with your knee
straight and one with your knee slightly bent, focus on lowering your heel as far as
possible then rising up as high as possible. Once you can do 30-50 repetitions of
these, you can add some additional weight. Try holding a large food can or dumbbell
as you exercise.

Body part: Shins
Exercise: Bed pulls
Shin splints is one of the most common running injuries for beginners. The muscles
on the front and side of the legs just aren't ready for all the work. This simple
exercise will prepare them for running. Hang just the ball of your foot off the
mattress and pull your foot toward your shin. The mattress will provide just the
right amount of resistance. Focus on slowly releasing the mattress. This helps train
the muscles for the action they take during running - namely lowering the foot
slowly to keep it from slapping the ground.

Body part: Quadriceps
Exercise: Knee extensions
The quadriceps (the muscles on the front of the thigh) are critical to your running.
Not only do they help absorb the impact and propel you down the road, they also
stabilize the knee. Keeping your "quads" strong will help you avoid Runner's Knee
and other ailments. Begin with your knee bent slightly - less than 90 degrees.
Straighten your legs to move the weight and continue until your legs are fully
extended, then slowly lower the weight back to the starting position. If your
knees, not the thighs, feel any discomfort, decrease the weight and reduce the
range of motion (how far you flex or extend your leg). Experiment to find a pain-
free range.

Body part: Hamstrings
Exercise: Leg curls
The hamstrings (the muscles on the back of the thigh) are also important for your
running. They need to be strong and flexible. Lie face down on the leg curl machine.
Slip your feet under the rollers and hold onto the handles. Begin with your legs
straight, then pull your heels toward your buttocks to lift the weight. Pull your
heels only to the point where your butt begins to rise off the bench. You don't
have to touch your butt with your heels. Then lower the weight slowly.

Body part: Buttocks/Hamstrings
Exercise: Lunges
Take a good size step forward with one leg. The front leg should be bent so that
your knee is directly over your ankle (forming a 90-degree angle). The rear leg
should be straight. Return to a standing position by pushing backward with the heel
of your forward leg. You should feel the exercise in the buttocks and backs of legs.
Repeat with the other leg.

Body part: Abdominals
Exercise: Crunches
Your trunk is the major power source for your running. If your "core" isn't strong
and stable, then you risk injury. Lay on your back with your knees bent. Cross your
arms over your chest, then crunch your chest towards your knees without straining
your neck. A 45-degree angle is about right. The lower back should remain on the
floor. Focus on tightening the abdominal muscles.

Body part: Back
Exercise: Rows
As with your abs, your back muscles keep your trunk and torso stable during
running. Keeping your stomach tight, pull your hands toward your chest to lift the
weight. Squeeze the shoulder blades together, then slowly lower the weight to the
starting position. Your lower back should move minimally. If you experience any
lower back discomfort, decrease the weight and range of motion of the exercise.

Body part: Chest
Exercise: Bench press
This exercise will develop your chest and shoulders. Lying on your back, hold the
bar at chest level, then extend your arms fully without locking your elbows. Slowly
lower the weight back to starting position.
Arm Workouts
The arms are used mainly for balance during running, but can tire after a few miles.
Strengthening the front of the upper arm - the biceps - and the back of the upper
arm - the triceps - keeps your arms strong. Plus you'll look buff!

Exercise: Bicep curls
Start with your arms extended. Flex the elbow to bring the weight toward your
shoulders. Once the elbows are maximally flexed, slowly lower the weight to the
starting position. As you fatigue, remember not to rock the body or move the
elbows back and forth to accomplish the exercise.

Exercise: Tricep curls
Start with your elbow bent. Straighten your elbow fully to lift the weight and
strengthen the backs of your arms. Slowly bend your elbow to lower the weight.

