Docstoc

Project Report on Micro Financing

Document Sample
Project Report on Micro Financing Powered By Docstoc
					ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DOMESTIC ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
                  IN BANGLADESH

                       Khondokar Mizanur Rahman




SUPERVISORY TEAM
• Prof Marie Harder
• Dr. Ryan Woodard
• Dr Elizabeth Manzanares
Course                              Activities                                Duration

         Adding food waste / Household waste with slurry
         More study on other impacts of AD like Social impact
PhD




                                                                                Sep 09- Sep 10

         Assess the Environmental Impact of AD plant
         Energy calculation of AD plant                                        April 09-July 09

          More detailed information of AD with different feedstock
          Study on different process of Environmental Impact Assessment
          Current practices of Carbon Counting
                            Additional
          Improving the language and Research Skills
          Improving writing skill in proper academic form                      Oct 08-March 09
MPhil




          Background study on waste management :
           E.g. Anaerobic Digestion(AD), Pyrolysis, Composting,
           Incineration, Gasification, Combustion etc.
          Current AD practices and project planning                            July 08-Sep 08

        General knowledge of waste management, Development of skills,
        organizing ideas about research project, Reading scientific papers.     Oct 07-June 08
The key work I have done since the last PRP meeting (Sept 2008):

1. October 2008- December 2008
    • Study domestic AD system, review of literature
    • Study LCA, review of literature
    • Learned Simapro- The LCA software

2. January 2009
     • Visited Bangladesh:11 AD plant from 4 districts of Bangladesh
     • Collected Environmental, Social and Economic data
     • Participated in workshop in Bangladesh on “Promotion of renewable
         energy technologies to rural stakeholders”

3. February 2009- present
     • Analyse the data and assess the impact through Life Cycle Assessment.
         Write up the project report
     • Invited to Brussels for workshop on Micro-financing of Renewable
         Energy – gave presentation
     • Attended UK national conference for post graduates in Waste
        Management in the University of Nottingham
         – gave presentation.
           ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DOMESTIC ANAEROBIC
                    DIGESTION IN BANGLADESH

                             Why this project ?
 To help develop an alternative to traditional biomass
    - Biomass share of energy usage is 55%
    - 8 million HHs cook in traditional stove using biomass (40 M tonnes use in 2006)
    - Traditional biomass has problems like:
                              Deforestation and Natural disaster
                              Soil erosion
                              Soil nutrient reduction
                              Health problems

Anaerobic Digestion is the alternative to traditional biomass
        - Solves all the problems associated with traditional biomass
        - Potential for 3 million domestic AD biogas plants

Life Cycle Analysis of small-medium AD systems to assess the environmental
                  impact of potentially millions of AD plants.
    PROBLEMS WITH USING BIOMASS
Deforestation and natural disasters
•More than 55 % energy from traditional fuel
•It the last 15 year the deforestation rate is > 5%
•Need 25 % forest for a balance environment
•Deforestation increase propensity of
environmental disaster like flood, cyclones etc.
Soil Fertility
• A fertile soil should contain at least 3.5 % organic matter. Bangladeshi soil contains
1.7 % organic matter.
• Excess use of chemical fertilizer causes depletion of soil natural nutrient, increase
production cost and causes environmental pollution specially the aquatic environment.
• There is a need for organic fertilizer to replenish the soil
  Health issues
•Eye infection
• Respiratory diseases
• Coughing
• Dizziness
• Headache
• Children are affected by smoke particles
What is Anaerobic Digestion (AD)?
• Biological process that happens naturally when bacteria breaks down organic
   matter in environments with little or no oxygen,
• Produce biogas (60% methane and 40 %CO2 by volume) and digestate
  - Biogas - fuel used for cooking and lighting
  - Digestate – a fertilizer with higher nutrient value than fertilizer from composting
  and chemical fertilizer.        Anaerobic digestion process
Waste                          CH4 rich
Cow dung                                                            Digestate
Poultry litter




