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									A Guidebook for the Public Dissemination
     of Woreda Budgets [Prototype]

  Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
                   Addis Ababa
                                         August 2009
Table of Contents
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 1
Why communicate budget information? ......................................................................... 3
Dissemination and the PBS Program ................................................................................ 6
Step 1: Defining Your Audience ....................................................................................... 8
   Where do people live? ................................................................................................... 8
   What services do people receive? ............................................................................... 10
   How much control do people have over the budget? ................................................ 11
Step 2: Selecting and Gathering Information ................................................................. 14
   What is going to happen? ............................................................................................ 14
   How big is the shortfall? .............................................................................................. 15
   Where is the money going?......................................................................................... 15
   How much is the government investing?................................................................... 19
   How does the budget compare to last year? ............................................................... 19
   What does this all mean? ............................................................................................. 19
Step 3: Selecting the Mediums ........................................................................................ 22
   Interpersonal communication ..................................................................................... 22
   Artistic Media............................................................................................................... 23
   Small Media .................................................................................................................. 23
   Mass Media ................................................................................................................... 24
Step 4: Crafting the Message ........................................................................................... 27
   Hosting workshops and community meetings ........................................................... 27
   Newspaper announcements, brochures and leaflets .................................................. 29
   Radio and loudspeaker announcements ..................................................................... 32
Quick Reference Guide ................................................................................................... 34
This guidebook is intended as a resource for anyone engaged in the public disclosure
of budget information at the woreda (district) – whether as part of the design,
planning, management or assessment of disclosure efforts.
It aims to promote a more efficient, systematic and integrated approach to the mass
disclosure of budget information. The guidebook, however, does not provide a
formulaic, standardized set of procedures for public disclosure of budget information.
Rather, the guidebook lays out a range of dissemination techniques and principles of
best practice, and then offers advice on how to tailor these techniques to different
local contexts in Ethiopia. As such, the guidebook is like a pilot‟s manual; it will not
tell you how to get to your particular destination, but will hopefully provide you with
the tools you need for each step on your journey.
The recommendations in this report are based on best practices gleaned from
experiences in other countries and on lessons learned during the piloting of budget
dissemination techniques in three woredas in the Amhara and Oromia regions in
March 2008. The annex to this guide contains a description of the methodology and
results of the research.
The research for the guidebook was
conducted      by     the    Center      for         “…the guidebook is like a
Development Consulting under the                   pilot’s manual; it will not tell
supervision of the Ministry for Finance                   you how to get to your
and Economic Development. The project                particular destination, but
was supported by the Protection of Basic              will hopefully provide you
Services (PBS) program, a grant facility            with the tools you need for
funded by various foreign donors to                each step on your journey.”
improve the decentralized provision of
public services, including health services,
agricultural services, water and sanitation
and education.
A portion of the funds availed by the PBS are aimed at improving the transparency
and accountability of regional and woreda governments. The funds from this
component paid for the piloting of budget disclosure techniques and the drafting of
this report.
The guidebook will first explain the benefits of budget transparency both for
governments and citizens. This guidebook‟s particular contribution to budget
transparency, however, can only be understood in the context of other PBS-supported
projects, which are briefly described in the subsequent section. Those eager for

advice on how to disseminate budget information can skip the introductory sections
to the core of the document, a step-by-step guide to disseminating budget
The first step for any woreda should be to consider the idea of “audiences,” groups
that must be communicated to in different ways. The guidebook outlines three
different ways of distinguishing between audiences in the section Defining Your
Second, the guidebook describes the kind of information that should be disseminated,
and whether the information is available in Ethiopia. The recommendations in this
section, unfortunately, will remain hypothetical so long as insufficient will exists at
the local level to disclose budgets. The recommendations in this section are
nonetheless based on a combination of international best practices and on the desires
expressed by participants in the piloting of dissemination techniques. This is
described in the section Selecting and Gathering Information.
The third choice to be made is between mediums of communication. Successful
dissemination will likely use a variety of mediums, but the pros and cons of each in
your unique local context should be carefully considered before choosing. Advice on
making this choice is presented in the section Choosing the Mediums.
The fourth and final step of the process is putting together the information into a
format that will be suitable for your audience and the selected medium. The section
Crafting the Message offers advice for how to do this, regardless of what choices you
have made.
As a quick reference guide and for those very short on time, the end of the document
provides a bullet-pointed list of the steps to effective budget dissemination.

Why communicate budget information?
Transparency – which refers to the openness of policy intentions, formulation and
implementation – is widely recognized as a basic tenant of good governance. To date,
more than 60 countries have enacted legislation that gives citizens a legal basis on
which to demand information, more than double the number of countries with such
laws just a decade earlier, and nearly another thirty countries are now in the process
of drafting similar laws. Multi-lateral lenders and bi-lateral donors all support
programmes designed to foster the transparency of recipient governments and these
institutions have themselves adopted policies to promote their own transparency to
The Ethiopian Constitution clearly places transparency and social accountability
among the country‟s basic principles of governance.
Article 12 of the Ethiopian constitution states:
The conduct of affairs of the government shall be transparent. Any public official or
elected representative is accountable for any failure in official duties.
Section 4 of Article 50 of the Constitution states:
State government shall be established at state and other administrative levels that
they find necessary. Adequate power shall be granted to the lowest unit of
government to enable the people to participate directly in the administration of such
The latter article is particularly relevant for woreda administrations, which have
gained increased powers and privileges during the process of decentralization,
especially over spending.
The single most meaningful policy document of a government, and hence the most in
need of transparency, is the budget. Budgets are the concrete expression of
government objectives and priorities, showing how competing claims on finite
resources have been reconciled.
Making budgets transparent brings multifaceted benefits. Budget transparency can:
   Strengthen policy: With more eyes trained on the budget, weaknesses and
   strengths of public policies can be identified sooner. When the macroeconomic
   assumptions of a spending plan are published, the public can also scrutinize the
   factual basis on which allocative decisions are made, a proven method for averting
   economic crisis.
   Improve government accountability: Legislatures, the media, civil society and the
   general public will be better equipped to hold government administration to