Glossary of Running Terms

Shortest sprint race outdoors

10,000 meters; 10 kilometers; 6.2 miles

3 3/4 laps of track; called the "metric mile"

15,000 meters; 15 kilometers; 9.3 miles

2 miles
Approximately 8 laps of track; 3218m

Half a lap of track

1.864 miles
Dietary regimen where a runner gets 40% of calories from carbohydrates, 30%
from fats and 30% from protein

1 lap around track, also called a "quarter"

5,000 meters; 5 Kilometers; 3.1 miles

Approximately a half-mile; 2 laps around track

4.97 miles

With oxygen; usually used to describe exercise of low to moderate intensity

Aerobic Capacity
Also called VO2max; maximum amount of oxygen that can be utilized by the body;
also describes a type of training that increases the amount of oxygen that can be
utilized, i.e., Aerobic Capacity Intervals

Aerobic Conditioning
Training that improves endurance

The absence of menstrual periods

Without oxygen; usually used to describe exercise of high to very high intensity

Athletes Helping Athletes (AHA)
The world-class marathon training and fundraising program that benefits
challenged athletes.
Anaerobic Capacity
Maximum amount of energy that can be produced without requiring oxygen; also
describes a type of training that increases the amount of energy that can be
produced, i.e., Anaerobic Capacity Intervals

Anaerobic Threshold
see "Lactate Threshold"

A runner who participates in a race without registering or paying the entry fee

Roger Bannister
The first person to break 4 minutes for the mile

Roy Benson, MPE
Running coach and director of running camps

Bioelectrical Impedance/Infrared
Method of determining percent body fat where an electrical impulse or infrared
light are put through the body; easy to use but approximately 3-6% error possible

Study of the function of the body in relation to movement; especially important for
repetitive movement sports like running; poor biomechanics can lead to injury

Body Composition
Usually relating to the percent of the body comprised of lean tissue (bone, muscle,
water, etc.) or fat tissue; 17% or less body fat is recommended for men; 24% or
less body fat is recommended for women

Another term like "hitting the wall"; a state of exhaustion when glycogen stores
are depleted, blood glucose (sugar) levels are low and the only exercise that can be
performed is slow running; typically occurs at around the 20 mile point in the

The dietary practice of eating a high carbohydrate diet (approximately 60-70% of
total calories) for the three days leading up to a race to maximally fill the glycogen

Essential nutrient of body found in pastas, breads, fruits, vegetables; should
comprise the majority of calories in a runner's diet; stored in the body as glycogen
in the muscles and liver; over consumption is converted to fat

Chromium Picolinate
Supplement to help aid in the burning of fat; little scientific evidence to support
its claims

Slow, easy running done after a workout to help you recover more quickly

A high-performance polyester fiber used in athletic apparel for its cotton-like
feel, moisture wicking properties and quick dry time; brand name of DuPont®

Creatine Monohydrate
Supplement designed to maximally fill the creatine phosphate stores (fuel for
explosive movements like sprinting); little scientific evidence of its beneficial
effects for distance runners

Activities such as swimming and cycling that are used to increase conditioning and
injury prevention for running or as a means of adding variety to workout schedule

Cruise Intervals
Type of workout to improve the lactate threshold; usually repetitions of 800
meters to 2-miles performed at the lactate threshold speed with short recoveries

The ability of a shoe to minimize the shock of running; while all running shoes have
cushioning, highly cushioned shoes are usually designed for under-pronators (or
supinators) who need additional shock absorption and maximum flexibility

Daniels, Jack PhD
Running coach and exercise physiologist

Decker-Slaney, Mary
Great American middle distance runner; has held many world and American records

Not having enough fluids in the body

Stands for "did not finish" and describes a runner who drops out of a race

See "Muscle Soreness"

Easy Run
A slow run done at a conversational pace

Minerals such as sodium, chloride and potassium that are used for normal bodily
functions. These minerals are lost when the body sweats and are replaced through
food and fluids.