                                                        Bricks, Cement, Sand


                 Schematic of a fixed dome anaerobic digester
        Prospect of Domestic Anaerobic digestion in Bangladesh



• 8.44 million of households in Bangladesh
• 22.29 million of Cattle/ buffalo and
• 116,000 poultry farms (BCAS, 2005)

Potential for more than 3 millions of
domestic biogas plants from dung only

Bangladesh has about 30,000 biogas
plants
                                             Construction of a domestic biogas plant of Bangladesh
Ref:      SNV, 2005
            Impact Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment

• Compilation and evaluation of inputs, outputs and potential environmental
 impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle (extraction to end-of-life)
• UK PAS 2050 is consistent method for assessing the life cycle Greenhouse Gas
(GHG ) emissions of goods and services.


  PAS 2050 can provide:
  • A standard method for assessing a product carbon footprint
  • Internal assessment of product life cycle GHG emissions
  • Evaluation of alternative product configurations, operational and sourcing options
  • A benchmark for measuring and communicating emission reductions
  • Support for corporate responsibility reporting social and economic impacts
       From SimaPro: CML 2000 there are 10 impact units
Abiotic depletion - extraction of minerals and fossil fuels.
Global warming potential (GWP) - the greenhouse effect, equivalent to carbon footprint.
Ozone layer depletion (ODP) - causes UV-B radiation reaching the earth surface.
Human toxicity - effects of toxic substances on the human environment
Fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity - impact on fresh water ecosystems,
Marine aquatic ecotoxicity - impacts of toxic substances on marine ecosystems.
Terrestrial ecotoxicity - impacts of toxic substances on terrestrial ecosystems.
Photochemical oxidation - potential capacity of a volatile organic substance to produce ozone.
Acidification - acidifying effect of SO2.
Eutrophication (nutrification) - impacts due to excessive levels of macro-nutrients in the
environment.




 http://www.brighton.ac.uk/werg/pdf/factsheets/LCA%20factsheet.pdf
          Methodology of research/PAS 2050 Methodology
        Raw            Production         Distribution        Usage            Disposal
     Material



 Inputs

 Cement
 Sand
 Aggregate

                 Production
                                                           Anaerobic
                                      Transportation        Digester           Recycle
                   Concrete                                 Reactor


Resource

 Energy
 Water
                           Process Map for concrete for use in AD


  For industrial inputs there is embedded energy in the raw materials to consider.
                       The process map for AD biogas production
            Raw                Production         Distribution       Usage            Disposal
         Material




    Inputs
Residual Waste                              Primary Product       Primary Product
                                                 Biogas              Energy Use
Cow dung
                            Waste
Poultry litter                                 Secondary          Secondary Product
                          Treatment
                                                Product               Fertiliser
                          Technology
                                                Digestate
                           Anaerobic         Waste Residue         Waste Residue
  Resource                 Digestion              none

    Water                                      Emissions              Emissions
                                                  none


                    Process Map for Residual Waste Treatment Technology


                    For farm feedstock there is no embedded energy to consider.
                           Data from Bangladesh

• Visited January, 2009
• Data from 11 biogas plants from 4 districts of Bangladesh
• Sizes were 2.4 m3, 3 m3, 3.2 m3 and 14 m3
• 9 of those were domestic/family sized plant and 2 medium sized (14 m3)
• Only one of those was a poultry based plant
• A 3.2 m3 plant was considered as a standard domestic biogas plant and
 was compared between same sized dung and poultry based plant.


