Strategies A Reference You Can Use for Lesson Plans Many of these strategies are from: Sturtevant, E.G., and Linek, W.M. Content Literacy: An Inquiry-based Case Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall, 2004 Purpose This slide series is a collection of strategies you can use to help students get the most out of the reading you ask them to do. Across the range of strategies are ones appropriate for younger students as well as ones appropriate for advanced students. At the end of this slide show, you will be asked to reflect on these strategies. Brainstorming Pre-reading strategy. Activates students’ schema. Can be part of KWL and other pre-reading activities. KWL is explained elsewhere in this slide show. Ask students respond to a question such as, “What do you think of when I say…?” Write down their answers on the board or on an overhead. Categorization and Word Maps Select key vocabulary words Superordinate Level Woodwinds or technical terms. Show relationships of words through maps. Discuss levels of categories. Have students fill in the word Coordinate Level map individually or in pairs. Sax Flute Students can share their maps in small groups or with the whole class. Maps can be the basis for class discussion. Subordinate Level Soprano Alto Tenor Students can sort vocabulary into categories you develop or ones they develop themselves. Discussion Web Is Rap “good” music? Yes No This is a post-reading activity and assumes you have done pre-reading and during reading activities that help students to gain meaning from the text. Have students work in pairs to discuss/defend their points of view on the discussion question (see example). They write their reasons under the appropriate column (yes/no). Students need to take turns and give each other time. Conclusion Have pairs combine to create groups of four. The groups discuss their thinking and move toward a conclusion most agree with (keeping in mind not everyone has to agree). Have each group decide which three reasons best support their conclusion. Each group selects a spokesperson to present to the whole class. See how this activity forms the basis for critical thinking as Students can write their individual well as expository writing (a critical skill for college-bound perspectives and provide reasons for their high school students)? The question becomes the thesis own conclusions. statement. The “yes” column becomes the support for the thesis and the “no” column becomes information that must be refuted in order to support the thesis. Double Entry Journals What the author says: My response: Students divide a piece of paper in two from top to bottom. In left hand column, they summarize key The ability to summarize is a great skill ideas from what they have been reading. for students to develop. In the right hand column, they write what Students need to be able to connect their these ideas mean to them personally. It own experiences to texts. might be thoughts or questions. You might have to provide more support Both younger children and children who struggle may need some scaffolding on for younger students—you can give them the summarizing part—you could provide a hint about some of the key ideas. this part of the entry for them and then When you first use this, you will need to ask them to write their own reactions. model it by doing a think-aloud. Use an overhead, demonstrate summarizing an Think alouds are a great way to teach idea, then as you write your own any skill, including music. Think alouds response or question, say out loud what provide a model of what students should you want students to be thinking about think about when they face a particular when they are doing this task. task. Do you see how this page is an example of the double entry journal? DR-TA (Directed Reading- Thinking Activity) for narrative Logical stopping points in a story Have students predict what the story will be about from the title or illustrations. Encourage multiple predictions and write them down. Title and/or illustration at the beginning of text. Ask the students who predicted, “Why do you think so?” Probe for background knowledge STOP and experiences. Have students read to a logical stopping point Introduction to characters, setting, and/or initial event that you have chosen. They should mask the remaining text with a piece of paper. STOP Ask, “What do you think will happen now? Why?” Have them verify their reasoning with information from the text. Write down new Main character’s initial response to the event. predictions and ask students to eliminate the old predictions that are no longer applicable. STOP Repeat this process until you get to the last stopping point. Then ask, “How do you think the Attempts to solve a problem or achieve a goal story will end? Why?” Have students read to the end and ask, “Why STOP did the story end this way? How would you Consequence or outcome of attempt. have ended the story?” STOP Main character’s reaction to consequence or outcome DR-TA (Directed Reading- Thinking Activity) for non- fiction Set the purpose for reading by having students Have students read silently to a logical, predict what information the author will present predetermined stopping point to see if their based ona title, subheading, chart, graph, map, hypotheses are correct. Predetermine the stopping etc. Record their hypotheses on the board and points based on the concept/concepts you are ask, “Why do you think so?” Probe for attempting to cover and the nature of the text. For background knowledge and information from prior example, you may have several