Chemicals in the brain which create a feeling of euphoria; said to be the cause of
the "runner's high"

Your ability to run for long periods of time

Swedish word for speed play; workout includes faster running mixed with slower
running; adds variety to training and can be performed in any setting

Fast Twitch
Type of muscle fiber (cells which compose the muscles) which contract rapidly and
powerfully but fatigue quickly

Fat Essential nutrient of body found in oils and meats; should comprise
approximately 30% of calories in a runner's diet; over consumption leads to
increases in body fat; can be of three types: saturated, poly-unsaturated, and

Used to describe an exercise intensity which burns the most fat; science is still
debating the appropriate intensity for maximal fat-burning; note: burning fat at
the highest rate does not necessarily correspond to burning calories at the highest

Fred's Team
Fundraising program to raise money for the Brain Cancer Research through
marathon training and racing

Galloway, Jeff
1972 Olympic Marathoner; running coach, lecturer and director of running camps

Basic sugar; form of sugar into which all carbohydrates are first converted and
appear in the blood

The form in which carbohydrates are stored in the body; there are two main
stores of glycogen - the liver and the muscles; when glycogen stores are depleted
athletes fatigue, "hit the wall", "bonk"; stores can be maximally filled by eating a
high carbohydrate diet leading up to an event

13.1 miles; 21.1K

804.5 meters; approximately 2 laps around track

Hamstring Strain
Micro-tears of the large muscles of the back of the thigh; can be treated by ice
and stretching and strengthening exercises

Hash House Harriers
A social club of runners that has been described as "a drinking club with a running
problem"; members, called "hashers", are given colorful nicknames and club runs
are modeled after the old English game of Hares and Hounds; the runs begin when
one or two runners, called "hares", set a trail that the other runners, known as
"hounds", try to follow

Heart Rate
Contraction of the heart usually measured as beats per minute

Heart Rate Monitor
A device that measures the electrical activity of the heart (heart rate); usually
consists of a chest strap and watch-like wrist receiver

Workouts where a runner runs up a hill fast and jogs down then runs up again; helps
develop leg power and aerobic capacity

International Amateur Athletic Federation; world-wide organization that governs

The removable inner part of a running shoe that sits on top of the midsole and
provides cushioning and arch support

Degree of effort or exertion

Type of workout where a set distance is run repeatedly with a recovery jog
between; for example 6 times 400 meters with 100 meters recovery jog

International Olympic Committee; world-wide organization which governs the
Olympic Games

Joints in Motion
Fundraising program to raise money for the Arthritis Foundation through marathon
training and racing

Junk Miles
Runs used to reach a weekly or monthly mileage total rather than for a specific

A finishing sprint at the end of a race

Supplement to help add in the burning of fat; little scientific evidence to support
its claims

Lactate Threshold
The running intensity where lactic acid begins to rapidly accumulate in the blood.
Also called anaerobic threshold; lactate threshold speed is your 10K race pace plus
5-20 seconds or a heart rate zone between 85-89% of maximum.

Lactic Acid
A by-product of the body's use of carbohydrates; usually associated with muscle
stiffness and burn after a hard workout

Can refer to two different features of a shoe; the first is the construction of the
shoe or the way the shoe's upper is attached to the midsole. There are three
major types of construction: board lasting, where the upper is glued to a flexible,
shoe-length "board"; slip lasting, where the upper is stitched directly to the
midsole; and combination lasting, where the forefoot is attached directly to the
midsole and the heel is attached to a board. Last can also refer to the shape of the
shoe: straight, semi-curved or curved. A curved last turns inward from the heel to
toe, a straight last has little or no curve and a semi-curved last is somewhere in

Referring to the outer side (or little toe side) of a shoe

Leukemia & Lymphoma Society Team in Training
Runners who raise money for the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society and in return
receive training and travel to a marathon

A record of your training and running that helps you stay motivated, monitor your
progress and spot trends in your running

Long Runs
Longest run of the week; usually on the weekend

Long, slow distance; slow running designed to improve endurance

26.2 miles; 42.2K

Martin, David PhD
Running coach and exercise physiologist

A runner 40 years of age or older

Maximum Heart Rate (HRmax)
The highest number of contractions your heart can make in one minute

The inner side (or arch side) of a shoe

Medial Post
Denser midsole material (often gray) added to the medial (or arch side) of the
midsole to provide stability and control excessive pronation

