2001

					========================================== Rare Fruit News Online - All Year for 2001 ========================================== Rare Fruit News Online consists primarily of messages from subscribers. Sometimes there are questions to be answered by those with knowledge and experience (and, we are fortunate to have them among us.) Others consist of feedback to letters posted in an earlier issue. Sometimes there are references thought to be of interest, such as books, periodicals, or - more likely - web pages and their URL addresses. It works, because of the teamwork among you, and I'm pleased to be part of it. If you ever want to write about changing your email address or unsubscribing or almost anything, please include your WHOLE name (especially the LAST name) as my address book is set up that way. Interested in reading past issues of RFNO? Those published in previous years can be accessed at the homepage for Rare Fruit News Online http://www.rarefruit.com RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO in in in in in in 2001: 2000: 1999: 1998: 1997: 1996: http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN2001AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN2000AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1999AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1998AllYr.Txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1997AllYr.Txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1996AllYr.Txt

For another place to see back issues of the newsletter, visit the online group, "OldRFN" OldRFN is at http://www.visto.com/j.html?g=16812838.WDY3NjdX

If you are in the neighborhood, let me know, and hopefully I'll be home for you to drop by. I am a rare fruit garden addict, and plant far more than I have time to tend them properly, but I'd like to show you what you can grow here. Sincerely, Leo

Rare Fruit News Online - January 1, 2001 - AKA RFN200101A.txt Notes In Passing

---------Table Of Contents - Headers; (Letters Follow Table Of Contents)

>>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber, Florida - How To Protect Young Trees In Winter? Bob Earley <Earley_b@popmail.firn.edu> New Subscriber, South Africa - How To Identify Star Fruit? Irene Ross <granblue@mweb.co.za> New Subscriber, Miama, FL, Has Plenty Already; Wants White Sapote Claudio Riedi <criedi@worldwidelaw.com> New Subscriber, Florida, Ed Sherwood <sherwood@gator.net> New Subscriber, Finland - Growing (outside!) Loquat, Cocoa, .... "Evert Nylund" <evert@surfeu.fi>

>>>> Readers Write <<<<

Re: How To Identify Star Fruit? Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net> To: Irene <granblue@mweb.co.za> Re: How To Identify Star Fruit? Irene Ross <granblue@mweb.co.za> Re: What's This Black Stuff On Leaves Of My Lime and Sugar Apple? "Kok-choi Chan" <duriannow@hotmail.com> To: rocopolis@earthlink.net RE: Carambola - Won't Fruit For Me "Ben Poirier" <benplant@tfb.com> To: "'Alan Schroeder'" <arschroeder@home.com> New E-mail Address For Santol (Bruce Livingston) Bruce Livingston <santol@irishabroad.com> Re: Sooty Mold

"Juan A. Rivero" <jarivero@caribe.net> To: rocopolis@earthlink.net Fwd: HOW TO SURVIVE A HEART ATTACK WHEN ALONE Fred Nagahori <fnagahori@yahoo.com> Re: Tropical Fruit Availability "Helga and Bert Dunn" <helbert@idirect.com> To: Linda <lindaii@earthlink.net> O'sage Oranges "Diana E. Witt" <dewitt17@mindspring.com> Black Sapote (Diospyros digyna) Jim Adkins <junglejimsplants1@mac.com> Re: Black Sapote (Diospyros digyna) "George F. Emerich" <gemerich@tfb.com> To: Jim <junglejimsplants1@mac.com> Alphonso Mango "Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Re: Alphonso Mango Leo To: Ben Pierce <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Re: Alphonso Mango "Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Grafting Cherimoyas "Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Re: Grafting Cherimoyas Leo To: Ben Pierce <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Re: Grafting Cherimoyas "Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Noni-How To Prepare Fruit? Black Sapote: How To Propagate? Sven Nehlin <snehlin@reacciun.ve>

Re: Black Sapote: How To Propagate? Leo To: Sven Nehlin <snehlin@reacciun.ve> Re: Black Sapote (Diospyros digyna): How To Propagate? "George F. Emerich" <gemerich@tfb.com> To: Sven <snehlin@reacciun.ve> Stephen Facciola's Cornucopia Dmshuck@aol.com Re: Stephen Facciola's Cornucopia Stephen Facciola <Kzyl-Uruk@worldnet.att.net> RE: Large Lemon Maybe Ponderosa "Oscar Jaitt" <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> To: jzwielic@san.rr.com Longan Girdling "Richard K. Gross" <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> To: <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Re: Controlling Gophers "Richard K. Gross" <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> To: <jamoskowitzmd@pol.net> Re: Controlling Gophers Michael Zarky <mzarky@earthlink.net> Budding Of Avocados "Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Re: Thailand Fruit (Letter found at bottom of my mailbag. Leo) Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@ksc9.th.com> Longan and lychee study "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Fw: Questions on Longans

"Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Re: Longan Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Edward Lin <Link2itc@aol.com> Longan Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Edward Lin <Link2itc@aol.com> Re: longan flowering Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: David Loring <dloring3@flash.net> Re: Longan Girdling "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Richard K. Gross" <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> Re: Longan Girdling "Richard K. Gross" <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> To: "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Re: Ping-Pong Longan "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Yee Pak Leong" <leongyeepak@hotmail.com> Ping-Pong Longan Yee Pak Leong <leongyeepak@hotmail.com> To: "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Re: Litchi and Longan Sources In Thailand "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Samar Gupta" <samar@vsnl.com> Litchi and Longan Sources In Thailand Samar Gupta <samar@vsnl.com> Chuliang - the Most Widely Grown Longan in the World "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Longan Research" <Longan-Research@egroups.com>, Re: [Longan-Research] Worldwide Weather Pattern "Dr. Amos Blumenfeld 03-9683397 VH" <vhamos@agri.gov.il>

To: LONGAN RESEARCH <longan-research@egroups.com>

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

An Old Story -- Botanists Find 'Living Fossil' Tree http://news.excite.com/news/r/001215/01/science-environment-tree-dc

Tropical fruit trees: akee, all spice, ambarella, cherry, bay leaf, black pepper, caimito, cashew, coconut, coffee, curry leaf, grumichama, jakfruit, longan, loquat, lychee, macadamia, malay

annona, avocado, canistel, carambola, guava, jaboticaba, apple

http://www.tropicalfruitnursery.com/fruitproducts.htm

FRUIT LOVER'S MEGALINKS http://www.fruitlovers.com/megalinks.html

Food Resource, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR http://foodsci.orst.edu/ Search engine for food crops

Hedge apple, from the Osage Orange Tree, control insects such as roaches using natural pest control. http://hedgeapple.com/

GardenBed.com: Maclura pommifera - Osage orange http://gardenbed.com/M/2252.cfm

Native Plant Exchange - Readers Offer Native Plants and Seeds For Trade

http://forums.gardenweb.com/forums/exnative/

Jackfruit, Breadfruit, Osage Orange, Mulberry, Soursop, Sugar Apple, Cherimoya http://daphne.palomar.edu/wayne/jackfr1.htm

The Calimoya Cherimoyas Are Here! John Ruskey <jruskey@earthlink.net>

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers)

<<<<

None, this time

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<<

None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<< None, this time

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<

None, this time

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm

Fruit and Vegetable Films Keep Food Fresh and Tasty

Tube Helps Establish Seedlings on Rangeland Kathryn Barry Stelljes <kbstelljes@ars.usda.gov>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Subscriber, Florida - How To Protect Young Trees In Winter? Date: Fri, 15 Dec 2000 19:48:00 -0500 From: Bob Earley <Earley_b@popmail.firn.edu> Leo, I e-mailed you about a month ago asking that I be added to your distribution list but it appears that you may not have received it. My name is Bob Earley and I live in Venice, Florida. I have read the back issues on the website and managed to learn a great deal in the process. Over the past couple of years, I have planated bananas, mangoes, guavas, citrus, carambola, persimmon, tamarindo, lychee, jackfruit, black sapote, ilama, sugar apple, atamoya, papaya, pineapple, and yuca (cassava). All appear to be doing quite well. Temperatures today (12/15/00) area near 85 and I am worried my young trees are very vulnerable to a sudden cold spell. We live in a heavily forested area with a high fire danger (we have been without rain for 3+ months). For that reason, my wife is afraid that if I use the ancient smudge pots that I have, I will surely burn the entire neighborhood down. Thus, I am always interested in new ideas relative to cold protection. Thanks for providing this wonderful service to us rare fruit hobbiests. Bob mailto:Earley_b@popmail.firn.edu -----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, South Africa - How To Identify Star Fruit? Date: Sat, 16 Dec 2000 23:27:22 +0200 From: Irene Ross <granblue@mweb.co.za> Hi I am Irene Ross and live in a valley in the Southern Drakensberg in South Africa. The fruit trees I grow at present are mainly citrus, crab apple and avocado. On a recent trip to Australia, I became acquainted with Star Fruit and retained the seeds and planted them when I

returned home. I did not expect them to grow, having been told by the nursery in Australia that this was impossible. However I have a little plant and I have no idea what it is....I am hoping that it is a Star Fruit......where can I find a photograph of the plant and not the fruit? Please Help Irene mailto:granblue@mweb.co.za -----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Miama, FL, Has Plenty Already; Wants White Sapote Date: Sun, 24 Dec 2000 06:43:43 -0600 From: Claudio Riedi <criedi@netzero.net> mailto:criedi@worldwidelaw.com Hi, I am Claudio Riedi, in Miami, Florida. Fruit trees I am now growing are Mangos (Cushman, Valencia Pride, ST Maui, Carrie, Ataulfo, Edward, Nam Doc Mai); Avocado; Monstera; Imbe; Cherry of the Rio Grande; Caimite; Wax Jambu; Sapodilla; Jackfruit (DangRashimi, Black Gold); Canistel; SugarApple; Soursop; Litchi; Longan (Koala, Diamond River); Citrus (Limes, Kumquat, Tangerines, Oranges); Rose-Apple; Carambola; Miracle Fruit; amarind; Pineapples; Black Sapote; Mamey; Mamea Americana; Barbados Cherry; Banana. I want to grow White Sapote. Claudio Riedi mailto:criedi@worldwidelaw.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Florida, Date: Tue, 26 Dec 2000 15:30:54 -0500 From: Ed Sherwood <sherwood@gator.net> My name is Ed Sherwood and I've recently bought 27 acres in Hawthorne Florida. I plan on planting many different fruit and nut trees and am interested in growing unusual and hard to find food crops. I am currently working on rennovating a 115 year old farm house but soon it will be 'done' and my attention can then turn to cultivating and planting. I will be growing in zone 9a/8b so I am interested in subtropical fruits. I will have some greenhouses so

true tropicals will also be an option. I look forward to recieving your newsletter. please send it to sherwood@gator.net Thanks Ed mailto:sherwood@gator.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Finland - Growing (outside!) Loquat, Cocoa, .... Date: Sat, 30 Dec 2000 02:39:18 +0200 From: "Evert Nylund" <evert@surfeu.fi> Hi! My name is Evert Nylund. Finland. I'm a 12 years old boy from Espoo,

Now I have just some fruit trees which I'm growing, e.g. 2 loquats, 1 cocoa tree, 2 coffee plants, and a rose-almong outside on our yard. No, no, I don't grow those outside, but I keep them outside sometimes in summer. I would like to know how I'm going to grow these: 1. Sapodilla/Sapodillo 2. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki & D. virginiana) 3. Cherimoya (Annona cherimola). I have those seeds, and I would like to grow other too. I have many "non-fruit tree" seeds, e.g. Spathodea campanulata, Ylang-Ylang, Magnolia sieboldii, Bixa orellana etc... If you know some growing tips, please, could you tell me! Evert from Finland mailto:evert@surfeu.fi http://www.surf.to/seedlist

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Re: How To Identify Star Fruit? Date: Mon, 18 Dec 2000 07:27:44 +0200 From: Irene Ross <granblue@mweb.co.za>

Dear Leo Thanks to you and Sven Merten I have now confirmed that my plants are indeed Star Fruit and I will granny them with much love and tenderness. I feel a bit embarrassed now that I have received your newsletter as I realised that plants which practically grow wild here I dismissed and did not report as having in my garden. Granadillas (Passion Fruit) grow along my boundary fence but we are not over-enamoured of them as they encourage snakes, Guavas are classed an Alien Invader but will not be declared a weed because of the value of the fruit. South Africa is on a major move to indigenous species and many trees and plants are not permitted to be planted after 1 April 2001. Lychees are on my list "to be planted" and by all accounts are easy to grow here. I am also fortunate to live in an area where Blackberries grow wild (I have spent the last two weeks making jam) and my strawberries have produced enormous fruit this season. My husband wants to turn the bottom of our garden into an orchard, planting Peach, Plum and Mango (all grown in this area) and as long as it does not interfere with my veggie garden (I am a vegetarian) I will not object. For those of you who fly a lot, vegetarian food on an aeroplane leaves a lot to be desired so declare that you are a fruitarian and you will be delighted and the envy of passengers around you. Thanks for you help. Irene mailto:granblue@mweb.co.za -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: How To Identify Star Fruit? Sun, 17 Dec 2000 07:45:22 -0800 Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net> Irene <granblue@mweb.co.za>

Hi Irene, Leo forwarded your note to me. The web sites below have some pictures of the leaves of star fruit. They have delicate pinnatley compound leaves. I don't know why the nursery told you that you can't grow them from seed. Maybe they meant there is a lot of variation in the fruit quality when you grow them from seed. They can be grafted later on. They grow slow at first, but after a year or so they will start growing faster. http://www.brevardrarefruit.org/photos/carambola.html http://www.greendealer-exotic-

seeds.com/seeds/StarFruitCarambola.html granblue@mweb.co.za Regards, Sven mailto:scoutdog@pacbell.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: Apple? Date: From: To: Re: What's This Black Stuff On Leaves Of My Lime and Sugar Sun, 17 Dec 2000 11:18:11 +0800 "Kok-choi Chan" <duriannow@hotmail.com> rocopolis@earthlink.net

I suspect the black stuff is sooty mold.The mold thives on the sugary substance exuded by scales,aphids or mealy bugs.Aside from the unsightly look,the mold does not do much damage to the plant except perhaps affecting the growth a little (due to loss of photosynthetic surfaces). From my experience, getting rid of the pests should usually solve the problem. Kok-choi Chan mailto:duriannow@hotmail.com

-----------------------------------------------From: "Ben Poirier" <benplant@tfb.com> To: "'Alan Schroeder'" <arschroeder@home.com> Sent: Thursday, November 16, 2000 5:45 PM Subject: RE: Carambola - Won't Fruit For Me Hi Alan, Time and patience - I'm sure you have heard this before ! But take heart - you are close. About fifteen years or so ago one of the local Avocado packers brought in a bunch of grafted Arken carambola trees and made them available at a reasonable cost for growers to try and evaluate. I picked up some of these trees figuring using them as a "control" in my project since they are the staple variety in Florida (at least at that time). They were a good 18' to 2" and took about seven years to bear their first fruit - the same year that the first of the seedlings came into bearing. With most fruit trees, grafted trees come into bearing much sooner than this,but this is my esperience with this one. The experiment is going on and some of the seedlings are coming up with better qualities than the Arkin. I've started grafting one plant and hope to have others in the future. Ben mailto:benplant@tfb.com

-----Original Message From Alan----Subject: From: Sent: To: Carambola - Won't Fruit For Me Alan Schroeder [SMTP:arschroeder@home.com] Thursday, November 16, 2000 8:49 AM Ben Poirier <benplant@tfb.com>

Dear Ben: I read with interest your comment that in Southern California it takes about seven years for carambola to fruit from seed. I purchased a grafted variety 'Florita' about six or so years ago. It was about one foot tall at the time and is now six feet tall and looks healthy enough but it has never flowered. It grows in a semi shaded area that is protected from wind. I do nothing for it except mulch it with straw or alfalfa. My residence is in Southern California (Santa Barbara) and I know there are some carambola fruiting in this area. Any comments? How can I get it to flower and fruit? Alan Schroeder mailto:arschroeder@home.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New E-mail Address For Santol (Bruce Livingston) Date: 17 Dec 00 12:12:03 EST From: Bruce Livingston <santol@irishabroad.com> Hello, Please excuse me for sending this as a form letter, but I want to let everyone know that I have switched my E-mail address to a web-based address. Please make a note of it and address any future E-mails to me as follows: santol@irishabroad.com Thank you, Bruce Livingston mailto:santol@irishabroad.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Sooty Mold

Date: Sun, 17 Dec 2000 19:51:22 -0400 From: "Juan A. Rivero" <jarivero@caribe.net> To: rocopolis@earthlink.net Hola Ricardo: What you describe is the sooty mold or fumagina. It is a sooty black covering on the leaves, fruits and twigs of many plants and is associated with several insects belonging to at least three separate families. In short, it is found with all scale and allied insects which exude honey-dew in any considerable quantities. The fungus is a saprophyte and depends on this honey-dew for its sustenance. The black covering is composed of the vegetative threads of the fungus. The fungus itself is harmless but the black screen may reduce photosinthesis and thus, interfere with the natural functions of the leaves, which will keep the tree in an unhealthy condition and reduce the quality and abundance of fruits. Control the associated insects, not the for white flies and scale will do, but will do better as they will also loosen covering so that it falls away with the Best wishes and good luck. Juan A. Rivero mailto:jarivero@caribe.net mold. Any insecticide used those with an oil base and break the black leaves, fruits and twigs.

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Fwd: HOW TO SURVIVE A HEART ATTACK WHEN ALONE Date: Tue, 19 Dec 2000 07:14:37 -0800 (PST) From: Fred Nagahori <fnagahori@yahoo.com> Leo, I think this information is good to put in your newsletter since there are a lot of seniors and might be alone in their yards when smitten by a heart attack. Fred Nagahori mailto:fnagahori@yahoo.com

Let's say it's 6:15 p.m. and you're driving home (alone of course), after an unusually hard day on the job. You are tired, upset and maybe frustrated. Suddenly you start experiencing severe pain in your chest that starts to radiate out into your arm and up into your jaw. You are only about five miles from the hospital nearest your home. Unfortunately, you don't know if you'll be

able to make it that far. What can you do? <snip> HOW TO SURVIVE A HEART ATTACK WHEN ALONE Since many people are alone when they suffer a heart attack, this article seemed in order. Without help, the person whose heart stops beating properly and who begins to feel faint, has only about 10 seconds left before losing consciousness. However, these victims can help themselves by coughing repeatedly and very vigorously. A deep breath should be taken before each cough, and the cough must be deep and prolonged, as when producing sputum from deep inside the chest. A breath and a cough must be repeated about every two seconds without let up until help arrives, or until the heart begins beating normally again. Deep breaths get oxygen into the lungs and coughing movements squeeze the heart and keep the blood circulating. The squeezing pressure on the heart also helps it regain normal rhythm. In this way, heart attack victims canget to a hospital. Tell as many other people as possible about this, it could save their Lives! From Health Cares, Rochester General Hospital via Chapter 240's newsletter, AND THE BEAT GOES ON ... (reprint from The Mended Hearts, Inc. publication, Heart Response) -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Tropical Fruit Availability Thu, 21 Dec 2000 07:09:33 -0500 "Helga and Bert Dunn" <helbert@idirect.com> Linda <lindaii@earthlink.net>

Hello Linda Suggest you haunt ethnic grocery stores & ask. If your restaurant waiters appear Asian, ask them. In Ontario we can get many varieties of 'tropical' fruit at different times of the year even in small towns with little ethnic population. Right now we're gorging on persimmons. Bert Dunn mailto:helbert@idirect.comRR4 Tottenham Ont zone 4b www.hardygrapes.tottenham.on.ca ------------------------------------------------

Subject: O'sage Oranges Date: Thu, 21 Dec 2000 18:28:49 -0500 From: "Diana E. Witt" <dewitt17@mindspring.com> Hi, A friend of mine is wanting to grow some O'sage oranges, he lives in Florida, but is having a difficult time locating information and seeds/seedlings. Any help would be appreciated. thanks, Diana Witt [Note: I've put a few references to Osage Orange culture and uses. In my youth in Kansas, they were common between wheat fields, and we often found squirrels there, when hunting. The wood is strikingly colorful and extremely hard and rot resistant. Fence posts of hedgeapple lasted longer than the barbed wire strung along them. Leo] -----------------------------------------------Subject: Black Sapote Date: Thu, 14 Dec 2000 21:34:04 -0500 From: Jim Adkins <junglejimsplants1@mac.com> Leo, I have a small grove I take care of for my doctor. The grove citrus, mango, avocado, longan, surinam cherry, star fruit, macadamia nuts and black sapote. I am learning about them all as I go along.Right now My biggest questions are about the black sapote tree.I`m told it is also called the chocolate pudding tree. My biggest question now is how to tell if it is ripe. I have recipes to use it but how do I tell when to pick? If you could give me a clue when I should pick, I would be grateful. Thank You Jim mailto:junglejimsplants1@mac.com and Happy Growing.

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: re: Black Sapote (Diospyros digyna) Fri, 15 Dec 2000 19:46:11 -0800 "George F. Emerich" <gemerich@tfb.com> Jim <junglejimsplants1@mac.com>

Jim: Black Sapote is a little unusual in that if you allow them to fully ripen on the tree they will usually splash. I believe they are best if you can pick them for personal use as they start to ripen. (Be warned that the time between the visual appearance of evidence of ripening and dropping may only be a couple of days.) When ripening they undergo a sharp color change from a rich green to a drab olive color. From a practical view, I pick by size when some the fruit starts to drop. (the drops are usually a total loss) The picked fruit usually will ripen off the tree in a week or ten days and will be almost as good as the tree ripened ones. I take it that you are in Florida and your fruit should be ripening now. Here in California, our Black Sapotes set in July and August and ripen the following June and July. George F. Emerich mailto:gemerich@tfb.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Alphonso Mango Date: Fri, 15 Dec 2000 17:22:38 -0000 From: "Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Have you ever heard of the Alphonso mango? Is it available here? If so does it do well here? Some of the Indian programmers here at work say it is the best and there is no other like it. Ben Pierce mailto:mariposafamily@hotmail.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Alphonso Mango Date: Tue, 19 Dec 2000 11:41:54 -0800 From: Leo To: Ben Pierce <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Hi Ben,

I did a very brief search on the internet (using dogpile.com) and it seemed that the tree is grown in India, with little references to elsewhere. Where did you hear of it, or see it? one source. Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Alphonso Mango Date: Tue, 19 Dec 2000 20:54:38 -0000 From: "Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> I was told about it from the Indian consultants here where I work. They told me that in their estimation it is the finest mango in the world. I will find out more about it from them and email you the information. Ben Pierce mailto:mariposafamily@hotmail.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Grafting Cherimoyas Date: Fri, 15 Dec 2000 17:23:59 -0000 From: "Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> It is canned, I noticed in

Does anybody have any tips out there on grafting Cherimoyas? What time of year is good? I have an Omega grafting tool that I purchased. How would I use that to graft? How about budding? Thanks Ben Pierce mailto:mariposafamily@hotmail.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Grafting Cherimoyas Date: Fri, 15 Dec 2000 13:35:47 -0800 From: Leo To: Ben Pierce <mariposafamily@hotmail.com>

Hi Ben, I will post your question in the newsletter, and hope that you get several contrasting opinions. I'm probably in a minority who do it in the way I will outline below. Last year was my most successful year in grafting cherimoya, and I really don't know what makes the difference. I grafted over a dozen of them, and almost every one was a success (only one failure that I recall.) It is often recommended that you graft during that brief period of time when the cherimoya has lost its leaves, but some have argued that you can graft almost any time of the year. I grafted over several months in the late spring up to the middle of summer. Which grafting method depends on the diameter of the scion. If large - one-half inch or so - I use a cleft graft. Also, I am likely to use a cleft graft for very small diameter wood. For pencil-diameter wood, I use a 'tongue-and-groove' (modified splice graft). In both types, I try to make the length of the scion contact with the rootstock as long as possible. For that reason, I don't use my grafting tool, since it makes for a relatively short contact of scion and rootstock. (Anyone want to buy my only slightly used grafting tool?) I believe it helps to have as much pressure applied to the union as possible, so I use a stretchy grafting plastic tape (I prefer clear) and wrap as tightly as possible, and usually make two layers of the tape (ie., up and then down the joined region.) When I use the cleft graft, I wrap to minimize the open space around the top, thinking it may help keep disease organisms out of the top of the join. Another thing I do (after years of doing it, it's become a habit) is to enclose the grafted scion with a clear plastic bag (sandwich bag, or any number of other bags than show up). Prior to the plastic bag, I will have moistened a piece of paper towel, and wrapped it around the plastic tape that joins the scion and rootstock. Then the plastic bag goes down over the scion and is tied rather tightly just below the plastic tape, after squeezing it slightly, to remove most of the air. Lastly, I cover the plastic bag with paper (sometimes 8.5 x 11 letter size, sometimes a small lunch bag) and tie it on, usually exactly on top of where the plastic bag was tied. The purpose of the plastic bag is to keep the scion from drying out, and if you have grafted a young potted seedling and have moved it into a mist house you may not need it. The purpose of the outside paper is to shade the scion and keep down the interior heat that could damage it. If you use a paper bag, you can cut off one or more corners at the bottom of the bag, so you can look into it and tell when the leaves begin to grow.

I found that it's important to not remove the coverings too soon, as you may find that the emerging leaves will die and the graft fail. Let us know how it goes. Horticordially, Leo in San Diego -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Grafting Cherimoyas Date: Tue, 19 Dec 2000 16:01:57 -0000 From: "Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com>

Thanks for the info. I am going to try in the spring time and I will let you know. I am also taking the grafting class at MiraCosta college this spring so I should learn some techniques there as well. Ben Pierce mailto:mariposafamily@hotmail.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Noni-How To Prepare Fruit? Black Sapote: How To Propagate? Date: Fri, 15 Dec 2000 17:22:26 -0400 From: Sven Nehlin <snehlin@reacciun.ve> Hi, I wonder if anyone knows how Noni fruits, Morinda citrifolia, are prepared? It has a flavor of French "Roquefort" cheese and a sharp taste but is nutritious and I have given some fruits to the lab to make an analysis. Then there is another rare fruit, which I would like to propagate, the "Chocolate Pudding Fruit" Diospyros digyna or ebenaster. It is green colored, soft when it is ripe and about 6 in. in diameter, very sweet. This variety comes from a clone from a member of RFCI in Miami. However, I have not seen the seeds yet, maybe because the pollinator has not turned up. As the lower branches have disappeared I think an air layer would be the proper thing to make. Anybody has any experience of the propagation of this important tropical species? Fruitful holidays!

Sven Nehlin

mailto:snehlin@reacciun.ve

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Black Sapote: How To Propagate? Date: Sat, 16 Dec 2000 06:53:45 -0800 From: Leo To: Sven Nehlin <snehlin@reacciun.ve> Hi Sven, I will publish your questions in the next issue of Rare Fruit News Online, and also comment on the Black Sapote question. Some varieties are self-pollinating and others are not. I have not tried to air layer, but have had a relatively low number of successes in grafting. In 1998, I grafted a seedling to two varieties - one from Florida. After placing grafts on almost every branch, I placed two or three onto a Fuyu persimmon. To my surprise, one graft took and is still growing, although it hasn't set fruit. This time of year, the Fuyu part has shed its leaves, and from a distance, the Black Sapote looks like mistletoe growing on the tree. George Emerich mailto:gemerich@gate.tfb.com is very knowledgeable about Black Sapote. I'll also send your question to him. Horticordially, Leo Manuel in San Diego -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Black Sapote (Diospyros digyna): How To Propagate? Sat, 16 Dec 2000 09:31:02 -0800 "George F. Emerich" <gemerich@tfb.com> Sven <snehlin@reacciun.ve>

Sven: I believe almost everyone propagates this species using its own seedling rootstock and simple grafts. George F. Emerich mailto:gemerich@tfb.com

------------------------------------------------

Subject: Stephen Facciola's Cornucopia Date: Fri, 15 Dec 2000 18:37:20 EST From: Dmshuck@aol.com Leo, I looked on Amazon.com to see if they had Stephen Facciola's Cornucopia a couple of weeks ago. At that time they did. Of course I put it on my Christmas wish list to help my husband out. A few days later I saw Stephen Facciola's Cornucopia referred to in a magazine I receive called Kitchen Gardener. The magazine gives tips on how to grow vegetables and what to do with them when they are harvested. After seeing it suggested for one of the best books ever written I decided to order it in case it became in high demand, unfortunately amazon no longer has it. If you run across a source for it would you please also let me know. Thank you, Happy Holidays, Denise Woo mailto:Dmshuck@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Stephen Facciola's Cornucopia Date: Sat, 16 Dec 2000 14:44:42 -0800 From: Stephen Facciola <Kzyl-Uruk@worldnet.att.net> Hi Leo, Thanks for all your help. Amazon.com usually lists the original Cornucopia as being out-of-print and Cornucopia II as being available in 4 to 6 weeks. But they do carry it. For local readers, The Book Works in Del Mar ordered some books but I don't know if they've received them yet. I also have a few books here in Vista for people to pick up and we take mail orders directly and ship books from New Jersey. You can list all of the following: Stephen Facciola, Kampong Publications, 1870 Sunrise Dr., Vista, CA 92084; (760) 726-0990; kzyl-uruk@worldnet.att.net Regards, Stephen Facciola mailto:Kzyl-Uruk@worldnet.att.net P.S. I don't have a digital copy of the Reader article but could probably get one from the author. Ben Poirier should be getting a hard copy in the mail shortly.

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: RE: Large Lemon Maybe Ponderosa Fri, 15 Dec 2000 16:11:17 -1000 "Oscar Jaitt" <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> jzwielic@san.rr.com

I think the large lemon you are referring to is the Ponderosa Lemon. Oscar mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Longan Girdling Fri, 15 Dec 2000 22:08:22 -0800 "Richard K. Gross" <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th>

Thank you, Sainarong, for the information on longons. I have a question on girdling. Do you just cut through the bark or do you actually remove a section of the bark as one would with an airlayer? Is there a best place on the trunk or does it make any difference? Could individual branches be girdled and would that have the effect of forcing blossoms on only that branch? Girdling on different branches at different times; would that stagger the yield? And what about the time of year? Is there a period of time before the tree normally blooms that is best or is timing important? You may have covered these points, Sainarong, and I missed them but, if the questions are not too elementary, would you mind just covering them in your response in the next issue of the RFN? Thank you again. Dick Gross mailto:rkg144@worldnet.att.net Arizona Chapter, CRFG -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Controlling Gophers Fri, 15 Dec 2000 22:46:24 -0800 "Richard K. Gross" <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> <jamoskowitzmd@pol.net>

Thirty years ago in Phoenix, my yard in retired farm land was infested with the critters. I don't remember where I got the idea nor can I prove that this is what caused them to quit the area but the infestation ended abruptly with this treatment. I always carried six road flares in my car. I used all six. Open up the holes in several obvious locations. and clean debris from the tunnel. When they are all open, light the flares and put them well up in both sides and fill the excavations quickly one at a time with the same soil just removed. I would guess that a gopher isolated from the gases in a passageway would probably survive. It apparently worked. The flares are inexpensive and I doubt the gases would have any deleterious affect on the soil. I treated an average sized city lot. If you have five acres, forget the above. I once heard of a guy who piped the exhaust of a gasoline engine into their labyrinths but don't recall how well it worked. The fumes would be just as deadly. You would have to be sure the exhaust gases had free flow or the back pressure would shut off the engine. Dick Gross mailto:rkg144@worldnet.att.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Controlling Gophers Date: Sat, 16 Dec 2000 07:41:59 -0800 From: Michael Zarky <mzarky@earthlink.net> Dear Leo, There was a question about gophers in RFNO. I'm just reporting some suggestions heard at Fullerton and at our L.A. chapter meeting. One lecturer said that spreading fox urine around one's place would send the gophers packing. Here are some sites that I picked up through a search, to save everyone from looking individually: http://www.whateverworks.com/coyotefox.htm http://trap-supply.hypermart.net/quality.htm http://www.predatorpee.com/home.html http://www.hirts.com/p2576.htm http://www.mastergardening.com/mastergardening/foxurine16oz.html http://homeharvest.com/naturalpestmain.htm Another insight was that the leaves of wild fennel (very common weed in southern California) was quite an attractant - loop some

around the jaws of your traps to ensure the gophers aren't suspicious. I have no experience with these techniques myself. Michael Zarky mailto:mzarky@earthlink.net Moorpark, CA 93021 USA -----------------------------------------------Subject: Budding Of Avocados Date: Wed, 27 Dec 2000 17:00:04 -0000 From: "Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Does anybody have any tips/suggestions on budding Avocados? I have some scion wood from a Nabal avocado and noticed in the CRFG fruit facts that January is the time for budding Avocados. I have a Hass Avocado tree that is about two/three years old that I would like to have Nabal fruit on as well. Thanks "Ben Pierce" mailto:mariposafamily@hotmail.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Thailand Fruit (Letter found at bottom of my mailbag. Leo) Date: Tue, 31 Aug 1999 12:58:10 +0700 From: Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@ksc9.th.com> > > I'm looking for sources in Thailand of grafted pulasan and > > grafted durian cultivars. There may be someone out there willing to > > supply them in commercial quantities, I just can not find them. I have > > the necessary U.S. permits and am good to go. > I talked to someone last week who told me that exports of all kinds of > durian tree is banned. I shall verify this. As for pulasan, I have to check out its name in Thai. Perhaps you can direct me to a website which has info on pulasan.I am sure I can find a reputable exporter of fruit trees for you. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@ksc9.th.com

[Note: When I find old letters such as this in my Inbox, rather than where they should have been after publishing them, I assume that they have never been published. With the large volume of mail - much of

which is 'spam' - it's easy to overlook a pearl. I apologize to anyone whose letter has not been either published or answered. Leo] -----------------------------------------------Subject: Longan and Lychee Study Date: Thu, 28 Dec 2000 11:27:46 -0800 From: "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> Hi Leo, One of the things I said I would send to you is the name of the guy who is coordinating the lychee and longan field study and the list of cultivars they are testing. Mark Gaskell mailto:mrgaskell@ucdavis.edu

Lychee cultivars: Brewster Mauritius Haak Yip Emperor Bengal Bosworth Free Longan cultivars: Kohala Biew Kiew Diamond River Mark said he would be ready for tours of some sites in 2002. He did not say where those sites would be, but as the year 2001 wears on I expect to hear from him (he said he would put me on his mailing list). Otherwise I will get in contact with him at the end of next year. Hope this helps. Take care, Bob mailto:bholzing@amgen.com

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<< Subject: Fw: Questions on Longans Date: Fri, 29 Dec 2000 14:05:07 +0700 From: "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Dear Leo,

I shall cc or forward to you my e-mails on longans etc; these e-mails are replies to questions from RFNO readers. I leave it up to you to do whatever you want with these e-mails. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@ksc9.th.com

--------------------------------------------------------------------From: Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Edward Lin <Link2itc@aol.com> Sent: Friday, December 29, 2000 12:21 PM Subject: Re: Longan ----- Original Message ----| | | | | | | | | | | | Subject: Date: From: To: Longan 11/13/00 Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Edward Lin <Link2itc@aol.com>

I am a physician and an avid tropical fruit gardener living in Florida. I grow many varieties of fruits I have 3 types of longans: Kohala, Degelman and Diamond River. I have 3 lychees: Peerless (which is a Brewster sport), Hak Yip and Ohia. Do you have information you can send me on the cultivation of longans and lychees?

I shall have to ask my Australian friends, as most of my literatures are in Thai. Would you be prepared to pay the cost? I do not think it would be fair for me to ask my Aussie friends to do it for free. I have many good and knowledgeable Aussie friends, including the chairmen of their national lychee and longan associations. | | | | | | | | | | | | Last summer, I obtained my Diamond River by driving 200 miles to a Miami nursery. This cultivar is supposedly from Thailand and is "everbearing" or gives at least 3 crops a year. My tree is an airlayer, now 3 1/2 feet tall with a dense canopy and a trunk that measures 3.5 cm. Its leaves are smaller and more delicate than the usual longan leaves. From your description, I would say you have the genuine article. I have noticed that Longan trees seem to heal very well from minor wounds to the bark and branches and appears to have a good natural mechanism to seal off itself by the way it "drops" leaves and small branches.

This is so, especially for the tropical longans. Biew Kiew, though, is harder to look after.

This leads me to a question: | | | | | | | | | | About 3 months ago, we had a minor hurricane and my diamond river developed a 5 cm split at the crotch of one of its major branches. I immediately taped it together and it has healed with a well approximated but prominent scar. Should I just prune this branch off below the split now while the tree is young or allow it to continue growing? Since I don't know how strongly longans heal with this type of branch split, I am concerned about risking it split apart later in another hurricane.