paragraphs focused learning. on one concept and only one stopping point at the Probe to assess whether students have an end of the passage. Or you may have multiple adequate knowledge base or if misconceptions stopping points if the main concept includes several and a lack of a knowledge base will hinder ideas or constructs. If you have multiple stopping comprehension of the text. If probing reveals points, have students mask the text beyond the difficulties, discuss prior learning, clarify concepts, stopping point with a piece of paper. and review technical terms to help students create As the majority of students come to the stopping logical theories. Be aware that this should not be point, conduct whole class or small group discussions an interrogation that shuts down student risk- in which students accept, reject, or modify the taking. Rather, it should be an open-ended previously posed hypotheses, providing support from discussion that encourages student inquiry, the text. If small group discussion is used, have each discussion, and development of alternative group appoint a recorder to share the group’s hypotheses. thinking with the whole class. Remember to use open-ended questions, such as, “how do you know?” and “Why do you think so?” Always have students provide supporting information from the text, and if the class agrees, modify the hypotheses on the board. For kids who read more quickly—have them jot their ideas down on the blank paper they are using to mask the remaining text. INSERT (Interactive Notation System to Effective Reading and Thinking) This is a collection of symbols students can insert into a text they are reading, which they can use later on when they think about and discuss the text. You can have students write in the text, use sticky notes, or write on a separate page, noting page number. INSERT Reminder: I agree = That’s new = + I wonder = ? I disagree = x That’s important = ! I don’t understand = ?? KWL Strategy This is a three-step strategy which Younger students will need additional both guides and motivates students in support for doing this. They may not their reading. be able to think in terms of categories K=what I KNOW of information (an abstract task—keep W=WHAT I want to learn in mind Piaget). L=what I LEARNED Use a think aloud process to demonstrate how to think in terms of Before reading a text, fill out the K and categories of information. W parts of the chart. Evaluate the text. Should you have Extend students’ thinking by asking students read the whole text before how they know what they know. holding the “L” part of the discussion Organize their ideas into categories of or should you break the text in chunks knowledge. and hold discussions throughout their Help them identify areas where they reading? have no information or areas of The KWL is a great way to assess controversy. where the students are in relation to a After they read, students should record topic. This information will help you to their findings on their copies of the build an effective bridge to where you KWL. want them to be. During class discussion, record what The next slide is a musical example of they learned on the master KWL. a KWL. Guide students to other sources of information for questions that remain unanswered. Text: Kofi Agawu’s Playing the Sign excerpt in “Assessing Readability” KWL example W-what we WANT to find out L-what we LEARNED K-What we KNOW or need to learn and still want to learn Music is meaningful How can we articulate what People in the past used and how music means? Music of the Classical ideas from rhetoric to period has particular describe music. characteristics How else can we describe music? Categories of information we expect to use: This is my guess as to how a Linguistics and language structures KWL would look if we were to Music theory hold a class discussion of this text. LINK (List, Inquire, Note, Know) Pre-reading strategy similar to After all responses are given, the teacher brainstorming. should invite the class to INQUIRE about Purpose is to make links between what individual students’ associations. The students know and what they are teacher facilitates but does not answer learning. questions, because the students are the Write the topic or key term on the board ones who are clarifying their connections or overhead. The term should be familiar and elaborating on their understandings. enough so that it will trigger responses The teacher records student questions for among all students. Give students 3 future reference. The purpose of this minutes to LIST all associations they step is to have students share, clarify, make with the key term. The purpose of and elaborate their understandings so this step is to have students make as that they discover errors, engage in many connections from their prior controversy, and identify questions while knowledge to the topic as possible. bringing prior awareness to the surface. Call on all students one at a time to share After the inquiring is complete and all a unique response. The teacher or a questions have been recorded, erase the scribe writes these responses on the responses or turn off the overhead. Tell board or overhead. Allow students to students to NOTE everything they KNOW offer more ideas if time permits. The in one minute in response to the same purpose of this step is to maximize cue. At the end of one minute, have the student participation. students reflect on the differences between their initial list and their new list. The purpose of this step is to identify connections they didn’t initially make, validate what