   account if they are informed about policies, practices and expenditures.
   Furthermore, government officials will be more likely to act responsibly knowing
   that their decisions and responsibilities are visible to the public eye.
   Increase faith in governments: Budget transparency raises awareness of
   government activities, offering an opportunity for improving public approval.
   Transparency can also promote social cohesion and bolster the legitimacy of
   government policy, especially when budget literacy promotes a more nuanced
   public perception of policy issues.
   Improve the investment climate: Uncertainty is the greatest deterrent to
   investment. With a clear understanding of a government‟s plans and actions, both
   international and local investors will feel more confident to embark on long-term
   business ventures.
   Enhance citizen participation: In addition to the advantages above, transparency is
   critical for including citizen participation in the budget process. Openness of the
   budget process and disclosure of fiscal information is imperative for citizen groups
   to effectively take part in the formulation of spending policy.
Transparency, however, is not achieved easily. Indeed, budget transparency is
contingent on multiple measures that assure the clarity of decision-making
procedures and the elimination of discretionary controls over allocations. A necessary
but insufficient condition for transparency is disclosure: the full and timely provision
of fiscal information.
Both the International Monetary Fund and the Organization of Economic
Cooperation and Development have published guidelines for fiscal transparency. Both
organizations contend that effective disclosure requires that fiscal information be
availed in various forms and through various media to reach different audiences. The
executive branch, for example, must make highly detailed budget information
available to the lawmakers for the deliberation and final legislative approval of a
spending plan. Independent auditors also have special requirements for access to
budget information.
This guidebook, however, does not address these forms of budget disclosure or remark
on the reporting standards that govern how different bodies of the state communicate
budget information to each other. The guidebook instead offers advice primarily for
woreda level governments to more effectively disseminate budget information to the
public at large – in a plain, accessible format.
The dissemination of budget information to the public is just one of many aspects of
budget transparency, and budget transparency is but one of many aspects of good
governance. Meaningful transparency depends on its usefulness to the public debate

and the policy process. It only promotes good governance when complemented with
participation by legislatures and civil society.
The next section briefly describes the other aspects of the Protection of Basic Services
grant facility to make the dissemination of budget information meaningful at the local

Dissemination and the PBS Program
The Protection of Basic Services (PBS) was developed as an alternative instrument to
Direct Budget Support in order to protect and expand the provision of basic services
by sub-national governments.
To do this, the PBS provides funds in addition to existing federal block grant transfers
to regions and woredas using the intergovernmental fiscal framework already in
place. Meanwhile, to ensure the effective use of the block grant transfers to regions
and woredas, the PBS also aims to strengthen local accountability mechanisms,
including through the enhancement of transparency around the public budget
The PBS I program consists of four components, which are:
(a) Component 1, for supporting provision of basic services provided by regional and
local governments, comprising financing for education, health, water and sanitation,
and agricultural support services;
(b) Component 2, for providing predictable financing for those critical inputs for
primary health service delivery that cannot be efficiently financed at the woreda
level, including health commodities, capacity-building and strengthening of
procurement and logistics;
(c) Component 3, for supporting activities at the regional level and below to
significantly enhance the capacity of officials to provide for transparency of the public
budget procedures and to foster broad engagement of citizen representative groups
and citizens in the public budget processes and public service delivery;
(d) Component 4, for capacity building for, and piloting of, selected approaches to
strengthen voice of citizens and civil society organizations in the context of
decentralized service delivery, and to build the capacity of citizens to engage in public
budgeting processes.
As mentioned above, this guidebook is one of the outputs envisioned by the PBS
program‟s Component 3, which might aptly be described as encompassing the efforts
to improve the supply side of transparency. The activities support by Component 4
are complementary to Component 3 by seeking to strengthen demand for
Included in Component 3 is support for the creation of a layperson‟s guide to the
formal procedures and timelines regional, woreda, and sub-woreda administrations
follow in preparing and reporting on annual budgets, including a summary of the
regulations and requirements that government public disclosure of budget

Another series of interventions under Component 3 is intended to improve disclosure
of public budget information at the regional and sub-regional levels. These include
the piloting of dissemination techniques that informed this guidebook, the hosting of
annual forum for discussion of public budget information, the formulation of a
standardized format for publicly posting budget information, and training on budget
literacy for regional and woreda council members, among other projects.
Component 3 similarly seeks to promote transparency of service providers, at the
level of local facilities, to the recipients of those services, including by the reporting
of key performance indicators and standardized reporting of user-friendly budget
The component supports capacity-building for improved financial transparency at the
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MOFED), at various regional
Bureaus of Finance and Economic Development (BOFEDs), zonal administrations and
at the office of the Federal Auditor General (OFAG).
Finally, Component 3 will also provide funding for a baseline and follow-up survey
on perceptions of financial transparency and accountability, among other measures
intended to monitor and evaluate the success of the other projects within the
As Component 3 seeks to build the capacity of different levels of government to
supply transparency, Component 4 focuses on citizen and civil society organization
led approaches to increase responsiveness of public officials and service providers. The
component supports efforts to build budget literacy among civil society, pilot
approaches to strengthening civil society “voice” in the budget process and assess the
experience gained under the various initiatives and disseminate these lessons in
preparation for a scaling up of social accountability measures in the country.
Each of the measures described here will have a separate impact alone, though they
are designed to complement each other, simultaneously creating a supply of budget
information while building the capacity and desire of civil society to analyze the
availed information. Readers of this guidebook should thus keep the wider context in
mind, and remain cognizant that dissemination of budget information along the lines
described below is only one small step toward providing transparent and responsive

Step 1: Defining Your Audience
Good communication begins by differentiating between distinct audiences, so that the
various forms of communication can be tailored to their differing needs. There is no
universally effective way to communicate budget information because every region,
every woreda and every community is different. The use of a single newspaper
announcement to disseminate budget information, for example, would clearly not
satisfy the needs of an engineer living in a big city and a pastoralist who resides in a
remote rural hamlet.
These individuals may speak different languages, have different levels of education,
have access to different mediums of communication and have divergent interests in
the budget.
Nonetheless, the limited availability of resources means that budget dissemination
efforts must try to accommodate all this diversity as efficiently as possible. As a rule of
thumb, officials concerned with disseminating budget information at the woreda level
should consider at least two distinct audiences, though more if residents of the
woreda speak multiple languages, as is the case for example in many districts in the
Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State.

Where do people live?
In Ethiopia, as elsewhere, the most basic division can be made between urban and
rural audiences: between those people living in towns and those living in small
hamlets or villages. Distinguishing audiences in this manner is as easy as looking at a
map. For many woredas, the administrative capital may be the only urban center,
while each kebele would constitute a separate rural audience with respect to budget
information. Figure 1 on the next page of an imaginary woreda shows how you can
think of audiences geographically.