For subtropical longans, such as Biew Kiew and Chompoo, branches do have a tendency to break apart quite easily. Here, in Thailand, the crops are usually quite large, and we have to support the branches by using bamboo sticks, etc, otherwise, the branches will break apart. Tropical longans, such as Diamond River, is much more hardy. However, as there is no strong wind the the areas where Diamond River is grown, I cannot be sure how it will react to a hurricane. However, if I were you, I would prune the branch off, just to be sure. It grows very fast any way. Do you know Richard Campbell? He is the Curator of the Fairchild Tropical Gardens in Miami. He has a lot of tropical trees in his data bank. He is a very nice man; he is, however, extremely busy. I find him very knowledgeable on tropical trees. I always answer my e-mails, if I do not inadvertently lose them. However, I cannot say how long it will take for me to answer the mails. Enjoy your 2001! Sainarong mailto:sainaron@ksc9.th.com

--------------------------------------------------------------------From: To: Sent: Subject: Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> david loring <dloring3@flash.net> Friday, December 29, 2000 12:49 PM Re: longan flowering

----- Original Message ----| | | | | From: david loring <dloring3@flash.net> Subject: Longan flowering To: "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th>

| | | |

My wife's framily has a couple small longan orchards near Amphur Chomtong, Chieng Mai. This year they paid alot of money for a spray treatment that effectively produced flowering on one small orchard (the price was too high to use elsewhere).

I know Chomtong fairly well. The area is superb for growing longans, provided that it is not too far up the dois/hills/mountains. Sellers of elixirs abound in Chiangmai this year. This is a real concern. I myself have not fallen prey to any of them, because I do not know the ingredients in those elixirs, nor do I know the concentration and purity. A lot of people are, however, more gullible. | | | Girdling is a much less expensive way for them to induce flowering but I wonder how large a branch is girdled and what time of year is most favorable for treatment?

Girdling only works well with the tropical longans. Girdling of tropical longans is very simple. Girdling of subtropical longans, such as E-Daw, Shompoo, Haew and Biew Kiew is not so easy. The operation is not very easy due to the nature of the barks; the results are not very satisfactory. I would not recommend girdling for subtropical longans. Of course, there may be a satisfactory technique, but we have not discovered it yet. Also, I located an article that suggests the use of Gibberillic Acid at 2-300 ppm will induce female flowering for plants in general. This is also from Rare Fruit Growers by Leo Wright. Many people have tried GA with longans. The results are negative, so far. I am not saying that it does not work. It may work, but we do not know the technique. I, myself, use potassium chlorate, with varying degree of success. The technique is still very new, and we are still on the learning curve. However, what is certain is that there are a lot of variables involved. I would suggest that your relatives contact Pawin of Maejo University. He is the most knowledgeble person on the subject. I can give you the phone number if you wish. Enjoy 2001 Sainarong mailto:sainaron@ksc9.th.com

--------------------------------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Longan Girdling Date: Fri, 29 Dec 2000 14:15:31 +0700 From: "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Richard K. Gross" <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> ----- Original Message -----

| | | | | | | | | | | | | |

From: Richard K. Gross <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> To: "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Subject: Longan Girdling I have a question on girdling. Do you just cut through the bark or do you actually remove a section of the bark as one would with an airlayer? Is there a best place on the trunk or does it make any difference? Could individual branches be girdled and would that have the effect of forcing blossoms on only that branch? Girdling on different branches at different times; would that stagger the yield? And what about the time of year? Is there a period of time before the tree normally blooms that is best or is timing important?

Your question is a good one. Many persons probably want to know the answer as well. To do the question justice, I shall need some time to gather information, as the amount of girdling depends on the cultivars. Please be patient. I shall reply in about a month's time. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@ksc9.th.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Longan Girdling Date: Fri, 29 Dec 2000 09:48:31 -0800 From: "Richard K. Gross" <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> To: "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Thank you, Sainarong. I apologize for raising questions that would impose upon your generosity and good nature but eagerly await your response. To appease my own conscience, I beg you to use only time that does not impose upon your own priorities. My best regards, Dick Gross mailto:rkg144@worldnet.att.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Ping-Pong Longan Fri, 29 Dec 2000 14:27:47 +0700 "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> "Yee Pak Leong" <leongyeepak@hotmail.com>

----- Original Message ----| | | | | | | | | Subject: Ping-Pong Longan To: "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> From: Yee Pak Leong <leongyeepak@hotmail.com> I have read in one of the Malaysia agricultural magazine that there ia another cultivar, called 'ping-pong 2'. It is supposed to be a better cultivar than the original ping-pong. Is it true? If it is, in what ways?

Xuong com Vang was imported from Vietnam into Thailand. The importer is a very enterprising person, and did a great marketing job in promoting Xuong com Vang. One of the things he did was to unofficially change the name to 'Ping Pong'. There are a lot of tropical longans in South Vietnam, most of which have not been officially classified. I can picture a scenario in which an enterprising person goes to South Vietnam, chooses a likely-looking cultivar, promotes it outside Vietnam. Who knows ? He may actually have a good cultivar in hand. All I can say is that Xuong com Vang has officially won the prize for the best longan in South Vietnam from the only official Horticultural Research Station in South Vietnam for three years running. I shall write a summary of the longan look-alikes fruits in Malaysia some time in the future. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@ksc9.th.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Litchi and Longan Sources In Thailand Date: Fri, 29 Dec 2000 14:33:57 +0700 From: "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Samar Gupta" <samar@vsnl.com> ----- Original Message ----Subject: Litchi and Longan Sources In Thailand From: Samar Gupta <samar@vsnl.com>

| | | | | | | | | | | |

I am a hobby fruit farmer in Pune, India and am interested in collecting as many cultivars of litchi and longan that I can find. Like all collectors, I grow many other fruit trees too, but these two fruit trees are my absolute favourites. I travel to Thailand occasionally and in Longans have managed to collect Pet Sakhon, Edor, Si Chomphoo and Ping Pong. In Litchi I have managed to find Chakaphat, Khom, O Hia and Sampao Kiew. Could you help me find a nursery where I could buy Xuong com Vang vt20 and any other cultivars of litchi or longan that are available? Does anyone sell the sub-tropical longan cultivars? Travelling to Chiang Mai would not be a problem, so any nursery name and address would be much appreciated.

Do you want to contact the nurseries yourself or do you want me to act as a go-between? Please advise. There are two problems in contacting nurseries in Thailand. Firstly, not many can speak or write English. Secondly, there are very few nurseries which have guarantees by a respectable organization. | | If I in turn could help you in sourcing fruit plants from India it would give me the greatest pleasure.

Thank you for your offer. I shall bear that in mind. Enjoy 2001 Sainarong mailto:sainaron@ksc9.th.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Chuliang - the Most Widely Grown Longan in the World Date: Fri, 29 Dec 2000 15:10:37 +0700 From: "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Longan Research" <Longan-Research@egroups.com>, According to my calculations, Chuliang is the most widely grown longan in the world. It is almost entirely grown in South-East China. I shall quote from the Gaozhou Fruit Office in Guaozhou, Guangdong Province, China. Chuliang longan cultivar is characterized by large fruit size (with an average fruit weight of 12-16.5 grams, edible part of 69-74% and TSS of 20-23%), thick and firm flesh and fragrant and sweet flavour. The dry fruit rate ranges 35-38%, and dry flesh rate 13-16%. The dry processed flesh is golden yellow in colour. The cultivar is high and stable yielding. Its clones show the features of early bearing, high and stable yielding and hereditary stability. Presently, the cultivar covers a total area of over

100,000 hectares in China, including 30,000 hectares in Guangzhou Province, where 12,000 hectares has put into production, yielding a total of more than 60,000 tons. The cultivar was awarded Gold Prize in the first China Agricultural Expo in 1992, won the title of 'Famous Brand Produce' in the Third China Agricultural Expo in 1997, and the '99 China International Agricultural Expo. In the next issue, I shall add more comments on 'Chuliang'. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@ksc9.th.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: [Longan-Research] Worldwide Weather Pattern Fri, 29 Dec 2000 07:48:43 +0200 (IST) "Dr. Amos Blumenfeld 03-9683397 VH" <vhamos@agri.gov.il> LONGAN RESEARCH <longan-research@egroups.com>

Dear Sainarong and all the longan research network members. I wish you a Happy New Year, A year of good health, happiness, and peace all over the world. With best regards, Dr. Amos Blumenfeld mailto:vhamos@agri.gov.il Institute of horticulture ARO, Israel.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Subject: An Old Story -- Botanists Find 'Living Fossil' Tree http://news.excite.com/news/r/001215/01/science-environment-tree-dc News Article: An Old Story -- Botanists Find 'Living Fossil' Tree By Paul Tait SYDNEY, Australia (Reuters) - Australia has a new addition to its unique list of flora and fauna after the discovery of a species of tree described as a living fossil dating back at least 90 million years, botanists said Friday. The tree, which grows to above 130 feet tall, has been christened unofficially the Nightcap Oak after its discovery in the Nightcap Range rainforest near Byron Bay, 400 miles north of Sydney.

The tree's history spans more than 90 million years, back to when Australia was part of the Gondwanaland super-continent linked to what is now Antarctica, New Zealand and South America, said Dr Peter Weston of Sydney's Royal Botanic Gardens. "It's a very, very old lineage indeed," Weston told Reuters. Weston identified the new tree after a stand of about 20 mature trees was discovered by botanist Robert Kooyman in August. Weston said it was remarkable that such a unique tree could have gone unnoticed in a rainforest which has been well researched and documented by botanists. "I was really amazed...this rainforest has been scoured to within an inch of its life by some very good botanists," he said. He said the tree belonged to the Proteaceae family, of which native Australian banksias, waratahs, macadamias and grevilleas and South Africa's proteas are members. Weston said the tree was a "relatively non-descript" rainforest tree with dark green leaves, nuts about the same size as macadamias -- a delicacy in Australia -- and small white flowers in dense clumps. Kooyman said the flowers smelled faintly of sweet aniseed. One of the larger trees in the Nightcap Range had a circumference of more than 29 inches. The exact location of the Nightcap trees is being kept a closely guarded secret so the trees can be protected. The New South Wales state government said it was considering a request to grant the tree emergency protection under the state's legislation covering threatened species. Cuttings from the trees have been taken and are being cultivated at Sydney's Royal Botanic Gardens. Botanists were excited in 1994 by the discovery of Australian flora's first "living fossil," the Wollemi Pine which dates back 150 million years. Weston said it was likely Australia, known for its unique wildlife which includes kangaroos and koala bears, probably still contained many species of undiscovered fauna. "That something that big can escape detection until now...what small, interesting plants are there now that we know nothing about?," he said. -----------------------------------------------Subject: Tropical fruit trees, akee, all spice, ambarella, annona, avocado, cherry, bay leaf, black pepper, caimito, canistel, carambola, cashew, coconut, coffee, curry leaf, grumichama, guava, jaboticaba,

jakfruit, longan, loquat, lychee, macadamia, malay apple, http://www.tropicalfruitnursery.com/fruitproducts.htm Comment: Pictures of fruit, some with folliage. Brief description of fruit and tree. Page 1 of 3 Common name:Ê Lychee Botanical name:Ê Litchi chinensis Family:Ê Sapindaceae Normal FL size:Ê 25Õ x 25Õ (untrained) Varieties:Ê Bengal, Bosworth-3, Brewster, Emperor, Hak Ip, Kaimana, Mauritius, No Mai Tze, Ohia Pink, Ohia Red Season: Mid May to Mid June in South Florida Comments: Best fruit in the world. You canÕt argue with three billion Asians. Well suited to Florida. Has already become an important commercial fruit in Florida. Common name:Ê Longan Botanical name:Ê Dimocarpus longana Family:Ê Sapindaceae Normal FL size:Ê 25Õ x 25Õ (untrained) Varieties: Kohala, Diamond River, Biew Kieuw Season:Ê Kohala fruits in July or August. See other varieties for off-season fruit. Comments:Ê Beautiful shade tree, excellent fruit -- close relative of the lychee. Important commercial fruit in Florida. Common name:Ê Sugar Apple, Sweetsop Botanical name:Ê Annona squamosa Family:Ê Annonaceae Normal FL size: 10Õ x 10Õ Varieties:Ê Thai-Lessard, Kampong Mauve

Season:Ê August - November. Older trees may continue into January during warm winter. Comments:Ê Sheer deliciousness. Sweet custard-like pulp. Very highly regarded in all tropical areas. Very well suited to Florida. Common name:Ê Atemoya Botanical name:Ê Annona squamosa x Annona cherimola Family:Ê Annonaceae Normal FL size: 15Õ x 15Õ Varieties:Ê Bradley, Gefner, Priestly, 48-26 Season:Ê August - November. Fragrant, firm, snowy-white flesh of a fine texture. Has fewer seeds than a sugar apple and the flesh is not divided into segments. Sweet and subacid taste, flavor resembles the cherimoya. Ate-moya is a cross between the lowland sugar apple and the highland cherimoya. Common name:Ê Soursop, Guan‡bana Botanical name:Ê Annona muricata Family:Ê Annonaceae Normal FL size: 15Õ x 10Õ Season:Ê All year, best during warm months. Comments: Sweet & tart custard-like pulp. Cold sensitive. Common name:Ê Mamey, Mamey Sapote Botanical name:Ê Pouteria sapota Family:Ê Sapotaceae Normal FL size:Ê 25 x 25Ê (untrained) Varieties: Pantin (Key West) Maga–a, Pace, Florida Season:Ê According to variety Comments:Ê Handsome, open tree, leaves clustered at tips. Excellent flavor, Cuban favorite. Fruit has rough, brown skin, red to orange pulp. Eaten fresh, in shakes or ice cream. Common name:Ê Sapodilla, Naseberry -JamaicaÊ (N’spero, sapote Sp)

Botanical name: ÊAchras (manilkara) zapota Family:Ê Sapotaceae Normal FL size:Ê 30 x 25 (untrained) Varieties:Ê Tikal, Alano, Oxkutzcab Season:Ê Sporadic throughout year.Ê March - July Comments:Ê Dense, beautiful tree. Thick glossy green leaves Milky sap was original source of chewing gum (chicle). Fruits prolifically Gray/brown rough textured fruit. Exquisite flavor tastes like a pear soaked in brown sugar. Most often eaten fresh. Common name:Ê Star Apple (Caimito-Sp) Botanical name:Ê Chrysophyllum cainito Family:Ê Sapotaceae Normal FL size:Ê 25 x 25 (untrained) Varieties:Ê Purple, Green Season:Ê February to May Comments:Ê Beautiful tree - dark green leaves, two tone with silky bronze color underneath. Fruits prolifically. Very good fresh fruit. Favorite in Caribbean and Central America as well as Southeast Asia. info@tropicalfruitnursery.com Photos are Courtesy of: Chris Rollins: Fruit and Vegetable Society of the Redlands, Rafael Salazar, and Walt Lyford -----------------------------------------------Subject: FRUIT LOVER'S MEGALINKS http://www.fruitlovers.com/megalinks.html Comment: You may want to bookmark this page with many valuable links of interest to those who are interested in rare fruit. Some information about tropical fruits and growing the trees. This page created by Oscar Jaitt and brought to you courtesy of Fruit Lover's Nursery http://www.fruitlovers.com

FEATURED SITE OF THE MONTH: ***DURIAN PALACE*** Favorite Links: [Note: This is only a few of the many links cited. Leo] Southeast Asian Fruit Links South American Fruit Links My Tropical Fruit Tree Descriptions Some Tropical Fruits Having Salt Tolerance California Rare Fruit Growers Edis Subtropical & Tropical Fruits Know & Enjoy Tropical Fruit Neglected Crops: 1492 from a Different Perspective NewCROP HomePage Santol's Tropical Fruit Home Page Contact the Crop Experts Fruits of Warm Climates by Julia Morton On Line The most comprehensive book on tropical fruits. * Florida fruit growers * Growing Fruit in Florida * Tropical Research & Education Center, Homestead, Florida * Fairchild Tropical Garden- Botanical Resource Center * Brevard Rare Fruit Organization, Florida Excellent selection of photos, sample below * Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut) [updated] 06/04/2000 * Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. (Pineapple) * Annona (atemoya, cherimoya, sugar apple, guanabana / soursop) [updated] 06/04/2000 * artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) [updated] 06/04/2000 * Averrhoa carambola (carambola, star fruit) * Blighia sapida (Akee) * Casimiroa edulis. (White Sapote) [updated] 06/04/2000 * Diospyros ebenasta. (black sapote, chocolate pudding fruit) * Diospyros Kaki Thunb. (Persimmon) * Dimocarpus longan (Longans) * Eriobotrya japonica Lindl (nespola, loquat) * Eugenia brasiliensis (grumichama) * Feijoa sellowiana (pineapple guava) * Inga (icecream bean) * Litchi chinensis. (lychee, litchi) [updated] 06/04/2000 * Macadamia integrifoia (macademia) [updated] 06/04/2000 * Malpighia glabra L. (barbados cherry, acerola) * Mangifera indica (mango) * Melicocca gijuga (Ginnup) * Mespilus germanica (Royal Medlar) [updated] 06/04/2000 * Muntingia Calabura (capulin cherry, strawberry tree, cotton candy fruit) * Musa (Brevard's Bananas) * Myrciaria cauliflora Berg. (Jaboticaba) * Opuntia ficus-indica (Prickly Pear) * Passiflora edulis, f. flavicarpa. (PassionFruit) * * * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Pouteria caimito Radlk. (Abiu) Pouteria sapota (mamey sapote) Punica granatum (Pommegranate) Psidium guajava L. (Guava, Lemon guava, Yellow guava, Guayaba) Spondias (red mombin, jocote) Syzygium malaccensis (Maley Apple) Tamarindus indica (tamarind, tamarindo) [updated] 06/04/2000 Terminalia Catappa (almond) Hardy tropicals Sub-Tropicals and Meditteranean Fruits Hawaii Tropical Fruit Links Tropical Fruit Images Tropical Fruit Posters Tropical Fruit Message Boards and Online Newsletters Tropical Fruit News Magazine Rare Tropical Fruits Homepage Air Layering Information Grafting Encyclopedia Some other grafting sites http://muextension.missouri.edu/xplor/agguides/hort/g06971.htm a University of Missouri publication on grafting, similar in

format to this web site, with useful internal links. http://www.fortunecity.com/marina/dockers/108/graft.htm is another site covering grafting of hibiscus. http://www.goodfruit.com/core.html The Good Fruit Grower Magazine, online edition. The February 1, 1998 issue is devoted to grafting. http://www.goodfruit.com/archive/Feb1-98/special4.html Professional grafters discuss their favorite grafts. This article has many interesting points. http://www.tcgcs.com/~nrolls/garden.html. Neve's gardening page, including a list of the essential gardening sites on the web, and descriptions of the hundreds of apple and pear varieties which Neve has grafted in her own orchard. http://muextension.missouri.edu/ The University of Missouri extension web page. http://www.missouri.edu/~hortds/homehort/homehort.html Not, strictly speaking, a grafting site, but a web site created by Denny Schrock for his home horticulture class. An excellent resource for the home horticulturalist. <snip>

This page created by Oscar Jaitt, FRUIT LOVER'S NURSERY, September, 1999, PO Box 1597, Pahoa, HI 96778 USA, Tel: (808)965-0835 PLEASE KEEP IN MIND TIME DIFFERENCE., FAX: (808)965-0654, Web Site: http://www.fruitlovers.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Food Resource, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR http://foodsci.orst.edu/ Search engine for food crops -------------------------------------------------------------------Food & Ingredients Baked Products Beverages Carbohydrates Grains & Cereals Dairy Products Eggs & Egg Products Fish, Seafood Fruits Gums/Hydrocolloids Ingredients Lipids, Fat Replacers Meat and Poultry Plants: General Protein Starch Sugar & Sweeteners Vegetables Water Food Information Chemicals Color Cultural Aspects Flavor Miscellaneous Subjects Nutrition Pesticides Phytochemicals Plants: General Product Development Recipes

<snip> Comprehensive Sites Resources <snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: Hedge apple, from the Osage Orange Tree, control insects such as roaches using natural pest control. http://hedgeapple.com/ -----------------------------------------------<snip> The Hedgeapple

Fruit of the Osage orange tree, hedge apples are a proven safe insect control for roaches making them a popular natural pest control. * Safer than a natural insecticide, they don't kill roaches or kill ants, they repel them using their natural insect repellant abilities. * For best natural pest control, it is recommended to place a hedgeapple in each room or adjacent closet for best insect control. Forget the moth balls. * Average repellant life in an air-condition environment is 2 months for unaltered Hedgeapples. * Hedgeapples can be cut, cored or whatever to expedite their natural pest control effects, although life is greatly reduced. The fluids will evaporate quicker creating more intense natrual insect repellant vapors. <snip> Growing and Planting (Propagation) of Osage Orange (Hedgeapple) Trees * Tips on Propagation from Mr. Stan Lemaster's Propagation of Historic Trees. The cuttings could be difficult for a nonprofessional. A cutting is a piece of stem or root removed from a plant and prompted to develop into a new plant, genetically identical to the parent plant. * Old Timers told our friend Clark Knapp that they started Hedge

Rows by dumping the Hedgeapples in a barrel, letting them sit until they were soft, mash them, pour the slurry into a plowed furrow and cover. Mr Knapp is only 84 years old, and claims he is a few days away from being an Old Timer himself. I assume this method would be a good technique if one would want the hedge row to act as a fence. Mr. Knapp knows his business. Picture at right was taken on his farm. (FYI, the old truck is his pride and joy that he made in the 1930's as a kid. He used a Prince Albert can for the truck body and watch springs for the shocks. It's about ten inches long and five wide.) I tried this planting technique last spring and it works (over 300 seedlings n a 8 ft hedgerow), please click here for a complete description of my experiment. * Here is an actual story submitted by Jeff Goodwin on his class's experience with preparing seeds and growing hedgeapple trees. * Small Osage orange trees can also be snatched from pastures. Identifying the tree can be tricky, hedgeapple trees have leaves very similar to Mulberry trees. You definitely do not want a wild Mulberry tree attracting flies to your front yard. * Commercial sources: (However, they might not be selling at this time of year) o ARBORVILLAGE, 15604 County Road CC, P.O. Box 227, Holt, MO, 64048 sells 'White Shield', a mostly thornless male selection, in two sizes, for $9.50 and $15.00 plus shipping. o FOREST FARM, 990 Tetherow Road, Williams, OR, 97544, has 'Whiteshield' as well as unsexed seedlings ($15. and $8. respectively. o Spandle Nurseries for year-old bare-root seedlings (minimum order 25 at $1.00 each, price break to $0.50 at 100). o Adams Nursery Currently, not Accepting any orders as of March 31, 2000, they should start up again next fall. * Mr Hedgeapple will be preparing seed this winter and might have some available for sale. Check here in the spring. Hedgeapple 101 Introductory Course * Hedgeapples are not poisonous. . See NYC Poison Control Page. See right

side of Non-toxic list and seven down. However, hedge apples have suffocated livestock by lodging in their esophagus. My father-in-law lost one cow that way. <snip> * The hedge tree has several names, Osage Orange (most popular) and Bodark (French) and Maclura Pomifera (scientific name). Naturalist, Jim Mason has posted a very professional page about Osage Orange. <snip> * Not all of the Osage Orange trees will have fruit because hedge trees are either male or female. * Osage Orange is a cousin to the mulberry tree. * Hedge apples are used to get rid of spiders and insects, an total insect solution The suspected active natural ingredient is 2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxystilbene. <snip> * Hedge Wood has several top characteristics: 1. Has highest strength for primitive bows used in archery. For more information see Mike Easter's Osage Orange page. He is as devoted to Osage Orange tree as I am. 2. Highest in rot resistance without additives. 3. Highest in BTU's when used as firewood. Hedge wood is the closest to a piece of coal as you can get. 4. Green Hedge puts on the most spectacular light show when burned in a fireplace. 5. Could Hedgewood be the best for making string musical instruments? + Gary Woodall (Gwoo111@aol.com) thinks it might be. Check out his instruments (Guitar, Mandolin) Move over famed violin maker, Antonio Stradivari, Gary is here!! + There is an person in Americus, Ks who makes Harps from Osage Orange because he believes it is the most dimensionally stable of all woods when aged and placed under strain. <snip> mailto:hedgeapple@hedgeapple.com

<snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: GardenBed.com: Maclura pommifera - Osage orange http://gardenbed.com/M/2252.cfm -----------------------------------------------Maclura pommifera Cultivation Notes This article was provided care of 'Plants For A Future' Latin Name: Common Name: Family: Synonyms: Maclura pommifera Osage orange Moraceae M. aurantiaca. Toxylon pommifera.

Known Hazards: The milky sap can cause dermatitis in some people [200]. An extract and the juice of the fruit is toxic, though a 10% aqueous infusion and extract diluted 1:1 are not toxic[240]. Author: Habit: Habitat: 83]. Height: (Raf.) Schneider. A Medium Growing Deciduous Tree Woods, fields and thickets in rich bottom lands[73, 15.0 Width: 12.0

Cultivation Details: Prefers a well-drained soil in full sun[200]. Succeeds in poor soils and also in dry ones[20]. Plants are fairly tolerant of maritime exposure[K]. They dislike waterlogged soils[188]. Dormant mature plants are hardy to about -20¡c though the young growth in spring can be cut back by late frosts[200] and young plants can be damaged in cold winters[188]. Plants require hot summers to fully ripen their wood if they are to thrive in areas with cold winters[188]. Plants are tolerant of severe pruning[200]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Propagation Notes:

Seed - best sown as soon as ripe in an open seed bed[200] or in pots in a cold frame. Pre-soak stored seed 48 hours in warm water and stratify for 2 months at 4¡c then sow in a cold frame[113, 200]. Germination is normally good. The seed stores for 3 years[113]. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[200]. Cuttings of mature wood, November to January in a frame[113]. Layering in summer[200]. Root cuttings 4cm long in December. Plant horizontally in pots in a greenhouse and plant out as soon as possible. Good percentage[78]. The information above has been supplied solely via the hard work and dedication of the team at 'Plants for a Future'. <snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: Native Plant Exchange - Readers Offer Native Plants and Seeds For Trade http://forums.gardenweb.com/forums/exnative/ -----------------------------------------------<snip> Native Plant Exchange This forum is the place for users to offer native plants and seeds for trade and to make requests for what they are seeking. Items for sale are not permitted nor are exchanges of plants gathered from the wild. Please read both the Special Instructions for the Exchange and the more general Forum Instructions below. <snip> Copyright © The Virtual Mirror, Inc. -----------------------------------------------Subject: Jackfruit, Breadfruit, Osage Orange, Mulberry, Soursop, Sugar Apple, Cherimoya

http://daphne.palomar.edu/wayne/jackfr1.htm Comment: Lots of information and pictures of these fruits both in the Mulberry and the Annonaceae Families -----------------------------------------------<snip> Jackfruit, Breadfruit, Osage Orange, Mulberry, Soursop, Sugar Apple and Cherimoya Some Interesting And Delicious Tropical Fruits -------------------------------------Mulberry Family (Moraceae) The jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus) bears massive fruits from the trunk and lower branches. Because the flowers and fruits develop directly from the trunk they are termed cauliflorous. Native to the Indo-Malaysian region, this tree is grown throughout the tropics for its pulpy, edible fruit. According to Charles Heiser (Seed To Civilization, 1973), the fruits may reach nearly three feet (0.9 m) in length and weigh up to 75 pounds (34 kg), thus making them perhaps the largest tree-bearing fruits on earth. Of course, the undisputed world's record for the largest fruit is a mammoth 1,061 pound pumpkin, a member of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae). Jackfruit and its close relative, breadfruit (A. altilis), belong to the diverse mulberry family (Moraceae). Since individual jackfruits are composed of many ripened ovaries from many densely-packed female flowers, they are technically referred to as multiple fruits. The flesh of jackfruits is eaten raw or preserved in syrup, and the seeds are eaten after boiling or roasting. In tropical countries it is generally considered inferior to the breadfruit. The remarkable cauliflorous jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), the largest fruit actually produced on a tree. Native to the Indo-Malaysian region, this species now grows throughout tropical regions of the world. The largest fruits may reach nearly 3 feet (0.9 m) in length and weigh up to 75 pounds (34 kg). A remarkable jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), the largest fruit produced on a tree. Native to the Indo-Malaysian region, this species now grows throughout tropical regions of the world. The largest fruits may be nearly 3 feet (0.9 m) long and weigh up to 75 pounds (34 kg).

Canned jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) imported into the U.S.

from Thailand. Native to the Indo-Malaysian region, now grows throughout tropical regions of the world. durians (Durio zibethinus, Bombacaceae) and soursop muricata, Annonaceae), these are the largest fruits trees.

this species Along with (Annona produced on

The breadfruit is native to Polynesia where it is baked, boiled or fried as a starchy, potato-like vegetable and made into bread, pie and puddings. In 1789 Britain sent Captain Bligh on the H.M.S. Bounty to Tahiti to collect breadfruit cuttings for introduction into the New World colonies. Enchanted with the Tahitian way of life, the crew mutinied on the return voyage, putting Bligh off at sea in a small boat with 18 loyal followers. Bligh and his men survived a 3,618-nautical mile, 41-day trip to the East Indies. Undaunted, he returned to Tahiti on a second voyage and successfully introduced breadfruits into the West Indies in 1793.

The infamous breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) introduced from Polynesia into the West Indies by Captain Bligh himself. <snip> Multiple fruits of the mulberry family are composed of numerous, seed-bearing, ripened ovaries derived from numerous separate flowers. The multiple fruit of a mulberry (Morus) is composed of a cluster of drupelets superficially resembling a blackberry; however, unlike a blackberry, each drupelet arises from a separate minute flower. In the aggregate fruit of a blackberry, all the drupelets of the cluster come from a single flower. The fig (Ficus) is a very unique genus in the mulberry family with a special kind of multiple fruit called a syconium. The pollen-bearing male and seed-bearing female flowers line the inside of a fleshy, flask-shaped structure called a syconium. The tiny female flowers are pollinated by symbiotic female wasps who enter the syconium through a pore (ostiole) at one end. <snip> Another very interesting member of the mulberry family is the osage orange (Maclura pomifera). Native to the midwestern and southeastern United States, this species is also known as the hedge apple because it was planted in thicket-like hedge rows before the advent of barbed wire fences. The fruit is neither an orange nor an apple, although it approaches the size of those fruits. Like the breadfruit and jackfruit, it is a true multiple fruit composed of numerous separate ovaries, each arising from a separate female flower. In fact, the bumpy surface of the fruit is due to the numerous, tightly-packed ovaries of the female flowers. The black hairs on the surface of the fruit are styles, each arising from a separate ovary. The wood of osage orange was highly prized by the Osage Indians of Arkansas and Missouri for bows. In fact, osage orange is stronger than oak (Quercus) and as tough as

hickory (Carya), and is considered by archers to be one of the finest native North American woods for bows. In Arkansas, in the early 19th century, a good osage bow was worth a horse and a blanket. A yellow-orange dye is also extracted from the wood and is used as a substitute for fustic and aniline dyes in arts and industry. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera), a native North American tree with multiple fruits that are similar in structure to the breadfruit and jackfruit. The bumpy surface of the fruit is due to many tightly-packed ovaries, each with separate styles that appear like black hairs. <snip> The black mulberry (Morus nigra), a monoecious tree native to western Asia. The bumpy surface of the fruit is due to many tightly-packed, seed-bearing ovaries (drupelets), each with separate styles that appear like black hairs. It is technically a multiple fruit (called a syncarp) composed of a cluster of drupelets superficially resembling a blackberry; however, unlike a blackberry, each drupelet arises from a separate, minute, unisexual (female) flower. Individual flowers do not have petals, but have a calyx composed of four tiny sepals. They are produced in catkins, with male and female catkins on the same tree. Male flowers have four stamens while female flowers have a single pistil. In the aggregate fruit of a blackberry, all the drupelets of the cluster (syncarp) come from a single flower. Custard-Apple Family (Annonaceae) Soursop (Annona muricata), another large, spiny, cauliflorous fruit that may weigh up to 6 pounds (3 kg). Unlike the jackfruit, it belongs to the Custard Apple Family (Annonaceae) and is native to tropical America. This interesting plant family also includes the cherimoya (A. cherimola), custard apple (A. reticulata) and sugar apple or pinha (A. squamosa). Soft, ripe soursops are mostly used for ice creams and sherbets. <snip> Sugar Apple or Sweetsop (Annona squamosa), an interesting tropical American fruit in the Custard Apple Family (Annonaceae). Soft, ripe sugar apples have a sweet, custard-like pulp containing several shiny seeds. They are a popular Caribbean dessert, eaten raw (preferably chilled) and in fruit salads, ice creams and drinks. <snip> The cherimoya (Annona cherimola), another delicious fruit of the Custard Apple Family (Annonaceae) native to the northern Andes of South America. The creamy white flesh has the flavor of banana,

vanilla, pineapple and mango. The fruits are used in salads, drinks, desserts, ice creams and sherbets. <snip> Pond apple (Annona glabra), a cherimoya relative native to swamplands of the southeastern United States. Although not as tasty as its tropical relatives, pond apple provides an important food source for wildlife of this region. <snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: The Calimoya Cherimoyas Are Here! Date: Thu, 28 Dec 2000 12:54:26 -0800 From: John Ruskey <jruskey@earthlink.net> THE CALIMOYA CHERIMOYAS ARE HERE! Once again its cherimoya time! The season is just beginning and it looks to be a great year. Right now we have the large white cherimoyas which are especially sweet and juicy from all of the unseasonably warm weather. Expect this yearÕs season to last through May. If you are interested in purchase Calimoya cherimoyas, just go to CalimoyaÕs Packinghouse and press the "order" button. <snip> SeasonsÕ greetings! Jay Ruskey Calimoya Exotic Fruits Calimoya! A unique destination for culinary adventurers and explorers of the exotic! <snip>

------------------Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers)------------------

None this time

------------------NAFEX List <nafex@onelist.com>------------------

None this time

-------Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU>-------

None this time

--------From "rarefruit list" - mailto:rarefruit@egroups.com--------

None this time

-- Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars-news@arsgrin.gov --http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Subject: Fruit and Vegetable Films Keep Food Fresh and Tasty Date: Mon, 18 Dec 2000 09:38:14 -0500 From: "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov> Edible films made from pureed fruits and vegetables can add shelf-life and tantalizing new flavors to lightly processed foods such as cut produce, Agricultural Research Service scientists reported Saturday in Honolulu. ARS food technologist Tara McHugh mailto:thm@pw.usda.govdeveloped the films from produce like apples, oranges, carrots and strawberries. Some films also contain Food and Drug Administration- approved oils and antioxidants. She then applied the thin, opaque films to cut apples. The films controlled browning and prevented moisture loss better than several types of coatings. An added benefit: The films could provide new flavor combinations, such as a strawberry film on cut bananas or an apple glaze on pork.

McHugh presented results of her research at the International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies. She works at the ARS Western Regional Research Center in Albany, Calif. Sheets of pureed fruit have long been available as snack foods. But McHugh is the first to explore produce-based films to enhance storage and flavor. <snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: Tube Helps Establish Seedlings on Rangeland Date: Wed, 20 Dec 2000 09:52:14 -0500 From: Kathryn Barry Stelljes <kbstelljes@ars.usda.gov> Small, plastic tubes designed by Agricultural Research Service rangeland scientist Terrance Booth could help reestablish native shrubs on rangeland denuded by fire. "Booth" tubes are made of half-inch-diameter, scored, clear plastic. Each tube contains a soil mixture and a seedling that has been grown from seed in the greenhouse for two weeks. The tubes are pushed into the ground up to four inches deep, with up to three inches remaining above ground to serve as a mini-greenhouse and windbreak for the tiny seedlings. Fueled by weeds, large rangeland fires have destroyed millions of acres of native habitat. Land managers revegetate these areas by broadcasting seeds or direct seeding methods, or by transplanting young plants from the greenhouse. Wind, sandstorms and rodent predation take a large toll on seedlings. Survival rates range from less than 0.1 percent for broadcast sagebrush seeds to 70 or 80 percent with transplants. Because the Booth tubes protect the seedlings, they can be planted in the field sooner than traditional transplants. The shorter greenhouse time could cut costs and make the practice more competitive with direct seeding costs. So far, the tubes have achieved about 70 percent seedling survival in experimental plantings. They have proven effective with sagebrush, winterfat, bitterbrush, four-wing saltbush, prairie flowers and even some garden vegetables. The thin-walled tubes--about the thickness of two pieces of paper--break down at the soil surface after two or three years. Bitterroot Restoration Incorporated in Corvallis, Mont., has established a cooperative research and development agreement to develop a commercial revegetation system using the tubes.

<snip> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000101A.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - January 15, 2001 - AKA RFN200101B.txt --Notes In Passing 1. I borrowed rather heavily from the RareFruit List rarefruit@egroups.com I apologize to those of you who have read it all because you subscribe to it. Keitt mango fruit are still quite firm but colorful. The following are beginning to bloom: Edwards, Zill, Glenn, Carrie, Nam Doc Mai, Pen Seng Mon, Early Gold, Kent, #20222 (Winters), and several seedlings. Several cherimoya fruit have begun to ripen. I may have forgotten, but I think there hasn't been an overlap in cherimoya and mango for ripe fruit. I've heard weather reports for Florida that seemed to indicate that fruit damage may have been widespread. If you had problems, or found ways to avoid or minimize weather-related problems, why not write to let us know? The section "From The Mailbag of Dr. Sainarong Rasananda" continues. He writes about the possible consequences of pesticides and answers questions on managing a longan orchard. I think we are most fortunate to have his contributions. Thanks, Dr. Sainarong Rasananda!