Biogas production rate       :         0.037 m3/kg dung
                             :         0.071 m3/kg poultry litter

(Data is provided from Grameen Shakti, Bangladesh)
Some Secondary data collected
Composition of dung and poultry based biogas in volume percentage
         Biogas                  Cowdung (Vol%)                        Poultry (Vol%)
          CH4                           68.80                                64.50
          CO2                           27.00                                30.30
           CO                            0.00                                 0.00
           O2                            0.30                                 0.40
          H2S                            0.10                                 0.30
           H2                            2.60                                 2.80
           N2                            1.20                                 1.50
         Others                          0.00                                 0.20
          Total                         100.00                               100.00

Impacts determined using SimaPro per kg gas:
Impact category                  Unit                    CH4           CO2               H2S
Abiotic depletion                kg Sb eq                         0                  0           0
Acidification                    kg SO2 eq                        0                  0           0
Eutrophication                   kg PO4--- eq                     0                  0           0
Global warming (GWP100)          kg CO2 eq                       23                  1           0
Ozone layer depletion (ODP)      kg CFC-11 eq                     0                  0           0
Human toxicity                   kg 1,4-DB eq                     0                  0         0.22
Fresh water aquatic ecotox.      kg 1,4-DB eq                     0                  0           0
Marine aquatic ecotoxicity       kg 1,4-DB eq                     0                  0           0
Terrestrial ecotoxicity          kg 1,4-DB eq                     0                  0           0
Photochemical oxidation          kg C2H4                       0.006                 0           0
                                            IMPACT OF BIOGAS
Life time (10 year) impact assessment of a 3.2 m3 dung based biogas plant from the main output gas
(before combustion methane) using SimaPro.

Impact category              Impact per kg dung          Initial charge       Daily charge   Lifetime charge        Total

                                                                  4000 kg            87 kg           317550 kg        321550 kg

Global warming
(GWP100)Kg CO2 eq                          0.40251              1610.056            35.019          127818.321        130 tonnes
Human toxicity, Kg 1,4DB
eq                                         0.00001                  0.046            0.001                3.633              3.679

Photochemical oxidation kg
C2H4                                       0.00010                  0.401            0.009               31.845             32.246


Global warming saving through methane combustion : CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O

                                        Initial charge            Daily charge         Lifetime charge                       Total
Impact category
                                             4000 kg                        87 kg            317550 kg         321550/322 tonne
GWP before burning (Kg CO2 eq)
                                           1610                    35.0                  127818                130 tonne
GWP after burning (Kg CO2 eq)               256                    5.57                  20339                    21 tonne

Reducing GWP from CH4 combustion           1353                    29.4                  107478                109 tonne

For 3.2 m3: daily charge is
                     87 kg dung is required from GS manual
                     65+/- 15 kg from my farm data visits
                                     IMPACT OF DIGESTATE
    Life time (10 year) Impact of digestate of a 3.2 m3 dung based biogas plant in soil and water

                            Unit          Total life time     Total life time       Life time
                                          impact in air       impact in soil     combined impact
 Impact category
                      kg Sb eq                       0.00                 0.00                0.00
Abiotic depletion
                      kg SO2 eq                      0.00                 0.00                0.00
Acidification
                      kg PO4--- eq                4393.88             4393.88             8787.77
Eutrophication
Global warming        kg CO2 eq                      0.00                 0.00                0.00
(GWP100)
Ozone layer           kg CFC-11 eq                   0.00                 0.00                0.00
depletion (ODP)
                      kg 1,4-DB eq                3009.71             1843.45             4853.15
Human toxicity
Fresh water           kg 1,4-DB eq                 515.12             1380.41             1895.54
aquatic ecotoxicity
Marine aquatic        kg 1,4-DB eqX10-              1.947                0.208               2.156
ecotoxicity           6
Terrestrial           kg 1,4-DB eq                 347.27               711.91            1059.19
ecotoxicity
Photochemical         kg C2H4                        0.00                 0.00                0.00
oxidation
                                 IMPACT OF INFRASTRUCTURE

 A 3.2 m3 biogas digester building materials are predominantly clay bricks and cement
 Number of Bricks - 1747 or 4368 kg
 Cement -           1050 kg
 Few other materials like sand, Rod, Polythene, PVC pipe etc are used to build up
 digester.
Impact of infrastructure of a 3.2 m3 biogas plant (Cement-1050 kg and Bricks-4368 kg)-
Cement and brick data according to Bangladesh industries and energy distribution