they do know, and set purposes for reading. Post-Graphic Organizer Students preview the selection to After all models have been presented, determine the topic, structure, and have students reflect on how they might main ideas. change their model to better depict the structure of what they learned. Students read the selection silently For younger students or students not to gather information for the group’s used to creating graphic organizers, graphic organizer. consider sharing graphic organizers The group meets to discuss and designed to reflect expository text create the post-graphic organizer structure (some will be demonstrated in based on the information each later slides). Then create a post- member has gathered. Each group graphic organizer with the whole class, prepares a large model (e.g., on using a combination of think aloud and student input to model the construction chart paper) that will be shared by process. You may have to repeat this the class. process several times, gradually Each group presents their model to releasing responsibility for the the class. construction to the students in order to scaffold them into independent group Answer to Praxis II question: work. The teacher sez: Do you see how this strategy supports visual learners? Praxis II question: When you see the word, “scaffold,” Vygotsky which theorist should come to mind? Text being webbed: “Folk Music” in The New Harvard Dictionary of Music Some possible graphic organizers Monophonic or harmonic Mostly uses Diatonic system Strophic and Style other forms Cultural Characteristics Singing styles vary Rhythmic features vary Oral transmission Functional Folk Music Etc…. For younger children, you can provide the basic graphic and have them fill it in. Do you see how you can take the information in such a text and summarize it visually? Web Timeline Middle Ages Renaissance Baroque Classical Romantic 500-1430 1430-1600 1600-1750 1750-1820 1820-1910 If you don’t like the dates, blame my Harvard Dictionary. You can use a timeline for general music history as well as dates in the life of a single composer. You can bring the timeline to the present to include children’s own lives so they can see exactly how long ago something happened. Cycles Plan Assess Teach Practice Assess Play/listen Procedures This would be SO much better with illustrations… 1. Remove old string. 2. Clean peg with dry rag. 3. Apply peg dope. 4. Put ball end of string in tailpiece or tuner. 5. Place straight end in peg hole. 6. Wind string so windings go toward pegbox side. 7. Tune to pitch. Venn Diagram Cajun Music Bluegrass Primarily dance music Banjo, mandolin, dobro Folk Oral tradition Accordian, p’tit fer Influenced French Country music English Fiddle, guitar, bass Sketch to Stretch Students read the text. After all the group members have Instruct students to draw a sketch of had the opportunity to indicate what the picture they see in their minds they think the drawing represents, when they think about the the artist/student gets the last word. information presented in the story. Each group shares with the whole Remind students that there is not a “right” or “wrong” picture because group by collaborating and there are many ways of depicting constructing a group sketch after meaning. sharing, choosing one sketch from If all students have been reading the the group to share, or sharing all the same text, they should divide into sketches if time permits. groups of four or five after Sketches may be put on an completing their sketches. Each overhead projector or displayed on person shows his or her sketch to poster board. the others in the group. Group members have a chance to express You can also use this with text that what they think the artist/student is you have read aloud to students. trying to say. Think-Pair-Share Students form groups of two. During reading—form groups of two. Students read a portion of text The teacher provides a prompt silently (usually a paragraph or two). before or after reading. When both have finished reading, Students individually brainstorm one student serves as listener. their ideas on half sheets of Reteller explains what was read paper. while listener interrupts only for clarification. Students share their ideas with When reteller is finished, the listener their partner. points out ideas summarized The teacher circulates to listen incorrectly and adds ideas left out. The pair then words together to to partner discussions and clarify and elaborate upon their targets one or two sets of understanding. partners to share with the entire Change roles and begin on the next group. portion of text. Your Own Questions A before-, during-, and after- After reading, have students reading strategy. discuss which questions were answered, which questions Have students preview the were not answered, why some material by looking at the major questions were not answered, headings, subheadings, figures, and where students might look and tables in the text. to find answers to their Ask students to write several questions that were not questions that they think will be addressed in the text. answered when they read the You can read a few paragraphs text. from the beginning of the text aloud or have students read the Discuss several of the student- first few paragraphs silently as a generated questions and list way of previewing the text them on the board. (especially with narrative). Your ideas Which of these strategies do you think would be useable in your classroom? If you want to address all types of learners, what kinds of things can you do with reading?