2.

3.

4.

5.

---------Table Of Contents - Headers; (Letters Follow Table Of Contents) >>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber, Alaska And Hawaii (!) Cindy Johnson <thedillo@gci.net> New Subscriber, Idaho, Grows Jujube; Has Genealogy Question Margaret Lauterbach <mlaute@micron.net> New Subscriber, Michigan, Writing Fruit E-Zine

Debby Williams <debbywilliams1@home.com> New Subscriber, Australia; Growing Rare Fruit BUT Has Fig Problem David Price <rodneyprice1@burcom.com.au> New Subscriber, North Texas: What Can I Grow Here? Duane Smith <farmsted@flash.net>

>>>> Readers Write <<<<

Death Of Dr. Fred S. Yerger, Jr. M.D., AZ CRFG Glenn Young <GGYoung@aol.com> Citron Tree - Buddha's Hand? "Theresa Harley" <dyrw@jvlnet.com> Re: Avocado Budding "Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> To: Elaine <leelou@pacbell.net> Re: Avocado Budding Elaine <leelou@pacbell.net> To: Ben Pierce <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Fruit Garden Displayed--copies available?? Elaine <leelou@pacbell.net> Re: Longan/Lychee Experimental Program - Information Holzinger, Bob <bholzing@amgen.com> My Megalinks Page Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Plumerias - How To Send To Girlfriend In Leucadia, CA? Matthew Montee <bigfatdonkey@yahoo.com> Re: Noni Maurice Kong <CHINO228@aol.com>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Worldwide Weather Pattern "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Re: Split longan branches "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Dr. Edward Lin <Link2itc@aol.com> Re: Preventing Branch Breakage in Longan - Correction Sainarong Sirpen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Dr. Edward Lin <Link2itc@aol.com> To Pesticide Or Not To Pesticide Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: David Loring" <dloring3@flash.net>

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

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>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers)

<<<<

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>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<<

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>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<<

None, this time

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<

Mango Grows In Berkeley, CA Thomas E. Billings <teb@synergy.transbay.net> Re: Mango Grows In Berkeley, CA Dr. Chiranjit Parmar" <parmarch@vsnl.com> Re: Mango Grows In Berkeley, CA Clarence <kahiwal@cs.com> Re: Mango Grows In Berkeley, CA Leo A. Martin <leo1010@attglobal.net>

Windbreaks In The Tropics Greg Woolley <gregw@amitar.com.au> Re: Windbreaks In The Tropics Will Wardowski <fssource@aol.com> Re: Windbreaks In The Tropics Bill <OOWON@netscape.net> Re: Windbreaks In The Tropics Bob Cannon <tfnews@gate.net> Re: Windbreaks In The Tropics Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@eudoramail.com> Fruits of Warm Climates Jim Singer <jsinger@igc.org>

Re: Fruits of Warm Climates William Butler <bananaizme@aol.com>

Re: Fruits of Warm Climates Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@eudoramail.com> Re: Fruits of Warm Climates Jim Singer <jsinger@igc.org>

Fruits in Brazil Book Marcos Sobrosa <msobrosa@net.em.com.br> Re: Fruits in Brazil Book Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@eudoramail.com>

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm

Superb Strawberries Without Methyl Bromide Marcia Wood <MarciaWood@ars.usda.gov> Eavesdropping on Insects in Soil and Plants Jesœs Garc’a <jgarcia@ars.usda.gov>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Date: From:

New Subscriber, Alaska And Hawaii (!) Mon, 1 Jan 2001 16:14:42 -0900 Cindy Johnson <thedillo@gci.net>

My name is Cindy Johnson. I live in Alaska and have property in the district of Puna, Hawaii. I plan to grow anything I can get my paws on. I will be doing my first planting in March of this year Mangosteen, rambutan, and avocado for sure. I look forward to reading your news letter Cindy Johnson mailto:thedillo@gci.net

-----------------------------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Idaho, Grows Jujube; Has Genealogy Question Date: Fri, 12 Jan 2001 09:59:40 -0700 From: Margaret Lauterbach <mlaute@micron.net> I am Margaret Lauterbach, and I liee in Boise, Idaho. I grow Zizyphus jujuba "Li", PawPaws and an American Persimmon. The latter has not yet produced fruit. I also have three varieties of Asian pears grafted onto one tree. I gave up on kiwis, because the blossoms (when it blossomed) were destined always to be frosted, so I'd never get any fruit. I grew apricots that must have been special, because some alien squirrels bussed in, took the aerial route to my two loaded apricot trees (first time in 10 years they've gotten to fruiting stage), and ate the nuts out of every single one. I didn't get to eat a single apricot. My dog was frantic and frustrated. I do not have questions for newsletter readers, but I have a major question for the editor. Mr. Manuel, do you know anything about your ancestors? My great, great, great grandfather was James Manuel, born in Maryland, lived in Ohio until 1856, then moved to southern Indiana. He and his wife, Jane Stillwagon Manuel, had eleven children live to adulthood. I'm descended from his eldest daughter, Mary Elizabeth Manuel Logsdon. We have a mini-Manuel mailing list. Marci Manuel White is descended from the oldest son, Grafton. Sharron Wood is descended from another daughter, Isabelle Manuel McCoy. There are others, but I don't recall from whom they're descended, off hand. James Manuel, according to the family Bible (Marci has access to it), served as a drummer boy in the War of 1812 at the age of 6. Margaret Lauterbach mailto:mlaute@micron.net

-----------------------------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Michigan, Writing Fruit E-Zine Date: Fri, 12 Jan 2001 13:26:26 -0500 From: Debby Williams <debbywilliams1@home.com> Leo, I am Debby Williams. I live in Michigan, in a suburb of Detroit. This e-mail address will work fine for the newsletter. Fruit trees I am now growing: Red Haven Peach - started from a pit/seed 2 years ago. Maybe this year I will get at least one

Peach? Fruit trees I would like to grow: Sweet and Tart Cherry, Apple and Pear (not too ambitious, eh?). If I had a greenhouse I am sure the list would be larger. I would like to subscribe to your newsletter because my primary interests as a gardener are fruit, vegetables and herbs. I have just taken on the job of writing an e-zine for wz.com on the subject of fruit and would like to expand my knowledge of the unusual. Your newsletter was highly recommended by Nan Sterman. Debby Williams mailto:debbywilliams1@home.com Advanced Master Gardener Oakland County, MI, USDA Hardiness Zones 6a/5b -----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Australia; Growing Rare Fruit BUT Has Fig Problem Date: Sat, 13 Jan 2001 11:24:18 +1000 From: David Price <rodneyprice1@burcom.com.au> My name is David Price, I live in Nanango, Queensland, Australia. my E-mail address is this one, rodneyprice1@burcom.com.au. I am 16. I am growing casimiroas, avocados, papaws, mango, jaboticaba, yellow sapote, figs, cherimoya, and abiu. I am interested in growing any type of rare fruit.. I have planted some figs, it is summer and their leaves either droop or fall off, and only start growing a month later, how can this be remedied? David Price mailto:rodneyprice1@burcom.com.au

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Hi I live in north central Texas. At present I only grow normal blackberries and a few peach & plum trees. I would like to read about other ideas. New Subscriber, North Texas: What Can I Grow Here? Fri, 12 Jan 2001 16:14:57 -0600 Duane Smith <farmsted@flash.net>

Thanks Duane & Joyce Smith Poolville TX mailto:farmsted@flash.net

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: From: Date:

Death Of Dr. Fred S. Yerger, Jr. M.D., AZ CRFG Glenn Young <GGYoung@aol.com> Fri, 12 Jan 2001 23:29:24 EST

It is with great regret that I forward on to you this message from the Arizona Chapter of CRFG. Fred had become a very good friend to Peggy and me. We feel that this is a great loss to both of us. Words are inadequate to express our sorrow. We have lost a good friend, the world a great citizen and CRFG and the Arizona Chapter one of its finest members. Glenn Young | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | mailto:GGYoung@aol.com

Message from Dick Gross, Secretary of the Arizona Chapter CRFG. "Allison Yerger has asked me to inform the members of the Arizona Rare Fruit Growers of the passing of Fred S. Yerger, Jr., MD. Fred was a long time member of the CRFG, Inc. and founder, with daughter Allison, of the Arizona Chapter, an achievement in which he took great pride. A physician who ministered to man, animals and plants with equal respect, Fred earned the love of everyone who knew him. His absence will be painful to all of us but his memory will always be a part of the Arizona Rare Fruit Growers. A memorial Ceremony will be held at 2:00pm Sunday, January 21 at St. Barnaby's Church, 6715 Mockingbird Lane, Scottsdale. Let us all celebrate the life and memory of our good friend. In lieu of flowers, the family requests that donations be sent to one of the following: Desert Botanical Gardens Fred S. Yerger, Jr., MD Memorial c/o Carolyn O'mally 1201 Galvin Parkway Phoenix, AZ 85008

| | | | |

M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Frederick Slith Yerger, Jr. MD Acute Mylogenous Leukemia Research Fund P. O. Box 297193 Houston, TX 77297" ------------------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Citron Tree - Buddha's Hand? I Want To Buy One Date: Mon, 1 Jan 2001 10:22:20 -0600 From: Theresa Harley <dyrw@jvlnet.com> Do you know where I can buy one of these trees for my greenhouse? Thanks, Theresa Harley mailto:dyrw@jvlnet.com

-----------------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Avocado Budding Mon, 01 Jan 2001 17:59:15 -0000 Ben Pierce <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Elaine <leelou@pacbell.net>

Elaine, Sure I will share any info I get. I chose the Nabal for several reasons. My sister has one so I have a supply of scion wood. I have heard it grows upright like the Reed. I have also heard it is a high quality avocado. I did not know that the Reed was a descendant of the Nabal but know that I do know it makes sense because they have similar characteristics. I also like the Reed and would grow it as well. One problem I am facing with the budding is that I want to bud onto side shoots. The problem with that is the shoots are horizontal and small. If I bud onto the trunk of the tree then do I have to cut the wood above off to force it to grow? Is this the trick in budding to force the bud to do something? I have never grafted anything sucessfully and want to learn how. Ben Pierce mailto:mariposafamily@hotmail.com

-----------------------------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Avocado Budding

Date: From: To:

Wed, 10 Jan 2001 09:25:45 -0800 Elaine <leelou@pacbell.net> Ben Pierce <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Ben, Have you seen the 5 pg handout on budding/grafting avocado in the home garden from university of california? a good handout to have. If you don't have it, see: http://danrcs.ucdavis.edu. publication #8001 or do a search. Forgot, what are you grafting the Nabal on to again? Where are you located? What I hear about Nabal is that it is not a consistent bearer, but tasty. I've never tried it personally. What do you think of the taste quite personal). What is your ask the approx. size and shape sister's tree a consistent and located? Good luck! Elaine mailto:leelou@pacbell.net Mountain View (N. California) quality of Nabal (though taste is favorite avocado for taste? Can I of your sister's Nabal and is your fruitful bearer? Where is her tree

-----------------------------------------------------------------Subject: Fruit Garden Displayed--copies available?? Date: Mon, 01 Jan 2001 22:20:07 -0800 From: Elaine <leelou@pacbell.net> If anyone knows of a source for a copy of the FRUIT GARDEN DISPLAYED, written by Harry Baker, published by Royal Horticulture Society, approx $35, US, please let me know! Book is out of print, according to RHS in England. Raintree Catalog still advertises it, but have been sold out. Many thanks in advance, Elaine mailto:leelou@pacbell.net Mountain View, CA

-----------------------------------------------------------------Subject: RE: Longan/Lychee Experimental Program - Information Date: Tue, 2 Jan 2001 12:13:30 -0800 From: Holzinger, Bob <bholzing@amgen.com>

Leo, There's not a general call for growers, I think the program is pretty much set. Mark did sound like he would consider another site(s) if everything was right for the project. As for more details, you'll have to contact Mark. The bottom line is this: the grower must have enough room to plant 40 trees, which eliminates all backyard growers like you and me. Bob P.S. I just got a note from Sven saying he finally talked to Mark Gaskell about the lychee and longan program. It appears that there is no more funding for additional test sites, so Sven can't get in with the fun. Oh well, that's the way it goes with government programs. We will have to be content with news and tours in the future I guess. Best wishes, Bob mailto:bholzing@amgen.com

-----------------------------------------------------------------Subject: My Megalinks Page Date: Wed, 03 Jan 2001 14:41:01 -1000 From: Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Dear Leo, Thank you for the link in your newsletter to my megalinks page http://www.fruitlovers.com/megalinks.html Some of the links in that page come from reading your newsletter. Please tell your readers if they have any suggestions for inclusion of sites that I have omitted or overlooked to please let me know. Also if there are any other suggestion in general for the improvement of the site I would be happy to hear them. Fruitfully yours, Oscar Jaitt mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com

-----------------------------------------------------------------Subject: Plumerias - How To Send To Girlfriend In Leucadia, CA? Date: Thu, 4 Jan 2001 09:50:33 -0800 (PST) From: Matthew Montee <bigfatdonkey@yahoo.com>

Dear Leo, I thoroughly enjoyed your website. I am from Ventura, CA, but am currently attending med school in NY. My girlfriend lives in Leucadia and I would like to send her some plumerias for our anniversary. She is extraordinarily special to me, and she is extremely fond of plumerias. Is there any way that I could have some sent to her on Sat. or Sun. (Jan. 6th Or 7th.)? Sincerely, Matt mailto:bigfatdonkey@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Noni Date: Thu, 4 Jan 2001 15:00:01 EST From: Maurice Kong <CHINO228@aol.com>

Hi Leo: Re information on how to use Noni, most people suggest you pick the fruits a day or two before they get ripe. Recognizing ripe fruits is easy because it changes from green to an opalescent color at which time it's odor becomes very obvious and is reminiscent to that of limburber cheese. To avoid the possibility of creating problems with your neighbours, it's best to pick them just before they begin to become opalencent. Keep till ripe outdoors in a slightly open zip lock bag till they feel very soft to touch. Put the entire fruit in a blender with two cups of water and give several bursts at medium speed till the Noni pulp separates from the seeds. Strain and return strained pulp to blender. By adding apple, grape, cranberry or any juice of your choice to mask the smell, you will have a very delicious, healthy and palatable drink. It will certainly be the most economical way to enjoy Noni compared to the overpriced $40 + pricetag for a pint bottle of diluted Noni drink. Maurice Kong mailto:CHINO228@aol.com

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Worldwide Weather Pattern Date: Fri, 29 Dec 2000 07:20:31 +0700 From: Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Not many fruit of any kind around here this year - a very strange year! Normally this time of year is hot (about 35-37¡) with storms in the afternoon. This year it has been cloudy, cool, and drizzly for the past several weeks - we have not seen the sun at all for more than a week and last Saturday Mareeba had it's coldest December day on record with a maximum of only 23¡. This phenomenon has been occurring worldwide. Some people around the world, myself including, are beginning to fear that the worldwide weather pattern is not going back to the previous relatively steady pattern. From now on, the weather may be much more unpredictable. If this is so, the repercussion would be vast, maybe even devastating! Why then have nobody been talking, cassandring, or making alternative plans, you may ask? The only answer we can think of is that the future outlook is too uncertain to think about, so the easiest thing to do is to turn a blind eye, blame the current weather to the temporary after-effect of el Nino, and think that everything will turn back to normal soon. I apologize for this unseasonal thought; after all this is the season to be jolly. Enjoy the New Year. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Split longan branches Date: Tue, 2 Jan 2001 21:37:19 +0700 From: Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Edward Lin <Link2itc@aol.com> | | | | | | Since my question to you about the split branch on my Diamond River longan, another strong wind further blew the branch apart and I had to cut the damaged limb off to prevent further damage. I cut the branch an inch below the split wood but after cutting the wood off, the bark split toward the main trunk as it dried off. I hope there will be no further trouble.

Although longan wood is very hard, the branches are very susceptible to breaking apart. Moreover, the longan roots are rather thin and shallow, particularly if the tree is grown from an air-layered branch. In Thailand, an entire small longan orchard has been known to be uprooted by strong winds. This does not normally occur until the trees have grown to a height of 3 meters or more. What can you do to prevent this from happening? 1. Wind-breakers obviously help, unless the wind is tornado-like. 2. Grow the trees from seeds or graft a small sapling grown from seed to an air-layered tree. This gives the tree a thick, deep main root. 3. Thoughtfully pruning to get rid of branches which make wide angles with the trunk. [Note: Corrected to "... get rid of branches which make narrow angles with the trunk" in letter that follows. Leo] 4. Prune to get rid of the excess leaves, so that the wind can blow through the trees, and so that not-too-much water droplets will gather on the leaves after heavy rain. 5. Keep the trees low. 6. Prop up the branches with pieces of woods, etc. when the crop is a heavy one. Enjoy Yourself! Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: | | | | | | | | | | Re: Preventing Branch Breakage in Longan - Correction Tue, 9 Jan 2001 13:30:51 +0700 Sainarong Sirpen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Dr. Edward Lin <Link2itc@aol.com>

----- Original Message ----From: Dr. Edward Lin <Link2itc@aol.com> With regard to your six tips on preventing of branch breakage in the longan, you wrote: "What can you do to prevent this from happening? 3. Thoughtfully pruning to get rid of branches which make wide angles with the trunk......

| | | |

In No. 3 above, did you not intend to say "get rid of branches which make narrow angles with the trunk?" I had always thought wide-angled branches bear fruit loads better. You are absolutely right! Thank you for correcting me. I do not mind making a fool of myself, but I would be way down in the dump, if people followed my incorrect recommendation! Sainarong ------------------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To: | | | | | |

To Pesticide Or Not To Pesticide Tue, 2 Jan 2001 23:39:42 +0700 Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> David Loring" <dloring3@flash.net>

----- Original Message ----From: david loring <dloring3@flash.net> If there is anything I can ever do for you from here in Southern California let me know, I'm an agricultural pest control advisor specializing in biologically intensive IPM strategies. Dear David, I contribute regularly to a fortnightly on-line newsletter for rare fruit enthusiasts; all contributors do this purely for love. Leo Manuel, the Editor, is the loveliest of all. I have been wanting to share with the readers my experience on pest control. However, I have not done so until now, as I am afraid that I may be leading them down the wrong track I shall now do so, and I would very much appreciate it if you will kindly support me when I am right, and correct me when I am wrong. I am a scientist by training, and I have worked for Du Pont, so it is not surprising that I started my horticultural career by using a lot of pesticides, fungicides, etc. After a while, I became satisfied with my heavy use of pesticides for the following reasons: 1. I spent far too much money on pesticides in my losing battle against the pests. 2. The health of the orchard workers, including myself, seemed to be deteriorating. 3. My orchard was rather lifeless; no birds, no insects, not even

domestic fowls and dogs. 4. Although I followed the instructions carefully, I could not help but wonder whether some of the poisonous stuff found their way to the consumers' bodies. So, I thought that there must be a better and more profitable way. I believe that I have found it. Now I hardly use any pesticides, etc., and, believe it or not, I have reduced the operating cost, improve yields, both quality-wise and quantity-wise (admittedly, I have not kept records and analyzed them, but I believe that I have suceeded). Moreover, the workers are healthy, and the birds, insects and animals are coming back. I shall write more in future e-mails, and you, David, will hopefully advise me on how to improve my pest control. Thank you kindly, Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None, this time

------------------Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers)------------------

None this time

------------------NAFEX List <nafex@onelist.com>------------------

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-------Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU>-------

None this time

--------From "rarefruit list" - mailto:rarefruit@egroups.com--------

Subject: Date: From: Reply To:

Mango Grows In Berkeley, CA Sat, 6 Jan 2001 13:02:43 -0800 (PST) Thomas E. Billings <teb@synergy.transbay.net> rarefruit@egroups.com

Thought list members might find it of interest that a mango seed sprouted in Spring/early Summer 2000 in my garden in cold Berkeley (San Francisco area), California. (I used mango peels, seed, and other produce trash as fertilizer that I turned under: a few avo seeds germinated as well. The heat of decomposition may have warmed the soil and "tricked" the seed into germinating.) Anyway, here it is mid-winter in cold Berkeley, and the (small) seedling is still alive! It is on the south side of my apartment building, in a heavily protected area (with additional protection provided by heavy mulch). I have no illusions that it will grow/survive long term (it probably won't - the climate here is way too cold). However, the fact that it has survived so long (we have had several frosts already) shows the value of local protection for tender tropicals. I also have 2 Florida sabal (cabbage) palms outdoors, in pots (grown from seed). They grow very slowly in the cold California climate. In my previous apartment (no garden) I grew a sabal/cabbage palm from seed and had to get rid of it when it reached 8 feet - the height of my apartment ceiling! That was donated to the Strybing Arboretum in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park, where I hope it is happy. :-) Let me take this opportunity to thank the list owner, Bob Cannon, for creating this list, and for his previous service as editor of "Tropical Fruit News" magazine. [In my opinion, the overall quality of that magazine has decreased under the new editorship, i.e., the folks who replaced Bob as editor(s).] Let me also invite any list members interested in fruit diets, vegan, vegetarian, paleo, or other "extreme" diets to visit my not-for- profit, information-only (no ads) websites: http://www.beyondveg.com http://www.transbay.net/~teb/fruitarian Beyond Vegetarianism Fruitarian Diets

<snip> Tom mailto:teb@synergy.transbay.net

___________________________________________________________________ _____ Subject: Date: From: Reply To: Re: Mango Grows In Berkeley, CA Sun, 7 Jan 2001 12:33:11 -0800 Dr. Chiranjit Parmar" <parmarch@vsnl.com> rarefruit@egroups.com

Dear Mr. Billings, Though I do not want to discourage you, but the fact is that germination of a seed does not indicate that the plant will reach the fruiting stage. Moreover, the fruiting too should be of viable level. Though I have visited San Francisco area 3-4 times, yet I do not have an idea of the degree of cold in the area. Mango starts from Tropical region and extends upto sub-temperate regions having stone fruits as main fruit crops. But the performance and fruit quality varies. The performance of mango with increasing cold is like this: 1. The fruits will be sweeter and flatter in taste, skin will be thick. 2. Flavours will start developing and a pleasant sugar acid blend will start developing. We Indians prefer this taste. 3. The proportion of grafted trees will start declining. 4. Only Seedlings will survive and they will also bear fruits. 5. Trees will be there but they will not be very productive. The fruit buds in mango are at shoot terminal which is the first to be damaged by cold leading to loss in yield. 6. You find sporadically located large seedling mango trees which bear fruit once in 4-5 years. This happens at 4000 ft in North West India. 7. No mango trees beyond that. In India, mango also occupies a religious place. Long garland like things made with mango and Ficus religiosa leaves are a must

on auspicious religious occasions. So people try to plant and protect mango trees in every village to get a supply of leaves for such occasions. Some natural selection has taken place in this process and one sometimes comes across cold hardy mango trees surviving and even bearing fruits at places which are otherwise "SCIENTIFICALLY" not suitable for mango. The local people do not attach any importance to such trees as the fruit quality does not match the commercial types. But such plants are a very valuable genetic resource and should be exploited by the people/organizations interested in the promotion of mango cultivation in relatively colder areas. 6-7 years back one of our list members, Dr. J.D. Prince from New Zealand with financial assistance from the New Zealand Tree Crops Association had got a small survey conducted for this from me and we had selected 7-8 promising seedlings. I was told by Dr. Prince last year that one of the plants had started bearing. It was a very small effort restricted to a very small area. Much better results might be obtained if a larger effort, well planned in advance, is made. I request some organization like CRFG or Rare Fruit Council or some other group of resourceful fruit growers to sponsor such project. Dr. Chiranjit Parmar mailto:parmarch@vsnl.com Horticultural Consultant for Lesser Known Indian Plants ___________________________________________________________________ _____ Subject: Date: From: Reply To: Re: Mango Grows In Berkeley, CA Sun, 7 Jan 2001 04:06:47 EST Clarence <kahiwal@cs.com> rarefruit@egroups.com

Hi All I had almost given up trying to find a mango that could be fruitful at 1600 feet on the Hamakua Coast of Hawaii Island. But these few posts on mango sound encouraging. I had earlier been searching for mango for 2800 feet in Waimea on Hawaii Island. I had given up. The lows in "winter" usually gets to the low 40s (F.) and rarely, into the high 30s. Anyone with any ideas on the 2 locations. I would appreciate it. Clarence from the Big Island (Hawaii) mailto:kahiwal@cs.com

___________________________________________________________________ _____

Subject: Date: From: Reply To:

Re: Mango Grows In Berkeley, CA Sun, 07 Jan 2001 22:01:11 -0500 Leo A. Martin <leo1010@attglobal.net> rarefruit@egroups.com

Hello, Here in Phoenix, Arizona, often with much lower usual winter night temperatures than Berkeley, California, several members of our chapter of the Rare Fruit Growers get mango fruit every year. Of course, they have their trees in protected spots, they are relatively small, and they are covered on cold nights. Leo A. Martin Arizona mailto:leo1010@attglobal.net Phoenix,

___________________________________________________________________ _____ Subject: Date: From: Reply To: Windbreaks In The Tropics Tue, 09 Jan 2001 21:50:07 +0800 Greg Woolley <gregw@amitar.com.au> rarefruit@egroups.com

Hello, I am interested to know if there are any strategies to prevent or lessen damage from hurricanes to tropical fruit orchards. What are the most recommended wind resistant trees used for windbreaks in tropical climates? Does having an orchard surrounding or interplanted with windbreak trees help to lessen the damage of hurricanes? What about giant timber bamboo, does this stand up to hurricane force winds? Would appreciate any comments on this topic. Many thanks again, Greg Woolley mailto:gregw@amitar.com.au

___________________________________________________________________ _____ Subject: Date: From: Re: Windbreaks In The Tropics Tue, 9 Jan 2001 09:41:22 EST Will Wardowski <fssource@aol.com>

Reply To: rarefruit@egroups.com I doubt that you will get research backed up data for your questions. However, many years ago, Dr. Gene Albrigo, University of Florida, Citrus Research & Educaiton Centrer (albrigo@lal.ufl.edu) did some windbreak work with citrus. You may want to ask him for any available reprints on that work. Also, I know that windbreaks are commonly used in Argentina to reduce the spread of citrus canker. Finally, although the book does not answer your questions, you may want to check out Hurricanes and Florida Agriculture on our homepage. Will Wardowski mailto:fssource@aol.com Florida Science Source, Inc. http://www.ultimatecitrus.com/fssource/index.html ___________________________________________________________________ _____ Subject: Date: From: Reply To: Re: Windbreaks In The Tropics Tue, 09 Jan 2001 19:06:43 -0000 Bill <OOWON@netscape.net> rarefruit@egroups.com

General thoughts: There is the adage about a mighty oak breaks and the humble bamboo bends. I note many tropical trees seem to follow this trend. Windbreak trees would help, if they don't fail and fall on their wards. IF I could see a bad blow coming, I might prune the largest weakest limbs to allow wind to pass through and save the main trunk and some shorter limbs. That would take awareness and opportunity and a chain saw. Slower would be pruning smaller branches to reduce foilage, which catches the wind, and leaving the larger limbs. Staking could help smaller trees. New tree plantings are staked with due thought though, and there is a methodology to it. Bill mailto:OOWON@netscape.net

___________________________________________________________________ _____

Subject: Date: From: Reply To:

Re: Windbreaks In The Tropics Tue, 09 Jan 2001 19:48:36 -0400 Bob Cannon <tfnews@gate.net> rarefruit@egroups.com

I haven't seen many. Erythrina is used in Florida by Bill Whitman at his experimental grove. At one time we also used casurina in Florida - now a prohibited weed tree. A few of the Averrhoa carambola growers are using walls of shade cloth, up at the chosen height instantly, requires no water, quite costly! Best of growing, Bob Cannon mailto:tfnews@gate.net (still too cool outside)

___________________________________________________________________ _____ Subject: Date: From: Reply To: Re: Windbreaks In The Tropics Wed, 10 Jan 2001 07:10:33 -0000 Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@eudoramail.com> rarefruit@egroups.com

Hi Greg, Bamboo works well and is beautiful, but many types grow slowly, and some are invasive. So be selective. What I have used are wind resilient fruit trees: Jackfruit seedlings, Avocado seedlings, Java Plum seedlings, Mango seedlings. It is best to have a double row if you are in a real windy area, with tall trees in the back and a shorter hedge in the front. There are very that I noticed speeds,200 mph Pines. Is your Oscar Jaitt few trees that will stand up to hurricanes. Two after visiting Kauai after Iniki (160 mph gusts) are Ironwoods (Casuarina) and Norfolk Island area really hit by hurricanes? mailto:fruitlovers@eudoramail.com

___________________________________________________________________ _____ Subject: Date: From: Reply To: Fruits of Warm Climates Thu, 11 Jan 2001 21:07:03 -0500 Jim Singer <jsinger@igc.org> rarefruit@egroups.com

FYI, Julia Morton's classic 'Fruits of Warm Climates' is available on cd-rom. ECHO [Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization] says it has it at $50 a pop. ECHO's address is www.echonet.org. I expect to drop by their digs on monday and pick one up. Jim Singer mailto:jsinger@igc.org

___________________________________________________________________ _____ Subject: Date: From: Reply To: Jim You and everyone else can save the $50.00 because this book is available online for nothing. www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/index.html I have the book but refer to the online version more than my book. Also the book " Lost crops of the Inca's " is online too www.nap.edu/books/030904264x/html/index.html Both of these books have very useful information. Good growing to you all. William mailto:bananaizme@aol.com Re: Fruits of Warm Climates Fri, 12 Jan 2001 03:02:04 -0000 William Butler <bananaizme@aol.com> rarefruit@egroups.com

___________________________________________________________________ _____ Subject: Date: From: Reply To: Re: Fruits of Warm Climates Fri, 12 Jan 2001 06:58:06 -0000 Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@eudoramail.com> rarefruit@egroups.com

Correct link for Lost Crop of the Incas is http://www.nap.edu/books/030904264X/html/index.html Oscar Jaitt mailto:fruitlovers@eudoramail.com

___________________________________________________________________

_____ Subject: Date: From: Reply To: Re: Fruits of Warm Climates Fri, 12 Jan 2001 18:20:31 -0500 Jim Singer <jsinger@igc.org> rarefruit@egroups.com

Oscar, This gets me to the nas Table of Contents but the site doesn't work beyond that point. I tried pulling up two or three chapters without success. Jim Singer mailto:jsinger@igc.org

___________________________________________________________________ _____ Subject: Date: From: Reply To: Re: Fruits of Warm Climates Sat, 13 Jan 2001 12:22:55 -0800 Karen Janssen <res03wp3@gte.net> rarefruit@egroups.com

How odd. I connected yesterday and printed most of the roots chapter from that book. It's a pain though. You have to download a PDF file for each page and then print from Acrobat Karen Janssen California mailto:res03wp3@gte.net Southern

___________________________________________________________________ _____ Subject: Date: From: Reply To: Fruits in Brazil Book Fri, 12 Jan 2001 10:53:19 -0200 Marcos Sobrosa <msobrosa@net.em.com.br> rarefruit@egroups.com

Dear E-group As the subject is book online, The book Fruits in Brazil is on-line (the Portuguese version), it is well worth to check the beautiful fruit photos. http://www.bibvirt.futuro.usp.br/acervo/paradidat/frutas/menu.html This book was out of print but the publisher released recently a

new edition of it. Marcos Sobrosa BRAZIL mailto:msobrosa@net.em.com.br Belo Horizonte -

___________________________________________________________________ _____ Subject: Date: From: Reply To: Re: Fruits in Brazil Book Sun, 14 Jan 2001 05:57:07 -0000 Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@eudoramail.com> rarefruit@egroups.com

Too bad they did not also put the English on line. The edition of the book I saw had both Portugese and English in it. It is a very nice "coffee table" book with large photos. Oscar mailto:fruitlovers@eudoramail.com

-- Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars-news@arsgrin.gov --http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Subject: Superb Strawberries Without Methyl Bromide Date: Mon, 8 Jan 2001 10:05:18 -0500 Marcia Wood <MarciaWood@ars.usda.gov> Most of the bright-red, juicy strawberries produced in this country are plucked from plants growing in soil that's been fumigated with one of the world's most effective farm chemicals, methyl bromide. The compound zaps soil-dwelling organisms that might otherwise weaken or kill berry plants. But methyl bromide use is being phased out because of evidence that the compound depletes the Earth's ozone layer. At research laboratories in Davis, Fresno, and Salinas, Calif., ARS scientists are scrutinizing environmentally friendly alternatives to methyl bromide. Soil scientist Husein A. Ajwa and agricultural engineer Thomas J. Trout at Fresno, for example, are using irrigation lines--called drip tapes--to deliver candidate fumigants to strawberry fields. The two researchers have probably explored more variations of that idea than any other recent scientific team. The grower- sponsored California Strawberry Commission is funding part of this research.

Applying fumigants through drip irrigation systems, says Ajwa, may reduce worker exposure to the chemicals and may also decrease the amount of chemicals needed to treat the fields. Among the best performing of the compounds that Ajwa and Trout have examined is InLine. At some sites where InLine was applied, marketable yields of strawberries were 95 to 110 percent of those from plots treated with methyl bromide in combination with another compound, chloropicrin. InLine is made up of about 60 percent 1,3-dichloropropene and about 35 percent chloropicrin. The manufacturer, Dow AgroSciences LLC, is seeking federal and state approvals for use of InLine in strawberry fields. An article in the January issue of ARS' monthly Agricultural Research magazine tells more. View it on the World Wide Web at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jan01/straw0101.htm <snip> -----------------------------------------------------------------Subject: Eavesdropping on Insects in Soil and Plants Date: Fri, 5 Jan 2001 09:52:18 -0500 From: Jesœs Garc’a <jgarcia@ars.usda.gov> Agricultural Research Service scientists and colleagues have adapted acoustic techniques-- commonly used by engineers to predict mechanical failures--to detect insects hidden in soil and the interior of plants. Researchers at ARS laboratories in Gainesville and Ft. Pierce, Fla., and Corvallis, Ore., and colleagues at Auburn University, University of Florida and Montana State University have collaborated on the development of an acoustic technique that uses sensitive instruments like accelerometers, soil-probe electret microphones and piezoelectric disks to pinpoint insect locations. These sensors convert vibrations into electrical signals. Because insect pests often reside within plant structures and in soil, they can be hard to detect. As a result, field searches often include a visual inspection followed by digging, removal of the root mass or flushing with water, all of which are damaging to the plant. So researchers have been trying to find a less destructive way of determining the incidence of insect infestations. The scientists conducted tests using a variety of insects and soil conditions in Florida, Oregon and Puerto Rico. The kinds of insects used--like the wheat stem sawfly and weevils that attack the roots of orange trees and ornamental plants--were chosen for

their economic importance and variations in size. The portable acoustic sensors were found to detect insects within 180 seconds over distances of 10-30 cm, depending on the composition of the soil and peak frequencies of the sound pulses. Those sound pulses were then averaged to create profiles for each insect. Since background noises such as wind, airplanes and motor vehicles often interfere with researchers' ability to accurately determine the presence of an insect, acoustic profiles were developed for them as well. Those profiles were then used to conduct tests that compared acoustically predicted infestations with insects found in the soil at recording sites. Under laboratory or ideal field conditions--with low levels of low-frequency background noise--insects within 30 cm were detected 100 percent of the time. Under adverse conditions in the field, the technique was 75 percent reliable. This inexpensive and nondestructive pest-monitoring method may prove useful to growers intent on using integrated pest management systems to lessen the impact of a variety of insect pests on farm productivity. ARS is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's chief scientific research agency. <snip> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000101B.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Rare Fruit News Online - February 1, 2001 - AKA RFN200102A.txt

--Notes In Passing What Is The Ripening Order For Your Cherimoas? At my home, the earliest seem to be Honey Hart, Dr. Booth, and a seedling. of my seedlings is quite late, and is noteworthy for its relatively few seeds and excellent flavor.

One

Recommendations for Mango Fertilizer and Schedule? Wouldn't it be great if someone came up with an almanac or calendar with recommendations for when to apply what fertilizer to which fruit trees? Has it been done? I'd like to hear of it. Mail was relatively light for this newsletter. If you have questions that you'd like to address, or web sites to recommend, or comments

that you think would be of interest to the group, I hope you'll write. I could always pad it with possible items of interest, but I'd much rather that the newsletter was written by you.

