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					                     Prefinal Grades
• check the web to verify your grades were registered
  accurately

•   Remember the research participation requirement
•   must be completed by April 16
•   all or none: <5 credits means you lose 10%
•   Don’t ask me about your credits
•   Check the web
    – http://psyclone.psych.uwo.ca/intropsy/
• Contact Helen Harris about any issues
    – hmharris@uwo.ca
• Contact Jon Cant to do alternative credit assignments
  (journal article Q&A)
    – jcant@uwo.ca
          Three Minute Review
SIGMUND FREUD
• defense mechanisms
  –   denial
  –   repression
  –   reaction formation
  –   projection
  –   displacement
  –   rationalization
  –   conversion
• psychopathology of everyday life
  – Freudian slips
  – suppressed intentions
  – dreams
•   psychosexual stages of development
    1. oral
       •   oral fixation
    2. anal
       •   anal expressive
       •   anal retentive
    3. phallic
       •   Oedipus complex
       •   Electra complex
       •   penis envy
    4. latent
    5. genital
•   Neo-Freudians
    – Carl Jung
       •   collective unconscious
       •   archetypes (e.g., God, mother, earth, birth, gender)
•   criticisms of Freudian theory
PERSONALITY
• distinctive patterns of behavior that characterize an
  individual
• Barnum effect
   – watch out for generalities, even if they are accurate
Trait theories
• assume that traits are consistent over situations and time
• Non-psychological
   – Hippocrates four humors (5th century B.C.)
       • personality due to overabundance of one of the four humors
       • sanguine vs. melancholic (optimistic vs. pessimistic), phlegmatic vs.
         choleric (mellow vs. angry)
   – Astrology
• Psychological
   – Sheldon’s body types
       • personality related to physique
       • ectomorph, mesomorph, endomorph
• Stress reactivity
   –   Type A: driven, urgent, angry
   –   Type B: laid-back
   –   Type C: bottled-up
   –   Optimists are healthier
• Sensation Seekers
• Factor Analytic Techniques
   – Cattell’s 16 Trait Model
   – Eysenck’s 3 Factors
        • Extroversion (vs. Introversion)
        • Neuroticism (vs. stability)
        • Psychoticism (vs. non-psychoticism)
   – The Big 5
        •   Openness
        •   Conscientiousness
        •   Extroversion
        •   Agreeableness
        •   Neuroticism
                   Test Yourself
A man who sometimes has homosexual fantasies
makes many derogatory comments about gay men
and frequently tells homophobic jokes. Freud would
say this is an instance of:
    A.   denial
    B.   repression
    C.   reaction formation
    D.   projection
    E.   conversion
      7 14 21 28 35 42 - Up
“Give me a child until he is seven and I will show you the man.”
                                                  -- Jesuit maxim

• Documentary series (Michael Apted)
   – follows British children through interviews at ages 7, 14, 21, 28, 35,
     42 (1998)
   – people’s personalities are quite consistent
          Does the situation matter?
• Trait theories assume that traits are consistent over
  situations and time -- but are they really?
• Experiment (Hartshorne & May, 1928)
   – Are children who are dishonest in one situation dishonest in others?
   – Not necessarily. Children who cheat in one situation (e.g., class test)
     may not cheat in another (e.g., athletic competition)
   – Average correlation: +.30
• Do personality psychologists make the Fundamental
  Attribution Error ?!
   – personality > situation
                    Situationism
• Situationism
  – theory that situation > personality
• Consistency over time may be better than originally
  thought
  – If experiments take multiple measures within each of
    several situations, responses across situations are well-
    correlated (+.80)
  – “If we know how someone behaved for a single hour, we
    have little basis for predicting how he will behave during
    any other hour. But if we know how someone behaved
    for a whole week, then we can, with reasonable
    accuracy, predict what he’ll do in a subsequent week.” --
    Gleitman, 1999
• Interactionism
  – theory that situation x personality determines behavior
              Is Consistency a Trait?
Self monitoring (Snyder, 1974)
• Gray, p. 544
• High self-monitors
   – people who modify their behavior based on the situation
• Low self-monitors
   – people who behave in a consistent manner regardless of the situation
                            Effects of Age
“For most of us, by age 30, the character has set in plaster and will never
   soften again.”
                                                      -- William James, 1890
As people age between the teens and age 30, they become:
    –   less neurotic
    –   less extroverted
    –   less open to experience
    –   more conscientious
    –   more agreeable
• After age 30, people are more consistent
      Where Do Traits Come From?
• The usual nature/nurture debate
• Genes
   – dog breeds have very different personalities
   – no “people breeders” but can genetics account for personality traits?
   – twin studies
• Environment
   – effects of birth order
        Twins
Case study
• two identical twins separated at 4 weeks of age
• coincidentally, both named Jim by their
  adoptive families
• met in adulthood
• were the inspiration for the Minnesota Study of
  Twins Reared Apart

•   both clerical workers
•   both enjoyed woodworking
•   both volunteered for police agencies
•   both liked vacationing in Florida
•   both had married and divorced women named Linda
•   both owned dogs named Toy
•   both drove Chevrolets
•   both liked math and hated spelling
•   both had migraines and shared identical pulse rates and
    blood pressure
•   both gained weight at same time
•   both had built benches around trees in yard
                 Twin Studies




Identical twins are much more alike on Big Five than
  are fraternal twins
                     Birth Order
• Firstborns
  – more conscientious, extroverted & neurotic
  – less agreeable and open to experience
  – assertive, dominant, responsible, achievement-oriented,
    anxious, jealous
• Later-borns
  – more prone to rebellion, more liberal
  – more open to novelty, new ideas
• Middle-borns
  – less connected to family than others