Metric Mile
1500m, the international racing distance closest to the imperial mile; see "1500m"

A tightly woven fabric that's extremely lightweight and soft; notable for its wind
and water resistance, ability to wick moisture and quick dry time
The part of the running shoe between the upper and outsole that provides
cushioning and support. Most midsoles are made of either EVA (ethylene vinyl
acetate) or polyurethane foam. EVA is lighter and more flexible than polyurethane,
but it is not as durable. It can come in various densities with gray-colored EVA
being denser than white. The denser, gray EVA is usually placed along the medial
side of the shoe to provide stability and motion control and is often referred to as
a "medial post." Some midsoles have additional cushioning technology such as air,
gel, grids, etc.

1609 meters; approximately 4 laps around track

Essential nutrient of body; must be ingested in the correct amounts in the body;
aid in the processes which use the other nutrients and compose some of the
structures of the body; may be obtained through diet or supplementation; over
consumption can be toxic

Motion Control
The ability of a shoe to limit overpronation and provide stability

Muscle Soreness
Pain, stiffness, and soreness in a muscle due to microscopic tears of the muscle
usually due to doing more work than the muscle is used to (also called DOMS or
delayed onset muscle soreness)

Negative Splits
Running the second half of a race faster than the first half

Competition held once every 4 years; highest goal for most runners

Inserts placed inside shoes to correct biomechanical problems

The bottom-most layer of most running shoes; the layer that contacts the ground
and provides traction

The excessive inward roll of the foot; overpronation can be controlled through the
use of motion control shoes and/or orthotics

Over training
Condition when runner trains too much too soon and leads to fatigue, injury and/or

Oxygen Debt
A state where the energy demand is greater than what can be provided by oxygen
thus inducing heavy breathing to consume more oxygen

Measure of the speed of running; usually quantified as minutes taken to run a mile;
for example a runner may run a 7:00 per mile pace for a marathon

Piriformis Syndrome
Pain in the buttocks resulting from a tight piriformis muscle pressing against the
sciatic nerve; can be treated by stretching exercises for the buttocks

Plantar Fasciitis
Foot injury where there are micro-tears of the arch; especially painful in the
morning; can be treated by stretching the arch and calves; massage with hands or
rubbing foot on golf ball or shaving cream can; if untreated can lead to heel spurs
(spur of bone from the heel bone)

Scheduling your training so that your best performance is timed for a goal race or

Personal Record or Personal Best; fastest time a runner has run for a given

Prefontaine, Steve
One the best American distance runners in history; known for his ferocious
competitiveness; killed in car crash at the age of 24 in 1975; two movies have been
made of his short career

The natural, inward roll of the foot; pronation begins when heel contacts the
ground, the foot then rolls inward to absorb shock and transfer weight to the ball
of the foot as it prepares to push off. It is a natural and necessary motion for
running and walking.

Essential nutrient of body found in meats, eggs, dairy products, beans and nuts;
should comprise approximately 15-25% of calories in a runner's diet; converted
into the body's structures-bones, muscles, organs, etc.; over consumption is
converted to fat

Supplement to help add in the burning of fat; little scientific evidence to support
its claims

Jargon for a quarter mile or 400 meters; often used when describing workouts
where runners run 400-meter (or quarter) repeats

Recovery Runs
Slow to moderate running to recover from hard workouts or races and/or maintain
aerobic conditioning

See "Intervals"

Resting Heart Rate
The number of times your heart beats per minute when you are relaxed and still;
usually measured first thing in the morning before getting out of bed

An acronym for rest, ice, compression and elevation; a procedure for treating
certain injuries
A term used to describe a shoe's ability to smoothly transfer a runner's weight
from heel-strike to toe-off

Road Races
Running contests over streets; all runners can participate

Rodgers, Bill
"Boston Billy"; has won the prestigious Boston and New York City marathons each 4

Road Runners Clubs of America; organization to which most running clubs in the US
belong; provide information and resources for running clubs

Runner's High
Feeling of euphoria some runners feel after a long, hard run or race (see