---------Table Of Contents - Headers; (Letters Follow Table Of Contents)

>>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber, Australia; Fruit Passion Out Of Control! Rob Mack <pomello@one.net.au>

>>>> Readers Write <<<<

Central Calif Mango Jeff Earl <jearl@peoplepc.com> To: Thomas <teb@synergy.transbay.net> Budding avocado Richard K. Gross" <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> To: <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Re: Budding Avocado Ben Pierce <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> To: rkg144@worldnet.att.net Re: Budding avocado Richard K. Gross <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> To: Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Interactive Newsgroup - Will You Be Changing? AJS <andiart@mindspring.com> Longan & Lychee Experimental Program - March Tour Alan Schroeder" <arschroeder@home.com> To: Bob Holzinger <bholzing@amgen.com> Mangos at altitude in Hawaii Holzinger, Bob <bholzing@amgen.com>

To: kahiwal@cs.com <kahiwal@cs.com> Tropical fruit book of Brunei fruits of Brunei Darussalam Maurice Kong <CHINO228@aol.com> Who Grows Che, Carambola, and White Sapote Nan Sterman <nsterman@mindsovermatter.com>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Experience with Excess Use of Pesticide Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> CC: David A. Loring <dloring3@flash.net> Re: Longan Questions/Similiarities Between Plant & Humans Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: <Link2itc@aol.com>

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

The World's Largest Source Of Out-Of-Print Books! http://dogbert.abebooks.com/ Bamboo Web Site http://www.geocities.com/zhuzi.geo/ Jinhe Fu <jfu@gwdg.de> To: <newcrops@purdue.edu>

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time

<<<<

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<< None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<< None, this time

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<

Re: Humidity, salinity, loquat, nutrient strength Greg Woolley <gregw@amitar.com.au> Link to AZ Master Gardener Site (Fertilizer) Bill <OOWON@netscape.net> Re: NUtrient Strength To Prevent Browning Off In Tropical Tree Seedlings Greg Woolley <gregw@amitar.com.au> Re: Foreign Travel - Health Protection When Abroad Morgan D. Hartt" <Gardening@J4L.Com> Re: Foreign Travel - Health Protection Leo A. Martin <leo1010@attglobal.net> Re: Foreign Travel - Health Protection Karen Janssen" <res03wp3@gte.net> Re: Foreign Travel - Health Protection Digby Gotts <digby@capetrib.com.au>

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm

Camphor Curbs Asian Lady Beetles Jesœs Garc’a <jgarcia@ars.usda.gov>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Subscriber, Australia; Fruit Passion Out Of Control! Date: Wed, 31 Jan 2001 23:42:42 +1100 From: Rob Mack <pomello@one.net.au> Hi My name is Rob Mack and I live on a 12 acre farm at Eden Creek Australia. It's a subtropical climate and I have a wide range of fruit including Jaboticaba (small and large leaf and yellow) many types of citrus, cherimoya (nearly ripe) nashi, loquat, papaya, tamarillo, figs, passionfruit, avocado, Ice Cream Bean, apples, peach/nectarine, wild rasberries, kiwifruit, ceriman, guava, grapes. My question for the group is... How do I stop ? Daleys Nursery (http://daleysfruit.com.au) is just up the road and I have this uncontrollable craving for a Babaco and a couple of Longans and perhaps a Grumichama or two. Rob Mack mailto:pomello@one.net.au

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Date: From: To:

Central Calif Mango Sun, 14 Jan 2001 22:45:11 -0800 Jeff Earl <jearl@peoplepc.com> Thomas <teb@synergy.transbay.net>

Thomas, Welcome to the club! I started a seed from a store bought mango about 5 years ago. I planted it and forgot it for a year. The thing grew rapidly here in Modesto, CA . I figured during the coldest part of the year I had better cover the tree with plastic. Sometimes I did...sometimes I did not. Well low and behold!!! 4 years later my 8 ft tall mango has flowered and fruited!

The best advice I can give is to keep your tree covered if the temps are expected to get below 30f..... Who knows, you may get fruit. My temps during the winter are a little colder than Berkley. Jeff Earl mailto:jearl@peoplepc.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Budding avocado Date: Mon, 15 Jan 2001 01:05:39 -0800 From: Richard K. Gross" <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> To: <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Ben, I am sure you will get many responses to this but here is my two cents worth. From my own limited experience, budding avocado would involve the same mechanics as citrus. Select a pregnant bud, insert into the T, wrap it snugly with a grafting rubber or plastic nursery tape. Use caution not to wrap the bud itself but you can you cover the tie material with Parafilm that the new shot will grow through when the bud breaks. You can get detailed information on budding on the Internet and the best way to learn, in my experience, is to select practically any tree and practice grafting and budding it to itself until you develop some degree of skill. You can usually tell when the bud has healed in. You can remove all the tie material then. Callus will show and the bud will still be green. At that time, you can prune the branch above the bud to force it to break or bend it to the point of breaking half way through. Leave it that way pointed downward. Sometimes buds will break without doing either but you will at some point want to cut it off above the new shoot anyway. For a novice with stubby fingers like mine, budding is difficult on stems smaller than 1/4 inch where I have better success with a simple cleft graft. Can you select one or more of the stronger shoots--removing the others, tie them upright to the main stem and graft or bud if or when the shoots are large and old enough? Budding will work only when sap is flowing and the bark slips easily. Grafting can be done almost any time in a warm climate but my own poor success rate drops dramatically the colder the weather. Regards,

Dick Gross

mailto:rkg144@worldnet.att.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Budding Avocado Tue, 16 Jan 2001 02:57:02 -0000 Ben Pierce <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> rkg144@worldnet.att.net

Thanks for all of the great info. I did exactly as you suggested except that I sealed the graft with Tanglefoot Tree Seal instead of Parafilm because I didn't have any. I got a little bit of the Tree Seal on the buds. I hope that doesnt cause a problem. I budded onto the trunk of the tree lower down. I dont know if I will be able to cut the top off or bend it because the trunk is too thick there. I did read that you can sometimes force a bud by cutting away the bark above the graft. I may have to try this because of the location of the buds. I like your suggestion of tying limbs toward the main trunk once they got large enough to bud. I think this would work and then I would have a fairly vertical surface to work with. I could then cut that limb above it preserving the structure of the tree. I will try that next time if this doesnt work or If I need to add another variety. Ben mailto:mariposafamily@hotmail.com

[Note: Tanglefoot as used to keep ants and other insects from climbing into trees can be exceedingly injurious when applied directly to the bark of young trees. I assume that the Tanglefoot Tree Seal is a different product that is 'safe' to apply directly to tree. -Leo] -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Budding avocado Mon, 15 Jan 2001 21:04:22 -0800 Richard K. Gross <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> Ben Pierce <mariposafamily@hotmail.com>

I will guess, Ben, that the Seal material won't hurt the bud but haven't used it. As for "cutting away the bark above the graft", I think you are talking about a girdle and it raises a red flag. I think the callus that heals-in the wound around the inserted bud

depends upon carbohydrates traveling downward. Wouldn't a girdle interrupt that supply, just thinking out loud, and stop or slow down the callus formation? Anyway, I wouldn't attempt to force the bud until it is well healed in. If it breaks prematurely, my hunch is that its viability would drop considerably. Some budding I've done successfully, never broke, just healed over and stayed green forever but that teeny new branch locked in there could never make it out. Thanks for your response, Dick Gross mailto:rkg144@worldnet.att.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Interactive Newsgroup - Will You Be Changing? Mon, 15 Jan 2001 07:02:18 -0500 Andrea <andiart@mindspring.com>

Hi Leo, Do you think you will add an interactive newsgroup in the future? I find it fun to check my mail a couple times a day and get info right away...patience is a virtue I do not posess, and we have just purchased a house with 2+ acres, 1 1/2 of that have fruit trees (of which I don't know the varieties yet) and can't wait to jump into my new adventure. If you are not adding a newsgroup in the future, do you know of a good one I may subscribe to? thanks Andrea mailto:andiart@mindspring.com

[Since I have no immediate plans to change the format of the newsletter, I forwarded to Andrea a copy of the Florida-based "rarefruit list" - mailto:rarefruit@egroups.com as it sounds like what she wants. -Leo] -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Longan & Lychee Experimental Program - March Tour Mon, 15 Jan 2001 15:20:45 -0800 Alan Schroeder <arschroeder@home.com> Bob Holzinger <bholzing@amgen.com>

Dear Bob:

Our own local Ventura/Santa Barbara CRFG chapter will be having a tour of the longan/lychee experimental orchard that is with Mark Gaskell's program on March 17 at 10am. This will be at Jay Ruskey's Calimoya ranch in Goleta,CA. Alan Schroeder mailto:arschroeder@home.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Mangos at altitude in Hawaii Wed, 17 Jan 2001 07:56:14 -0800 Holzinger, Bob <bholzing@amgen.com> kahiwal@cs.com <kahiwal@cs.com>

Hi Clarence, Growing mangos at altitude on Hawaii may be like trying to grow mangos here in So. California. The summers aren't quite warm enough and the winters are a little too cold to get good growth out of the tree. From my limited experience I would suggest planting as many seeds from good tasting mango fruits as you can accomodate. Then see which one performs well in your climate. The fruit will probably be okay and could be very good, depending on your luck. Another option is to try the 'Reposa' cultivar. Frankie Sekiya sells this at his nursery on Oahu. He says that it blooms and blooms for a long time, up to nine months. It basically blooms until it sets fruit, if setting fruit is a problem. The fruit resemble 'Haden' in all respects, but are a little larger. Frankie's number is (808) 259-8737. Good luck, Bob Holzinger mailto:bholzing@amgen.com

-----------------------------------------------From: Maurice Kong <CHINO228@aol.com> Date: Wed, 24 Jan 2001 19:27:05 EST Subject: Tropical fruit book of Brunei fruits of Brunei Darussalam Hi Leo: In researching some back issues of Rare Fruit News, I found your list of Rare fruit reference books of interest to your subscribers.

Thought they would also like to know that as a result of an article I wrote in a past issue on Brunei, many members depleted the remaining copies at the Fruit & Spice Park of what is now considered another rare book titled "Fruits of Brunei Darussalam". A very limited quantity has now arrived and will be therefore be sold on a first come basis. Anyone wishing to get a copy should stop by or place their order immediately with 'April" at the Park. Phone ( 305) 247-5727, e-mail <fsp@co.miami-dade.fl.us > Fax (305) 245-3369. The reason? It is now out of print so once they're gone, they're gone forever. Sincerely, Maurice Kong mailto:CHINO228@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Date: Mon, 29 Jan 2001 14:58:09 -0800 From: Nan Sterman <nsterman@mindsovermatter.com> Subject: Who Grows Che, Carambola, and White Sapote Hi Leo I am researching Che, carambola, and white sapote. Can you refer me to any gardeners who are growing these delicacies in their yards in San Diego? Thanks! Nan Sterman mailto:nsterman@mindsovermatter.com Olivenhain, CA

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Date: From: CC:

Experience with Excess Use of Pesticide Wed, 1 Jan 1997 08:22:09 +0300 Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> David A. Loring <dloring3@flash.net>

I have a hectare of lychees which I kept mainly for landscaping purpose. Wanting to produce a good crop of beautiful looking lychees, I applied pesticides liberally. The more pesticide I

used, the more frequent and more numerous the pest atttacks became. I finally surrendered, and left my lychees to the pests to feast upon. I did nothing to my lychees, apart from watering them normally, applying some manure once a year, sparsely applying chemical fertilisers once a year, and cutting the grass when it gets too long and leave the grass there to rot. Guess what? After two years, I noticed that the pests are almost all gone! My lychee trees were quite good-looking, and even produced some fruits. I then realized what a pompous idiot I was to think that my puny scientific knowledge is superior to Mother Nature. This was the turning point. From then on, I started to work with Mother Nature instead of working against her. I am reminded of a ditty about the old lady who swallowed a fly. he then swallowed a spider to get rid of the fly. Then she proceeded to swallow in succession a mouse, a cat, a dog and a horse in order to get rid of the previous pest. Of course, she died. Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Longan Questions/Similiarities Between Plant & Humans Wed, 1 Jan 1997 07:50:49 +0300 Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> <Link2itc@aol.com>

-----Original Message----From: Link2itc@aol.com <Link2itc@aol.com> To: sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Date: 18 çÁÌñÛç 2544 7:37 Subject: Longan Questions | | | | | | | | | | | | Under the trunk of my air-layered Degelman, protruding slightly above the soil, is an irregular knobby brownish mass, about 5 cm in diameter, with a surface texture resembling taro root (looks like tiny 1cm spherical taro roots melted into one another). This mass is clearly attached to the trunk. Do you have any idea what this may be? It almost looks like some sort of tissue reaction. I have never heard of this, and I have no idea what it is. My Degelman leaf also has a strong tendency to curl with a slightly irregular chlorophyl distribution (slight mottling) when the leaf is young. As the leave gets older, the curling and discoloration becomes less evident. What's the cause of this?

I do not know. I can offer some thoughts. It may be nutrient deficiency. It may be a characteristic or a defect of this cultivar.

It may be peculiar to your particulat tree. It may be a defect or characteristic of the mother tree. It may be none of the above. Again I repeat, I have come to a conclusion, of my own, that plants and human are much more similar than most people realize. As a doctor, you have a distinct advantage over other people, including the horticulturist, in understanding the plants. Your logic may seem crazy to some trained hortculturists, but you may be more right than they are! When you have a question on horticultural matter, try to imagine a patient asking you similar question about himself, and imagine what your answer may be. Tell me what you think of my (out-of-the-line) idea. P.S. I have just come back from a meeting of horticulture experts, mostly PhD.s. You'd be amused to see the number of arguments and disagreements (and questioning of the validity of the data) on topics which most amateur horticulturists would assume that the experts have the definitive answers. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: The World's Largest Source Of Out-Of-Print Books! Date: Tue, 16 Jan 2001 10:10:08 -0800 http://dogbert.abebooks.com/ Recommended by Debby Williams <debbywilliams1@home.com> for out-of-print botany books. ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

Bamboo Web Site Thu, 25 Jan 2001 14:12:26 +0100 Jinhe Fu <jfu@gwdg.de> <newcrops@purdue.edu>

You are welcome to Bamboo web site: http://www.geocities.com/zhuzi.geo/ NewCrop Archives are available at: http://bluestem.hort.purdue.edu/newcroplistserv/Search.html Jinhe Fu mailto:jfu@gwdg.de

------------------Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers)------------------

None this time

------------------NAFEX List <nafex@onelist.com>------------------

None this time

-------Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU>-------

None this time

--------From "rarefruit list" - mailto:rarefruit@egroups.com--------

Date: Fri, 26 Jan 2001 06:40:24 -0000 From: Bill <OOWON@netscape.net> Subject: Link to AZ Master Gardener Site (Fertilizer)

For fertilizer, see Soil and Fertilizer in http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/index.html This I am told, is the Main Site to which most Master Gardeners refer. If you wish to pursue this with a list, see: http://www.egroups.com/group/MoreAboutGardening ListMom Martha is very buzy, but good. Bill mailto:OOWON@netscape.net

-----------------------------------------------Date: Fri, 26 Jan 2001 22:36:50 +0800 From: Greg Woolley <gregw@amitar.com.au> Subject: Re: Nutrient strength to prevent browning in tropical tree seedlings OOWON@netscape.net wrote: || || || || Have found a site for Phostrogen fertilizer products http://www.pbi.co.uk/fxdhtml/profertilise.htm there is one with an NPK of 19.19.19 Does that sound like the one to use?

| For seedlings, more like 5-10-10 after they are advanced pretty | well. For sooner, maybe a 1-5-5 or so. But 19-19-19 has an N equal | to the rest! Better for mature plants, and 19 N is very potent so | you will need less, making it economical, usually. N, burns... but a | good amount of P & K is ok. NOW, you might even want a weak solution | of 1-10-10 or 0.1-1.0-1.0 --- note the decimals. Weak on the N... | But the RATIO is the same, though you'd require more of it. Aaaah, thanks Bill that is exactly the kind of info I am seeking. You've put some solid perspective on how I am to fertilize these delicate tropical fruit tree seedlings and this may mean all the difference between more browning off problems and healthy vigorous seedlings, much appreciated! I've never seen the NPK ratio you are recommending over here. Can you buy it of the shelf in the US, or do you mix it yourself? I have some mono-potassium-phosphate which I understand is a safe form of soluble potassium/phosphorus fertilizer, would you recommend this or another form for the tropicals? Maybe mixing a large percentage of the mono-potassium-phosphate with a small

percentage of regular fertilizer would be the go, ie creating a low nitrogen, high potassium high phosphorus fertilizer. Would need to so some calculations to work out how to approximate the 1-10-10 ratio you are recommending, but probably can manage this. | Bill, how often would you advise doing the fertilizing? Once a | week, more, less? IE Do you know how long a 50% perlite + 50% pine | bark (with small amount of gravel rock dust thrown in) would hold the | nutrients in the potting medium before being leached away? Cause | knowing this seems important in order to know how often to fertilize. | | *This is hydroponics. EVERYtime you water you use a VERY weak | fertilizer. That is usually just before the soil substitute dries, | which might be 5-15 minutes on, and 15 to 30 minutes off and drained | to the resevoir, IF I understand what you are attempting, in bark and | perlite. Most of what i am doing is pretty well standard gardening method, yet using some hydroponic medium (ie 50% perlite) in the seedling potting mix primarily for the excellent drainage and aeration of the roots, but the rest is just normal standard procedure, no tank reservoir, no pump and timer with returned nutrients, just forestry seedlings tubes and seedlings trays and plain old watering can and manually dragging the hose all around the garden with it tending to knock over plants in the process lol... However in the past I have tried the automated hydroponic system with some tropicals yet for one reason or another not much success. Actually I think you may have misunderstood my intentions. I am not inquiring on this rare fruit list for methods on hydroponics per se, but am sincerely trying to determine what strength fertilizer I should be using for my tropical fruit tree seedlings which seem to be getting browned off on the one hand and slow growth on the other. I did bring up the subject of hydroponics because I thought your knowledge in that area would equate to good solid advice on the fertilizer needs for sensitive tropical fruit tree seedlings. I apologize Bill if I gave the wrong impression, I think the mention of using perlite in the potting medium may have confused things a bit. Anyway, no problem, ultimately what I am aiming to do is to use liquid compost as the prime fertilizer, cause I like the idea of the micro-organisms interacting with the nutrients, with the medium, with the plant and their roots. Yet, after what you've said about the need for a low nitrogen fertilizer in the beginning, maybe liquid compost would be too high in the nitrogen percentage for that early stage of growth. The rationale for my desire to use liquid compost, is that whenever I've plant a fruit tree in the ground with the soil mixed with plenty of well rotted compost + some rock dust and mulched with generous amounts of well rotted compost the fruit trees seem

to love it and thrive. So I think to myself, well maybe i can kind of duplicate this organic fertilizer method in containerized tropical fruit trees (and seedlings) by using liquid compost. But then again, maybe my rationale is missing something. Anyway this and the browning off problems are the background to why I'm asking these specific fertilizer questions and where I am ultimately aiming to go with the tropicals I am propagating :) Also, had read somewhere that durian don't like chemical fertilizers, this being another reason why I am eventually aiming for organic liquid compost as fertilizer, but maybe I am getting things all out of perspective, this is all very new to me. Thanks Bill :) Greg Woolley Best regards, mailto:gregw@amitar.com.au

-----------------------------------------------Date: Tue, 30 Jan 2001 00:53:27 +0800 From: Greg Woolley <gregw@amitar.com.au> Subject: Re: Re: Humidity, salinity, loquat, nutrient strength OOWON@netscape.net wrote: | | | with | I recall that gypsum (powdered rather than pelletted in this case, but maybe pelleted for later sustaining effects,) is used for salinity problems. The catch, is that it is used in conjunction a heavy "flush away" water quantity. Hi Bill, Thanks very much for your kind care and suggestion. Did some searching on the net for 'gypsum' to learn more about it and came upon this: "Sodic (sodium) soils have poor soil structure and so pose special problems for farmers. Researchers have discovered that sodic soils can be rehabilitated by putting on gypsum or lime. These contain high levels of calcium which leach into the soil and displace the sodium attached to the clays. The sodium is then leached down below the root zone, and the soil structure in the upper layers is restored". http://www.waite.adelaide.edu.au/School/Soil/salinity.html And this:"Application of 6 inches of water will reduce salinity levels by approximately 50%, 12 inches of water will reduce salinity by approximately 80%, and 24 inches by approximately 90%. The manner in which water is applied is important. Water must drain through the soil rather than run off the surface. Internal drainage is

imperative". http://www.ext.usu.edu/publica/agpubs/salini.htm The 2' feet of water you were mentioning and your suggestion of creating a mote around the fruit trees and using gypsum sits well with the above. Thus if I create 6" tall motes around my trees, fill them with water and then let them drain, I can expect an approx 50% reduction in salinity in the soil for those particular trees. That is a neat trick. Would look pretty weird though, with a heap of motes dotted all around my back garden with trees growing out of the middle of them all, hahaha, like a strange medieval village from some storybook far-away-land :) Hmmm, today I did some thinking about using reverse-osmosis water and drippers to irrigate the salt sensitive tropicals, yet my bench top unit only supplies 240 liters per day, not enough for 5-6 trees per day. So I did some ringing around for a larger unit and recieved a whopping great big quote for $5000 for 2000 liter unit. Slightly above my budget I would think! ;) Shall do some more ringing around tomorrow. Well, thanks for your suggestion Bill, will give it some more thought and research and may give it a go. Can't help hoping though that I can cure the problem at the source, ie the actual water. Best, Greg Woolley mailto:gregw@amitar.com.au

-----------------------------------------------Date: From: Subject: Fri, 26 Jan 2001 07:53:54 -0800 Morgan D. Hartt" <Gardening@J4L.Com> Re: Foreign Travel - Health Protection When Abroad

On 24 Jan 2001, at 11:21, Eunice Messner wrote: | | | | | | | | I have a letter asking what a traveler to foreign counties can do to cleanse their fruit before eating it. Probably there is store-bought product one can bring along. What is it? Eunice Messner Hi Eunice, May I suggest that you check into Grapefruit Seed Extract (GSE). http://www.nutriteam.com/index2.html There is no known

interactions. I also use GSE for bugs in my garden. If you have problems with bugs. I have had very good results with using Grapefruit Seed Extract (GSE). You might go to this website and take a look http://www.nutriteam.com/garden.htm This is the company that I order from. Their service has always been great. Not only do I use it against bugs... When I am working with Homes for Habitats (HFH) down in South America, we all take it to save us from the water. If we get a bug bite or scratch we put a drop of the GSE on the area. We use it in spray bottle to keep bugs off. Unlike Neem oil, you can put GSE right on your skin. It does not even bother young children's (3 months or older) skin. Some of the HFH people have been using the GSE for 15 plus years with very good results. When you are working down in poor areas of South America, you get cut and scrapes all the time. The areas that we work in are sometimes very dirty, with dirt gutters that men urinate into. Since starting to take GSE while there, I have had little to no problems and now I drink or eat anything that I want. Smiles & Flowers, Morgan D. Hartt mailto:Gardening@J4L.Com Garden Grove, Ca.

-----------------------------------------------Date: Thu, 25 Jan 2001 13:03:44 -0500 From: Leo A. Martin" <leo1010@attglobal.net> Subject: Re: Foreign Travel - Health Protection When Abroad Hello, The things you're actually worried about catching from vegetable food are a few bacteria, a few protozoan parasites, and some viruses. You won't be safe with anything less than rinsing in a 10% solution of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) or 70% isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol, which won't be permitted on the plane in any useful amount because of fire hazard.) But then, if the water used to prepare the bleach solution is contaminated, it will make the bleach less effective. Much easier and more certain is peeling the fruit YOURSELF with a clean knife. Don't forget that ice can be contaminated too, as can be salads. Don't eat anything already peeled from street vendors. Bottled beverages might not be safe unless they're carbonated. Be sure you open the bottle yourself. Ask for no garnish on drinks.

The Centers for Disease Control Traveler's Health page http://www.cdc.gov/travel/ has a link to this page dealing with food and water: http://www.cdc.gov/travel/foodwatr.htm I recommend anybody traveling outside the US, Western Europe, or developed countries in Asia to read it. Leo A. Martin, M.D. AZ -----------------------------------------------Date: Thu, 25 Jan 2001 15:16:13 -0800 From: Karen Janssen" <res03wp3@gte.net> Subject: Re: Foreign Travel - Health Protection When Abroad Colloidal silver is a fairly good killer of pathogens, easy to make and cheap. But don't buy it already made. It is likely of very weak concentration and very expensive. Get 3 little 9 volt batteries, link them together with snap clips, and attach a length of PURE silver wire to the two end pieces with an aligator clip. Suspend the wire in a glass of distilled water with one or two grains of table salt to start the action. When it shows a faint amber color it is about ready. Store in dark bottle. And it won't hurt YOU to ingest it either. I've been useing it on myself and my cat for 5 years. Karen Janssen mailto:res03wp3@gte.net Southern California mailto:leo1010@attglobal.net Phoenix,

-----------------------------------------------Date: Thu, 25 Jan 2001 18:17:56 +1000 From: Digby Gotts <digby@capetrib.com.au> Subject: Re: Foreign Travel - Health Protection When Abroad Simply wash the fruit and veges (and your hands) in a dilute solution of Potassium Permanganate - Condy's crystals. this is a strong oxidising agent and kills single celled organisms easily with no ill effects on you. Digby Gotts mailto:digby@capetrib.com.au

-- Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars-news@arsgrin.gov --http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Subject: Date: From:

Camphor Curbs Asian Lady Beetles Tue, 30 Jan 2001 09:29:52 -0500 Jesœs Garc’a <jgarcia@ars.usda.gov>

Camphor effectively repels the multicolored Asian lady beetle and could be a way to repel the insects as they attempt to overwinter indoors, Agricultural Research Service scientists report in a recently published paper. The results may help researchers balance the need for protecting this beneficial insect against the public's concern for the nuisance the beetles create when they congregate in people's homes and businesses. The research was published in the November 2000 issue of the Annals of the Entomological Society of America. The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, originally from China, was introduced to the United States in 1916. The beetle has been an effective biological control agent for aphids and scale insects. Researchers with the Chemicals Affecting Insect Behavior Laboratory in Beltsville, Md., used bioassays to determine the ability of the plant compounds camphor and menthol to repel the beetle. Preliminary test results indicate that camphor and menthol vapors are an irritant to the beetle's chemosensory organs. These organs--like little taste buds--were found to be so sensitive that the vapors from the two compounds were enough to repel the lady beetles. Other scientists have found that adult beetles use visual or physical cues to find acceptable overwintering sites. These locations are usually the sunnier or warmer sides of buildings in the afternoon or prominent, exposed, light-colored buildings. Once beetles are at the chosen site, they then resort to using chemical cues to locate the exact crevice they want to inhabit within the structure. Researchers believe that the source of these chemical cues may be beetle feces from the previous winter, the odor of beetles that died at the site, or an attractant pheromone. This evidence suggests that multicolored Asian lady beetles could be controlled using a "push-pull" strategy. They could be "pushed" from their overwintering sites by the camphor repellant and "pulled" into traps--using chemicals that mimic the natural cues they use to identify sites--without harming them. <snip>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000102A.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - February 15, 2001 - AKA RFN200102B.txt

--Notes In Passing

Dr. Sainarong Rasananda tells us what the four top-tasting lychees are, and the nutritional content of longan, in his mailbag section. Bothered by Spam? Check out the Spam Cops reference in the Announcement section http://spamcop.net/ This newsletter is more brief than I would like for it to be. Please consider whether you can write an occasional letter to keep the newsletter going. Consider introducing yourself again, if you haven't written for a few years. Tell us about your weatherrelated problems. Without your participation, RFNO will wither. I will be changing my Internet Service Provider to Earthlink, and expect that there will be glitches. My web page may be missing for a few days, although I've been assured that this won't happen. Anyway, if my address fails to work, you might try one of these: First: leom@rarefruit.com, Second: leowesman@mac.com, Third: leowesman@earthlink.net, and Last: leom@bigfoot.com....

---------Table Of Contents - Headers; (Letters Follow Table Of Contents)

>>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber, Cayman Islands, Wants Help Locating Plants Joel Walton <Joel.Walton@gov.ky> New Subscriber, Florida, Looking For Non-Astringent Persimmon Charlie Boning <SBoning@aol.com> Re:New Subscriber, Florida, Looking For Non-Astringent Persimmon

Leo Manuel To:Charlie Boning <SBoning@aol.com> New Subscriber, CA, Interested In Heliconias and Gingers Gary Bernard <tropicalgaza@webtv.net> New Subscriber, FL, Wants "Non-Mysore" Raspberry Ralph Schmidt <rschmidt@telocity.com>

>>>> Readers Write <<<<

Gitit Pitanga - What's Your Opinion Of The Fruit Quality? Leo Manuel To:Doron Kletter <kletter@impact.xerox.com> Re:Gitit Quality? Doron Kletter <kletter@impact.xerox.com> To: Leo Re:Gitit Quality? Leo Manuel To:Doron Kletter <kletter@impact.xerox.com> Pitaya Fruit Gruett, Tricia M" <Tricia.M.Gruett@uwsp.edu>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

The Best Lychees Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Stay Healthy and Keep Pests and Diseases Away Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: David Loring <dloring3@flash.net> Re: Stay Healthy and Keep Pests and Diseases Away David Loring <dloring3@flash.net> To:Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Information about Longan...

AndrŽs Sbarbaro <andresssbarbaro@laciudad.com> Nutritional Content and Medicinal Properties of Longan - Part 1 Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Longan-Research <longan-research@egroups.com> To: Andres Sbarbaro <andresssbarbaro@laciudad.com> Nutrition Content and Medicinal Properties of Longan - part 2 Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Longan-Research <longan-research@egroups.com> To: Andres Sbarbaro <andresssbarbaro@laciudad.com>

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

Re:Spam - Fight Back - See http://spamcop.net/ Brian Nesse <bnesse@netscapeNOSPAM.com> http://spamcop.net/

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers)

<<<<

None, this time

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<<

None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<< None, this time

--From "rarefruit list"

- mailto:rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

Differentiating female from bisexual papaya Greg Woolley <gregw@amitar.com.au> Re: Differentiating female from bisexual papaya Laisene Samuelu <lsamuelu@lesamoa.net> Re: Differentiating female from bisexual papaya Greg Woolley <gregw@amitar.com.au> Re: grow lights! Console IIci <tfnews@gate.net> Re: grow lights! Bill <OOWON@netscape.net>

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm

Putting the Soil to Bed Over Winter ARS News Service <isnv@ars-grin.gov> New Beetle Attractant Controls White Grubs ARS News Service <isnv@ars-grin.gov>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Subscriber, Cayman Islands, Wants Help Locating Plants Date: Thu, 8 Feb 2001 16:19:14 -0500 From: Walton, Joel <Joel.Walton@gov.ky> My name is Joel Walton, live in Cayman Islands, email: jowal@candw.ky. I am currently growing several annonas and citrus, bananas, 20+ mangoes, various nuts, spondias, eugenias, jujube, sapotacae, and guavas, strawberry, brazos blackberry, mysore raspberry, coffee, acerola cherry, various piper, mirliton, various spices and herbs,

grapes, various pouteria, etc. In total I have over 100 distinct types of fruit and possibly double that amount of varieties. I want to grow durian, capulin cherry and pulusan. help with sources of grafted plants and/or seed. Joel Walton mailto:Joel.Walton@gov.ky ----------------------------------------------------------Can anyone

Subject: New Subscriber, Florida, Looking For Non-Astringent Persimmon Date: Thu, 8 Feb 2001 19:44:47 EST From: Charlie Boning <SBoning@aol.com> My name is Charlie Boning. I live in Palm City, Florida at the northern fringe of the subtropics. I am currently growing: Kiett Mango, Hayden Mango, Geffner Atemoya (just planted), Priestly Atemoya, Honeybell Orange, Naval Orange, White Peruvian Guava (just planted), Ruby x Supreme Guava, Alano Sappodilla (just planted), Macadamia, Marcus Pumpkin Avocado, Day Avocado, and N1 cultivar Jackfruit (just planted). I would like to grow other Annonas, White Sapote (possibly Suebelle, Louise, or Michele), and Persimmon. I have found very little information on the two varieties of Avocado that I am growing. Also, I can find nothing on the N1 cultivar Jackfruit and know nothing of its characteristics other than that it is (supposedly) precocious and an early bearer. Is anyone else growing Jackfruit north of the Palm City/Stuart area? Any recommendations for a variety of (nonastringent) Persimmon that needs few chilling hours? I'd be appreciative of any input. Charlie Boning mailto:SBoning@aol.com -----------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Re: New Subscriber, Florida, Looking For Non-Astringent Persimmon Date: Thu, 08 Feb 2001 18:49:05 -0800 From: Leo Manuel To: Charlie Boning <SBoning@aol.com> Hi Charlie I'll put your letter in the newsletter for additional responses, but I want to say that my understanding is that the N1 cultivar of jackfruit is rather dwarf, making it popular for those with

too-little space. Also, I would guess that Fuyu, Giant Fuyu, and other non-astringent varieties of persimmon would do well for you. Your climate is probably very similar to mine in San Diego, and I have most of the same fruit you mention, including Fuyu. I have a graft of Black Sapote (Black Persimmon) on one of my Fuyu trees, and has been growing for almost three years. When the persimmon loses its leaves, the black sapote graft looks like mistletoe, from a distance. Have you seen White Sapote growing? The tree gets pretty large, unless you prune aggressively, so much of the fruit goes 'splatt' when it falls from the tree. Also, while I have it, McDill, and others on a multiple graft tree, it is not as interesting to eat as many other fruit. I also have Keitt mango, and there are several still on the tree, quite large, of course, and quite firm. I don't have Hayden. What is the White Peruvian guava like? Most guavas also need to be pruned heavily, to keep them in their small allotted space, at least in my yard. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: Hi,

New Subscriber, CA, Interested In Heliconias and Gingers Fri, 9 Feb 2001 15:24:12 -0800 (PST) Gary Bernard <tropicalgaza@webtv.net>

Thanks for getting back to me, My name is Gary Bernard. I am from England, but now live in S. California. At present I am growing 6 different types of fruiting bananas 3 flowering ones, also passion fruits papayas,pineapples,and a vanila, if you can class this as a fruit. I am also very much in to tropical plants, especially heliconias and gingers, I would be very interested to here if any of you grow heliconias in S California. I also got a small tree of a black sapote, and would like to know how big it will get and how big it needs to be to fruit. It is only 2 feet at the moment Have a nice day all the best GAZA

Gary Bernard mailto:tropicalgaza@webtv.net

-----------------------------------------------------------

Subject: From: Date: Hi,

New Subscriber, FL, Wants "Non-Mysore" Raspberry Ralph Schmidt <rschmidt@telocity.com> Wed, 14 Feb 2001 12:01:11 -0500

I am Ralph Schmidt, and I live in Miami Beach, FL Fruit trees I am now growing are....Jackfruit, Hak Ip Lychee, Glenn Mango, Avocado from seed, Sugar Apple, Figs (brown and green), Burro Bananas, Longan seedling (15 ft.tall, never blooms. Are there raspberries other than Mysore which will grow in Miami? Ralph Schmidt mailto:rschmidt@telocity.com

[Note: I'm not sure about the availability, but Oregon 1030 is a raspberry recommended for Southern California, possibly also for Southern Florida? Leo]

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Gitit Pitanga - What's Your Opinion Of The Fruit Quality? Date: Mon, 12 Feb 2001 09:58:50 -0800 From: Leo Manuel To: Doron Kletter <kletter@impact.xerox.com> Hi Doron, I girdled my Gitit and am trying to airlayer it, and was exceedingly disappointed in the only fruit I ate from it. Granted, it was from a girdled tree, in a pot, and on the north side of the house, so there were plenty of reasons why it should not have been more tasty. How has it tasted at your home? that we were expecting? Do you give it the rave review

How's everything else? Are you in an area with electricity outages? We've been spared so far, but it's scary. Take care

Leo in San Diego -----------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

Re: Gitit Quality? Mon, 12 Feb 2001 16:28:03 -0800 Doron Kletter <kletter@impact.xerox.com> leom@rarefruit.com

Leo, Had a few dozen fruit on my plant too. I ran out of space in my little greenhouse and had to take the plant outside (it is still in a pot, like in your case). The fruit is large (3/4" to 1") and pale pink - it never gets too dark. I thought they were ok, sweet and not overly resinous, but not as good as the ones I tasted from the mother plant. I was going to plant it in the ground this year (once the danger of cold weather is over) and give it a real try. Maybe they need a warmer climate. Heard on the news it was snowing in San Diego. Is this very unusual? Do you have to protect your plants at all? We did not have much in terms of blackouts (one so far), but it ain't over yet. Regards, Doron mailto:kletter@impact.xerox.com

-----------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From:

Re: Gitit Quality? Mon, 12 Feb 2001 19:41:10 -0800 Leo Manuel To: Doron Kletter <kletter@impact.xerox.com>

Hi Doron, The climate in San Diego County varies tremendously. I haven't experienced frost at my location, but have seen it within a few blocks of my home. My location is on a hill and seems to have enough air circulation to keep frost away. The snow was outside of the city of San Diego, I believe, but quite close. I heard that Alpine had snow, just east on I-8, with a somewhat higher elevation than San Diego has.

I did live much closer to the coast, but on a coastal canyon. The cold air that drained from the colder inland parts of the county made that location much more frost prone, and I couldn't grow the fruit that I can now. Did the 'Gitit' you ate in Israel lack the resinous taste so common in many varieties? The 'Vermillion' is relatively free of that, gets rather large, and is orange-red when ripe. It is one of my favorites. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Pitaya Fruit Date: Thu, 1 Feb 2001 16:11:24 -0600 From: Gruett, Tricia M" <Tricia.M.Gruett@uwsp.edu> Hi My name is Tricia Gruett. I am currently a college student at University of Wisconsin Stevens Point. After doing soem research on the web, I discovered your name. I am doing a project on pitaya fruit and was wondering if you could send me some samples. What I am doing is designing a poster to promote this fruit to others. Any help that you can give me would be greatly appreciated. thank you...... Sincerely Tricia Gruett mailto:tgrue965@uwsp.edu

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: The Best Lychees Date: Thu, 8 Feb 2001 15:57:50 +0700 From: Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> International lychee experts and lychee growers who have travelled extensively agree the China has the best lychees, unsurpassed by lychees anywhere.