Figure 1. Defining Audiences as Rural and Urban Residents

People living in or around larger towns are on average more likely to have access to
mass media, including television, radio, the Internet and newspaper. They are also
more educated on average and more likely to be familiar with the budget in technical
That is not to say, however, that they are better informed, but differently informed.
Unlike urban dwellers, rural residents have very limited access to mass media. High
illiteracy rates and low population densities in rural areas also make newspaper
distribution difficult. Televisions are too expensive for some rural inhabitants, and the
supply of electricity is sparse.
In lieu of mass media, however, rural inhabitants in Ethiopia have strong traditions of
interpersonal communication. The Borena people of Oromia, for example, have a
traditional governance system known as the Geda, which places strong emphasis on
information sharing at local meetings. In Afar, the now famous tradition of Dagu
requires passing nomads to share information with each other in precise detail. Across
Ethiopia, traditional funerary society, known as Eders, have also been transformed
into vital nodes of information in rural communities. Traders, development assistants
and non-governmental workers are also instrumental in transmitting information to
even the most remote village.

As a result, rural inhabitants often possess detailed knowledge of even the smallest
project being conducted in their area, including the project‟s revenue source.
You can draft useful strategies based on these basic distinctions, though remain aware
that the rural-urban dichotomy rests heavily on stereotypes and assumptions that may
not always hold true. This way of distinguishing between audiences is best for
woredas with extremely limited resources for budget dissemination.

What services do people receive?
Another way of distinguishing audiences is by thinking of them as service
beneficiaries. People will have different interests in the budget vis-à-vis their
relationship with public services. A worker at a health clinic, by virtue of his or her
employment, has a greater interest in government activities in the health sector. That
person, however, may also have children enrolled in school and so also have a
personal interest in knowing about government spending in that sector. Everyone has
an interest in information about the overall budget. Figure 2 below demonstrates how
different interest groups are overlapping.
                                        Distinguishing between audiences in this way
    “…while individuals in              is convenient because it corresponds with
    urban areas have                    how budget information is already reported.
    particular interest in              Different announcements for the spending
    certain sectors of                  and activities in each sector can be easily
    government spending,                prepared.
    rural residents generally             This method also has some disadvantages.
    had an interest in all                First, it requires the creation of many
    components of                         different dissemination products, which may
    government spending. “                place a strain on resources. Second, and
                                          perhaps more importantly, it also fractures
                                          dissemination of budget information in such a
way that makes it difficult for people to understand the budget as a whole.
The research conducted for this guidebook suggested that while individuals in urban
areas have particular interest in certain sectors of government spending, rural
residents generally had an interest in all components of government spending.

Figure 2. Defining Audiences as Service Beneficiaries

As mentioned earlier, allowing the public to see and understand the budget in its
entirety, including the trade-offs that are made between priorities, is essential for
public deliberation of spending policies. This shortcoming, however, can be avoided
with a series of public messages that inform the public of the overall budget in
addition to activities in each sector.
Selecting audiences in this way is perhaps best suited for cities and towns or woredas
with predominantly urban population.

How much control do people have over the budget?
A third way of understanding audiences in your region or woreda is by thinking of
audiences in terms of their participation in budget-making decisions. Those closest to
the budget-making process are naturally the best informed, while those furthest are
usually least informed. You can thus think of audiences as forming a series of
concentric circles, as in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Defining Audiences by Influence in Budget-Making

At the core, you have the people that will be disseminating the data: top woreda
officials. The research for this guidebook suggested that lower woreda officials,
teachers, health care workers, civil society leaders and other urban professionals
already have strong opinions of how money is spent, and indeed exercise significant
influence over budgets, but still suffer from some misconceptions, for example about
the relationship between the recurrent and capital budget and about revenues.
Clerical woreda staff, kebele workers, urban laborers and urban merchants, largely
owing to their access to mass media and to important information centers, often have
general notions of the budget, but could participate more significantly in budget
debates if they were provided more specific information.
Yet one step further removed from the budget process are rural inhabitants such as
farmers, pastoralists and rural merchants, who are often extremely knowledgeable
about what is going on in their communities, informed largely from in-person
communication, but often lack a clear understanding of how government spending in
their area fits into the larger budget picture.
Rural women are clearly the most marginalized from the budget-making process and
from existing channels of disseminating information about public spending. They
have poor access to mass media and are often excluded from the key forums for public

This diagram will look slightly different in every region and woreda. Hence, thinking
of audiences in this way is more challenging than thinking of audiences as just rural
and urban residents or as service beneficiaries, but has the advantage of orienting
budget disclosure techniques toward the most marginalized in the budget process.
Woredas that are implementing plans to increase citizen participation in budget-
making should consider looking at audiences in this way.

    “Rural women are clearly the
    most marginalized from the
    budget-making process and
    from existing channels of
    disseminating information
    about public spending. They
    have poor access to mass
    media and are often
    excluded from the key
    forums for public discussion.”

Step 2: Selecting and Gathering
International best practices dictate the full disclosure of budget information; all the
most prominent budget reports should be made available in a timely manner for the
public at large. However, when choosing what information should be disseminated,
which is to say deliberately communicated to distinct audiences, one must be more
selective – for practical reasons as much as for adherence to the principles of effective
This section outlines the kind of information that is vital for any budget
dissemination project and then describes some of the lessons learned in trying to
gather this information. Unfortunately, in Ethiopia even the bare essentials of local
budgets are difficult to obtain.
According to the October 2007 Federal PFM Performance Report submitted to the
Federal Ministry of Finance and Economic Development: “The public has practically
no access to key fiscal information, but a culture of information sharing is not one
that is, as yet, highly developed in Ethiopia.”
Indeed, even with an official mandate to pilot techniques for disseminating budget
information, local officials were reticent to cooperate. Local officials remain to be
convinced that the public has a need and a right to understand how public resources
are spent. Attitudinal change among local officials on this matter is essential before
transparency at the woreda level can be realized.
What precisely the public needs should be
guided by the overarching principle of
providing enough information for members
of the public to independently evaluate the         “Local officials remain to
spending policy. This section describes the         be convinced that the
types of information that should be                 public has a need and a
disseminated, why this information is useful        right to understand how
to the public and whether the information is        public resources are
currently available or not in Ethiopian             spent. Attitudinal change
woredas.                                            among local officials on
                                                    this matter is essential
What is going to happen?                            before transparency at
Budgets make guesses about what is going to         the woreda level can be
happen in the future, including projections         realized.”
for economic growth, inflation and currency

valuation. These are usually referred to as the „assumptions‟ of a budget.
Disseminating expectations for the year helps business owners, both big and small, to
plan accordingly – to raise prices in line with expected inflation or invest in
anticipation of higher growth. Disclosing the budget‟s economic assumptions also
allows the public to scrutinize the factual basis on which allocative decisions are
made. At present, only the federal government calculates the macroeconomic
assumptions that underpin the budget. In lieu of more local predictions, national
estimates should be included, which can be found in the national Budget Report
published at the beginning of each fiscal year.