                                            (Frank Sulloway)
                Temperaments
• biologically-based tendencies to feel or act in
  certain ways
• broader than traits
                Extroverts vs. Introverts
  Baseline arousal for extroverts                      Baseline arousal for introverts




 QUALITY OF
PERFORMANCE
   Extroverts seek more external                       Introverts seek less external
   arousal                                             arousal




                    Low                  Medium                High

                                    LEVEL OF AROUSAL             (Hans Eysenck, 1967)
                     Brain basis?
Introverts (vs. Extroverts)
• respond more strongly to stimuli
   – more sensitive to pain of electric shocks
   – salivate more when tasting lemon juice
   – show more arousal to a sudden noise
• perform worse in noisy settings
• are impaired by caffeine (vs. extroverts who are
  enhanced)
• have more activation in frontal lobes (inhibition of
  impulses?) and amygdala (emotional responses)
                            Shyness
• chronically shy people = ~40% of population
   – suffer impairments in pursuing life goals, making friends or entering
     relationships
   – low self esteem, blame selves for failures, pessimistic
• strong evidence for heritability
   – evidence of inhibition (aversion to new situations) at 2 mos. predicts
     shyness in teen years
   – temperament at age 3 predicts psychopathy, criminality, alcoholism,
     and depression
   – shy children are more reactive to stress
• ¼ of shy children are not shy adults
   – supportive environment?
• much cultural variability (many shy Japanese, few shy
  Israelis)
• drug treatment (SSRIs) and cognitive behavioral therapies
  seem to help
      Is there a “Woody Allen Gene”?
• genes for dopamine receptors may be related to sensation-seeking
  (controversial)
• neuroticism may be related to genes for serotonin and GABA
    – a genetic impairment of GABA receptors in mice led them to avoid threats
      (unfamiliar, elevated or brightly lit areas) and to treat ambiguous cues as
      threats
• there even relationships between genes and TV watching, getting
  divorced, feelings about capital punishment and appreciation of jazz
  music
                Investment Strategies

                                 Nortel       Air
                Canadian                    Canada
     bonds
                 stocks

                              Martha
                              Stewart
 tech                           Inc.
stocks        global
              stocks




     Smart Strategy:                Dumb Strategy:
   Diversified Portfolio           Single Investment
 Evolutionary Explanations for Trait Variability
Why is there so much variability in traits and
 temperaments?
   – groups with high variability are more adaptable
      • Example: Sensation-seeking
   – different individuals, different niches
      • would you want an unconscientious extrovert as your accountant?
      • would a disagreeable, neurotic introvert succeed as a car salesman?
Theories of Personality
 • Psychodynamic theories (Freud and others)
    – personality arises from unconscious drives and early
      experiences
        •   sex & aggression
        •   id, ego, superego
        •   defense mechanisms
        •   early experiences


 • Behaviorist theories (Skinner and others)
    – personality arises from reinforcement history

 • Social-Cognitive theories (Bandura and others)
    – personality is determined by both the consequences of
      our behavior and our perception of them

 • Humanistic theories (Maslow, Rogers and others)
    – humans have a drive toward self-improvement that
      affects personality
         Social-Cognitive Theories
• personality is determined by both the consequences of our
  behavior and our perception of them
Locus of Control




         •   internal locus of control
              –   attribute outcomes to their own
                  behavior
         •   external locus of control
              –   attribute outcomes to external factors
         •   relative to externals, internals
              –   get better grades
              –   are more likely to suceed
              –   are more likely to engage in healthy
                  activities (exercising, eating well,
                  wearing seatbelts, not smoking)
              –   are more likely to deal with problems
              –   are less likely to become depressed
             Humanistic Theories
• 1950s backlash against behaviorism and
  psychodynamic theories which were considered
  dehumanizing
   – Freudians see people as “conflict-ridden emotional
     cripples”
   – Skinnerians put too much emphasis on animal research
     and see people as “dumb animals or unthinking
     automatons”
   – Trait theorists see people as “no more than grab bags of
     descriptors to file in sterile pigeon holes” (quotes from
     Gleitman)
• emphasizes the unique qualities of humans,
  especially their free will and their potential for
  personal growth
• positive, optimistic view of human nature
      Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs




      Abraham Maslow
        1908 - 1970

• Once basic needs have been
  satisfied, people seek
  psychological needs and growth
                      Self-actualization
                                 • finding and fulfilling one’s potential
                                 • Maslow evaluated people who he
                                   considered to be the most fulfilled
                                 • A self-actualized person (partial
                                   list):
                                    –   perceives reality accurately
                                    –   is spontaneous and natural
                                    –   has a sense of humor
“I’m quite fulfilled. I always      –   is capable of childlike delight at the
wanted to be a chicken.”                ordinary
                                    –   needs privacy, but feels connected to
                                        others
                                    –   has a few good friends
                                    –   is autonomous and independent in
                                        thought and action
                                    –   knows right from wrong
                                    –   is absorbed in a cause (and perhaps
                                        a different one tomorrow)
                                    –   has mystical experiences and seeks
                                        peak experiences
              Carl Rogers
                 • applied humanistic
                   principles to psychotherapy
                 • personality depends on self-
                   concept
                   – self-concept may not be
                     consistent with actual
                     experiences
Carl Rogers
1902 - 1987
                   – incongruence undermines
                     personal well-being
                   – unconditional love fosters
                     congruence
                   – people go to great lengths to
                     protect self-concept