Noumici or No Mai Chee is the most famous of all. It is well known for its lovely scarlet skin, plumb and tender flesh, small seed, small seed, sweetness, juicy texture, fragrance - sounds heavenly, doesn't it? Its average weight is 25 gm., TSS 18-21%, TA 0.22%, the edible portion is 84%. The second favorite is Gui Wei. It has tiny seed, crisp flesh, delicate sweetness, fragrance similar to that of the osmanthus flower. My Australian grower-friend thinks it is fabulous. Its average weight is 17 gm., TSS 19%, TA 0.15%. Two other cultivars are also very good. Feiz Xiao is juicy and delicious; the fruit tastes better when picked half-colored than when over-ripe. The average size is 30 gm. - that is large, TSS 18-19%, TA 0.28%. The seed is degenerated. Bai Tang Ying is also excellent. If you can get hold of any of these fab four, buy them. Bear in mind, however, that they are native to China, where the climate is cool. PS I am not sure whether these four are known by any other names or not. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Stay Healthy and Keep Pests and Diseases Away Date: Mon, 5 Feb 2001 23:47:57 +0700 From: Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: David Loring <dloring3@flash.net> David, I would like to begin by following up on the analogy between plants and humans. We all know certain people who are hardly ever ill, while some sickly individuals spend a fortune on their medical bills. I know that we realize that the reasons for the difference lie in a combination of heredity, way of living, as well as luck. It would appear that the healthy individuals have developed an immunity to diseases. Well, the same applies to the plant kingdom, healthy plants seems to be immune to pests and diseases, while their unhealthy cousins

seem to attract a host of pests and diseases. Many hypotheses have been put forward to explain this phenomenon. I shall not bother you by going into details, but the bottom line is clearly that an unhealthy plant is more prone to diseases and attacks by pests. So, if your orchard suffers from frequent attacks by pests and diseases, you should take a hard look at your soil, water and plant management techniques. It could well be that the pests and diseases are the symptoms, not the cause. On the same line of thoughts, some people say that weeds are indications of an imbalanced soil. They claim that they can tell the nature of the imbalance by the weeds which are growing; they say that this is even more accurate than a scientific soil analysis. They say that weeds do not grow on balanced, healthy soil; they even say that insects tend to attack weeds, and leave healthy plants alone. I would like to thank many friends who have written to me, telling me that they had similar experiences, and have come to similar conclusions as I have. This shows that my ideas and observations are neither new nor innovative. Indeed, they may be quite ancient, but some of us seem to have forgotten or ignored them, so it is worthwhile to remind all of us that there is a lot of wisdom in the ways of our forefathers. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Re: Stay Healthy and Keep Pests and Diseases Away Date: Wednesday, February 07, 2001 17:04:28 +0700 From: Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> The attached e-mail comes from David Loring, a specialist in pest control by biological techniques. David knows what he is talking about. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

----- Original Message ----From: David Loring <dloring3@flash.net> To: Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Sent: Wednesday, February 07, 2001 11:06 AM Subject: Re: Stay Healthy and Keep Pests and Diseases Away I agree with all that you've said except that weeds don't grow on balanced, healthy soil. From the time man started tilling the

soil weeds have been the major problem even on the best soils. It is true though that certain plants (a weed is a plant out of place . . .eg. a bunch of tomato plants in your broccoli field are weeds if they compete for fertility, light or water) are indicators of poor soil ie. drainage, saltiness or pH problems. The rest of the natural world does not know that we humans consider tomatoes to be edible and nightshade to be a weed. All plants are edible to some insect, animal or microbe. We are all someplace on the food web trying to fit in every nich we can. Dave ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Information about LONGAN... 2 Feb 2001 20:30:51 -0800 AndrŽs Sbarbaro <andresssbarbaro@laciudad.com>

Hello, My name is AndrŽs Sbarbaro and I'm writing from Perœ. I found your page in a search about LONGAN, because now I'm too interest about this fruit. I need information like PH, ¡BRIX, ACIDITY and Nutrition Facts. If you could help me I'm going to be too grateful with you. AndrŽs Sbarbaro mailto:andresssbarbaro@laciudad.com

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Subject: Date: From: To:

Nutritional Content and Medicinal Properties of Longan - Part 1 Wed, 14 Feb 2001 12:36:07 +0700 Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Longan-Research <longan-research@egroups.com> Andres Sbarbaro <andresssbarbaro@laciudad.com>

Querido Andres! The nutritional contents of longan, Biew Kiew variety, per 100 g. edible portion,are as follows: Water (g)------------81.6 Energy (kcal)--------71 Protein (g.)----------1.2 Fat (g.)--------------0.1 Carbohydrate (g.)----16.4 Fiber(g.)-------------0.8

Ash (g.)--------------0.8 Calcium (mg.)---------5 Phosphorus (mg.)-----17 Iron (mg.)------------0.5 Sodium (mg.)----------9 Potassium (mg.)-----222 Copper (mg.)----------0.07 Zinc (mg.)------------0.1 Retinol (mg.)---------0 Carotin (mg.)-------- Vitamin A (mg.)------ Thiamine (mg.)--------0.04 Riboflavin (mg.)------0.07 Niacin (mg.)----------0.8 Vitamin C (mg.)------11 pH------------------- 6.3-7.0 Sweetness----------- 15-18 Brix (I myself consider 22 brix to be more acceptable) Source : Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Thailand Hasta Luego! Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

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Subject: Date: From: To:

Nutrition Content and Medicinal Properties of Longan - part 2 Wed, 14 Feb 2001 12:05:04 +0700 Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Longan-Research" <longan-research@egroups.com> Andres Sbarbaro" <andresssbarbaro@laciudad.com>

Querido Andres! If you consider only the nutritional contents of longan (que llamas longan en espanol?), you are missing a most important propery of longan, viz, its numerous medicinal value. It is generally accepted that longans and lychees are native to South-East China, or whereabout. The Chinese knew about these two fruits for well over a thousand years, and exported them to the outside world. While the rest of the world prefers lychees, the Chinese themselves surprisingly value longans more highly. This is because the Chinese have been aware for a long time that longan has many medicinal properties. As a matter of fact, longan is an essential ingredient in many of the traditional Chinese concoctions. The medicinal properties of longan which I summarize

below are weaned from the book (in Chinese) called 'The Correct Usage of Chinese Medicines with Enervating Properties', published by the Medicinal Technology of China Publishing House in Beijing in 1996. Among the medicinal properties of longan is the prevention and cure of the following symptoms - insomnia, excessive dreams, nervousness, restless disposition, forgetfulness, indigestion, feeling weak, excessive menstruation. Longan is recommended as a pick-me-up for people who feel weak, particularly new mothers, elderlies, and people who have just recovered from a long illness. The book goes on to list a number of Trditional Chinese medicines which has longan as a major ingredient. I know that, to a Western mind, the numerous properties may appear exaggerated. However, do bear in mind that the Chinese are a wise, ancient race, whose wisdoms are being constantly re-discovered by the West. Hasta Luego! Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Date: From: Organization:

Re: Spam - Fight Back Wed, 07 Feb 2001 09:57:16 -0800 Brian Nesse <bnesse@netscapeNOSPAM.com> Netscape Communications Corp.

Another great service I was recently introduced to can be found at: <http://spamcop.net/> About halfway down the page is a "Just Testing" link. Choose this link, paste the entire contents of the email into the text box and hit the process button. A quick check at ARIN <http://www.arin.net/whois/index.html> shows the origination server of the message appears to belong to "Interpacket Group, Inc." After parsing the headers, SpamCop suggests sending complaints to: abuse@interpacket.net and postmaster@interpacket.net -Brian

------------------Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers)------------------

None this time

------------------NAFEX List <nafex@onelist.com>------------------

None this time

-------Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU>-------

None this time

--------From "rarefruit list" - mailto:rarefruit@yahoogroups.com--------

Subject: [rarefruit] Digest Number 308 ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Subject: Differentiating female from bisexual papaya Date: Tue, 13 Feb 2001 21:51:15 +0800 From: Greg Woolley <gregw@amitar.com.au> Hello all, Okay I know what a male papaya looks like, the small plentiful flowers are on long stalks, easy one. But how do you determine the difference between a female and bisexual papaya? Can anyone please explain? Thanks in advance :) Greg mailto:gregw@amitar.com.au

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Subject: Re: Differentiating female from bisexual papaya Date: Tue, 13 Feb 2001 12:12:31 -1100 From: Laisene Samuelu <lsamuelu@lesamoa.net> A female papaya is more round compared to a bisexual (hermaphrodite) which is a smooth oblong shape. To determine at flowering stage, the female flower is usually larger and when you open a closed flower, it does not have pollens (yellow). A bisexual flower has both the pollens and ovary. Hope this helps. Laisene Samuelu mailto:lsamuelu@lesamoa.net

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Subject: Re: Differentiating female from bisexual papaya Date: Wed, 14 Feb 2001 16:12:59 +0800 From: Greg Woolley <gregw@amitar.com.au> Thanks to everyone for your replies. Can you believe it, I've walked past my papaya trees hundreds of times and looked at the flowers from a few feet away and never thought to actually open the flowers and have a look! What I did think though, was the flowers on all my papaya trees all looked pretty much the same (except of course the male tree flowers). I had thought there would be some obvious outward difference between a female tree flowers and bisexual tree flowers. Will open a few of those flowers and take closer look, thanks Laisene and everyone else. Regards, Greg Woolley mailto:gregw@amitar.com.au

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Subject: Re: grow lights! Date: Tue, 13 Feb 2001 11:33:28 -0400 From: Console IIci <tfnews@gate.net> Michael,

I have grown some plants under fluorescent lights. I used 48 inch fixtures with duel tubes. One tube was 'cool white' the other 'warm'. This mix seemed to give good growth. These were purchased rather cheaply as shop lights. These seem to be the least expensive. Using these the plants need to be kept close to the light source. Other light types might do better but tend to cost more. You might use some as supplemental lights. IF you can get the plants big enough, and keep them warm enough, they should bloom when mature. Your best answer might be a glass lean to that would be lighted in winter and allow sunlight and supplemental light in summer. In the coldest months the glass could be covered with insulation. Passion vines can get very large:) I have also sent your message (and my reply) to CoolFruit@yahoogroups.com as some of the readers might have more information. You may want to join the group. CoolFruit members will need to reply to Michael at: "Michael Krause" <krause@en.com> or through rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Best of growing, Bob SW Florida mailto:tfnews@gate.net

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Subject: Re: grow lights! Date: Tue, 13 Feb 2001 17:25:22 -0000 From: Bill <OOWON@netscape.net> Studies have shown the above mix is as good as the expensive lights except for very minor differences in a very few and certain situations/plants. They are a more pleasant purple though for inside if that is an isue. In http://groups.yahoo.com/group/an-ot-garden I have some light posts around messages 43 - 45 as I recall. Some address shop lights and how to use a camera as a light meter. www.GrapeSeek.com has a small tent/light setup. the basic concept... Bill mailto:OOWON@netscape.net Maybe just upsize

-- Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars-news@arsgrin.gov --http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Subject: Putting the Soil to Bed Over Winter Date: Tue, 13 Feb 2001 10:37:10 -0500 From: ARS News Service <isnv@ars-grin.gov> Winter cover crops can provide a wealth of ecological and financial benefits for farmers and gardeners--especially if these crops have been fine-tuned for local use. In sustainable agricultural systems, farmers and gardeners need new nitrogen-fixing winter cover crops to help reduce weeds and herbicides, add nitrogen and improve soil quality and tilth. ARS geneticist Thomas E. Devine at the Sustainable Agricultural Systems Laboratory in Beltsville, Md., has a 13-year plant breeding program under way to meet these needs. He is breeding, testing and selecting two potential species--hairy vetch, Vicia villosa, and subterranean clover, Trifolium subterranean. He wants to make these crops more useful to farmers and gardeners who grow crops in sustainable agricultural systems. Both cover crops are legumes that form a symbiosis with specialized soil bacteria called rhizobia. These bacteria take nitrogen from the air, convert it to a form the plants can use, and store the nitrogen in nodules on legume roots. The next crop seeded after the cover crop can use this readily available nitrogen. Since the spring of 1998, Devine has evaluated 451 lines of subterranean clover, earmarking those with better winter-hardiness and seedling vigor. He is testing them to determine whether genetic variability exists for winter-hardiness, seedling vigor and thatch production. Since the fall of 1998, Devine has been evaluating 53 accessions of hairy vetch, to identify those useful as parental material. His goal: develop earlier flowering cultivars with more vigorous cool-season growth for use in green manure/mulch systems for sustainable agriculture. For more details, see the February issue of Agricultural Research magazine, available online at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/feb01/soil0201.htm ARS is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's chief scientific research agency. <snip>

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Subject: New Beetle Attractant Controls White Grubs Date: Thu, 15 Feb 2001 09:45:45 -0500 From: ARS News Service <isnv@ars-grin.gov>

A new lure being developed by Agricultural Research Service and cooperating scientists could bring relief to people trying to guard their lawns and crops against root-damaging white grubs. White grubs--the larvae of beetles in the family Scarabaeidae--are important pests of turfgrass, sugarcane, corn, small grains, vegetables, flowers, trees and nursery crops throughout the United States and around the world. The research focuses on a lure that attracts and kills the adult beetles before they have a chance to lay eggs. By preventing an infestation of white grubs, this new environmentally friendly technology may greatly reduce the need for treating large areas with insecticides, according to ARS entomologist Juan D. Lopez, Jr., in College Station, Texas. ARS researchers there are working with a scientist at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in Dallas. This new attractant is of special interest because no effective attractants are currently available for monitoring and controlling several species of white grubs, according to Lopez. The attractant was developed under a cooperative research agreement with Trece, Inc., of Salinas, Calif. The scents, which smell like food to the beetles, lure adult insects into a trap or into a treated area where they are captured or can feed on low-dose insecticides. A feeding stimulant entices them to eat enough of the mixture to kill them. With attract-and-kill technology, adults are targeted even though the larvae do the most damage to root crops. The goal is to keep adults from reproducing, thereby reducing succeeding generations. The new attractant can be used either as part of a monitoring program or as a direct control. Using monitoring alone, farmers and other growers can know when and where the pest is breeding to produce damaging offspring. This permits more efficient use of fewer pesticides in area-wide Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. USDA and the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station have applied for a patent on the adult beetle attractant. A similar attractant for corn earworm moths was patented in June 2000.

ARS is the chief scientific research agency for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. <snip> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000102B.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Rare Fruit News Online - March 1, 2001 - AKA RFN200103A.txt

>> Notes In Passing << Dr. Sainarong Rasananda discusses the Longan Underground (roots) and more on the nutritional content of longan, in his mailbag section. Thank You Readers! You wrote more letters and made the newsletter more useful to others. I hope you will keep it that way! Letters Missed? > Several letters have dates that means they should have been published in an earlier newsletter. I'm not sure, but I think they were overlooked, so I'm putting them here (again?). If you ever write and it doesn't get published, please write again, as I almost never deliberately refrain from publishing a letter. >>>> Table Of Contents - Headers; (Letters Follow Table Of Contents) <<<

>> New Subscribers

<<

New Subscriber, In Israeli Kibbutz, is an Agronomist Timna Shoer <shoer@naan.org.il> New Subscriber, S. CA: One Acre, Forty Fruit Varieties.... Lawrence Dodson" <dodsonlarry@msn.com> New Subscriber, S. CA: Root Characteristics of Rare Fruit? Jim Hathaway <chateaudecr@cs.com>

New Subscriber, S. CA Greg Danskin <gdarch@pacbell.net> New Subscriber, San Diego, Getting Started With Rare Fruit Harvey Stewart <sandiegodude@home.com> New Subscriber, Israel Now, S. Calif. Later MR. DAN ARDEL <Ardel@prontomail.com> New Subscriber, Georgia, Looking For Moy Dulce Papaya Info William Boyd <theboyds@mediaone.net> Re: Carica papaya "moy dulce" Leo Manuel To: William Boyd <theboyds@mediaone.net> New Subscriber, Missouri Jan Bennicoff <JBennicoff@home.com>

>> Readers Write <<

Newsletter - What Newsletter? HFTurnbull <hfturnbull@csupomona.edu> How do I stop? Richard K. Gross <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> To: Bob <pomello@one.net.au> Re: How do I stop? Bob <pomello@one.net.au> Fruit Passion out of Control Alan Schroeder <arschroeder@home.com> To: Rob <pomello@one.net.au> Re: Who Grows Che, Carambola, and White Sapote? George F. Emerich <gemerich@tfb.com> Grafting For Cold Tolerance - Searching For Answers

Alan Schroeder <arschroeder@home.com> Re: Grafting For Cold Tolerance - Searching For Answers Leo Manuel To: Alan Schroeder <arschroeder@home.com> Black Sapote (Persimmon) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: Gary <tropicalgaza@webtv.net> Re: Black Sapote (Persimmon) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: Gary <tropicalgaza@webtv.net> Persimmon - Nonastringent Varieties Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: Charles <SBoning@aol.com> ACRES USA Magazine Is A Fount of Knowledge Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: sainaron@loxinfo.co.th Papaya - How To Keep Them Alive In Winter? Susan Seifert <mal316@ix.netcom.com> Alphonso Mango Samar Gupta <samar@vsnl.com> To: Ben Pierce <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> Diazinon Phased out: "Health Risk To Children" Denise <Dmshuck@aol.com> Capulin cherry, durian and pulasan Holzinger, Bob <bholzing@amgen.com> To: Joel <Joel.Walton@gov.org> Fruit Seeds For Russian Family? Scott and Harrietta <kcscott@emily.net> Re: Fruit Seeds For Russian Family? Scott and Harrietta <kcscott@emily.net>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Getting Down to the Root of the Problem > Part 1 Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Re: Nutritional Contents and Medicinal Properties of Longan Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Francis Zee <hilofz@ars>grin.gov> Re: Nutritional Contents and Medicinal Properties of Longan Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Andres Sbarbaro <andresssbarbaro@laciudad.com> Insect control Richard K. Gross <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> To: Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Re: Insect control Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Richard K. Gross <rkg144@worldnet.att.net>

>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<

Traveler's Aid Michael Zarky <mzarky@earthlink.net> http://www.hydro>photon.com/index.shtml Sites Useful For Locating Planting Material Denise Edwards <deniseedwards@lycos.com> http://www.fruitspirit.com.au http://www.ecuadorexplorer.com New Location for Santol's Tropical Fruit Home Page Bruce Livingston <santol@irishabroad.com>

http://www.tropfruit.com Message from Santol's Tropical Fruit Home Page Bruce Livingston <santol@irishabroad.com> http://www.tropfruit.com Diazinon Phased out: "Health Risk To Children" Gardens Alive! <bounce@gardensalive.com>

>>Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time

>>NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> None, this time

>> From NEWCROPS List <newcrops@purdue.edu> None, this time

>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@egroups.com <<

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Insects Thrive on Special Fast>Food ARS News Service <isnv@ars>grin.gov> Computer Model Can Help Manage Carbon ARS News Service <isnv@ars>grin.gov>

New Red Raspberry Means More Fresh Berries ARS News Service <isnv@ars>grin.gov> Dow Jones Step Aside: Here Comes the Soil Carbon Market ARS News Service <isnv@ars>grin.gov>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>New Subscribers<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Subscriber, In Israeli Kibbutz, is an Agronomist Date: Sat, 20 Jan 2001 13:20:27 +0200 From: Timna Shoer <shoer@naan.org.il> Shalom! My name is Timna Shoer, and I live in a Kibbutz in Israel. I'm an agronomist and fruit trees are my profession and hobby. I would like to join your list, and help with my knowledge if possible. All the best Timna mailto:shoer@naan.org.il ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, S. CA: One Acre, Forty Fruit Varieties.... Date: Sun, 18 Feb 2001 13:10:06 -0800 From: Lawrence Dodson" <dodsonlarry@msn.com> Hi, I am Larry Dodson, in Riverside, CA We seem to have a lot in common. I grow nearly all of the fruits that you have listed as those that you grow. I moved to Los Angeles as a teenager with my family from Fort Scott, Kansas in 1963. In elementary school, I took music lessons and on Saturdays, my mother drove my brother and me to Pittsburg for practice with the youth orchestra at the college. We would sometimes stop by Frontenac (I think that's how it's spelled) to buy some delicious Italian sausage. Over the years, I have started a number of trees from seeds and cuttings given to me by friends. A few years ago, I learned about

CRFG through reading a Press-Enterprise newspaper article about an Inland Empire Chapter member. I went to the very next meeting and nearly all of them since then. I've attended the last three Festival Of Fruit meetings. I'm always looking for something new to try. We have one acre covered with navel oranges. I've been pulling out some and putting in other things. At last count, I had at least forty different fruits. I'm looking forward to reading your newsletters. Thanks! Larry ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, S. CA: Root Characteristics of Rare Fruit? Date: Mon, 19 Feb 2001 16:38:47 -0800 From: Jim Hathaway <chateaudecr@cs.com> Hi LeoI am interested in receiving your newsletter. My name is Jim Hathaway, and I live in Rancho Palos Verdes, CA. My email address is chateaudecr@cs.com I have oranges, lemon, lime, tangerine, grapefruit, Thai guava, cherimoya, persimmon, lychee, logan, pomegranate, pineapple, jack fruit, macadamia, and white sapote. I am interested in growing papaya and coffee. I would like to know how far in circumference the jack fruit and papaya root systems will extend, so I can prepare proper drainage for their roots. I plan to keep the jackfruit small by trimming alot. The Jackfruit is named something like "S-80"; I plan to grow the "sunrise" or "sunset" papaya. Any comments would be appreciated. Thank you, Jim Hathaway mailto:chateaudecr@cs.com

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, S. CA Date: Mon, 19 Feb 2001 20:16:30 -0800 From: Greg Danskin <gdarch@pacbell.net> Hello My name is Greg Danskin (email gdarch@pacbell.net). I, my wife, and two small children live in Escondido, California. Ethan is

almost four and Abbey is just two. orchard, which is sorely unkempt. We have several fruit trees:

They love to play down in our

Citrus: Navel, Valencia, Mandarin, White grapefruit, apricot, lime, 'Juicing' oranges, although I don't know exactly how to identify them precisely. Haas Avocado trees, Pomegranate, Fuyu, White grapefruit, mango, apricot, and mango. We would like to learn more about the trees and plants we have, and be able to choose new ones for planting that would benefit us seasonally. We are looking forward to this newsletter... Greg mailto:gdarch@pacbell.net ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, San Diego, Getting Started With Rare Fruit Date: Fri, 23 Feb 2001 20:23:27 -0800 From: Harvey Stewart <sandiegodude@home.com> My name is Harvey Stewart I live in the College Area (all hail Zone 23!!) in San Diego ZIP 92115. My email address is sandiegodude@home.com I have lived in San Diego for 5 years but I have planted on my southeast facing canyon lot: psidiums, real guavas, pineapples, rose apple, quince, longan, cherimoya, passiflora, suebelle sapote, loquat, butia capitata palm and manila mango. I also have blue berries, grapes and citrus just for fun! I am planting Surinam Cherry, Pitanga and Chilean Guava this season. I am looking for narajilla and pepino dulces. I look forward to reading your newsletter. Best Regards Harve Stewart mailto:sandiegodude@home.com

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Subject: New Subscriber, Israel Now, S. Calif. Later Date: Sat, 24 Feb 2001 18:56:53 +0200 From: Dan Ardel <Ardel@prontomail.com> Dear Mr. Manuel, I am requesting a subsription to your newsletter. My name is Daniel Ardel and I am currently living in Tel Aviv, Israel, but I will be relocating back to Orange County, California by mid-March. At my parent's home in Anaheim, we have growing and fruiting: mangos cherimoyas guavas and in the past: bananas, papayas, sugar cane, acerola, etc.. I am also interest in other tropical plants and trees. I have lived, learned, and worked in Israel for 4 years now, and I have seen many extensive orchards and plantations that would interest Californians. Having a similiar climate, Israel grows many bananas, pineapples, mangos, guavas, atemoyas, papayas, lychee, longans, pithayas, starfruit, etc. The interest in these fruits is evidenced by the many mature orchards, fruit stands, and availability in various landscapes in the coastal parts of Israel, as well as the region around the Kinneret Lake ("Sea of Galilee") and the Jordan Valley. Some of these regions are very humid in the summer, most unlike California in general, but the winter temperature lows are comparable. Some projects in the Jordan Valley, Dead Sea, and the Arava Valley (along the lower Jordan border region) should be an inspiration for expanding the planting of tropicals in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys (as well as parts of Arizona). I am very eager to return to some peace and quiet in California, as well as back to my garden... Daniel Ardel mailto:Ardel@prontomail.com

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Subject: New Subscriber, Georgia, Looking For Moy Dulce Papaya Info Date: Sun, 25 Feb 2001 08:14:41 -0500 From: William Boyd <theboyds@mediaone.net> Hi

I am Bill Boyd, in Lilburn, GA (USDA hardiness zone 7B) Fruit trees I am now growing are pawpaw, pineapple guava, unnamed variety of banana, pomegranate, and soon to receive a mango from Jene's which likely will bear fruit. I want to grow papaya I've recently learned of "Moy Dulce" papaya, described as a fruit-producing annual in San Antonio during one growing year. Do you possibly have a source of seed? Thanks, Bill mailto:theboyds@mediaone.net

[Note: Bill, would you report back on your search results, please? -Leo] ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Carica papaya "moy dulce" Date: Sun, 25 Feb 2001 08:43:47 -0800 From: Leo Manuel To: William Boyd <theboyds@mediaone.net> Here's a very old letter that may be of use: |Date: Sun, 15 Feb 1998 16:53:29 -0600 |From: "Harry W. Mazal OBE" <hmazal@txdirect.net> |Subject: Papaya Plant Sale in San Antonio! | |Dear Leo, | |Thank you for your interesting and pertinent Newsletter. I always read |it with great care and enthusiasm. | |I am happy to announce that the San Antonio Botanical Society, |(benefactors of the San Antonio Botanical Gardens) will be having Mr. |Moy's hybrid papayas for sale again this year. All proceeds from the |sale will go to support research activities in the Gardens. | |This year we will have the already hugely successful Moy Dulce, a |dioecieus hybrid that produces fruit 11 months after seeding. Our |plants were started in October in our new, modern greenhouse, built |exclusively with funds from our sales. Many of the females have

|already set fruit! This plant only requires 145 days with daytime |temperatures above 70 degrees after the flowers have set to produce |ripe, sweet papayas in the area around San Antonio. We have about |2,000 Moy Dulce Papayas for sale. We are usually sold out after Viva |Botanica (see below). | |A new, experimental papaya (Carica papaya, var. Moy Aromatic), will |also be available. This is a dwarf dioecious hybrid which we believe |will be suitable for container growing. We only have 300 of these -|half will presumably be males -- and they too will be available during |our sales days: | |[Dates in 1998] | |Apart from papayas, we will also be offering a number of tropical and |native hybrid hibiscus developed by Mr. Moy, a few Carambola |seedlings, and a number of other exotics. | |Because the papayas are already four feet tall (or more!), we cannot |ship them, although we can sell them on other dates at the Gardens by |special arrangement. | |I will be happy to answer questions by e-mail: | |hmazal@txdirect.net | |For the record, I am Harry W. Mazal, First Vice-President of the San |Antonio Botanical Society, and founder of the Plant Propagation and |Sales Group at the Gardens. We are a 100% volunteer organization. | |Thanks, and kindest regards, | |Harry mailto:hmazal@txdirect.net ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Missouri Date: Mon, 26 Feb 2001 22:41:49 -0600 From: Jan Bennicoff <JBennicoff@home.com>

Hi: I would like to subscribe to rare fruit news online. I am Jan Bennicoff and live in Springfield, MO. I have the following fruit trees and bushes: medlar, green fig, big apple kousa, asian pears, goumi, aronia, kiwis, and paw-paws. Thanks! Jan Bennicoff mailto:JBennicoff@home.com

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Newsletter - What Newsletter? Date: Wed, 24 Jan 2001 06:30:32 -0800 From: HFTurnbull <hfturnbull@csupomona.edu> |Leo, | |I haven't received your newsletter for a long time. I think my |last issue was at the beginning of last year. Am I off the list? |Or, are you no longer sending? | |Fred Turnbull mailto:hfturnbull@csupomona.edu Hi Fred, I'm glad you wrote. Somehow your name got dropped off the list. I will never know why. If you go to the webpage as mentioned below, you'll be able to copy any of the past issues. If you need for me to send them to you by email, let me know. Take care, Leo ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: How do I stop? Date: Wed, 31 Jan 2001 21:07:03 -0800 From: Richard K. Gross <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> To: <pomello@one.net.au>

I have a perfect solution for your addiction, Rob. I live in Phoenix, Arizona in a low desert with 12 cm annual precipitation, temperatures ranging from 1.67C to 48C. In 32 years, I have never encountered a scorpion or a rattlesnake and flies are nonexistent. Just trade places with me. I must ask, though, are there crocs in your area? If there are, the deal's off. My mate doesn't like them unless you want to throw wives in with the trade. Let me know if you are interested. Dick Gross, Arizona Cultivar, CRFG mailto:rkg144@worldnet.att.net ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Re: How do I stop? Date: Thu, 1 Feb 2001 17:57:16 -0800 From: Bob <pomello@one.net.au> Very tempting. Sounds like Pistachio territory to me and i've always wanted a couple of those. No crocs here just the occasional Red Bellied Black snake (very attractive creatures and hardly poisonous at all.), Brown Snake (less attractive more poisonous) hundreds of wallabies, Bower Birds and Kookaburras. 12cm of rain sounds a bit meagre though. It's been raining here for 3 days and we have probably had 25cm while I have been writing this. Must sign off now as it is time for me to have my regular fix of the CRFG website. If you are ever down under look me up there is plenty to keep a pomologist entertained, in fact I know a quaint little nursery ...... Bob Mc mailto:pomello@one.net.au

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Fruit Passion out of Control Sat, 3 Feb 2001 12:37:46 -0800 Alan Schroeder <arschroeder@home.com> Rob <pomello@one.net.au>

Dear Rob: Do not stop but immediately go to Daley's Nursery and relay your findings to our RFNO group concerning the following fruits they list on their website: Rollinia 'Piconii' on cherimoya rootstock, "well suited to cooler

subtropics" Just how cool do they mean? Does the cherimoya rootstock seem to assist its survival to cooler temperatures? Does the fruit ripen properly under cooler conditions? Jacfruit 'Black Gold' is listed as "far more cold tolerant than other varieties" Again, how cold tolerant do they mean? I read with interest what you grow and it is similar to what I can grow here in Southern California, but the above two fruit trees would be very doubtful in my area unless Daley's truly has found more cold tolerant varieties. Is your area subtropical as you write or actually more semitropical without any frosts? Alan Schroeder Santa Barbara, CA mailto:arschroeder@home.com

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Who Grows Che, Carambola, and White Sapote? Date: Fri, 02 Feb 2001 20:58:03 -0800 From: George F. Emerich <gemerich@tfb.com> Leo: Did you satisfactorily answer this? As you know, I have lots of Sapotes and four large Carambolas that bear nice fruit sporadically. George | | | | | | | | | | | | | | mailto:gemerich@tfb.com

Subject: Who Grows Che, Carambola, and White Sapote Date: Mon, 29 Jan 2001 14:58:09 -0800 From: Nan Sterman <nsterman@mindsovermatter.com> Hi Leo I am researching Che, carambola, and white sapote. Can you refer me to any gardeners who are growing these delicacies in their yards in San Diego? Thanks! Nan Sterman mailto:nsterman@mindsovermatter.com Olivenhain, CA -----------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Grafting For Cold Tolerance - Searching For Answers Date: Thu, 15 Feb 2001 15:19:13 -0800

From:

Alan Schroeder <arschroeder@home.com> I spoke with interest this last weekend with a fellow member of the California Rare Fruit Growers who had grafted a Sweetsop/Sugar Apple onto cherimoya rootstock. This graft was successful and produced fruit in an area known to be colder than where I live. I also read with interest the Daley's Nursery (Australia) website where a selected Rollinia is grafted onto cherimoya rootstock to impart cold hardiness. Leo, your recent comment about having a black sapote on persimmon rootstock also interested me and all lead to the following questions: What is known about grafting more tender species on more cold hardy species of the same genus? Does it actually induce some cold hardiness and how much? What might work and what might be graft imcompatible? How do you determine when a particular couple of species are ready to be grafted? For example, besides cherimoya for other annonas, would lucuma, the more cold hardy species, be a good choice for other Pouteria species such as Abiu, Green Sapote, or Mamey? Has any of our readership worked with this or know of any resources? And by the way, how did you determine to graft your black sapote onto the persimmon? When the persimmon was just flushing growth in the spring? Alan Schroeder Santa Barbara, CA mailto:arschroeder@home.com

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Grafting For Cold Tolerance - Searching For Answers Date: Fri, 16 Feb 2001 08:40:53 -0800 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: Alan Schroeder <arschroeder@home.com> Hi Alan, My graft of Black Sapote onto Fuyu (Giant Fuyu) was not planned. I put all of the grafts I could reasonably put onto a seedling Black Sapote (all of which subsequently failed to grow) and had wood left over. This was in April, as I recall, probably middle to late, and I don't know recall what the growth characteristics of the Fuyu was at that time. I put on more than one, and in subsequent years have tried again, with no success. I assumed that the graft would die within a year or so, but it hasn't yet. It doesn't occupy a prominent place on

the tree, being on a lower limb, and doesn't make up more that ten percent of the total leaf area. (Grafted April, 1999.) I hope other readers will respond to your great questions. I am looking forward to their responses, as they probably will be of interest to many of us. Thanks for writing! Sincerely, Leo ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Black Sapote (Persimmon) Thu, 15 Feb 2001 14:59:02 -0800 (PST) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Gary <tropicalgaza@webtv.net>

Gary... In 1980 I planted a small Black Persimmon. It grew to about 30 feet, so I recommend keeping it pruned to a manageable size. It did take 10 years for mine to fruit but I have seen others fruit much sooner. I took out my McDill Sapote - too big and too much fruit but a Suebelle is supposed to be ok for a small garden. The fruit was too sweet for me unless I froze it and made a milkshake out of it. I have another variety called 'Nettie'. The fruit is smaller and I enjoy eating it with yogurt. I also planted a 'Michele' at the demonstration gardens on the Fair grounds. It is supposed to have a butterscotch taste, but I've not sampled it yet. Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Black Sapote (Persimmon) Fri, 16 Feb 2001 08:19:01 -0800 (PST) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Gary <tropicalgaza@webtv.net>

Gary.. The black persimmon is a beautiful evergreen tree with nearly black bark. It is related to ebony. The fruit is flattened like a

Fuyu persimmon but an olive green color when ripe. The interior looks like axle grease and is not commonly eaten out-of-hand. The fruit may be frozen whole for later use, but I like to serve it to guests fresh, but add a little lime or orange juice and some whipped cream. They'll never guess what it is but I call it 'Ersatz Chocolate mousse'. As I said before, the tree grows very tall and is not widespreading. Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

--- Gary Bernard <tropicalgaza@webtv.net> wrote: |Thanks for your comments. I did not know that the black sapote was |a persimmon. Is it like the regular persimmon, in growth habits |etc? | |Have a nice day Gary mailto:tropicalgaza@webtv.net ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Persimmon - Nonastringent Varieties Fri, 16 Feb 2001 08:36:50 -0800 (PST) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Charles <SBoning@aol.com>

Charlie.. Here in the subtropical area of Southern California the favorite nonastringent types of persimmon are 'Fuyu' and 'Jiro'. Jiro is a larger fruit. There is also a 'Giant Fuyu' and although Leo disagrees with me, in my opinion, the flavor is less pronounced. Take a look at the California Rare Fruit Growers web page <www.crfg.org> You will find a list of member nurseries, some who will ship plants. Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

|My name is Charlie Boning. I live in Palm City, Florida at the |northern fringe of the subtropics. I am currently growing: Kiett |Mango, Hayden Mango, Geffner Atemoya (just planted), Priestly |Atemoya, Honeybell Orange, Naval Orange, White Peruvian Guava |(just planted), Ruby x Supreme Guava, Alano Sappodilla (just |planted), Macadamia, Marcus Pumpkin Avocado, Day Avocado, and N1 |cultivar Jackfruit (just planted). | |I would like to grow other Annonas, White Sapote (possibly |Suebelle, Louise, or Michele), and Persimmon. I have found very |little information on the two varieties of Avocado that I am |growing. Also, I can find nothing on the N1 cultivar Jackfruit |and know nothing of its characteristics other than that it is

|(supposedly) precocious and an early bearer. Is anyone else |growing Jackfruit north of the Palm City/Stuart area? Any |recommendations for a variety of (nonastringent) Persimmon that |needs few chilling hours? I'd be appreciative of any input. | |Charlie Boning mailto:SBoning@aol.com ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: CC: ACRES USA Magazine Is A Fount of Knowledge Fri, 16 Feb 2001 09:10:17 -0800 (PST) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