How big is the shortfall?
Best practice dictates that fiscal data should be reported on a gross basis,
distinguishing revenue, expenditure, and financing to give the public a sense of the
overall state of public finances. Indeed, the public demands this information, albeit in
less technical terms. At the local level, one question emerges again and again: “how
big is the shortfall?” In national budgets, the shortfall – the difference between what
is being spent and what is being raised – is commonly reported as the „budget deficit‟.
However, since woredas seldom have access to financing, a woreda budget deficit
does not exist as such. What does exist, however, is the difference between what is
envisioned by the Woreda Development Plan and what is actually being funded. The
public should be apprised of the difference either in descriptive or fiscal terms
between what the woreda would like to spend, and what it is actually spending
(presuming that funds are inadequate). Since the team was unable to obtain any
Woreda Development Plans, it was unable to pilot dissemination of this information.

Where is the money going?
This is the core question. Budgets can be seen from many different perspectives, and
each one helps to answer the question “where is the money going?” in different ways.
One form of reporting the budget is by administrative classification, which shows
how much different government offices receive each year. At a minimum,
dissemination should include the money being spent on the four major services:
health, education, water and sanitation and agricultural services.
Another way is by functional classification, which shows how much money has been
allocated toward achieving a particular objective. This might include all the resources,
including money spent by various government bodies, aimed at Millennium
Development Goals such as reducing child mortality. Research participants also
repeatedly asked to know how much of local spending is pro-poor. This figure is
available at the national level, but not at the woreda level. Understanding how money
is allocated by administrative classification is important for accountability, while

functional classifications, such as the sum of spending that pro-poor, allows the public
to evaluate whether the budget‟s priorities are appropriate. Woredas all currently
report spending using similar classifications (an example of which is included in
Figure 4 below), which do not include functional classification as described here.

                                                          Figure 4. Example of Part of a Woreda Budget by Administrative Classification

                                                                                                                                          Table 2.16
                                                                                                      Total Budget By Class Of Account Functional And Sub-Functional Classification
                                                                                                                               03/04/007 - Recommended
                                                                                                                                           ('000 Birr)

Fiscal Year : 2000
                   Class Of Account                                                                                                                                                             Source Of Finance

                                 SSS Head    SSSS                                       Description                               Total
Head Code Sub Head     SS Sub-
                                   Sub-      Head                                                                                                                 Treasury                     Revenue         Assistance          Loan
Pub. Body Program      Agency
                                 Program    Project

    1         2           3           4       5                                               6                               7=8+9+10+11+12                         8                           9                  10              11
007 - Tehuledere                                                                                                                   19,884.494                       18,354.140        92.30%             -          1,530.360             -
   100                                                Administration and General Serv ice                                           7,483.605            37.64%      7,027.840                           -            455.770             -
   110                                                Organ of State                                                                1,280.020             6.44%        824.250                           -            455.770             -
   111                                                House of the Speaker                                                             82.322             0.41%         82.320                           -                -               -
              01                                      Legislativ e                                                                     82.322             0.41%         82.320                           -                -               -
                          01                          Administration and General Serv ice                                              82.322            0.41%            82.320                         -                   -            -
   112                                                Woreda Gov ernment council                                                      990.388            4.98%           534.620                         -               455.770          -
             01                                       Executiv e                                                                      990.388            4.98%           534.620                         -               455.770          -
                          01                          Administration   and   General Serv ice                                         990.388            4.98%           534.620                         -               455.770          -
                                      00              Administration   and   General Serv ice                                         455.769            2.29%               -                           -               455.770          -
                                             001      Administration   and   General Serv ice                                         455.769            2.29%               -                           -               455.770          -
   118                                                Administration   and   Security Af f aires Of f ice                              92.985            0.47%            92.990                         -                   -            -
             01                                       Administration   and   Security                                                  92.985            0.47%            92.990                         -                   -            -
                          01                          Administration and General Serv ice                                              92.985            0.47%            92.990                         -                   -            -
   119                                                                                                                                114.325            0.57%           114.330                         -                   -            -
             01                                                                                                                       114.325            0.57%           114.330                         -                   -            -
                          01                                                                                                          114.325            0.57%           114.330                         -                   -            -
   120                                                Justice and Security                                                            840.288            4.23%           840.290                         -                   -            -
   121                                                Justice Of f ice                                                                212.605            1.07%           212.610                         -                   -            -
             01                                       Administration of Justice                                                       212.605            1.07%           212.610                         -                   -            -
                          01                          Administration and General Serv ice                                             212.605            1.07%           212.610                         -                   -            -
   127                                                Police Of f ice                                                                 517.918            2.60%           517.920                         -                   -            -
             01                                       Prev ention of Criminal and Inv estigation                                      517.918            2.60%           517.920                         -                   -            -
                          01                          Administration and General Serv ice                                             517.918            2.60%           517.920                         -                   -            -
   134                                                Mily shia Af f aiers Of f ice                                                   109.765            0.55%           109.770                         -                   -            -
             01                                       Env ironmental Security                                                         109.765            0.55%           109.770                         -                   -            -
                          01                          Administration & General Serv ice                                               109.765             0.55%        109.770                           -                   -            -
   150                                                General Serv ice                                                              5,363.297            26.97%      5,363.300                           -                   -            -
   152                                                Fainance and Plan Of f ice                                                    4,994.911            25.12%      4,994.910                           -                   -            -
             01                                       Plan and Fainance Administration                                              4,994.911            25.12%      4,994.910                           -                   -            -
                          01                          Administration and General Serv ice                                            4,994.911           25.12%      4,994.910                           -                   -            -
   153                                                Inf ormation Main Of f ice                                                       241.829            1.22%        241.830                           -                   -            -
             01                                       Spooks of Gov ernment                                                            241.829            1.22%        241.830                           -                   -            -
                          01                          Pries and Inf ormation                                                          241.829            1.22%           241.830                         -                   -            -
   156                                                                                                                                126.557            0.64%           126.560                         -                   -            -
             01                                                                                                                       126.557            0.64%           126.560                         -                   -            -
                          01                                                                                                          126.557             0.64%        126.560                           -                   -            -
   200                                                Economic Serv ice                                                             2,837.913            14.27%      2,163.320                           -               674.590          -
   210                                                Agricultural and Natural Resources                                            2,149.990            10.81%      1,810.900                           -               339.090          -
   211                                                Agriculture and Rural Dev lopment Of f ice                                    1,866.906             9.39%      1,527.820                           -               339.090          -
             01                                       Adv isory and Support Serv ice                                                  870.325             4.38%        531.240                           -               339.090          -
                          01                          Administration and General Serv ice                                             870.325            4.38%           531.240                         -               339.090          -
                                      00                                                                                              339.090            1.71%               -                           -               339.090          -
                                             001                                                                                      339.090            1.71%               -                           -               339.090          -

Figure 4 shows a copy of a woreda budget classified by administrative spending. This is also known as a line item because
spending it also shows how much particularly offices are authorized to spend on specific items or programs.