Runner's Knee
Knee pain usually caused by the knee cap not sliding properly during movement; may
be related to muscular imbalances within the thigh muscles; can be treated with
strengthening exercises for weak muscles (usually the inner thigh muscle)

Running Economy
The amount of oxygen consumed at a given running speed; a runner who consumes
less oxygen at this running speed as compared to another running is said to be more

Samuelson, Joan
1984 Olympic Gold Medallist in the marathon; American marathon record holder

Pain running from the low back to the toes related to pressure on the large nerve
innervating this area—the sciatic nerve; should be evaluated by physician

Second Wind
Feeling of more energy and less effort some runners feel after 15-20 minutes of

Shin Splints
Lower leg injury where there is pain along the shin bone; usually caused by
excessive pronation or weak shin muscles; treat with ice and stretching and
strengthening exercises; can lead to stress fractures

Shorter, Frank
1972 Olympic Gold Medallist in the marathon; his victory spurred the running boom
of the 1970's

A light weight tank top worn by runners

Skin fold Calipers
Process of determining body composition where several folds of skin are measured
for thickness and then used to calculate percent body composition

Slow Twitch
Type of muscle fiber (cells which compose the muscles) which contract slowly but
can perform for a long time

Speed Work
Short, fast intervals with recovery jogs between; increases your leg turnover and
maximizes your stamina and race confidence

Split Times
Denotes the time it takes to run a portion of a total run (often measured at mile
markers or other distinctive points along the way); for example, a runner may run a
7:00 mile split between miles 4 and 5 of a 10K (6.2-mile run)

The ability of a shoe to resist excessive motion; usually used to describe shoes
designed for neutral runners or mild over-pronators

Your ability to combine speed and endurance
Strength Training
Movements against resistance to develop muscular strength; usually weight
training/lifting weights

Movements designed to increase a muscle's flexibility; best method is still being
debated but it appears that consistently stretching is the key to increasing

Short, fast but controlled runs lasting 15-45 seconds followed by full recovery;
benefits include faster leg turnover and improvements in running form

See "Underpronation"

A high-performance nylon fabric common in performance athletic wear and notable
for its sturdy, cotton-like feel, moisture wicking abilities and quick dry time; brand
name of DuPont®

Reducing your mileage several days to three weeks before an important race to
ensure peak performance on race day

Tempo Runs
Type of workout to improve the lactate threshold; usually consists of 15-30
minutes of running at the lactate threshold speed

Toe box
The front portion of a shoe. Also known as the forefoot

Measured oval where races of varying distances are contested; usually measure
400 meters around; 4 laps equals approximately 1 mile

Races longer than a marathon (26.2 miles)
Underpronation or supination
The lack of sufficient inward motion of the foot; highly cushioned, flexible shoes
are recommended to absorb shock and allow the foot to pronate naturally

Underwater weighing
Process of determining body composition where a person's weight, while submerged
in water, is used to calculate percent body composition; considered the best
method for calculating percent body fat

The top portion of the shoe, usually made of leather, synthetic leather or mesh

USA Track & Field
National governing body for running in the US

United States Olympic Committee; US organization that governs the Olympic

Essential nutrient of body; must be ingested in the correct amounts in the body;
aid in the processes which use the other nutrients; may be obtained through diet
or supplementation; over consumption can be toxic

Also called maximal aerobic capacity; maximum amount of oxygen that can be
utilized by the body; higher V02max generally equals better performance; can be
improved with training but has a genetic limit

The Wall or Hitting the Wall
A state of exhaustion when your body runs out of glycogen or energy; usually
around the 20 mile point in a marathon (also "Bonk")

Slow, easy running before a workout or race that raises your heart rate and
prepares you for more intense activity
Essential nutrient of body; runners should drink enough throughout the day to
maintain clear urine and enough after a run to return to their pre-run body weights

The ability of a fiber to move moisture from your skin to the surface of the fabric
so that it can evaporate and keep you more comfortable

World Championships
Running and track and field championships held once every 2 years; almost as
prestigious as the Olympics

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