I agree with Sainarong as to weeds being indicators of the type of soil they are growing on. The monthly publication of ACRES USA lists several books on this topic. This publication is my most treasured 'Fount of Knowledge' as they seem to get to the bottom of every aspect of agriculture including related laws. I have attended one of their conferences and it was here that I met Dr. Elaine Ingham (talked on Soil Food Web) and later contacted her to be the keynote speaker for our own conference last November. Malcom Beck, our dinner speaker on composting is often featured in the ACRES USA magazine. I met him at another conference. Anyway, any of you are serious growers and interested in the status of America's small farms, would truly look forward to each issue of ACRES USA. $24 Domestic; $29 Foreign per year to P.O. Box 91299, Austin, Texas, 78709 Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Papaya - How To Keep Them Alive In Winter? Date: Sat, 17 Feb 2001 21:11:09 -0800 From: Susan Seifert <mal316@ix.netcom.com> Hello. I'm Susan Seifert writing again concerning something unfortunate that happened to one of my plants. I live in Central Florida (zone 9) and had a papaya plant that was growing really well. It had 3 papayas growing on it and in December we had a freeze. I didn't realize that it would kill my plant. My question is this: Is there anything I could have done to prevent my plant from dying in the freeze? Some of the plants that were covered ended up dying

anyway. I am also wondering if I were to get a mango plant, would this plant be just as sensitive to the cold as the papaya? This is the second papaya I lost. The first one died when it got too much rain. Thanks for any help and insight. Susan Seifert mailto:mal316@ix.netcom.com

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Alphonso Mango Thu, 22 Feb 2001 20:44:27 +0530 Samar Gupta <samar@vsnl.com> Ben Pierce <mariposafamily@hotmail.com>

Ben, The Alphonso is considered the best tasting mango in India. Despite it being an alternate bearer, it fetches a substantially higher price than all other mango cultivars. Its also the most exported mango from India. I've heard that the Alphonso is not liked as much outside India because its supposed to be excessively sweet. My hunch though is that it is difficult to grow outside the Western Indian conditions it prefers and fruits best in. In the south of India, Banganapalle, Mulgoa, Imam Pasand, Rumani, Bangalora, Neelum and some improved varieties are popular, and in the north, Dasheri and Langara are the ruling varieties. Some hybrid mangoes developed by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi, such as Mallika and Amrapalli have been found to be ideally suited for high density planting in commercial orchards in the north. Samar Gupta mailto:samar@vsnl.com

|Subject: Alphonso Mango |Date: Fri, 15 Dec 2000 17:22:38 -0000 |From: "Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> | | |Have you ever heard of the Alphonso mango? Is it available here? |If so does it do well here? Some of the Indian programmers here at |work say it is the best and there is no other like it. | |Ben Pierce mailto:mariposafamily@hotmail.com -----------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Diazinon Phased out: "Health Risk To Children" Date: Thu, 22 Feb 2001 12:59:48 EST From: Denise <Dmshuck@aol.com>

Hi Leo, I thought you might find the following interesting. (Diazinon Phased out: "Health Risk To Children" is in the section: Announcements And Web Pages To Consider) Denise Woo mailto:Dmshuck@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

Capulin cherry, durian and pulasan Fri, 23 Feb 2001 09:53:36 -0800 Holzinger, Bob <bholzing@amgen.com> Joel <Joel.Walton@gov.org>

Hello Joel, I could give you lots of capulin cherry seeds, when they are in season. I would guess late August would be when the fruit start ripening. As for the durian and pulasan, the seeds are very perishable, so you'll need a tropical source for them. If you are interested in plants, then check out Frankie's Nursery in Hawaii. He will ship durian plants (I don't think he has pulasan). His phone number is (808) 259-8737. His price list has one gallon plants for $40 plus shipping and handling. His plants are very clean and can be shipped anywhere. You mentioned that you grow sapotaceae plants. You wouldn't by any chance be growing green sapote, Pouteria viride, would you? am looking for seeds of this species and would be very happy to send you capulin cherry seeds for some green sapote seeds. Best of luck, Bob Holzinger mailto:bholzing@amgen.com I

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Fruit Seeds For Russian Family? Date: Wed, 21 Feb 2001 19:20:46 -0600

From:

Scott and Harrietta <kcscott@emily.net> Do you have any fruit seeds? I have a friend in Russia who would like to grow some fruits to supplement his family's diet, and I am trying to get together a collection of seeds to send. If you do, please let me know the cost or if you would like any seeds or plants in exchange. (I am from Minnesota) Thank you. Harrietta mailto:kcscott@emily.net

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Subject: Re: Fruit Seeds For Russian Family? Date: Tue, 27 Feb 2001 05:46:54 -0600 From: Scott and Harrietta <kcscott@emily.net> Igor has e-mail, and has given me permission to send it to you. thank you for any help you can give him. Here is his address: mailto:igorl@ramatex.dp.ua He did say that his winter temps rarely reach -10 deg. F., if that is any help. Thank you for responding. Harrietta mailto:kcscott@emily.net I

|----- Original Message ----|From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> |To: Scott and Harrietta <kcscott@emily.net> |Sent: Thursday, February 22, 2001 8:29 AM |Subject: Re: Fruit Seeds For Russian Family? | | |Hi Harrietta, | |How do you correspond with the people in the former Soviet Union? |Probably not by email? Could you provide me with names and addresses |of these? | |There is an email correspondent in Russia who might be able to help. |At least he would know what would survive there and what would grow as

|a container plant. | |Berry plants would be a possibility. | |At this time I probably do not have seeds that would be appropriate |for container growing, as the trees would get too large. | |Leo | ||Scott and Harrietta wrote: || ||Thank you for your offer of help. some ||container plants as well as outdoor plants. He has a vegetable ||garden, but no fruits at this time. He is one of the lucky 10% in his ||country that has a job that nearly covers living expenses, but with ||the difficult economic times, his factory could close at any time. If ||you let me know the cost of your seeds, I will send it right away. || ||I have corresponded with other people from the former Soviet Union, ||and things are desperate for most people there. One of those people ||was a college professor who earned about a quarter of the poverty ||level for a family of four, and he was also one of the lucky ones. In ||Moscow, some children die from starvation, people die at work at the ||factories of starvation, doctors are forced to sell medical ||instruments for food. I admire Igor because he is trying to grow food ||for his family. || ||Thank you. || ||Harrietta mailto:kcscott@emily.net || ||| |||Hi Harrietta, ||| |||Most of the fruit trees I have would not survive outside of a |||greenhouse in Russia, but I will publish your request in the |||newsletter, in the event that someone has a suggestion. ||| |||Leo in San Diego |||

I think Igor wanted to try

||| ||||Scott and Harrietta wrote: |||| ||||Do you have any fruit seeds? I have a friend in Russia who would like ||||to grow some fruits to supplement his family's diet, and I am trying ||||to get together a collection of seeds to send. If you do, please let ||||me know the cost or if you would like any seeds or plants in exchange. ||||(I am from Minnesota) |||| ||||Thank you. |||| ||||Harrietta mailto:kcscott@emily.net

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Getting Down to the Root of the Problem - Part 1 Date: Mon, 19 Feb 2001 13:17:12 +0700 From: Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> This short article is very important in two ways. Firstly, the subject is very important by itself; secondly, it is even more important because very few text books, professionals, and growers ever talk about it. Yet, when you have read through the article, you will surely feel that what I say is really logical and common sense. Like me, you will begin to wonder why people do not talk about it, and why so little is known about the subject. Enough of the preamble. Let's get started. How can you tell whether a tree is healthy? Most people, including me, would look at the leaves, trunk, flowers, fruits and the ground surface around the tree. If the plant looks visualy healthy, we would be happy (unless we happen to be entomologists, some of whom appear to take great delight in discovering unusual pests!). If the plant does not look good, we start to look for reasons, such as fertilisers, water, pests, diseases, pesticides, weather, chemicals and so on. And if we think we might have found the cause, we treat the tree accordingly.

But wait - We have taken a look at only half of the plant, and maybe not the most important half at that. The other half, the roots, lie beneath the ground. That is why we hardly ever take a look at it. Consider this. Trees take in most of the nutrients via the roots, even the air and water are taken in via the roots. Without the nutrients, trees cannot survive. Leafless trees can often survive, temporarily. Many trees can survive eventhough they are cut down to their stumps. But if you severely damage the roots, or prevent the roots from absorbing the nutrients, the tree may die a sudden, seemingly inexplicable, death! Yes, roots are very important. In many cases, these all-important roots are fragile and delicate. Yet how much do we know about roots?. What special efforts have we taken to ensure their well-being? Although roots of different trees share similarities, they also have their own personal characteristics. I repeat, how much do you know about the roots of your trees? When was the last time you took a close look at the roots? Often, what we see above the ground are merely the symptoms, the cause lies beneath the ground. If you just treat the symptoms, the cause may still be there, waiting for the appropriate moment to rise up again. Me? I always take a small spade with me into any orchard. I would very much appreciate your comments on this article, as well as your advice on information available on roots. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: CC: Re: Nutritional Contents and Medicinal Properties of Longan Mon, 26 Feb 2001 12:47:59 +0700 Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Francis Zee <hilofz@ars-grin.gov> Andres Sbarbaro <andresssbarbaro@laciudad.com>,

Longan-Research <longan-research@yahoogroups.com> | ----- Original Message ----| |From: Francis Zee <hilofz@ars-grin.gov> | | I think the medicinal properties of longan is refering to the dried ones, | right?

No, this is a popular misconception, even among the Chinese; they apply equally to both fresh and dried longans. I got the information direct from a qualified practitioner of traditional Chinese medicine; this man got his TCM certificate from an accredited institution in China. In China, longans are grown only in the South-Eastern coastal area which are surrounded by mountains. In days of yore, travels in China were invariably long and arduous. As the shelf-life of untreated fresh longan is less than a week, the growers had to dry their longans before selling them to the merchants who transported them to other areas. As a result, people gradually came to believe that only dried longans have medicinal properties, when, infact, the truth is that they could not get hold of fresh longans. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: CC: Re: Nutritional Contents and Medicinal Properties of Longan Tue, 27 Feb 2001 12:03:37 +0700 Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Andres Sbarbaro <andresssbarbaro@laciudad.com> Longan-Research <longan-research@yahoogroups.com>

|----- Original Message ----| |From: <andresssbarbaro@laciudad.com> | | I studied all the nutritional contents of longan and I think that there is |something wrong with the pH of longan. Maybe there is a mistake may be not. | |Andres mailto:andresssbarbaro@laciudad.com

Practically all of the data on the nutritional contents of longans are obtained from the Institute of Nutrition in Thailand. However, the Institute did not have information on pH. I got that from an article on 'producing longan in heavy syrup or longan in sweetened passion fruit juice' . The article describes the properties of the raw materials, viz the longan fruit; one of the properties described is the pH - 6.3-7.0. The article is published by the Ministry of Sciences and Technology. There is a probability that the properties described are not all correct; I do not know. I still would like to know what longan is called in Spanish. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Insect control Date: Wed, 31 Jan 2001 22:18:22 -0800 From: Richard K. Gross <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> To: Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> I was very interested, Sainarong, in your comments about chemical insecticides because they reinforced my own conclusions to a similar experience. Here in the low desert, many of the diseases prevalent in warm, humid climates are virtually nonexistent. That is probably why we can grow bananas, papays and the like with some reasonable success. That is not exactly the case sith insects. For 15 years, I hired a bug man to spray every square inch of my yard every 30 days. I stopped the practice 15 years ago because crickets, cockaroaches, black widow spiders a host of other disgusting vermin had apparently developed either an immunity to the chemical or were thriving on the sugar water I accused him of using and they were litterally overwhelming me. An amazing transition took place over approximately a 5 year period. Now, the occasional cricket or worm are a mere curiosity and I rarely bother to kill them. They are, after all, some one else's dinner. More incredible, my yard is alive with geckos and lizards that must have been killed off with insecticide. It is not, I'm sure, all that cut and dried for commercial growers but for a homeowner, in this desert at least, the most drastic insect control needed is a fly swatter that will last a lifetime because there are not enough flies to wear one out. Thanks for your observations. Dick Gross Arizona Rare Fruit Growers mailto:rkg144@worldnet.att.net -----------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

Re: Insect control Sat, 3 Feb 2001 20:56:44 +0700 Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Richard K. Gross <rkg144@worldnet.att.net>

|----- Original Message ----| |From: Richard K. Gross <rkg144@worldnet.att.net> | |I was very interested, Sainarong, in your comments about chemical |insecticides because they reinforced my own conclusions to a |similar experience. | |Thank you, Dick, for a lovely e-mail. I am neither anti-chemical nor dedicated towards organic farming, but I would like people to be more aware of the wonderful self-adjusting abilities of Nature. I am sure you feel the same way. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Traveler's Aid Date: Sat, 03 Feb 2001 05:44:54 -0800 From: Michael Zarky <mzarky@earthlink.net> Dear Leo, With respect to people looking for protection from parasites etc., I'd mention a product I've been tracking for a while, finally available. It is a portable UV disinfection system, does a glass of water or so at a time. I have no experience with it but it sounded interesting. Now that I see the price, it came out a lot higher than their original promotion said, so that would put me off, about $250. http://www.hydro-photon.com/index.shtml Michael Zarky mailto:mzarky@earthlink.net Moorpark, CA USA

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Sites Useful For Locating Planting Material Date: Fri, 16 Feb 2001 17:44:25 -0800 From: Denise Edwards <deniseedwards@lycos.com> We have found the following sites useful for locating planting material: 1. 2. www.fruitspirit.com.au www.ecuadorexplorer.com

We hope that the readers might find some useful plants there. Ellingworth & Denise Edwards mailto:deniseedwards@lycos.com ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: New Location for Santol's Tropical Fruit Home Page Date: Mon, 19 Feb 2001 21:40:46 -0500 From: Bruce Livingston <santol@irishabroad.com> My friends, Please forgive the fact that this is written as a form letter, but I want to advise all of my correspondents of the new location of my web site, SANTOLÕS TROPICAL FRUIT HOME PAGE. The new URL is: http://www.tropfruit.com Please make note of the change, and donÕt forget to change your bookmarks. Many thanks, and IÕll see you on the web site. Bruce Livingston (a.k.a. Santol) mailto:santol@irishabroad.com

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Message from Santol's Tropical Fruit Home Page Date: Sat, 24 Feb 2001 21:04:06 -0500 From: Bruce Livingston <santol@irishabroad.com> Folks,

I want to let everyone know that the next live-online tropical fruit class is about to begin. I have all the details posted on the web site. The URL is: http://www.tropfruit.com If you have been considering taking the class, now is the time to check it out and sign up. Please feel free to contact me with any questions. I hope to see you there, Bruce Livingston mailto:santol@irishabroad.com

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Diazinon Phased out: "Health Risk To Children" Date: Thu, 22 Feb 2001 12:47:58 From: Gardens Alive! <bounce@gardensalive.com> **************************** An important follow-up to the NEW EPA restrictions on Diazinon and Dursban. **************************** About a year ago, the EPA cracked down on the two most commonly used pesticides in the United States, Dursban and Diazinon. However, until August 2003, these products will still be available! Studies show that these chemicals are particularly harmful to young children whose brains and nervous systems are still developing. In addition, because these chemicals are used on floors, lawns and other low places, it is children who face the greatest risk of exposure. Dursban and Diazinon ARE STILL FOUND in more than 800 over the counter products including ant and roach sprays, wasp killers, lawn insecticides and flea collars for dogs and cats. The EPA bans do not fully go into effect until Dec 31 2001 for Diazinon and August 2003 for Dursban. Carefully check the ingredients of any pest control product you bring home this spring. Be wary of any clearance sales on pesticides at your garden center. Watch for the names: Chlorpyrifos, Organophosphates, Diazinon and Dursban. You can find more information about Diazinon at:

http://www.gardensalive.com/article_display.asp?ArticleID=91&sid=18 641 If you're looking for alternatives to these products for use around the house or garden this spring, try this list of ideas: http://www.gardensalive.com/article_display.asp?ArticleID=92&sid=18 641 With almost two and a half years to go before this chemical is off the shelf, many people will still, unknowingly, use it and products containing it. We all should know how important it is to spread the word. Talk about it with friends and neighbors, send this newsletter to fellow gardeners who still sit on the fence about chemical use. We can make a difference, one backyard at a time! Your Friend, Bill Morgan Facts About Diazinon and Dursban: 1) Diazinon and Dursban (chemical name: chlorpyrifos) are both classified as organophosphates. Organophosphates inhibit the normal functioning of the nervous system in living organisms from insects to humans. 2) The EPA review of Diazinon and Dursban was part of its effort to ensure that all older pesticides meet the tough new safety standards established by the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act. 3) In its ban of Dursban and phase out of Diazinon, the EPA said the chemicals could be harmful to children. 4) The EPA ban of Dursban stopped production of the pesticide, sold over the counter for use in homes, by December 2000. Products that contain the chemical can remain on sale until December 31, 2001, when they must be pulled from store shelves. 5) The EPA phase out of Diazinon stops all retail sale of the chemical for indoor household use by December of 2002. For lawn, garden and turf uses, manufacturing must stop by June 2003 and distribution to retailers must end by August 2003. <snip>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers)<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>NAFEX List <nafex@onelist.com><<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>>>Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU><<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>>>>From "rarefruit list" - mailto:rarefruit@egroups.com<<<<<<<<

None this time

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> <<< http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Subject: Insects Thrive on Special Fast-Food Date: Mon, 5 Feb 2001 09:54:54 -0500 From: ARS News Service <isnv@ars-grin.gov> Beneficial insects like green lacewings and big-eyed bugs are now easier and less expensive to rear indoors--by the millions--thanks to a special fast-food recipe developed by an ARS scientist. The

research-based formula for what's known as artificial diet is now being described as the most successful ever developed for indoor production of these helpful insects. When set free in fields of corn or other crops, laboratory-reared lacewings and big- eyed bugs will find and make a tasty meal of whiteflies, bollworms, mealybugs and other notorious crop pests. By augmenting naturally occurring populations of their counterparts, the lab-reared insects can help reduce growers' reliance on chemical insecticides. That's according to the formula's developer, ARS entomologist Allen C. Cohen. And, because they rely on technologies other than chemical insecticides, the research is a boon to organic farmers, as well. Beneficials reared on the Cohen cuisine are healthy and vigorous and produce more offspring than their counterparts. Too, they are up to 50 percent larger, and they typically mature earlier. Those are assets in outdoor living. Cohen, now based at the ARS Biological Control and Mass Rearing Research Unit at Mississippi State, Miss., did the research while with ARS at Phoenix, Ariz. Four U.S. companies currently hold licenses to use the patented concoction. They are Beneficial Insectary, Redding, Calif.; BioLogixs, Denver, Colo.; Buena Biosystems, Inc., Ventura, Calif.; and Oregon Freeze Dry, Inc., Albany, Ore. Cohen's formula resulted from his pioneering investigations of the beneficial insects' feeding biology and of the nutrient composition of their typical menu--eggs or innards of their hapless prey. Cohen's fare has a liverwurst-like texture and is a blend of meat paste, sugar, yeast and specially cooked chicken eggs. Though designed primarily for green lacewings and big-eyed bugs, the recipe can be slightly modified to nourish two other important beneficials--minute [pronounced MY- noote] pirate bugs and lady beetles. ARS is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's chief scientific research agency. <snip> ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Computer Model Can Help Manage Carbon Date: Fri, 16 Feb 2001 12:09:08 -0500 From: ARS News Service <isnv@ars-grin.gov> A new computer model developed by the Agricultural Research Service will help farmers choose management practices that store carbon in the soil. The stored carbon plays a vital role in soil

fertility and stability, and carbon that's stored in the soil is kept out of the atmosphere, where it forms the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. The new model, called CQESTR (pronounced "sequester") takes user-defined tillage practices and time periods, and computes how much organic matter would be stored in--or lost from--the soil for a given scenario. For example, a user could discover whether changing briefly to conventional tillage from no-till would have an unacceptable impact on carbon storage. In the future, quantifying carbon storage may have economic benefits. A unique feature of the model is a part that uses average air temperature, soil water and nitrogen availability to determine the rate at which microbes decompose crop residues and soil organic matter, releasing carbon dioxide. CQESTR is undergoing final testing and should be available later this year. It runs on a personal computer with Windows, 5 megabytes of disk space and 32 megabytes of RAM. Users also need access to files from a more sophisticated program called RUSLE, or the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. RUSLE is sold commercially, and the files may be available through the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service. Likely users, such as crop advisors, probably have access to RUSLE already. A more detailed story about carbon storage and its potential economic implications appears in the February issue of Agricultural Research magazine, available online at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/feb01/bank0201.htm ARS is the chief scientific research agency of the USDA. ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: New Red Raspberry Means More Fresh Berries Date: Tue, 20 Feb 2001 09:51:06 -0500 From: ARS News Service <isnv@ars-grin.gov> Fresh red raspberries will be available through July thanks to Coho, a new variety released by the Agricultural Research Service and the agricultural experiment stations of Oregon, Washington and Idaho. Coho will extend the availability of fresh berries by 7 to 10 days compared to Tulameen, the current late-season standard throughout much of the world. The Pacific Northwest--including Oregon where Coho was most extensively tested--and California produce 95 percent of the nation's fresh red raspberries.

Coho gives high yields of bright-red, very firm berries. It is named after a red-skinned salmon commonly found in the Pacific Northwest. It is the second red raspberry released by ARS berry breeders for the summer fresh-fruit market. The first, Lewis, was released in 1999. Coho was developed by crossing Lewis with other breeding lines. The new raspberry should grow well in the Pacific Northwest and California, or in other raspberry-growing areas where winter temperatures don't fall below zero degrees Fahrenheit. <snip> ARS is the chief scientific research agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. <snip> ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Dow Jones Step Aside: Here Comes the Soil Carbon Market Date: Wed, 21 Feb 2001 09:16:35 -0500 From: ARS News Service <isnv@ars-grin.gov> Cropland and grassland in the United States could potentially store enough carbon to offset 12 to 14 percent of the carbon dioxide emitted from vehicle tailpipes and industrial smokestacks in this country. That's the conclusion based on the first national estimate of how much carbon these lands are storing or sequestering and how much more they could store. Marlen D. Eve, a soil scientist with the Agricultural Research Service in Fort Collins, Colo., and colleagues developed the actual storage estimate for use in international climate-change agreement discussions: 20 million tons of carbon a year. Eve's colleagues--Ron Follett, John W. Kimble and Rattan Lal--have calculated that improved management could boost that total to as much as 200 million tons. At $20 a ton, which is the price at which stored carbon credits are projected to be sold for within a decade, this means the U.S. could potentially store about $4 billion worth of carbon a year on the nation's farmlands and grasslands. Typical rates of carbon sequestration can be from one-half up to a ton of carbon each year. "Carbon Boards of Trade" are beginning to proliferate on the Internet, including a global exchange that offers a low price of $2.35 to $2.50 for carbon in the United States. Even the Chicago Board of Trade is considering adding a carbon exchange market. All of this comes about as international agreements and domestic

policies in the U.S. and elsewhere make it likely that farmers will be paid in some way for storing carbon in their soils. Farmers might sell credits for storing carbon, just as pollution credits are currently traded. Or they might receive financial assistance for using carbon-conserving practices. The pressure to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide is driving the "carbon conservation payments" movement. You can read more about ARS carbon storage research in the February issue of ARS' Agricultural Research magazine, which can be found on the World Wide Web at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/feb01/bank0201.htm ARS is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's chief scientific research agency. <snip> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000103A.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - March 15, 2001 - AKA RFN200103B.txt

>> Notes In Passing << Rain - in Southern California, at least. Did you think it would never stop? Now, the weeds are coming up everywhere, but at least the wet soil makes it easier to remove them. I haven't noticed an appreciable increase in mildew on mango blooms, however. Usually, there is a very light set on apricots when it rains continually during blooming.

>>>> Table Of Contents - Headers; (Letters Follow Table Of Contents) <<<

>> New Subscribers

<<

New Subscriber, San Diego, Wants Feijoa Jeff Struthers <jstruthers@ucsd.edu> New Subscriber, Perth Australia, Needs Advice Sue <interact@ic-net.com.au> New Subscriber, Indiana: Grow Cardamon Indoors?

Sara Core <UrthMomma@aol.com> New Subscriber, Texas, Looking For Prunus Companulata Victor Patterson <vsp@flash.net> New Subscriber, Texas, Wants To Buy Babaco Erik Dally <erik@graphtech.net> New Subscriber, Wants Rare Fig Varieties Leon <Figdoctor@aol.com>

>> Readers Write <<

Re: Moy Dulce papaya William Boyd <theboyds@mediaone.net> Re: Black Sapote Matthew Shugart <mshugart@ucsd.edu> To: Eunice Messner How Do I Care For My Orange Tree? Nancy D Coade <ncviolin@juno.com> Any success with cherimoya fruiting in FL? Leo To: ed <Link2itc@aol.com> Re: Any success with cherimoya fruiting in FL? Ed <Link2itc@aol.com> To: Leo Re: Any success with cherimoya fruiting in FL? George F. Emerich <gemerich@tfb.com> To: Ed <Link2itc@aol.com> Re: Any success with cherimoya fruiting in FL? Ed <Link2itc@aol.com> To: George Emerich <gemerich@tfb.com> What Is The Name Of Our Mango? Patricia Porchey <pporchey@co.sarasota.fl.us>

Re: What Is The Name Of Our Mango? Leo To: Patricia Porchey <pporchey@co.sarasota.fl.us> Re: What Is The Name Of Our Mango? Patricia Porchey <pporchey@co.sarasota.fl.us> Welcome to Anaheim Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: Ardel@prontomail.com What's The Composition Of Loam? Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Papaya Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Re: Tropical Longans Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Walton, Joel <Joel.Walton@gov.ky> Longan in Perth, Australia Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Sue <interact@ic-net.com.au> Re: roots Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: <veerwn@sr.net>

>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<

University of Florida: Selected Eugenia Species http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/BODY_MG044

>>Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers)

None, this time

>>NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> None, this time

>> From NEWCROPS List <newcrops@purdue.edu> None, this time

>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@egroups.com << None, this time

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

More and Better Online Info on Plant Names, Noxious Weeds ARS News Service <isnv@ars-grin.gov> Paper Mulch ... Offers Biodegradable Alternative to Plastic ARS News Service <isnv@ars-grin.gov> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>New Subscribers<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Date: From:

New Subscriber, San Diego, Wants Feijoa Thu, 01 Mar 2001 11:54:16 -0800 Jeff Struthers <jstruthers@ucsd.edu>

Hello, I am Jeff Struthers, San Diego, University City area The fruit trees I'm now growing are Chrerimoya , Pitanga, Mango, Blood and Navel Orange, and Banana. The plants I would like to be growing now are the Feijoa (Nazmetz, Appollo, Moore and Gemini) I think I have been to your home last summer, you had a sale going on and I bought a Raja Puri and a Cherry of the Rio Grand from you. Both plants are doing fine but I would like to know what the Cherry of the Rio Grand looks like when fully grown and / or fruiting. Are there any web photos or info on this plant around ? Thanks for running this newsletter. Jeff mailto:jstruthers@ucsd.edu ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Perth Australia, Needs Advice Date: Fri, 2 Mar 2001 05:40:20 +0800 From: Sue <interact@ic-net.com.au> Hi, I am Sue Tsang, and live in Perth, Western Australia. Fruit trees I am now growing are longan, avocado, lychee, custard apple, mango. I would like more suggestions to speed up the growing process of my fruit trees. I have planted all the trees approximately 3 months ago, but they are not doing very well so any help would be appreciated. Sue mailto:interact@ic-net.com.au ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Hi, New Subscriber, Indiana: Grow Cardamon Indoors? Fri, 02 Mar 2001 08:39:02 -0800 Sara Core <UrthMomma@aol.com>

I am I'm Sara Core mailto:UrthMomma@aol.com in Southwestern Indiana I am now growing poncirus trifolata (aka Texas barbwire tree, sour orange) apples, asian pears, sea buckthorn, aronia, medlar, the mower went wild on Demented Husband last year and took out the quince and kiwi, maypops should come back though. I've probably got a couple other oddities that I am forgetting. Some kind of fig that comes back from the roots that I got in Tennessee. Some I want to grow are.... kiwis again, dwarf pomegranate -again, not fruit, but tea: camellia sinensis, Doyle blackberry, unusual cane fruits, more deerbait -- I mean apples, saskatoons -another mower casualty, pawpaw (northern type, aka Michigan banana) persimmons, shipova, anything I can coax into surviving in Zone 6. I can't afford to heat sub tropicals, so I am sheltered spot in Zone Raintree and One Green a greenhouse all winter for true tropicals, looking for unusual items that can take a 6 and withstand down to 10*F. I peruse World catalogs regularly.

Questions to be answered by newsletter readers: Any hints on growing cardamon ( the spice) ? The greenhouse is too cold for it. Can I take starts in the fall and overwinter indoors? Sara Core mailto:UrthMomma@aol.com

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Texas, Looking For Prunus Companulata Date: Sat, 03 Mar 2001 08:38:39 -0600 From: Victor Patterson <vsp@flash.net> I would like to be added to your subscription list. My name is Victor Patterson and I live just south of Houston, Texas in the small town of Pearland. I have apples, pears, citrus, peaches, mullberries, plums, pawpaws, loquats, blackberries, low chill cherries and pecans. About half of all of the cherries, peaches and plums that I have are the result of crosses that I have made. I have lost one of the cherries that I use for breeding (prunus companulata I think) and would be most interested in getting it replaced with either seed, scion or rooted plant. I look forward to the newsletter and to discussing related issues with interested parties. Victor mailto:vsp@flash.net

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: New Subscriber, Texas, Wants To Buy Babaco Fri, 09 Mar 2001 12:36:28 -0600 Erik Dally <erik@graphtech.net>

Hello everybody! My Name is Erik, or Captain to my friends. I Live in the Fort Worth, TX area in the United States. I currently am growing a variety of tropical plants but no fruit or truly interesting plants as of yet. I have a greenhouse that I am finishing construction on this month and a sun room that will be finished around this time next year. Mt goal is to be able to have my own fresh fruits and beautiful tropical plants. I am open to any suggestions, just keep in mind I am in an area that gets cold unpredictability and I might need advice as to each plants cold tolerances. I have read a lot about Babaco and would love to learn more from anyone that has grown one or knows where I can purchase a plant specimen. Talk to you soon, Erik mailto:erik@graphtech.net ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Wants Rare Fig Varieties Date: Tue, 13 Mar 2001 23:59:43 EST From: Leon <Figdoctor@aol.com> Hi Leo! My name is, ironically, Leon Edmond, and live near Phoenix, Arizona. I saw a message from Monte P, V.P. of DEFT-Kemp on the Gardenweb regarding his fig varieties. I wrote to him hoping to acquire some cuttings of his figs but he did not know which of his fig varieties were rare. He said he acquired his cuttings from the CRFG Association and that you may be able to offer more info. I am a fig collector. Unfortunately I have no access to scion exchanges such as those offered through the CRFG, but would like info or any leads to rare fig varieties. One in particular is Col de Dame Noir and another Lampiera.

Could you help me out in finding out what varieties Monte propagates and where I may be able to obtain rare fig cuttings? Also, please place me on your mailing list. I have two E-mails <Figdoctor@AOL.com> and <leonkim@pol.net> My interests are unusual fig varieties and where to obtain cuttings. I have a collection of fig varieties but do not have enough scion at his time to offer fellow figmen and fig- women. Hoepfully in the next year I will have some to share. Please keep me informed of any persons like me who have heirloom or unusual fig cuttings they can share with this fig afficianado. Thank you. Leon mailto:Figdoctor@AOL.com

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Re: Moy Dulce papaya Date: Fri, 2 Mar 2001 19:35:15 -0500 From: "William Boyd" <theboyds@mediaone.net> Thanks, Leo. I'm looking forward to the education. Next project, by the way, is figuring out how to get a friend in the Austin-San Antone area to buy and ship to me the Moy Dulce papaya, sold by the San Antone Botanical Society. William Boyd mailto:theboyds@mediaone.net

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Black Sapote Tue, 6 Mar 2001 18:41:26 -0800 Matthew Shugart <mshugart@ucsd.edu> eunicemessner@yahoo.com

Dear Eunice, I was stunned to read that you have a 20-yearold black sapote that is 30 feet tall! I assume you are in a pretty warm spot to have pulled that off. I planted one in 1996 and it has struggled along to about four feet thus far. Of course, it might be taller now had

I not lost half of it on a cold night (probably 31-33 in the area where it grows) in December,1998. It was about four feet then, too, and has recovered its 1998 size in the time since that winter. That experience apparently put "the fear of God" into it, as it flowered and fruited for the first time the following year. The fruit, however, was disappointing. Edible, but not as sweet as I had hoped (not even remotely like the ones I have tasted in south Florida), and very small. In 2000 it set some fruit again, but it never matured. This is in a coastal climate (about 1.5 miles from the ocean), so I probably do not get enough heat. Add to that the cold air drainage into my area in the winter, and I suppose this is just about the worst possible combination of climatic factors for getting a black sapote to grow and fruit. I have not given up hope for it yet, however! Matthew Shugart California mailto:mshugart@ucsd.edu Carlsbad,

Subject: How Do I Care For My Orange Tree? Date: Fri, 9 Mar 2001 19:12:10 -0800 From: Nancy D Coade <ncviolin@juno.com> Hi! My name is Nancy Coade, and I just recently bought a home in Carlsbad, CA. There are some fruit trees on the property, and one of them, an orange tree, is in serious trouble. It is about 7-8 feet tall, and has produced fruit. Since a few months ago, its leaves have been curling and turning yellow. Only a portion of the tree did this for awhile, but now, the WHOLE tree is like this! What caused this, and can I save the tree? I do not have gophers, and the tree is in a sunny spot. Where can I find info. on how to care for it? Leo, I loved reading that you have a musical family. I play in the San Diego Symphony and the Opera as well. Elizabeth Monacelli, whom I met in the Symphony, told me about your website. Thanks for your time! Nancy mailto:ncviolin@juno.com -----------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

Any success with cherimoya fruiting in FL? Mon, 12 Mar 2001 07:35:54 -0800 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> ed <Link2itc@aol.com>

Hi Ed, What did you learn about fruiting cherimoya in Florida? I also have Fino de Jetta that I grafted last year, and it set fruit. It seems to ripen somewhat later than the other cultivars, so I haven't eaten fruit from my own trees, but I sampled fruit at the home of George Emerich mailto:gemerich@gate.tfb.com last year and it was excellent. George knows a lot about annonas and if you have questions to direct to him, I'm sure he'd write back, if only to say that he doesn't know the answer, but that's not likely to be his response. Take care, Leo |You said: | |Hello Leo, | |I am growing a healthy cherimoya seedling of the cultivar, Fino de |Jetta. The seed was from a fruit consumed in Spain and given to me by |a friend. The seedling is over a year old and at 3 feet in height. |Recently, I heard a lecture by a Univ. of FL fruit specialist who is |of the opinion that cherimoya will not fruit in the hot humid FL |climate. Since I have far more fruit trees I'd like to grow than I |have land for, I must make the painful decision whether to forego this |cherimoya tree. I would appreciate hearing from anyone in your |readership in FL with their cherimoya growing experience. |Specifically, I'd like to know if anyone in FL has been lucky enough |to harvest cherimoya from their tree(s). | |If I graft an atemoya scion to the cherimoya rootstock, what |"cherimoya influence", if any, will I get? | |Many thanks for your assistance. | |Best regards, | |Ed mailto:Link2itc@aol.com

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Any success with cherimoya fruiting in FL? Date: Mon, 12 Mar 2001 14:03:12 EST From: Link2itc@aol.com To: Leo CC: George Emerich <gemerich@gate.tfb.com> Hello Leo, A pleasure hearing from you! The authority I referred to in my previous email was Dr. Bob Knight whom I believe is associated with the well known Chapman Field in Miami. In any case, after hearing the verdict from him, I made the almost painful decision to part with my vigorous cherimoya tree and donated it to the Sarasota Fruit & Nut Society Tree Sale to benefit the club. As luck would have it, months later, I met a new friend in the Sarasota area (an old-timer with a Ph.D. in horticulture earned in Cuba) who tells me he has a cherimoya (cultivar unknown) in his backyard that is prolific and produces abundant fruits effortlessly. How's that for a sob story? Warm regards, Ed mailto:Link2itc@aol.com ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Ed: I think that when Bob stated that Cherimoyas don't bear in Florida, he was speaking in the practical sense. (Incidentally, he is now working for the University of Florida having retired from USDA) I understand that some will bear some fruit but certainly not a very practical amount. I would guess that the heavy bearing tree may be an Atemoya (Annona cherimola x squamosa) as a casual observer might not recognize the difference and the taste is very similar. It is standard to grow Atemoya in the lowland tropics as it is almost as good (my opinion). George mailto:gemerich@tfb.com Re: Any success with cherimoya fruiting in FL? Mon, 12 Mar 2001 11:56:51 -0800 George F. Emerich <gemerich@tfb.com> Ed <Link2itc@aol.com>

-----------------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

Re: Any success with cherimoya fruiting in FL? Mon, 12 Mar 2001 23:09:41 EST Ed <Link2itc@aol.com> George Emerich <gemerich@tfb.com>

Hello George, Thanks for writing. You may be right. I am assuming someone with a PhD in horticulture and who owns a small orchard of tropical fruits knows the difference between atemoya and cherimoya. I will know by this fall when I visit whether that tree is actually an atemoya and cherimoya. Regards, Ed mailto:Link2itc@aol.com ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: What Is The Name Of Our Mango? Date: Mon, 12 Mar 2001 15:02:16 -0500 From: Patricia Porchey <pporchey@co.sarasota.fl.us> Help. We have been given a mango for our Florida House Learning Center and need to know the correct botanical name. We were told it was a Doc Man Mai.... Can you help? Patricia Porchey mailto:pporchey@co.sarasota.fl.us

Horticulturist Sarasota Cooperative Extension Service Sarasota, FL ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Re: What Is The Name Of Our Mango? Mon, 12 Mar 2001 12:31:23 -0800 Leo To: Patricia Porchey <pporchey@co.sarasota.fl.us>

Hi Patricia, I believe that the correct name is Nam Doc Mai. I have one by that name, the fruit is prized by some Asians as being sweet before ripe. Try looking for that name and see if it meets the description you have for your tree.