Figure 5. Example of Part of a Woreda Capital Budget

Project Title    Year   Sector        Source of Finance                                            Progress   Completion     Number of
                                                                                                              Date           Beneficiaries
                                      Govt        Foreign   NGO            Community   Total
                                                  Aid                      Financed
Construction     1999   Agriculture   391,368                                          391,368     85%        End of 2000    22
of agriculture          and
and                     development
main office
Health points    1998   Health                              225,000                    225,000     0%         Unavailable    5,000
Resource         1998   Water and                           84,000                     84,000      0%         Unavailable    1,000
strengthening           sanitation
Water well       1998   Water and                           40,000                     40,000      0%         Unavailable    386
Drinking         2000   Water and     242,898                                          242,898     25%        Sene 2000      2268
water                   sanitation
expansion and
Watershed        1998   Water/        4,352,653                                        4,352,653   25%        End of 2000    520 households
management              Agriculture
Hayk Ch2         2000   Education                           153,000        30,000      183,000     70%        Yekatit 2000   1,849

Figure 5 shows a part of a typical woreda capital budget, sometimes called the “project descriptions.” A few columns have been
removed to fit the table within the breadth of a single page.

How much is the government spending?
People want to know specifically how much the local government is spending on new
projects: how much it is spending to build new schools, clinics, roads and other kinds
of infrastructure. They want to know about these investment plans in detail. This
information is contained in the capital spending budget. Disseminating capital
spending information should not occur at the expense of disclosing the whole budget,
including recurrent spending. Government officials and urban professionals in
Ethiopia are often familiar with capital spending though uninformed or misinformed
when asked about recurrent budget or the overall budget. Ethiopia has customarily
accounted for recurrent budget and capital budget in entirely separate ways, making
it difficult to ascertain gross budget figures. In some of the woredas selected for pre-
testing, this practice continues, making effective dissemination more challenging. Best
practice dictates a form of budget reporting that distinguishes between recurrent and
capital spending while also presenting the aggregated figures – the whole picture.

How does the budget compare to last year?
At any given time, three stages of the budget cycle are occurring simultaneously. The
present year‟s budget is being implemented, the next year‟s budget is being planned
and the last year‟s budget is being audited and evaluated. One of the most important
and interesting aspects of the budget is how it changes. The public‟s ability to
scrutinize government spending depends on the availability of comparable
information from the past and forward-looking statements.
At a minimum, dissemination should include an easy-to-understand comparison
between the previous year and present year budgets in terms of total spending, capital
spending and recurrent spending. When budgets are disseminated by sector – health,
agriculture, education and water and sanitation – the change in spending, year-on-
year, should be provided. This can be easily communicated in terms of percent
change, or even more effectively through the use of simple charts.

What does this all mean?
Budgets are not only numbers. Disclosure should also include a description of the
rationale and objectives for allocations. The parties responsible for implementing the
budget should also be clearly identified and the results achieved relative to the stated
objectives of budget programs should also be presented in some form. For the general
public, numbers out of context are neither interesting, useful nor clear. The Woreda
Development Plan will provide some of the necessary context for fiscal data. Some
budget documents, like the one in Figure 4 below, will also include the name of the
government agency responsible for implementing spending programs.

The table on the next page briefly summarizes the types of information that should be
disseminated, why each type of information is important to the public and whether or
not the information is easily accessible.

Figure 6. Summary of Types of Budget Information Appropriate for Dissemination
                    What is it?                                   Why do people need it?                        Is it available?
                    Government estimates of inflation and         So that they can plan for the future and      Maybe. Only in the national Budget
Budget              economic growth.                              judge whether the government is being         Report published each fiscal year, until
Assumptions                                                       realistic.                                    regional governments begin to produce
                                                                                                                their own.
                    The difference between expenditure and        People want to know whether the               Maybe. Woredas can describe the
                    revenue, or the difference between            budget is sufficient for achieving the        difference each year between what was
Budget Deficit      planned and actual spending.                  goals set out by the woreda.                  envisioned in the Development Plan and
                                                                                                                what was actually funded.
                    Spending, seen different ways: by             So that they can hold government bodies       Not yet. Most of this cannot easily be
Spending by         administrative         and       functional   to account and judge whether the budget       found at the woreda level, either because
Different           classifications. This is the core of budget   has set the correct priorities.               the accounting is not being done in this
Classifications     dissemination.                                                                              manner or because officials are not
                                                                                                                willing to disclose the information.
                    The capital budget, with           detailed   People are often most interested in how       Yes. Woredas maintain a separate „capital
                    description of each project.                  the government is expanding and               budget,‟ sometimes known as the Project
                                                                  improving services and infrastructure.        Descriptions, though this should not be
Investment                                                                                                      the     only     budget     information
                    Last year‟s figures and next year‟s plan.     One of the most important and                 Maybe. The information exists, but
Spending Over                                                     interesting aspects of the budget is how it   woreda officials declined to provide
Time                                                              changes.                                      information other than current year
                                                                                                                budget data.
                    The rationale and objectives for              For the general public, numbers out of        Yes. The Woreda Development Plan will
The „Who‟ and       allocations, and the names of the             context are neither interesting, useful       provide the context for fiscal data, and
„Why‟ of the        government     agencies   or   partner        nor clear.                                    line-item budgets (See Figure 4) provide
Budget              organizations      responsible     for                                                      the names of implementing agencies.

Step 3: Selecting the Mediums
Communication is the process of sharing information and meaning. There are many
different ways to communicate, and effective budget dissemination must use a variety
of communication processes, media and techniques. The ways in which they are used
and the messages and meanings they convey can differ with culture and context. The
processes can include reading, discussion, questions and answers, listening to the
radio, sitting in front of the television or exchanging information in a traditional
This section will describe the various kinds of communication that exist and the
possibilities for each within the Ethiopian context.