  Impact category               Unit                Impact of Cement   Impact of Bricks   Total impact
  Abiotic depletion             kg Sb eq                       0.299             0.961            1.26
  Acidification                 kg SO2 eq                      0.047             1.585            1.63

  Eutrophication                kg PO4--- eq                   0.012             0.052            0.06
  Global warming (GWP100)       kg CO2 eq                     33.770           177.528         211.30

  Ozone layer depletion (ODP)   kg CFC-11 eq                   0.000             0.000            0.00

  Human toxicity                kg 1,4-DB eq                   0.110            29.138          29.25

  Fresh water aquatic ecotox.   kg 1,4-DB eq                   0.000             0.177            0.18

  Marine aquatic ecotoxicity    kg 1,4-DB eqX10-3              0.000               3.64           3.64

  Terrestrial ecotoxicity       kg 1,4-DB eq                   0.000             0.170            0.17
  Photochemical oxidation       kg C2H4                        0.003             0.059            0.06
             Ten year lifetime impact (in GWP) of 3.2 m3 biogas plant:
                        biogas + digestate + infrastructure
                   Product or service                  GWP
                                                 (Kg CO2 equivalent)
                         Biogas                        20596

                        Digestate                        0

                 Infrastructural materials              211



   GWP biogas for a year ~ 2100 kgCO2 eq         A loaf of bread has GWP of 1.3kgCO2
   How significant is 2100 KgCO2?

   A family consumes about a loaf a week
   or 50 loafs a year


• So 2100 kgCO2 represents ~ 1615 loafs a year
  consumption of only 32 families a year !!
              Biogas is used for:
                    Lighting - Replacing kerosene
                    Cooking - Replacing wood biomass

Replacing kerosene with biogas (by comparing GWP)
Used 4 hours/day a kerosene lamp emits 100kg of CO2 annually
100 kg CO2 produce from 28.9 kg kerosene (CDM report   on pacific island)

Caloric value of kerosene is 47.5 MJ/kg
Kerosene use for light, GWP per MJ is     -            0.072 kg CO2 equivalent
Biogas use for light,   GWP per MJ is     -            0.074 kg CO2 equivalent THIS WORK



               GWP of kerosene and biogas are similar per energy
 Replacing biomass with biogas
 Biomass fuel stoves have a significant portion of the pollution in the form of
 products of incomplete combustion (PIC), i.e., much fuel carbon is diverted into
 non-CO2 airborne emissions such as CO, CH4, NMHC, and particles.

GWC of different house hold fuels in China: CO2+CH4+CO+TNMHC+NO




       Source :   Edward, 2002
                                  Biogas is Fuel
                                Energy Calculations

Heat of Combustion of Methane                              52 MJ/kg

Daily Methane Production from 3.2 m3 plant                 1.45 kg

Heat of combustion of daily production methane             75.4 MJ

Heat combustion of wood                                    18.5 MJ/kg

Daily production methane of 3.2 m3 plant can save          4.1 kg wood daily

A 3.2 m3 domestic biogas plant can save in its life time   > 15 tonne wood
Boiling 1 litre of water need                              0.31 MJ heat

Methane produce daily of a 3.2 m3 plant can boil           243 Litre water

To boil same amount of water need 3 times more wood        With significant impact
                               Conclusions
 For 10 years life time of a 3.2 m3 biogas plant:
1.   The GWP is about 21 tonnes CO2 eq after combustion
2.   Combustion of methane reduces GWP by 109 tonnes CO2 eq
3.   Use of biogas replaces more than 15 tonnes of wood
4.   Digestate is a nutrient rich fertilizer causing zero GWP




 Future Work Plan
 • More critical investigation of Socio economic impact of biogas plant
 • Compare with other feedstock like House hold waste
 • Primary data for use of biogas in stoves
Thanks a lot for your attention

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Project Report on Micro Financing document sample