Horticordially, Leo in San Diego ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Re: What Is The Name Of Our Mango? Mon, 12 Mar 2001 15:56:44 -0500 Patricia Porchey <pporchey@co.sarasota.fl.us>

Thanks for the correct spelling. I was able to find good information from the Department of Primary Industries in Queensland. It is native to Thailand. Thanks again. Patricia Porchey mailto:pporchey@co.sarasota.fl.us Horticulturist Sarasota, FL 34237 ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Welcome to Anaheim Thu, 1 Mar 2001 08:46:25 -0800 (PST) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Ardel@prontomail.com

Dan... Welcome to Anaheim and to a source of local fruit growers and meetings. Call me when you'd like more information. Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: What's The Composition Of Loam? Date: Thu, 1 Mar 2001 08:47:58 -0800 (PST) From: Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Hello Timma... So happy to have an agronomist to ask this question. What is the compostion of loam? I searched all my files and couldn't find an exact answer.

Eunice Messner

mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Papaya Date: Thu, 1 Mar 2001 08:49:31 -0800 (PST) From: Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Jim... I hope you live in an area that has a high water table for papayas need excellent drainage. They do best on a hillside or planted on a mound. They develop a huge tap root, plus lateral roots. They can be planted about 3' apart. I have much preferred Thailand seedlings with their 4# fruits and excellent flavor. The California Rare Fruit Growers have a seed bank where these seeds are often available. There is a wealth of information on their website www.crfg.org There is also a chapter of CRFG in your area and members are so willing to share ideas and materials. Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Date: From: To:

Re: Tropical Longans Thu, 8 Mar 2001 20:34:48 +0700 Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Walton, Joel" <Joel.Walton@gov.ky>

----- Original Message ---|From: Walton, Joel <Joel.Walton@gov.ky> | |In some of your writings you refer to tropical longan varieties. |Besides Daimond River, please tell me of others that might |be available from nurseries in Florida/Hawaii. | |Also, what about tropical bearing lychee? | |Joel The most well-known tropical longan is called Xuong com Vang, from

South Vietnam. The most well-known tropical lychee is called Korm, from Thailand. I do not know of any nurseries in the States which have these two cultivars. You can ask Leo Manuel whether he knows of any. If you wish, I can mail you the relevant seeds, when they become available. I do not think they will mutate much, if at all. The correct use of sodium chlorate or potassium chlorate can induce any longan trees to flower profusely in a tropical climate. You should try that. A few readers of Leo's RFNO in the Carribean have successfully tried this approach. You can write to Leo to ask for their advice. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

PS Joel lives in the Cayman. I am, fortunately, not rich enough to have a company registered there. ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Longan in Perth, Australia Fri, 9 Mar 2001 23:08:54 +0700 Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Sue <interact@ic-net.com.au>

|I live in Perth, Australia. Recently. I have planted a lychee and a |longan tree. I have seen on the rare fruit ariticles on the net that |you are a longan and lychee specialist. | |I was just wondering if you can give me some simple ideas as to how to |make my longan and lychee grow faster and fruit every year. | |At the moment it's not doing very well. | |Sue

A friend of mine, who has a PhD from Australia, tells me she cannot give any meaningful advice, unless she sees the tree with her own eyes. I agree with her. But that is not the answer you are looking for. So, here goes. Perth is not conducive for growing longans and lychees. Correct me if I am wrong; I understand that it is windy, dry, fairly cold, sandy and hilly. Please tell me about the soil and climate at your home, also, whether it is on top of a hill. However, do not be discouraged. If you have a real love for the trees, and a

presevering spirit, you will reap a satisfying reward. A friend of mine, Clement Teng, who lives in Perth, has successfully obtained fruits from his longans and lychees. Unfortunately, computer viruses have snatched his e-mail addresses from you. You can try to look him up in the local telephone directory, give him a call, and tell him that I ask you to call him. I am sure that he will be able to give you valuable advice. Let's try to figure out what longans need which your soil and climate may not provide. Longan obviously needs sufficient nutrients in the soil. It also needs constant, considerable moisture, both below and above the ground, but it does not want to be inundated. As longan roots are rather fine, and do not go down deep, nor do they spread out, longan needs a firm grip on the soil. Sandy soil does not hold nutrients well; water seeps through the soil rather fast. Dry, windy weather assists rapid evaporation. Strong wind also tends to uproot the tree. The key answer is mulch, compost or manure (I find broiler manure to be the best). The stuff contains micro-nutrients; it helps retain the nutrients and water in the soil; it slows down evaporation. It is simple, and yet amazing. So, slowly, but regularly apply the stuff, and you will be amazed at the improvement to the soil and the trees. If it is very windy where you live, you will need some kind of windbreak. A plant would be best, but inanimate object will do. Find out what kind of plant performs best as windbreak in your area. Also use your common sense. Covering the ground beneath the canopy with leaves, mown grass would help to retain the moisture in the ground. If your tree is not tall yet, installing a mist spray would help to create a micro atmosphere around the plant which is cooler and more humid. But this may be too costly for you. Longans can usually stand one or two brief, gentle frost a year. If it gets colder than that, you needs to protect your trees against the cold. How? Those, living in a colder climate than me, can no doubt tell you. Taking care of lychees is similar to taking care of longans, with some difference. But we do not need to go into that at this stage. I do not claim to be an expert. Many people often contradict me or add important information, and they are often correct. I hope they will do so in this case. I have never been to Perth. What I recall most about Perth is that it is the place where Pommies cricketers used to land in the old days. P.S. My friend, Clement Teng, got his longans and lychees growing because he wrote to me regularly. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: roots Sat, 10 Mar 2001 09:04:58 +0700 Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> <veerwn@sr.net>

----- Original Message ----From: veerwn@sr.net Subject: roots |I agree with you that the underground part is very important, the |problem however is that we cannot see it. (most of the time: just |today I saw a sproutling coming up from a breadtree about 20 m!!! far, |never thought his roots went that far). But it is the same with us, |the doctor wants to see inside. Luckily he does not carves us up all |the time but looks at our tongue or feels the pulse. | |Often, the doctor has to take x-rays or look inside. | |So I look at the leaves, etc. | |Some time that is enough, but some time it is not. You may make an |incorrect diagnosis. But if you dig, and take a look at the roots, you |have more information, and are able to make better diagnosis. How |would you feel if the doctor says you have a stomach ulcer and treat |you accordingly, when it turns out that you have abdominal cancer?

I still say: Dig and look at the roots. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

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Subject: Date:

University of Florida: Selected Eugenia Species Fri, 02 Mar 2001 07:16:46 -0800

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/BODY_MG044 Selected Eugenia Species1 Richard L. Phillips2 DISTRIBUTION The species listed in Table 1 are widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics. The Surinam cherry is the most extensively grown while the cherry of the Rio Grande is the least commonly grown of this group. They may all be grown in southern Florida and in protected locations in central Florida. The cherry of the Rio Grande is the most cold tolerant of these species, closely followed by the Surinam cherry, and these can be grown further north. DESCRIPTIONS Cherry of the Rio Grande. Small evergreen tree or large shrub which commonly grows to about 15 feet. However, it may grow as high as 30 feet under favorable conditions. It has an upright, compact habit of growth and is very attractive, especially when in bloom. The smooth, glossy, dark green leaves are narrow elliptic, 2? to 3 inches long and are borne on short, grooved petioles. The white flowers are solitary and are borne in the axils of opposite bracts from March to May. The fruit is oblong to obovate, ? to 1 inch long, with a persistent calyx at the apex. The skin is thin and dark red or purple in color. The juicy flesh has a good, subacid flavor. It contains none or 1 to 2 white, rounded seeds, about ? inch in diameter. The fruit matures in April to June, about 3 weeks after the flowers open. Fruiting may occur in the third year after planting under favorable conditions but it often takes longer. Grumichama. Large evergreen shrub or small tree which may grow to a maximum height of 20 to 25 feet. It is very attractive in appearance with an upright, compact growth habit. The leathery leaves are oval to obovate, about 3 to 4 inches long by 2 inches wide, reddish when young, becoming glossy, deep green. The showy white flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne in the leaf axils and are produced in large numbers on flushes of new growth in early spring. The fruit is globose to oblate, ? to 1 inch in diameter, has persistent green sepals at the apex and is borne on long, slender stems, often in clusters. The thin, delicate skin is scarlet to purplish black. The soft, melting flesh is sweet with an excellent flavor. The seeds are round, hemispherical, or angular, depending on the number present. The fruit matures in April to May, about a month after flowering. It takes 2 to 3 years to bear fruit from seed.

Pitomba. Small, spreading evergreen tree or shrub which may attain a height of 25 to 30 feet. The tree has a compact growth habit with dense foliage and is quite attractive, especially when in fruit. The leathery leaves are elliptical lanceolate, about 3 inches long and are a glossy deep green color on the upper surface and light green below. The showy, white flowers, up to 1 inch across, appear from April to June. The fruit is broadly obovoid, about an inch long, with the apex crowned by 4 or 5 green sepals, about ? inch long. The thin skin is a bright orange yellow. The soft, melting, juicy flesh is orange in color and aromatic, sweet to subacid in flavor. The fruit contains 1 to several seeds attached to one side of the seed cavity. The fruit matures from May to June and sometimes there is a light crop in the fall. The pitomba usually begins fruiting in about the fourth year after planting. Surinam Cherry. Large evergreen shrub or small tree, usually less than 10 feet in height but it can grow to 20 feet. It has a compact growth habit with thin, wiry branchlets. The leaves are ovate, 1 to 2 inches long, highly aromatic and wine color when young, becoming a glossy, deep green. The small, creamy white flowers, about ? inch across are borne in the leaf axils, in spring and summer. The fruit is oblate, prominently 8 ribbed, ? to 1? inches in diameter, and is borne singly or in clusters, pendant on slender stems. The skin is very thin, shiny and varies in color from light red to almost black. The soft, juicy flesh is orangish, varying somewhat with the selection. The flavor is aromatic, sweet and pleasant in the better selections but poor quality fruits have an unpleasant, resinous flavor. The fruits contain one round seed or two hemispherical, comparatively large seeds. The main crop matures in the spring but there are some fruit most of the year. Occasionally, there is a fairly large crop in the late fall. Only a few weeks elapse between flowering and fruit set. Fruiting of the Surinam cherry usually begins 2 or 3 years after planting. CULTIVARS These species are usually propagated as seedlings and there is much variation in fruit quality among them. There are two forms of Surinam cherry--cerise and black. Grafting is seldom done and no named cultivars are readily available. PROPAGATION These species are propagated almost entirely by seed which germinates in less than a month. Desirable selections may be reproduced by grafting or by cuttings. Veneer, cleft and side grafts can be used, although this may be difficult with cherry of the Rio Grande.

CLIMATE AND SOILS These species are well adapted to the growing conditions of the warmer areas of Florida. They all may be safely grown in most locations in southern Florida, particularly near the coasts and in protected locations of central Florida. The cherry of the Rio Grande and the Surinam cherry are more cold tolerant than the other two and may be grown further north. The cherry of the Rio Grande has withstood temperatures of about 20¡F for short periods with only twig damage, while the Surinam cherry has withstood temperatures as low as 22¡F. Grumichana has fair cold tolerance, mature trees having withstood temperatures of 26¡F without injury in Florida. The pitomba is fairly hardy with a cold tolerance comparable to gumichama, freezing at about 27¡F. Small trees are less tolerant and should be protected from temperatures below 30¡F. The trees may be successfully grown in most soil types, provided they are well drained. They require a good moisture supply at all times, especially the grumichama and the pitomba which have shallow root systems. All do best in slightly acid soils which are low in salts. The grumichama, especially, and also the pitomba are poorly adapted to alkaline soils, suffering from mineral deficiencies which result in chlorosis. All have good wind resistance, especially the cherry of the Rio Grande and the Surinam cherry, and do best in sunny locations. CULTURAL PRACTICES These species have very similar cultural requirements. They are all easy to grow, requiring relatively little maintenance for the growth of healthy, productive plants. Fruit size and quality depends to a large extent on proper nourishment and an adequate water supply at the time of fruit development. When first planted, they need a complete fertilizer in a 1-1-1 ratio, such as 6-6-6, that also contains magnesium. Start with no more than 1/4 pound at monthly or bi-monthly intervals, increasing the rates commensurate with growth. Iron deficiency in calcareous soils is a problem with grumichama and to a lesser extent with pitomba, and this element should be applied as Sequestrene 138, injected or drenched into the soil when needed. Nutritional sprays to supply other minor elements should also be applied as needed. After the tree has matured, a fertilizer such as 8-3-9 with 5% MgO is more appropriate. The plants should be supplied with adequate water at all times but especially during bloom and fruit development. The cherry of the Rio Grande and the Surinam cherry have fairly good drought tolerance, but the grumichama and the pitomba require special attention during long dry periods because of their shallow root systems. The cherry of the Rio Grande requires very little pruning to make an attractive tree and it is seldom pruned to make a hedge. The grumichama and pitomba are sometimes used in large hedges. Pruning them for this use should be done only during the

summer since fruiting would otherwise be greatly reduced. The Surinam cherry can be severely pruned to maintain it as a hedge and it will still continue to flower and produce some fruit. PESTS AND DISEASES There are no serious pest or disease problems with these fruits other than the Caribbean fruit fly. USES These fruits may be eaten out of hand or be made into jellies, jams, juices, pies, sherbet, ice cream or wine. They are all attractive ornamentals, especially when in fruit, for use in the home landscape. All can be used for specimen trees or in screening hedges. The Surinam cherry is especially well adapted for training as a smaller hedge and it is widely used for this purpose. The Surinam cherry is readily available at many nurseries while the grumichama is occasionally found and the cherry of the Rio Grande and pitomba are usually not found in nurseries. All of these species make attractive and fruitful additions to the home garden and should be more widely used.

Table Cherry of the Rio Grande Grumichama Pitomba Surinam Cherry, Pitanga Family: Origin: Footnotes 1. This document is Fact Sheet HS-41, a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date: April 1994. 2. Richard L. Phillips, Former Extension Horticulturist, Horticultural Sciences Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race Eugenia Eugenia Eugenia Eugenia aggregata Kiaersk dombeyi Skeels luschnathiana Klotzch uniflora L.

Myrtaceae All of the above species are native to Brazil.

color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Dean Copyright Information This document is copyrighted by the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) for the people of the State of Florida. UF/IFAS retains all rights under all conventions, but permits free reproduction by all agents and offices of the Cooperative Extension Service and the people of the State of Florida. Permission is granted to others to use these materials in part or in full for educational purposes, provided that full credit is given to the UF/IFAS, citing the publication, its source, and date of publication.

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>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> <<< http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm

Subject: More and Better Online Info on Plant Names, Noxious Weeds Date: Thu, 1 Mar 2001 09:34:22 -0500 From: ARS News Service <isnv@ars-grin.gov>

Up-to-date scientific information on certain plants is now available on an improved, user-friendly, multilingual web site developed by Agricultural Research Service scientists. The site, developed by botanist John H. Wiersema and colleagues at the ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory in Beltsville, Md., includes the correct common and scientific names of economically important vascular plants and information about their use. The upgraded web site adds some important improvements to the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) taxonomy area, including a new web page devoted to enhancing and expanding the World Economic Plants, A Standard Reference. That 749- page reference was published in 1999. So far, the web pages devoted to economic plants and their uses--a subset of GRIN taxonomy--comprise scientific information on 9,356 of the most important plant species from 2,616 genera and 290 families. The economic coverage includes plants or plant products traded, regulated, or otherwise directly or indirectly important to international commerce. Several search engines help users find information using various criteria--such as genus, common name and economic use (such as food, fiber, forage, timber, fuel, spice, genetic, medical, ornamental and social uses). More than 75,000 literature citations are cross-referenced to the names of economic plants alone. The researchers have also developed Spanish and Portuguese versions of many of the web pages, with French and German translations on the way. Another new web page provides access to a specialized segment of the GRIN database devoted to information on noxious weeds. Both

taxonomy web pages are part of the GRIN database, which includes over 62,000 botanical names of mainly economic plants. They can be accessed from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/tax For more details, see the March issue of Agricultural Research online at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/mar01/plant0301.htm <snip> ----------------------------------------------------------Subject: Paper Mulch ... Offers Biodegradable Alternative to Plastic Date: Mon, 12 Mar 2001 09:44:48 -0500 From: ARS News Service <isnv@ars-grin.gov> Paper is gaining over plastic in mulches used to grow commercial fruits and vegetables as well as the home-grown varieties, according to Agricultural Research Service (ARS) studies in Peoria, Ill. A main reason for this trend is that vegetable-oil-coated paper mulch may be a less costly alternative to plastic mulches, which are expensive to remove. Brown paper coated with vegetable oils like soybean and linseed oil can protect the crop from weeds and insects and is completely biodegradable, according to ARS chemist Randal L. Shogren at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR) in Peoria, Ill. That gives paper a big advantage over plastic mulches that cost about $240 an acre. Soy oil costs around 15 cents a pound, so growers and home gardeners can expect a reasonable cost for paper mulches made with vegetable oil. Shogren coated plain brown kraft paper--used to make grocery store bags--with several types of vegetable oils, including soybean, linseed and a chemically-modified soybean oil plus a catalyst. The vegetable-oil-coated paper withstood wind and rain long enough for the crop to grow, but then began degrading in the soil. In trials, Shogren found that kraft paper treated with a combination of epoxidized soybean oil and citric acid held up for 13 weeks compared to untreated kraft paper, which was 50 percent degraded in 2-1/2 weeks. A U.S. patent on the technology has been approved. Field trials in Live Oak, Fla., in cooperation with the University of Florida (Gainesville) are in progress. Currently, field trials are being planned with an industry partner. Shogren presented information on the paper mulches at the 6th International Conference on Frontiers of Polymers and Advanced Materials in Recife, Brazil, March 5-9. <snip>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000103B.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - April 1, 2001 - AKA RFN200104A.txt

>> Notes In Passing << Dr. Sainarong Rasananda discusses leaf size of Diamond River Longan and introduces an exciting new Thailand mango, 'Maha Chanok' - The King's Mango. Around my yard: In spite of the frequent rain during blooming of apricots, there's a pretty good set of fruit, and one 'Early Golden' has fruit for the first time, since I recently grafted it. I got the scion from Julia Frink. A few Ephyllum plants have bloom buds, but there are none visible on the Hylocereus or Cereus spp. Cherimoya fruit are almost all gone. One I grafted only last year, Fine de Jete has a few fruit remaining. Mango fruit - I have the last one - a Keitt - in the house ready to eat. Consequently, the Keitt is about the only mango that hasn't begun to bloom. 'Pen Sing Mon' (sp?) has passed through a heavy bloom period without a single fruit setting. Do any of you have it? How has it performed? What about 'Nam Doc Mai?' Mine is young and hasn't set many fruit, and several have split on the tree. May have been due to the heavy rain. The fruit has been yellow-when-ripe, sweet but not flavor is not as complex as most others. Do any of you have 'Carrie?' and stay short. At my home, the tree tends to sprawl

I'm happy to see some blooms on some of the Captain Bucklew mango trees that I grafted over the last two years: 'Early Gold,' 'Julie,' and 'Zill,' If you live near the coast, you may find that the performance of those will be good for you, as they came from trees in Encinitas, CA in view of the ocean. Others from that property are Saigon and Florigon, neither of which have bloomed for me, and I didn't sample the fruit at Captain Bucklew's estate.

If you have eaten the fruit from any of these, I'd like to have your evaluation, please.

>>>> Table Of Contents - Headers; (Letters Follow Table Of Contents) <<<

>>>

New Subscribers

<<<

Grafting Demonstration Zhenxing Fu <zfu@ucsd.edu> Rare Fruit News Online Lorreen Auerbach <auerbachproducts@email.msn.com> New Subscriber, CA, Wants Rare Fruit Varietal Recommendations Brett Badger <to_two_utes@yahoo.com> New Subscriber, Texas: What Can I Grow? "Ralph Osio" <Ralph.Osio@glo.state.tx.us> New Subscriber, AZ, Maybe Plant Mango? Dowd, Bill W <wolfenblaze@aol.com> New Subscriber, New To San Diego: What Will Grow Here? subscribe Diane DeVorn <ddevorn@yahoo.com>

>> Readers Write <<

Rain, Fungus, and Fruit Set Matthew Shugart <mshugart@ucsd.edu> Re: New Subscriber, Wants Rare Fig Varieties Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: Figdoctor@AOL.com Babaco source CHINO228@aol.com

Re: Cardamom Leo A. Martin <leo1010@attglobal.net> Apple-Peach Lauren Stone <Lauren_Stone@baylor.edu> Perhaps you would know.... Diane Solomon <diane333@surfree.com> Re: Perhaps you would know.... Leo To: Diane Solomon <diane333@surfree.com> Mangosteen Heather Liebe" <reddheather@hotmail.com> Growing nutmeg "Evert Nylund" <evert.nylund@kolumbus.fi> Report From Hawaii - From San Diego Transplant Allan Bredeson <a.alankona@verizon.net> Re: "King's Mango" New, From Thailand "Allan Bredeson" <a.alankona@verizon.net> Citrus Exchange Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net> Re: Citrus Exchange Leo To: Sven <scoutdog@pacbell.net> Re: Citrus Exchange Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net> Nursery at or near Lake Elsinore - Know Of One? Leo To: Merten, Sven <scoutdog@pacbell.net> Re: Nursery at or near Lake Elsinore - Know Of One? Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net> FW: Acerola plants.

Lon J. Rombough <lonrom@hevanet.com> Ranga Singuluri <Ranga.Singuluri@radioshack.com> FW: Rambutan Lon J. Rombough <lonrom@hevanet.com> From: Thao <thao.nguyen@neoforma.com> Re: FW: Rambutan Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: thao.nguyen@neoforma.com

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Re: Longan in Perth, Australia Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Re: Diamond River Longan Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Kyle Melkonian <araxi@bellsouth.net> A Budding Superstar - The King's Mango Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Multiple Recipients Fw: A Budding Superstar - The King's Mango Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Fwd: A Budding Superstar - The King's Mango Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th>

>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<

Tropical Fruit Field Trips Santol <santol@tropfruit.com> TROPICAL FRUIT TRIPS WITH SANTOL http://www.tropfruit.com/troptrip.html

Computer virus, new, " ...most destructive ever!" Carl Eaton BACP Accredited, UKRC Registered Counsellor New Virus - Family Pictures Nancy Schumacher <nanshoe@yahoo.com>

>>Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time >>NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> None, this time >> From NEWCROPS List <newcrops@purdue.edu> None, this time >> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com << None, this time >> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Peppers Put the "Heat" on Pests "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov> Jan Suszkiw, (301) 504-1630, jsuszkiw@ars.usda.gov New Study Sheds Light on Plants' Nighttime Defense "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov> Jim Core, (301) 504-1619, jcore@ars.usda.gov

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Subject:

Grafting Demonstration

Date: Fri, 23 Mar 2001 12:53:54 -0800 From: Zhenxing Fu <zfu@ucsd.edu> Hi Leo, The demonstration of grafting methods you and Jim gave in the meeting last night was very good. I made three grafting (by budding) this morning. I grafted Tahitian pumolo to Nagami kumquats and am going to do more this afternoon. I did not get one of your handouts last night. Would you please send me one copy via e-mail? Do you remember by chance that what time the work of pruning citrus in Quail Garden will start tomorrow? I would like to join. By the way I would like you to put my name to your newsletter. Here is my information: my name is Zhenxing Fu and I live in San Diego (University City). I have some fruit trees in my yard like Asian pear, peach, plum, apricot, citrus, cherimoya, loquat, fuyu persimmon, fig, pitenga, pitaya, mulberry, mango, jujube, avocado, tropical and pineapple guava. In the near future I would like to add white sapote and leechi to my yard. Thank you and have a great day! Zhenxing mailto:zfu@ucsd.edu

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Rare Fruit News Online Date: Tue, 2 May 2000 16:53:31 -0700 From: "auerbachproducts" <auerbachproducts@email.msn.com> Hi Leo, A friend told me about your newsletter. copy, if I may. Thank you! Lorreen Auerbach mailto:auerbachproducts@msn.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, CA, Wants Rare Fruit Varietal Recommendations Date: Thu, 22 Mar 2001 13:10:05 -0800 (PST) From: Brett Badger <to_two_utes@yahoo.com> Hello All, My name is Brett Badger and I live in Highland, California. I'm I'd like to request a

about 1 hour inland from Los Angeles. Temperatures range from 30+ to 110 degrees. I'm currently growing only avocados, apricots, cherries, peaches, plums, nectarines and navel oranges but REALLY REALLY want to grow mangos, jakfruit, chico sapote and lychees also. If anyone has recommendations for which varieties to grow, your advice is greatly appreciated. Thank you, Brett Badger mailto:to_two_utes@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Texas: What Can I Grow? Date: Thu, 22 Mar 2001 16:09:02 -0600 From: "Ralph Osio" <Ralph.Osio@glo.state.tx.us> Just bought 39.55 acres in Gonzalez county (the beginning of South Texas) . I am not currently growing anything but wish more information of viable crop in the area. My e-mail is OOsio@aol.com Ralph Osio mailto:Ralph.Osio@glo.state.tx.us -----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, AZ, Maybe Plant Mango? Date: Mon, 26 Mar 2001 07:52:10 -0700 From: "Dowd, Bill W" <wolfenblaze@aol.com> I hope this e-mail reaches you in good health and spirits. This missive contains my request to be added to your e-mail subscribers listing. I am Bill Dowd, of Yuma AZ (Zone 9, SW zone 13) At present time I have growing: plum, Nectarine, Peach, pluot,Aprium, apricot, Naval Orange, Lemon, Ruby Red Grapefruit, Banana, columnar apples (various types I cannot remember now), Bing cherry, grape, blueberry and strawberries I am trying to decide if I wish to add an avocado or a Mango (It

was odd you should mention Mango's on your splash page) Sincerely, Bill Dowd mailto:wolfenblaze@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, New To San Diego: What Will Grow Here? Date: Sat, 31 Mar 2001 15:38:57 -0800 From: Diane DeVorn <ddevorn@dermtechintl.com> My name is Diane DeVorn. I live in San Diego, CA 92116. I have an empty lot and need info on what will grow here and how to grow it. I have gardened in Ohio previously. please help. My e-mail is ddevorn@yahoo.com Thanks, Diane mailto:ddevorn@yahoo.com

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Rain, fungus, and fruit set Date: Tue, 27 Mar 2001 11:25:18 -0800 From: Matthew Shugart <mshugart@ucsd.edu> Dear Leo, Yes, indeed, some time in early March. blooms on my I have never I wondered if the rains would ever stop! No rain from November till mid-January, then almost constant till But now it is warm and sunny, and I have never seen deciduous trees like this before! On the other hand, seen leaf curl like this before, either!

This past winter brought by far the most chill accumulation of any in the six years since I have kept track of temperatures in my own orchard. Judging by historical records from similarly situated weather stations, this past winter was one of the chilliest in decades. I thought it would be many years before I would see a winter with as much chill--and a spring with as heavy a bloom--as I saw in 1998-99. But this one topped that by far!

Just to pick out a few cultivars that are "rare" for my climate, the Doughnut (Stark Saturn) peach is a mass of gorgeous pink flowers, and the early blooms already hint at fruit having set. This cultivar has been hit and miss in past years--good crop in '99, just one or a few peaches other years. The August Pride peach (supposedly 800 chill units) is also a mass of blooms, as is the Double Delight nectarine. All of the pluots are blooming heavily. I have had semi-consistent (but usually light) crops only on Flavor Supreme in the past. (Surprisingly, the Flavor Supreme set quite well last year, when most moderate-chill clutivars and most plums performed poorly, and my chill accumulation was probably under 400; maybe Flavor Supreme is low chill?) The Newsactle apricot is absolutely covered with little fruitlets, and it is not done blooming yet! All my apricots (even Autumn Royal and Floragold) are blooming well. On the other hand, the peach leaf curl is the worst I have ever seen. It is not as if I did not spray, as always, but I guess it was just too wet during the late dormancy phase for the sprays to be effective. As for non-deciduous fruits, my (seedling) loquat has started to bear ripe fruit more than a month earlier than usual, and looks like it will be providing fruit through May, perhaps well into June. (It bloomed from late September continuously into early January!) The fruit is really sumptuous (large, white-fleshed, very sweet, mild flavor). The Sanguinelli blood oranges are better (and redder) than they have ever been. All that dry weather with cold nights and warm days in December may have been the key. I have the first signs of flower buds setting on my Valencia Pride mango (and no signs of mildew thus far), but the Nam Doc Mai is really struggling and showing no signs of new growth yet. Lots of citrus flower buds are forming and some have opened, so the entire orchard should be very fragrant in a few weeks. (I just returned from the Phoenix area, where it seems the whole valley is perfumed with citrus blooms currently at their peak!) Cheers, Matthew Shugart Carlsbad, California mailto:mshugart@ucsd.edu

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: New Subscriber, Wants Rare Fig Varieties Date: Thu, 15 Mar 2001 13:50:17 -0800 (PST)

From: To:

Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Eric <Figdoctor@AOL.com> Leon The California Rare Fruit Growers have a Fig Specialist that may be of help to you. E mail him, Richard Watts, at edew@vcnet.com Eunice Messner You Said: |Hi Leo! | |My name is, ironically, Leon Edmond, and live near Phoenix, |Arizona. I saw a message from Monte P, V.P. of DEFT-Kemp on the |Gardenweb regarding his fig varieties. I wrote to him hoping to |acquire some cuttings of his figs but he did not know which of his |fig varieties were rare. He said he acquired his cuttings from the |CRFG Association and that you may be able to offer more info. | |I am a fig collector. Unfortunately I have no access to scion |exchanges such as those offered through the CRFG, but would like |info or any leads to rare fig varieties. One in particular is Col |de Dame Noir and another Lampiera. | |Could you help me out in finding out what varieties Monte |propagates and where I may be able to obtain rare fig cuttings? | |Also, please place me on your mailing list. I have two E-mails |<Figdoctor@AOL.com> and <leonkim@pol.net> | |My interests are unusual fig varieties and where to obtain |cuttings. I have a collection of fig varieties but do not have |enough scion at his time to offer fellow figmen and fig- women. |Hoepfully in the next year I will have some to share. | |Please keep me informed of any persons like me who have heirloom |or unusual fig cuttings they can share with this fig afficianado. | |Thank you. | |Leon mailto:Figdoctor@AOL.com -----------------------------------------------mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

Subject: Babaco source Date: Fri, 16 Mar 2001 07:47:24 EST From: Maurice R. Kong <CHINO228@aol.com>

Erik Dally, Fort Worth, TX

seeking a source for Babaco

Try David Silber, 12422 El Oro Way, Granada Hills. CA 91344 Phone: (818) 363-3680. He grows Babaco so chances are he might have both seeds and plants to offer. Good luck. Maurice Kong mailto:CHINO228@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Cardamom Date: Sun, 18 Mar 2001 12:04:51 -0500 From: Leo A. Martin <leo1010@attglobal.net> Hello Sara, Cardamom is in the ginger family. It's very easy to grow when it's happy and once it gets started it grows fast. It is also one of the tougher gingers for less-than-ideal ginger climates. If you forget to water it won't die for quite some time. It grows to about a foot tall in a moderate sized pot and will soon completely fill the pot with shoots. It will grow shorter in small pots, and taller in large ones. It can stay pot-bound for years so you wouldn't have to repot unless you wanted to. But it will break any plastic pot once it's potbound. Be sure you use a ceramic or clay pot. I never fertilized it because it grows so fast without it. I haven't seen cardamom bloom. I've seen it grow like a weed in California and here in Arizona but it hasn't bloomed. The plant itself smells like the ground seeds so it's nice sometimes to crush a leaf and smell it. Like most gingers, it strongly resents dividing and transplanting and will sit for quite some time after you divide the clump or repot. So a yearly growing strategy depending on dividing and repotting every fall might work but you won't be happy with the plant. What you might try is keeping it in a pot all the time. From time to time in the spring, once it's outside and growing well, lift the whole thing out of the pot, use a knife to take off some new growths from the outside, and put the clump back in the old pot. If you do this during active growth the old clump won't even notice. Bring the pot in for the winter and keep it in either 1) a warm, moist, sunny room where it will keep growing, or 2) a very

cool room where it will sit dormant and water it when the soil gets very dry. Treat it like a cactus! Then in the spring move it outside again. Gingers are very susceptible to spider mites when the air is dry. In the winter you'll have to look at it at least weekly. First sign will be fine cobwebs on the undersurface of the leaves. If you don't do something right away the plant will be dead in a week or two. Spider mites don't like humidity or water; if you see them, submerge the plant in the pot in a big bucket for 10 minutes or so. If it's too big, take it into the shower and be sure the whole thing is wet. If that isn't possible, spray water with a spray bottle. Be sure the undersides of the leaves are completely soaked no matter what you do because spider mites live under the leaves. You will probably have to treat the plant every few days to get the infestation under control. Many tropical plants have spider mite trouble in the winter in the Midwest, so be on the lookout. When you divide or repot, remember the stem is weak where attached to the rhizome, so don't grab the stem and pull. It will break and that growth will be gone. Instead divide the rhizome with a knife, leaving a little of rhizome and a root or two on the new growth, and separate by pulling the rhizomes apart with your hands. Then put the new growth into a pot. Keep it barely moist, not wet, and in bright shade and it will start to grow eventually. It may take several weeks or months. But once it starts growing it'll grow fast. Good luck Leo A. Martin Phoenix, Arizona mailto:leo1010@attglobal.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Apple-Peach Date: Mon, 19 Mar 2001 17:43:43 -0600 From: "Lauren Stone" <Lauren_Stone@baylor.edu> Is there a fruit that has the characteristics of both a peach and an apple? If so, I think I just ate one, and I was wondering if there was a name for it! Please write back if you get a chance. Thank you so much. Lauren Stone mailto:Lauren_Stone@baylor.edu

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Subject: Perhaps you would know.... Date: Mon, 19 Mar 2001 20:57:38 -0600 From: Diane Solomon <diane333@surfree.com> Dear Mr. Manuel: My son is doing a project about fruit...is there any fruit that begins with the letter "U"? If you have any suggestions about how we might find such a thing, we would appreciate such guidance. Thank you, Diane Solomon Eads, TN mailto:diane333@surfree.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Perhaps you would know.... Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 13:17:18 -0800 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: diane333@surfree.com Hi Diane The only one that comes to mind is a citrus with a name of Ugli or sometimes, Ugly, or even, Uniq. I has few seeds, rind that is dull yellowish-orange, medium-thick, leathery, moderately rough and bumpy, is very juicy, rich flavor, and subacid. It originated as a seedling in Jamaica. Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Mangosteen Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 23:11:52 -0000 From: "heather liebe" <reddheather@hotmail.com> Hello Leo, my name is Heather Liebe I am from Portland, OR I am trying to find a mangosteen seed to grow or a seedling. I have been searching the internet for information on germinating or purchasing the seeds with little luck. If you have any info on

where I could find these treasures I would much appreciate it. Heather Liebe mailto:reddheather@hotmail.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Growing Nutmeg Date: Sat, 24 Mar 2001 07:36:37 +0200 From: "Evert Nylund" <evert.nylund@kolumbus.fi> Hi! I was in India for a week, and came home yesterday. I bought there nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) seeds, and would like to try to grow them. How long does it take to germinate? And should I soak the seeds, or something like that? All information wellcome :-) Happy news too, one Annatto (Bixa orellana) seeds has germinated :-> And loquat is growing better. Cocoa tree too, it grew beautiful new leaves. Thank u :-) -Evert from Finland mailto:evert.nylund@kolumbus.fi

PS: I'm not growing them outside ;-) -----------------------------------------------Subject: Report From Hawaii - From San Diego Transplant Date: Sat, 24 Mar 2001 01:08:01 EST From: Allan Bredeson <a.alankona@verizon.net> Hi Leo, The mango is named R2T2 not R2E2,. ok. It got its name from a tree found in Row 2, Tree2 of a planting in Australia and I was told that it is a sdlg from a Kent mango. My tree is not doing as well as it should because it is too close to a row of Brazilian Pepper trees that serve as a screen so I hesitate to remove them yet. Maybe I should get another tree & plant it in another area as I do like it & it has nice color & flavor as well as size. Our mangos are mostly full of very tiny fruits right now. The Nam Doc Mai just finished flowering recently (later than the others). It is way off in a far off corner & never seems to get any additional water other than the rainfall & it has been drier than normal this year so don't know if it will get much fruit this year

& besides it is not a very big tree yet either. Our Kent and Golden Globe trees are full of small fruit. The Keitt is a newer tree (only a few years old) & therefore will likely have fewer fruit that will hold on to maturity. Last year I let about 7 or 8 fruit stay on & they got very big & good tasting. Our Samoan type breadfruit - called "ULU" in Hawaii, is growing quite well - I've had to water it on occasion. No fruit yet tho, it's only been in the ground a couple years from a root sucker taken from a friends tree. I planted a small "Kaimana" lychee about 1 1/2 years ago & it is growing slowly. It got set back last summer/fall when it got lychee mite and I had to remove some of the affected leaves & spray it with a wetable sulphur mixture. I bought a small "Kahalu'u" variety of avocado, so need to get that planted soon. A nurseryman at Plant-It Hawaii told me that for Hawaii that's got to be about the best avocado yet & very big in size as well. I have a small "Gwen" tree & it gave several fruit - in fact I just picked one off the other day. Well I got to close for now. May see you people in San Diego this September if all goes as planned. Aloha from Kona, Hawaii Allan Bredeson mailto:a.alankona@verizon.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: "King's Mango" New, From Thailand Date: Fri, 23 Mar 2001 23:15:13 -1000 From: Allan Bredeson <a.alankona@verizon.net> Leo Gracias for the info on the new mango soon to come our way I hope. I'm anxious to taste it & see how it is. I was in Thailand 2-years ago & if I'd known about it I would have inquired about it & checked at the big open markets they have there in Bankok. There's one that is called the Weekend Market that is literally HUGE and they have everything! I'd just like to go back there for that alone. They are very advanced over us in certain plant selections, hybrids, etc. I was surprised to see new large flowering (and different colors) of such ornamentals as Adeniums, Euphorbia millii (crown of thorns), etc. I brought back one of each & they are growing. They also have hybridized & come up with a lot of new varieties of bougainvillea - even some dwarf forms. The Nong

Nooch Tropical Botanical Garden at Pattaya has got to be the best in the world! The International Cycad Society are having there big meeting there soon - I wouldn't mind going to that & then checking out on some of the tropical fruits & other ornamental plants at the same time! Shall we set up a tour group! Well, thanks for the reply & info on the new King's Mango. know if it becomes available there. Greetings to Jim Neitzel when you see or talk to him. Aloha, Al Bredeson mailto:a.alankona@verizon.net Let me

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Citrus Exchange Date: Sun, 25 Mar 2001 00:32:42 -0800 From: Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net> Hi Leo, How are you doing? I just read the San Diego chapter newsletter today and realized I missed the citrus scion exchange. How was it? If I had remembered I would have been there. Oh well, maybe next year. I've been planting all my deciduous trees this week. I think I am about done. So far 6 or 8 paw paws, 4 Japanese raisin trees, a dino egg pluot, a burgundy plum, granny smith apple, apricot (don't know which off hand), a jujube, 4 bael fruits, a seedling pluot, and 2 blueberries. It seems like there were others, but I can't remember right now. I wanted to get them in the ground before they leafed out too much. We had a pretty bad frost in February on the property. 4 nights in a row according to the neighbor. I think I lost a fair number of the longans I had in the ground (still have 70 or 80 in pots that are fine). I didn't get around to clearing the brush below the trees and I think that is why I got as much damage as I did. Next year I will have it cleared and I'll protect the trees better. Once they are larger I'm fairly sure they will be all right. The neighbors said it was very unusual for it to get that cold. They even lost 500 protea cuttings that they had growing. How are you plants doing? Flowering for the first time this year I have a capulin cherry seedling, a mexican lime seedling, a beumont (sp?) macadamia and an algerian mandarin. I know, nothing

too exciting, but at least there is something new this year. breadfruit and santol made it through another winter, in the greenhouse of course, but I lost both of my cashews.