   Interpersonal communication
This involves direct, face-to-face contact and allows questions and answers and
clarification of meaning. In Ethiopia, where mass media coverage is limited, budget
dissemination must use interpersonal forms of communication. Varieties of
interpersonal communication include conversations between family and friends,
discussions with health care providers, educators, religious and community leaders,
health care providers, women‟s youth organizations, development workers,
government officials and so on. Workshops, local council meetings, funeral society
meetings and traditional group gatherings, such as Geda meetings, provide the best
opportunities for person-to-person communication in Ethiopia.
Workshops are an excellent tool for reaching urban elites and key community
leaders: woreda officials, journalists, teachers, health care workers, civil society
leaders, trade union representatives, traditional leaders and elders and urban
professionals. The most important purpose of this setting is to encourage community
leaders to actively deliberate about the budget, making it a powerful tool to generate
understanding of the budget among key figures. Once equipped with a better
understanding of the budget and some basic guidance for communication, these
information brokers can be dispatched as highly effective agents of dissemination.
Community/traditional meetings of different sorts are held across Ethiopia. For
example, the Gurages and Welayetas hold regular elder meetings. The eder, an
organized form of community meeting and support system for funeral expenses, is
commonly practiced in northern areas. In the Oromia region, a traditional
governance system known as the Geda holds public meetings regularly as part of its
workings. Kebele leaders in some parts of the country also regularly convoke public
hearings where information is presented and issues discussed. Dissemination at these
events is most often best conducted by individual or individuals that customarily

chair the meetings. Keep in mind, however, that to present the budget, individuals
should first attend a budget workshop and should be provided supporting materials
like brochures, leaflets or posters to help them report back to their communities.

Artistic Media
Artistic media are performance arts that are used to illustrate and convey information
in an entertaining way. Live performances can provide special opportunities for
interaction between performers and audience. They include drama, traditional forms
of theatre, storytelling, songs and dance. Artistic methods of communication in
Ethiopia have been passed down from generation to generation, such as the azmari, a
form of song in which two singers, usually a man and a woman, improvise satirical
banter. The CDC team did not test any of these methods, but future budget
dissemination efforts may want to think of creative ways to explain the budget
through art. Dissemination of the budget in this way can be both informative and

Small Media
The small media are often tools used to support larger communication initiatives or to
illustrate interpersonal communication. They include posters, cassettes, leaflets,
brochures, slide sets, video, flipcharts, flash cards, T-shirts, badges and loudspeakers.
Many of these small media are effective as public advocacy tools because they can
propagate a slogan, but because they are limited by the amount of information only a
few are appropriate for disseminating budget information.
Brochures and leaflets are an excellent compliment to interpersonal forms of
communication. Individuals selected to inform their communities, for example at a
kebele meeting or Geda meeting, should arrive with printed materials to hand out to
participants. These brochures and leaflets can summarize the budget information in
highly visual way, using pictures, diagrams, drawings, charts and tables. The CDC
team found that recipients of brochures tend to share them with others in their social
circles. Even those that are illiterate will often find a literate acquaintance to read the
material out loud. Brochures and leaflets are also useful for woredas or cities that
decide to disseminate information separately for each service sector. Brochures on
health spending can be handed out at clinics, for example, or development assistants
can hand out brochures on agricultural extension services to the farmers they meet.
Loudspeakers are a potentially useful way of disseminating budget information at
major markets and at distribution points for food aid and safety net assistance.
Woredas can use the same messages recorded for radio at these events. Loudspeaker
announcements should be carried out at the peak hours of market days to reach the
maximum number of people. Beneficiaries of the Productive Safety Net Program

gather once every month for six months out of the year to receive their assistance in
either cash or food. In some areas, this may actually be the only way that rural
women, the group most marginalized from the budget process, can be reached.

Mass Media
The mass media provide indirect, one-way communication and include community,
national and international radio and television as well as newspapers, magazines,
comic books, cinema or other situations where a large number of people can be
reached with information without personal contact.
Radio transmission in Ethiopia is the most widespread of all mass media, but it does
not reach everyone. The national state-run radio broadcaster is Radio Ethiopia. It
claims to have 80 percent national coverage although the Ethiopian Broadcast
Authority suggests a lower figure. Radio Ethiopia broadcasts in Amharic, Oromiffa,
Tigrigna, Afar, Somali and Arabic as well as in English and French. The only other
national station is Radio Fana, which has signal coverage of over 80 percent of
Ethiopia. Other new radio services that have started broadcasting since 2000 include
some of the regional state radios, and some community radio stations are under
development. At the regional level, there are now 20 state-owned services:
   FM Addis 97.1, established by the national state broadcaster Radio Ethiopia, serves
   the people of the capital city and its surroundings and broadcasts for 18 hours a
   Addis Ababa Region Radio Station (FM 96.3).
   Amhara FM, established by the Amhara Media AgencyAmhara Regional FM,
   broadcast in medium wave, is also run by the Amhara regional government.
   Harar Station, a sub-station of Radio Ethiopia - run by the federal government.
   Metu Station, a sub-station of Radio Ethiopia – run by the federal government.
   Voice of Weyanie (Tigriga), established by Tigrai Media.
   Debub radio station FM, established by Southern Nations, Nationalities and
   People‟s Media Agency in Awassa run by the Southern Nations, Nationalities and
   People‟s Government.
   Dire Dawa FM station – run by the Dire Dawa regional government.
   The Education Mass Media Agency (EMMA) has 11 radio stations in different
   regions. EMMA is linked to the federal government, but its main purpose is to
   broadcast educational programs to students in different regions of the country.
During the information dissemination process, air-time can be bought for
transmission and the Education Mass Media Agency can be used in the education of

what budget and budget process is as well a in the disclosure of budget information
released. Moreover, community or rural radios may be set up or, when existent, used,
to better disseminate budget information continuously and effectively. Therefore,
ample attention should be given to the listening patterns that the targeted groups,
including preferred times of listening, which may vary from region to region.
Print media has narrow coverage in Ethiopia though is growing. Newspapers and
other print media are best suited for the dissemination of more detailed budget
information. As the country is limited by a low literacy rate, estimated at
approximately 41 percent (2000-2004), a culture of strong newspaper readership is
still lacking. Newspapers are hence a good way to reach particular segments of the
country‟s urban society.
Of the 56 running papers in Ethiopia, 33 are prepared in Amharic. There are two
Oromifa papers as well as one newspaper in Tigrinya and one in Arabic currently
available. The remaining 14 papers are printed in English. Three of these newspapers
are dailies, of which the two, the Amharic Addis Zemen and the English Ethiopian
Herald are state owned. The Daily Monitor, a private owned English paper, is
distributed exclusively within the capital. In addition to the daily newspapers, there
are three bi-weekly, 26 weekly, six bi-monthly and 18 monthly newspapers.
Ethiopia also features 12 national magazines of which 10 are published monthly, two
are published every two months and the remaining are quarterly publications. Of
these, 10 are in Amharic while the remainder are published in English on a monthly
and bi-monthly basis.

Figure 6. Different Mediums of Communication

Medium          Potential         Lessons Learned

Workshop        Community         An excellent way of getting key information
                Leaders           brokers to understand budgets.
Community/      Farmers,          Dissemination at community/traditional meetings
Traditional     pastoralists      is best conducted by the individuals that
Meetings        and other         customarily chair these events. Their ability to
                rural residents   disseminate effectively relies on their previous
                                  participation in budget workshops and on the
                                  provision of supporting materials such as brochures
                                  or posters.
Brochures and   Distinct          Brochures are a good way of reaching service
leaflets        service           recipients since copies can be distributed at service
                recipients        sites such as health clinics and schools.
Loudspeakers    Rural women       Loudspeaker announcements at the distribution
                                  points of food aid or safety net assistance may be
                                  the only way in some areas of reaching the poorest
                                  of the poor, including rural women.
Radio           Varied            In some regions, like the Somali Regional State,
                                  radio has the potential to reach nearly everyone,
                                  but may fail to reach poor, rural residents in other
                                  regions, such as the Oromia Regional State.
Print Media     Urban             Print media has exceptional capacity to disseminate
                residents         detailed information, but its reach is very limited.

Step 4: Crafting the Message
The public availability of information is of little benefit if it is not released in a format
that can be understood and assessed. Hence, regardless of which medium is used, to
be effective, all communication should be:
   In context: any dissemination effort should begin with a brief comment that the
   woreda government is informing the public of the budget in the interest of
   Honest: do not try to intentionally mislead the public.
   Timely: if dissemination is conducted quarterly, for example, then the information
   disseminated should be for to the present quarter.
   Accurate: check and double-check the message before approving, verifying that
   the numbers included are correct.
   Clear: avoid jargon and acronyms; keep sentences concise and round-up numbers
   (23,456,789.56 Birr => 23.5 million Birr).
   Relevant: following the guidelines in “Step 2: Selecting and Gathering the
   Information” will help ensure the relevance of the message.

Hosting workshops and community meetings
A first step for dissemination should be to host a workshop. The following are some
suggestions for individuals that might be invited:
   non-governmental organization workers;
   woreda council members;
   kebele council members;
   traditional/religious leaders;
   health workers;
   water & sanitation engineers;
   development assistants;
   student leaders;
   women‟s association leaders; and
   trade group representatives.
The participants should be divided into five groups. They can self select:
Group 1: Overall budget
Group 2: Health
Group 3: Agriculture
Group 4: Water & Sanitation

Group 5: Education
The first group will conduct various sorting exercises. Here are some suggestions.
     1. Total spending compared by year. The group should be provided a
     large sheet of paper with a grid drawn on it, and three small, coloured
     pieces of paper with years drawn on them. The will be asked to place the
     years on the grid to show their opinion of how spending compared in
     each year.
     2. Spending by functional area. The group will be asked to sort all the
     different areas of spending (health, agriculture, water/sanitation,
     education, etc.) from the area that receives the most spending to the area
     that receives the least. The names of each functional area should be
     written on small colourful cards in advance.
     3. Recurrent vs. capital spending. Similarly, the group should decide
     which area receives more money: recurrent or capital spending.
     4. Revenue sources. The group will be asked to sort, from greatest to
     least, the woreda‟s sources of revenue.
     5. Spending by administrative classification. Another option would be for
     the group to rank which administrative offices have the most and least
     amount to spend.

Workshop participants prepare posters on their woreda‟s budget.

The second group, which is focused on health, should be provided with poster paper
and several coloured markers, then asked to draw a picture showing all the different
projects that benefit people‟s health in the woreda. They should include a depiction
   the government agencies responsible for health services;
   the places where services are provided; and
   the new investments to improve or expand health services.
Once their picture is almost done, they should also indicate approximately how much
is budgeted for each aspect of their diagram and where the money comes from.
Alternatively, if the group is reticent about drawing, it could begin by writing the
short descriptions (<5 words) of each of the woreda‟s current investments in health
services on different pieces of paper. Once they have thought of all the on-going
projects, they should rank them from most costly to least costly (top to bottom). Then
to the left of each card, they write the source of the project‟s revenue. To the right,
they can write an estimate of the cost of the project.
The third, fourth and fifth groups can do exactly the same as the second group, only
for their own sectors.
After the groups are done, hand out the budget information in raw form and help the
groups to double-check their work. What did they get right and what mistakes did
they make? Once they have corrected their posters, they should return to plenary to
give a brief presentation to the rest of the group. You now have participants trained to
disseminate information on the overall budget or on a particular service sector,
depending on how you have organized the workshop.
Participants at the workshop can even reuse the posters they have made as aids when
they disseminate budget information in other settings. Resources allowing, the
woreda could also use the participants‟ drawings as a rough draft to prepare posters
with higher production quality, brochures or leaflets.

Newspaper announcements, brochures and leaflets
This section offers some suggestions for how to disseminate budget information in
written form, using an imaginary newspaper announcement for an imaginary woreda,
“Yenanta Woreda”. This is merely a suggestion; every woreda must write their own
message in a manner best suiting their audience and most accurately representing the
woreda‟s spending strategy.
Any newspaper announcement, brochure or leaflet should have a headline or title
that clearly identifies the contents and grabs people‟s attention.
       Yenanta Woreda Announces 1.5 Million Birr Budget.

If the document focuses for example on the education sector, the headline or title
should reflect that.
       Yenanta Woreda Announces Plan to Improve Education.
The opening paragraphs can set the context, though should remain brief.
       The Ethiopian Federal Democratic Government of Ethiopia has increasingly
       shifted fiscal authority and responsibility to the woreda level. By drawing up
       annual development plans, the woreda administrative bureaus are now able to
       set their own priorities and shape their own budgets, including in the basic
       service areas of education; water and sanitation; agriculture, and health.
       With this new privilege comes new responsibility. In accordance with Article
       12 of the Ethiopian Constitution, which states that “the affairs of the
       government shall be transparent,” Yenanta Woreda has disclosed its annual
       budget, which this year totals 2.8 million Birr, an increase of 450,000 Birr
       over last year‟s budget. The federal government provided 1.2 million Birr of
       funding for this year‟s budget, 200,000 Birr came from community
       contributions, while 100,000 Birr was donated by non-governmental
       This year‟s budget is based on expected economic growth of 10.4 percent and
       expected inflation of 4.5 percent.
Newspaper has the advantage of allowing visual forms of communication - tables,
graphs, charts and diagrams – which can make large quantities of information more
easily accessible. For example, the announcement could include a simple table
showing spending in the four basic services areas.

Figure 7. Simple Chart for Inclusion in Newspaper

                     Yenanta Woreda Budget for Basic
                             Services in 2000
         1,600,000                                                   1,500,000




          400,000    300,000


                     Health          Agriculture        Water and    Education

If the woreda is unable to produce such a table or the newspaper is unable to print
graphics, even a basic table will help make the information easier to understand. Such
a table would have a stronger impact on readers by presenting two years or more in

Figure 8. Simple Chart for Inclusion in Newspaper Announcement
Yenanta Woreda‟s Year 2000 Budget for Basic Services
                           LAST YEAR        THIS YEAR
Health                     250,000          300,000
Agriculture                400,000          550,000
Water & Sanitation         500,000          450,000
Education                  1,200,000        1,500,000
TOTAL                      2,350,000        2,800,000

The newspaper announcement might then focus on spending in each of those sectors.
The example below shows how an announcement might include details on education
spending, distinguishing between new investments and recurrent spending, though

without using jargon. A final paragraph in this section highlights a shortfall in the
year‟s budget to cover one aspect of the Woreda Development Plan.
       Yenanta Woreda is planning two major investments this year in education.
       The first is the construction of new classrooms at the primary school at a cost
       of 200,000 Birr. This investment is aimed at increasing school enrollment by
       20 percent in the woreda once the classrooms are completed at the end of this
       fiscal year. The second investment is in a new library at the secondary school
       at a cost of 150,000 Birr. The new library should help to lift standards to
       increase the number of graduates admitted into college by 15 percent over
       five years. The remaining expenditure in education, 1,150,000 will pay for the
       salaries of Education Office officials and teachers, the rent of office space and
       utilities and books and school supplies.
       The Yenanta Woreda planned to hire two new secondary school teachers this
       year, but block grant funding from the federal government was unable to
       cover the cost of the new salaries. Yenanta Woreda is looking for donations to
       complete the hiring of the two new teachers next year instead.

Radio and loudspeaker announcements
This section makes suggestions for how to record announcements for broadcast over
the radio or over loudspeakers at public gatherings such as market days or at safety
net program distribution sites. Radio and loudspeaker announcements cannot
transmit as much detailed information as a newspaper announcement or other
written medium, but can reach a larger audience and make a stronger impression by
being entertaining. Audio announcements can be improved by:
    adding popular music to the recording, especially to break up the announcement
    into sections;
    using elements of humor (when appropriate) and varying the tone of the speaker;
    disseminating information in the style of a dialogue or interview, featuring
    interaction between different speakers.
A script for such a recording might look something like this, though this is only one
of many ways. Be creative and have fun creating the announcement.

[15 seconds of popular music]
Male speaker: Hello Tiguist. Where are you coming from?
Female speaker (Tiguist): Hello Dawit. I was just attending a meeting where
government officials announced this year‟s budget for Yenanta Woreda.
Male speaker (Dawit): Why would they do that?

Tiguist: [Laughing] People have a right to know about the budget, silly.
Dawit: So what did you learn?
Tiguist: The government is expecting the economy to grow 10.4 percent this
year, and prices to rise 4.5 percent. I also learned that Yenanta is spending 2.8
million Birr this year. That‟s 450,000 Birr more than last year.
Dawit: Yeah! Our woreda is rich!
Tiguist: Wait a minute. It‟s a big improvement, but it‟s still not enough for
everything in the Woreda Budget Plan. The woreda wasn‟t able to hire the
two new teachers for the secondary school. That will have to wait until next
Dawit: That‟s too bad.
Tiguist: Yes, but the budget was enough to pay for a new library at the
secondary school and new classrooms at the primary school. In fact, they said
they are spending more money on education than on anything else, a total of
1.5 million Birr in fact, so that they can increase enrollment 20 percent next
year and get 15 percent more students into college over the next five years.
Dawit: What else is the woreda spending money on?
Tiguist: The woreda is also building two new health clinics which should cost
100,000 Birr each and a big new experimental farm for 150,000 Birr to help
farmers to produce more tef. All of that should be completed this year. The
woreda also said it should connect 50 more homes to running water this year
and build latrines in 150 homes. The woreda will spend 200,000 Birr on that.
Dawit: Talking about tef is making me hungry. Let‟s get some lunch and you
can tell me more about the budget.
Tiguist: Sure thing, but you don‟t have to believe me. You can go to the
meeting next week at the town hall if you want to hear for yourself, or read
Sunday‟s newspaper. The woreda is also announcing the budget that way.
[15 seconds of popular music]

Quick Reference Guide
Remember the four steps to disseminating budget information.
Step 1: Define your audiences
   How are urban and rural residents different in your woreda?
   Are different groups of people receiving different kinds of services?
   Who has the most knowledge and influence over the budget? Who has the least and what
   is the best way to communicate to them?
Step 2: Select and gather the information
   Budget assumptions
   Budget deficit
   Spending by different classifications
   Woreda investments
   Spending over time
   The „who‟ and „why‟ of the budget
Step 3: Select the mediums
   Workshops are good for educating community leaders and other potential information
   Community/traditional meetings are good for a wide variety of audiences, including
   farmers, pastoralists and other rural residents.
   Brochures and leaflets are effective for targeting distinct service recipients and as a
   supplement to dissemination at public meetings.
   Loudspeakers can be used to at markets and the distribution points for food aid or safety
   net assistance programs.
   Radio reaches vast audiences in some regions, but has small coverage in others.
   Print media has exceptional capacity to disseminate detailed information, but its reach is
   very limited.
Step 4: Craft the message
   in context: any dissemination effort should begin with a brief comment that the woreda
   government is informing the public of the budget in the interest of transparency.
   honest: do not try to intentionally mislead the public.
   timely: if dissemination is conducted quarterly, for example, then the information
   disseminated should be for to the present quarter.
   accurate: check and double-check the message before approving, verifying that the
   numbers included are correct.

clear: avoid jargon and acronyms, keep sentences concise and round-up numbers
(23,456,789.56 Birr => 23.5 million Birr).
relevant: following the guidelines in “Step 2: Selecting and Gathering the Information”
will help ensure the relevance of the message.


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