My

Do you know of anyone growing grumichama? I have one plant that bloomed last year but never set any fruit. It seems to do fine outside and I was curious why it isn't more common. Maybe the fruit isn't great? I hope all is well with you. Sven Take care.

mailto:scoutdog@pacbell.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Citrus Exchange Date: Sun, 25 Mar 2001 07:32:58 -0800 From: Leo Manuel To: Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net> Hi Sven, I'm glad you took time to write. More interesting than the exchange of scion wood last Thursday, was a table with at least 20 samples of citrus fruit, mostly brought in by Paul Fischer. Tangerines, mandarins, grapefruit, pummelo, orange, lemon, lime,.... Tom Del Hotel (sp?) had an extensive list of citrus he covered with a slide presentation. He probably has trees from which you could get scion wood. Have you visited place? Then Jim talked about budding and I talked about grafting citrus. I modified a grafting discussion paper to show how I handle almost all grafting, with illustrations of cleft, splice, whip-and-tongue, that I use frequently, and an illustration of "saddle graft" which I have never tried, but which looks simple enough. I also grafted three trees and cut them off below the graft, to let people see what I was talking about. Two of the seeds you left with me to plant were, as I recall, almost as large as a hen's egg and brown. One of those has sprouted and is about six inches high. Do you know what they were? I didn't put any identification on the pots. I don't know anyone for sure who has grumichama, but I'd guess that it isn't as tasty as those more widely grown. Do you want me to publish your letter (or parts of) to see what response we get from readers?

How did the pitayas do in the cold? They had the shade cloth above them didn't they? If so, they probably were not bothered. I had a Dr. Beaumont macadamia tree planted in the front yard of the house in Clairemont (San Diego) with pinkish bloom. I think that one of the seedling macadamia trees I have must have Beaumont in its heritage, as the bloom is more colorful than the other seedling alongside it, that is almost white. I finally picked my last mango, a Keitt, and will eat it in a day or so. I also ate the last of my Nam Doc Mai only a few days ago. The latter is sweet and flavorful, but the former has a much richer range of flavors. By leaving them on the tree for so long, they acquire much more color than those I've bought in the stores. Do you have any single source that tells when's the best time to fertilize the plants we grow, as well as types to use and to avoid, and what trace minerals are likely to be helpful? I'd like to see something like an almanac or calendar that's got month-by-month reminders as to what is likely to be needed this month. When you are in San Diego, drop by. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Citrus Exchange Date: Mon, 26 Mar 2001 08:50:07 -0800 From: Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net> Hi Leo, OK, now I'm really sad I missed the meeting. I've never been to Tom's place, but I would like to see it. I imagine he has a lot of interesting trees. Yes, you can publish part of that letter if you want. The seeds are Mammea americana. I'm glad it sprouted for you. The pitaya are fine. They only got a little damage on the soft new growth. The shade cloth did seem to help since there is less damage on the plants in the center. So how long is the mango season for you? been picking them for a while now. It seems like you have

As for a book specifically about more tropical plants and how to care for them, I haven't found a good one yet. There was one

called "tropical fruit" if I remember correctly that covered growing them in the tropics, but it was from the 70s and was geared for growers in the tropics. I don't remember how much detail it went into. I checked it out from the UCI library. The person to talk to is probably Gene Joiner (sp?). He use to write the garden calendar for Tropical Fruit News. I don't know him, but from what I have read he is very knowledgeable as to the care of the tropicals and may know of some good reference books. It seems to me that the older books from say 1900-1950 have better information than the newer books, but maybe I just don't have the right newer books. What I think would be the best book would be all the old issues of the Fruit Gardener or Tropical Fruit News in a volume or two with a good index. But, as far as when and what to fertilize with I haven't found it yet. I've been told never to give fruit trees Nitrogen from the time you harvest until fruit set. This encourages blooming and fruit set. I haven't really tried that yet. Well, I better get to work. Regards, Sven mailto:scoutdog@pacbell.net Have a good week.

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Nursery at or near Lake Elsinore - Know Of One? Date: Tue, 27 Mar 2001 07:49:29 -0800 From: Leo To: Merten, Sven <scoutdog@pacbell.net> Hi Sven, My doctor talked about a nursery with great prices in Lake Elsinore which he stops at on his way to visit his father. He doesn't remember its name. Do you know what he might be referring to? If so, is it good for the rare fruit the rest of us might want to buy? Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Nursery at or near Lake Elsinore - Know Of One? Date: Tue, 27 Mar 2001 08:31:55 -0800 From: Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net>

Hi Leo, I don't know of any in Lake Elsinore. There are a few along the freeway on the way down. I doubt they would have many unusual fruit trees as it gets pretty cold there, but you never know. Sven -----------------------------------------------Subject: FW: Acerola plants For Texas Date: Wed, 28 Mar 2001 15:43:07 -0800 From: Lon J. Rombough <lonrom@hevanet.com> Can you help Ranga? From: To: Subject: Date: Ranga Singuluri <Ranga.Singuluri@radioshack.com> lonrom@hevanet.com'" <lonrom@hevanet.com> Acerola plants. Wed, Mar 28, 2001, 1:04 PM

Hi Lon, I am a resident of Fort Worth in Texas, and was interested in the Acerola plant for its nutritional value. I tried to get this plant , but no one seems to have one, and many don't recommend it, as they say its very delicate and will not survive the winter here. I have a small back yard and would like to grow a few fruit bearing trees. I have two apple trees and would like to add some Guava plants and the Acerolas. I got your address from the internet and thought that you might be able to advise me in this regard. Thanks, Ranga Singuluri mailto:Ranga.Singuluri@radioshack.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: FW: Rambutan Date: Wed, 28 Mar 2001 15:43:31 -0800 From: Lon J. Rombough <lonrom@hevanet.com>

Can you help? Subject: From: To: Date: Rambutan Thao Nguyen <thao.nguyen@neoforma.com> lonrom@hevanet.com <lonrom@hevanet.com> Wed, Mar 28, 2001, 12:11 PM

Lon, I am in search of a Rambutan plant. to where I can purchase one ? I appreciate your information. Thao Nguyen mailto:thao.nguyen@neoforma.com Can you find it or direct me

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: FW: Rambutan Thu, 29 Mar 2001 07:25:58 -0800 (PST) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> thao.nguyen@neoforma.com

Thao Nguyen Try the Ong nursery for a Rambutan plant. They are at 2528 Crandall Drive, San Diego, CA 92111 Ph 619 277-8167 Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Re: Longan in Perth, Australia Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 22:35:08 +0700 From: Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> ----- Original Message ----Leo Manuel Said: |You mentioned "broiler manure" and I wanted clarification.

| |I assume it's chicken manure? What I mean to say is chicken manure from chicken bred for 'flesh', and not for eggs. There is a distinct difference between the two. I believe the difference is due to the foods given to the chicken. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Diamond River Longan Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 22:44:19 +0700 From: Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Kyle Melkonian <araxi@bellsouth.net> |----- Original Message ----- | | |From: Kyle Melkonian | |I have 2 Kohalas, a Biew Kiew, and a Diamond River--or, at least I |hope it is a Diamond River. It has HUGE leaves and is very |healthy and produces lots of delicious fruit. In one of your |articles you stated that the Diamond River has small leaves. Is |this correct or am I mistaken? | |Kyle

I have all three in my orchard. However, I am at the moment away from the orchard. When I get back, I shall take a closer look and get back to you. I am fairly sure that Diamond River has distincltly smaller leaves than the other two; the bark is also much smoother, more like that of a lychee tree than a longan tree. Diamond River fruit is rather watery, especially, when grown in a cool climate, certainly more watery than the other two. Maybe we are not talking about the same Diamond River. Can you send me pictures of the tree? Particularly the leaves. Diamond River should be the easiest to grow, followed by Kohala. BTW where are you? Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

------------------------------------------------

Subject: A Budding Superstar - 'Maha Chanok' - The King's Mango Date: Sat, 24 Mar 2001 15:26:20 +0700 From: Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Multiple Recipients This is not about longan, and I am not being very scientific. There are two major groups of mangoes in the world, the Indian group and the Indochinese group. Most people prefer the Indian group. Thailand grows the Indochinese group of mangoes; the only internationally acclaimed mango from Thailand is Nam Doc Mai, whose literal meaning is 'Water from Flower'. I predict that a new Thai mango called 'Maha Chanok' - dubbed 'THE KING'S MANGO' is going to supersede 'Nam Doc Mai' in the very near future. It is called the King's mango, because it was discovered in the royal orchard. A group of Australian tropical fruit growers came to Thailand a few years ago, and tasted the King's mango. Some of them said that it is the best mango they have ever tasted! I understand that the King's mango is being grown inAustralian orchard right now. The King's mango is thought to be a cross between 'Sunset', an Indian-based mango and 'Nang Klang Wan', an Indocinese-based mango. The world is soon be familiar with the King's mango, Thailand's contribution to the world of mangoes. I shall write about the properties of the King's mango or Mahachanok in the near future. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Fw: A Budding Superstar - The King's Mango Date: Mon, 26 Mar 2001 15:27:31 +0700 From: Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> ----- Original Message ----|Yes the King's Mango is fantastic and I hope it gives the Thai export |industry an advantage. | |If it has been imported it is still in Australian Quarantine and not on |commercial farms yet. | |Terry

|Terrence Campbell |Queensland Horticulture Institute The above e-mail is from a senior horticulturist in Queensland, Australia. Queensland is by far the number one mango-producing state in Oz. This confirms that I am not being unduly nationalistic. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Fw: A Budding Superstar - The King's Mango Date: Mon, 26 Mar 2001 20:13:28 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rapeeporn Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Leo Manuel" <leom@rarefruit.com> Another e-mail in support of my feelings about the King' mango. This time from the president of the Australian Lychee Growers' Association. Sainarong ----- Original Message ----|From: Chris Hoger | |I've just got back from a lychee meeting in Brisbane, and found your email |about the King's mango. I am certain that many of your sentiments expressed |in your letter will become fact within a few years. | |Chris

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Tropical Fruit Field Trips Date: Sat, 24 Mar 2001 15:04:23 -0500 From: "Santol" <santol@tropfruit.com> Hello Leo, I have attached a file, in Microsoft Word format, which announces

the commencement of my Tropical Fruit Field Trips. I also have a web version of it posted on my site. The direct URL, if you wish to have a look, is: http://www.tropfruit.com/troptrip.html I would be very grateful if you pass along the information to whoever can benefit by it. Many thanks, Bruce Livingston mailto:santol@tropfruit.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: TROPICAL FRUIT TRIPS WITH SANTOL Date: Sat, 24 Mar 2001 19:04:37 -0800 http://www.tropfruit.com/troptrip.html TROPICAL FRUIT TRIPS WITH SANTOL <snip> HereÕs where weÕre going: Trip 1 Homestead

Saturday, May 19 Destinations: Nursery <snip> Trip 2 - Palm Beach Saturday, May 26 Destinations: Gene Joyner's "Unbelievable Acres," Sundy House Restaurant, Excalibur Nursery <snip> Trip 3 - Miami Saturday, June 2 Destinations: The Kampong, William Whitman's Garden <snip> Important Information IFAS Station, Fruit & Spice Park, Going Bananas

1. Before the trips, make sure you have plenty of pots, peat and perlite mix, and everything else youÕll need for what you collect. 2. Assuming you donÕt have a mist house, get some ÒBaggiesÓ (not Ziploc bags, but ÒBaggies.Ó) Make sure you have peat & perlite mix. Why? Because youÕll need a way to root your cuttings, and IÕll show you how you can easily do it with ÒBaggies,Ó or as a hint, Òportable mist houses.Ó 3. During the trips, youÕll need collecting materials. You need to at least bring pruning shears, paper towels, a small mist bottle filled with water, something to label what you collect, a small hand spade (for digging up seedlings, and something to carry it all around in. 4. Bring drinking water. Also bring your lunch on each of these trips, except for the Palm Beach trip. On that trip we will be eating at the Sundy House. 5. You might want to be sure to bring along sunscreen, a hat, and insect repellant. 6. DonÕt forget your camera.

7. These trips leave (if we are carpooling) at 8:00 AM. We leave on time. If you arrive at 8:01, then you missed the trip. If we are meeting at one of the destinations, the trip begins at 9:00. If you arrive at 9:01, then you missed that trip too. The trips usually finish up at about 4:00 PM, and if we are carpooling, we usually get back right around 5:00 PM. The David Fairchild home, on the grounds of The Kampong Transportation Depending upon the number of people who sign up for the trips, we will either meet at a central location and then carpool, or we will simply go to each of the stops in our own vehicles. If we need to carpool, that will only be because some of the stops cannot accommodate large numbers of vehicles. In those circumstances, I can make exceptions only in cases in which someone happens to live very close to the vicinity where we will be going (it wouldnÕt make much sense for someone who lives in Homestead to have to drive up to Ft. Lauderdale, only to turn around and go right back to Homestead). How Much Does It Cost? I charge a fee of $200 per person, which includes all three trips. Sorry, but I donÕt give discounts to those who only intend to go on one or two of them. The fee is payable in advance, and there are no refunds. If you wish to participate, please contact me by E-mail at your earliest convenience. I will

provide you, at that time, with instructions as to how to pay the fee. I ask that you do not wait until the last minute to contact me because there are logistical problems involved based upon the expected number of participants. <snip> Please feel free to contact me with any questions you may have. Regards, Santol (a.k.a. Bruce Livingston) mailto:santol@tropfruit.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Computer virus, new, " ...most destructive ever!" Date: Sat, 17 Mar 2001 18:23:56 -0800 A new virus has just been discovered that has been classified by Microsoft (http://www.microsoft.com/) and by McAfee (http://www.mcafee.com/) as the most destructive ever! This virus was discovered yesterday afternoon by McAfee and no vaccine has yet been developed. This virus simply destroys Sector Zero from the hard disk, where vital information for its functioning are stored. This virus acts in the following manner: It sends itself automatically to all contacts on your list with the title "A Virtual Card for You". As soon as the supposed virtual card is opened, the computer freezes so that the user has to reboot. When the ctrl+alt+del keys or the reset button are pressed, the virus destroys Sector Zero, thus permanently destroying the hard disk. according to news broadcast by CNN (http://www.cnn.com/). This alert was received by an employee of Microsoft itself. So don't open any mails with subject "A Virtual Card for You". As soon as you get the mail, delete it. Please pass on this mail to all your friends. Forward this to everyone in your address book. I would rather receive this 25 times than not at all. Also: Intel announced that a new and very destructive virus was discovered recently. If you receive an email called "An Internet Flower For You", do not open it. Delete it right away! This virus removes all dynamic link libraries(.dll files) from your computer. Your computer will not be able to boot up. PLEASE SEND THIS TO EVERYONE ON YOUR CONTACT LIST Regards and Best Wishes from Carl Eaton BACP Accredited, UKRC Registered Counsellor ------------------------------------------------

Subject: New Virus - Family Pictures Date: Tue, 20 Mar 2001 10:21:05 -0800 (PST) From: Nancy Schumacher <nanshoe@yahoo.com> DO NOT OPEN "NEW PICTURES OF FAMILY" It is a virus that will erase your whole "C" drive. It will come to you in the form of an E-Mail FROM A FAMILIAR PERSON. I repeat a friend sent it to me, but called & warned me before I opened it. He was not so lucky and now he can't even start his computer! Forward this to everyone in your address book. receive this 25 times than not at all. I would rather

Also: Intel announced that a new and very destructive virus was discovered recently. If you receive an email called "FAMILY PICTURES," do not open it. Delete it right away! This virus removes all dynamic link libraries (.dll files) from your computer. Your computer will not be able to boot up

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers)<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>NAFEX List <nafex@onelist.com><<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>>>Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU><<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>>From "rarefruit list" - mailto:rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<<<

None this time

>>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> <<< http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Subject: Peppers Put the "Heat" on Pests Date: Thu, 15 Mar 2001 09:30:57 -0500 From: "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov> Jan Suszkiw, (301) 504-1630, jsuszkiw@ars.usda.gov Cayenne pepper, a popular spice for flavoring food, is known for its heat-producing properties from the substance capsaicin. Agricultural Research Service scientists also have found that cayenne peppers contain another potent substance in the saponin chemical family that kills several noxious fungi and yeasts. And because this pepper saponin, called CAY-1, is not toxic to human cells at microbial-killing doses, MycoLogics, Inc., a Denver, Colorado, firm, has begun testing its potential as a candidate drug for treating patients with fungal infections. MycoLogics is doing so under an agreement with ARS's Southern Regional Research Center in New Orleans, La., according to Anthony DeLucca, a microbiologist there. He and chemists John Bland and Craig Vigo discovered CAY-1 during research to identify plant compounds that could be used as crop protectants against spoilage microorganisms such as Aspergillus fungi, which make aflatoxins. Cayenne peppers topped an unusual list of organisms--including Cecropia moths, tree frogs, and bacteria--that produce other novel antifungal compounds. Though CAY-1 proved active against Aspergillus and other important microbial crop pests, DeLucca speculated its properties might also interest medical researchers seeking candidate drug compounds to fight emerging fungal threats to human health. That curiosity led to collaborative studies with National Institutes of Health scientist Tom Walsh, University of Cincinnati researcher Melanine Cushion, and MycoLogic president Claude Seltrennikoff.

In a paper undergoing peer review, they report results from bioassay studies in which germinating and non-germinating cultures of four bacterial, six fungal and one yeast species were exposed to different CAY-1 concentrations. For example, in one test against Candida albicans, which causes thrush and other human infections, a 2.6 microgram-per-milliliter dose curbed the microbe's growth by 93 percent. Additionally, none of the antimicrobial concentrations used caused harm to human cervix cell cultures. CAY-1 also wasn't toxic to cells from lung tissue, where Aspergillus and Pneumocystis carinii fungi can cause serious infections in immuno-compromised patients. ARS, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's chief scientific research agency, has filed a patent on CAY-1. <snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: New Study Sheds Light on Plants' Nighttime Defense Date: Wed, 28 Mar 2001 13:24:44 -0500 From: "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov> Jim Core, (301) 504-1619, jcore@ars.usda.gov

Agricultural Research Service scientists and cooperators have gained new insights into how plants defend themselves against insect attacks at night, according to findings published in the March 29 issue of Nature. James H. Tumlinson, III, and other researchers at the ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Fla., originally discovered that when beet armyworm caterpillars chew on plants, the plants produce chemical aromas that lure a wasp--a natural enemy of the caterpillars--to attack the crop pests. They subsequently isolated, identified and artificially produced a chemical found in the saliva of the caterpillars that prompts corn seedlings to produce the wasp-attracting chemical aromas. They soon recognized that different caterpillar species elicit plants to produce specific chemical aromas that appeal to natural enemies of the very same caterpillar species. In effect, scientists have discovered that a caterpillar triggers its own doom mechanism. More recent findings by ARS entomologists Consuelo M. De Moraes and Tumlinson, along with Mark C. Mescher of the University of Georgia, shed light on the role of chemical cues in a host plant's nighttime defenses.

Little attention has been given to nighttime volatile response by plants and its effects on the behavior of nocturnal herbivores, according to De Moraes, perhaps because it has been assumed that herbivore-induced chemicals occur mainly during the day. However, the authors found that tobacco plants (used only as a laboratory tool) release herbivore-induced plant chemicals during both day and night and that several volatile compounds are released predominantly at night. These chemicals were found to be highly repellant to female moths searching for sites to deposit their eggs. If the moths sense a chemical aroma, it indicates the crop is already larvae infested, and they find another, safer location for their offspring to develop. ARS scientists will conduct further studies that could help plant breeders develop new crop varieties with enhanced defense systems. ARS is the chief scientific research agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. <snip> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000104A.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - April 15, 2001 - AKA RFN200104B.txt

>> Notes In Passing <<

Check in the Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda for more information about the new Thailand mango, 'Maha Chanok' or 'The King's Mango.' Impressive description is an understatement! Fullerton Arboretum "Green Scene" April 28, 29 Plant Sale For more information, see "Announcements And Web Pages To Consider" Third Annual Tropical Fruit Fiesta (Florida) 7/21/01 For more information, see "Announcements And Web Pages To Consider" Fresh Produce Guide, by Henry Richter, M.D. My wife bought this and she thinks it's great for giving brief summaries of more than 300 varieties of fruit and vegetables, including carambola, guava, mango, papaya, sapote, mamey sapote, feijoa, and cherimoya, at least. For cherimoya it says it's also known as custard apple or sherbert fruit. Also, "Ripen at room temperature for a few days until just softened; then refrigerate, tightly wrapped, up to 4

days."

I'll have to try that....

>> Table Of Contents - Headers; (Letters Follow Table Of Contents) <<

>>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber, AL: What To Grow In Marginal Climate? Brenda McKenzie <bdmherb@bellsouth.net> New Subscriber, Visalia, CA, Interested in Pitaya, etc. Brian Carroll <bcarroll@mindinfo.com> Subject: New Subscriber: What All Can I Grow In Littlerock, CA? Juliet Ashley <jjuulliieett@yahoo.com> New Subscriber (For Less Than 2 Hours) Jim Singer <jsinger@igc.org> Re: Rare Fruit News Online Subscription Confirmation Jim Singer <jsinger@igc.org>

>> Readers Write <<

Move My Cherry of the Rio Grande? Michael Zarky <mzarky@earthlink.net> Re: Move My Cherry of the Rio Grande?? Leo Manuel To: Michael Zarky <mzarky@earthlink.net> Re: Move My Cherry of the Rio Grande?? Michael Zarky <mzarky@earthlink.net> Virus Warnings Ed <Link2itc@aol.com> Re: Virus Warnings

Leo Manuel To: Ed <Link2itc@aol.com> Re: Virus Warnings Leo To: Bill <OOWON@netscape.net> Babaco Doesn't Have Seeds Juan Manuel Laulhe <bandama@intercom.es> Grumichama Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> To: Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net> Re: Grumichama Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Grumichama Ben Poirier <benplant@tfb.com> To: Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net> RE: Grumichama Ben Poirier <benplant@tfb.com> Where To Buy Rare Fruit Trees - Los Angeles or ...? lee & lou <leelou@pacbell.net> Harter Mango - Anyone Know Of It? Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Mangosteen Web Site Denise Woo <Dmshuck@aol.com> Sugar Apple, Annona squamosa In S. Cal; Possible? Brett Badger <to_two_utes@yahoo.com> Source Needed - Fruiting Cacti For United Arab Emirates Ahmed Elobeidy <a.obeidy@uaeu.ac.ae> Re: Source Needed - Fruiting Cacti For United Arab Emirates Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: Ahmed Elobeidy <a.obeidy@uaeu.ac.ae>

Re: Source Needed - Fruiting Cacti For United Arab Emirates Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net> To: a.obeidy@uaeu.ac.ae Re: Sources Sought For Rare Fruit Trees Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net> Fruit trees Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: leelou@pacbell.net Banana "Trees" Turn "Squishy and Soft" Belinda <Boom6249@aol.com> To: lonrom@hevanet.com Fwd By: Lon J. Rombough <lonrom@hevanet.com> Re: Banana "Trees" Turn "Squishy and Soft" Leo To: Belinda <Boom6249@aol.com> Which fruit varieties best suited to S. Cal coast? Mike McCright <mike_mccright@hotmail.com> Re: Fruit varieties best suited to the S. Cal coast Leo To: Mike McCright <mike_mccright@hotmail.com> FWD: In Search Of Lucmo and Sapodillo Products Alasdair Carmichael <acarmichael@mindspring.com> Fwd By: Lon J. Rombough <lonrom@hevanet.com>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Longan: Time From Flower-to-Fruit? How To Repel Fruit Bats? Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Ian Crown <iancrown@mindspring.com> My Diamond River is flowing downhill-First Response Link2itc@aol.com To: sainaron@loxinfo.co.th Re: My Diamond River is flowing downhill-Second Response Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th>

To: <Link2itc@aol.com> Re: My Diamond River is flowing downhill Link2itc@aol.com To: sainaron@loxinfo.co.th RE: My Diamond River is flowing downhill Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Edward (Dr.) Lin <Link2itc@aol.com> Re: My Diamond River is flowing downhill Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Edward (Dr.) Lin <Link2itc@aol.com> Re: My Diamond River is flowing downhill Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Edward (Dr.) Lin" <Link2itc@aol.com> Coming to Thailand? Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Leo Manuel 'Maha Chanok' - Polyembryonic? Leo To: Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> A Budding Superstar - The King's Mango - continued "Sainarog Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Leo Manuel Re: 'Maha Chanok' - Polyembryonic? Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th>

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

Plant Sale - Fullerton Arboretum (LA Area) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Third Annual Tropical Fruit Fiesta (Florida) 7/21/01 "Lisa Wishe" <lwishe@mail.ifas.ufl.edu>

Earth Charter Initiative: http://www.earthcharter.org/ Tissue Cultured Banana Plants from India Suresh J Naidu <whitehouseindia@vsnl.com>

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time

<<<<

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<< None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<< None, this time

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<< None, this time

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Vegetative Mulch Reduces Pesticide and Soil Losses in Runoff Sharon Durham, (301) 504-1611, sdurham@ars.usda.gov "ARS News Service" <isjd@ars-grin.gov>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Subscriber, AL: What To Grow In Marginal Climate? Date: Sun, 8 Apr 2001 20:54:28 -0500 From: Brenda McKenzie <bdmherb@bellsouth.net> Hi, I am Brenda McKenzie, in Fairhope, Alabama, on the gulf coast. I have fig trees, blueberries, a dwarf pomegranite, a loquate, a potted lime tree, some seeding guavas. I am interested in growing anything that is marginal in this climate and also in pots for my greenhouse. Brenda McKenzie mailto:bdmherb@bellsouth.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: New Subscriber, Visalia, CA, Interested in Pitaya, etc. Thu, 12 Apr 2001 18:00:25 -0700 Brian Carroll <bcarroll@mindinfo.com>

Hello Leo, My name is Brian Carroll. I currently live (and try to experiment with a few things in my back yard) in Visalia, Tulare Co., California. I got hooked on rare fruits while living for nine years in Colombia, South America. I just found your site when I did a search for "pitaya", which I see you list as something you grow. Since I just found another site that lists 21 different plants, in 8 distinct genera, all under the common name "pitaya", I am wondering which ones you have grown. I am especially interested in the yellow-skinned, white-fleshed pitaya that I was able to buy in Colombian markets. When I attempted to bring in cuttings in 1995, I believed it was in the genus Hylocereus and the USDA confiscated my cuttings because the entire genus was protected by treaty as an endangered species. Now I see this yellow pitaya labeled as Selenicereus megalanthus. It looks like it is beginning to be grown commercially in New Zealand, Australia and Israel. Do you know of anyone who might have some here in California? I would like to go ahead and subscribe to your newsletter, at bcarroll@mindinfo.com. Currently, my experiments include trying to fruit some apple-bananas I brought from Colombia. I've been playing with setting up temporary shelters to get them through the winter. We'll see how it goes. I'm also playing with starting pineapples and papaya indoors and setting them out in the spring.

So far, I'm not far enough along to see any results. I do have a tropical guava and a barbacoa (papaya relative) that I've kept in pots and brought indoors during the winter. I've had two barbacoa fruits in three years, but I've got high hopes for this year. In Colombia I grew sweet yuca (manioc), and if I could get some cuttings I'd like to try that here. I would also like to try keeping some of the tropical passiflora in pots, if I could get my hands on them, especially the yellow or purple "maracuy‡" or the longstemmed orange "grenadilla". Last summer I visited Uzbekistan, and came back with seeds from a "Dina" melon that I'm just putting into the ground this week. We'll see. I'm looking forward to hearing from you, Brian Carroll mailto:bcarroll@mindinfo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: New Subscriber: What All Can I Grow In Littlerock, CA? Fri, 13 Apr 2001 10:43:50 -0700 (PDT) Juliet Ashley <jjuulliieett@yahoo.com>

I am Juliet Ashley and live in Littlerock, CA. I am not currently growing any fruit trees but I am planning the landscape of my new home. I would like to grow fruit and nut trees. If rare ones need special climate, I am going to do a tropical greenhouse with misters, etc, so that I can grow all different fruits. I would like to grow as many as I can! All???? I hope so! I am a 99% fruitarian, meaning fruit is 99% of my diet! Breakfast, lunch and dinner from the front yard is my goal! Can anyone recommend a good beginners book? I want to do everything right! I also want to start a real good library for my fruit garden. Thanks and I am excited to be here! Juliet mailto:jjuulliieett@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber (For Less Than 2 Hours) Date: Thu, 12 Apr 2001 17:44:17 -0400 From: Jim Singer <jsinger@igc.org> My real name is Jim Singer, no matter what you may have heard to the contrary. I live in Venice, Florida, and I grow a fair number

of fruits. Natal plums, meyer lemon, carambola [grafted but it don't know the variety], two mangos [alanpur banisham and glenn], two kumquats, two brown turkey figs, red and bronze muscadine grapes, lychee, avocado, two guavas, atemoya, two sugar apples, four loquats, dwarf cavendish and cuban red bananas, pomegranate, mulberry, native persimmon, four or five feijoas, five cocoplums, barbados cherry, surinam cherry, two valencia oranges, two honey bell tangelos, grapefruit, pomelo, key lime, elderberries, three or four date palms [real babies, only one has put out adult leaves], five very productive pineapples, two bird peppers, and wild tomatoes [thanks to the resident mocking bird] everywhere. Jim -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Re: Rare Fruit News Online Subscription Confirmation Thu, 12 Apr 2001 19:11:16 -0400 Jim Singer <jsinger@igc.org>

Hi, leo. I heard the virus stuff you posted in this issue is, as usual, a hoax. I also find the format too confusing and too self-congratulatory. Please remove me from the list. Thanks. Jim

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Move My Cherry of the Rio Grande? Date: Sun, 01 Apr 2001 19:45:38 -0700 From: Michael Zarky <mzarky@earthlink.net> Hi Leo, I have a Cherry of the Rio Grande; it has grown to about 6 feet over 9 years, given one or two flowers, but generally looks unhappy most of the time. My situation is colder than I imagined (a neighboring cherimoya often loses its leaves to the frosts) and the plant is wretched after the winter; right now it has very few leaves. Plus, the soil may be problematic; with our alkaline water, the leaves always seem somewhat yellow. Anyway, I'm thinking I should at least give a try to moving it;

temperatures are a bit warmer elsewhere on my place, or I might just find a spot to make a cheap greenhouse. Would the readers offer their ideas on when and how to move the plant? I'm thinking I should root prune it, maybe now, and wait to move it another year. Would it be best to try the move in the spring? Those are my guesses. Thanks, Michael Zarky 93021 -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Move My Cherry of the Rio Grande?? Date: Mon, 02 Apr 2001 12:07:16 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: Michael Zarky <mzarky@earthlink.net> Hi Michael, I don't know, in general, what is recommended, but I had one in a bad location, moved it, and it's doing quite well. I think that your chances might be better if you can move it with a ball of dirt. Probably root pruning one year and moving the next would be quite beneficial, but I didn't take any special pre- cautions, and my transplant survived. I will publish your query in the next newsletter, for feedback from others. Take care, Leo mailto:mzarky@earthlink.net Moorpark, CA

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Move My Cherry of the Rio Grande?? Date: Tue, 03 Apr 2001 05:46:24 -0700 From: Michael Zarky <mzarky@earthlink.net> Thanks. Glad to know it can move successfully. Michael Zarky Moorpark, CA 93021 USA

------------------------------------------------

Subject: Virus Warnings Date: Mon, 2 Apr 2001 09:35:35 EDT From: Ed <Link2itc@aol.com> Hello Leo, I know you include virus warnings in your newsletter for the benefit of all readers. But are they from verifiable, reliable sources? I have never heard of Microsoft or Intel making announcements about viruses. Why would they put themselves in this position since they aren't even (primarily) in the antivirus business? Once they set a precedent, they'd be expected to perform and their reputation hangs in the balance. I have come across many emails that seem to serve a good or even noble purpose (ranging from virus warnings to early cancer detection, etc..) but the medical ones I almost always can say with certainty are fakes. They always contain just enough factual info to make the content appear legitimate. I think they are "Trojan horses" designed to harvest emails for later spamming. This is why they always urge you to forward it to everyone you know. The good way you did it though (by cutting off all the other email addresses and the end of the email) probably breaks the chain and cut off the hidden applets that do the harvesting. What do you think? Regards, Ed mailto:Link2itc@aol.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Virus Warnings Date: Mon, 02 Apr 2001 07:03:35 -0700 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: Link2itc@aol.com Hi Ed, Thanks for your feedback. I hadn't thought about the possible spam intent and will not publish those in the future, unless they are from "verifiable, reliable sources." I want to keep the length of the newsletter smaller, also. Sincerely, Leo

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Virus Warnings Date: Tue, 03 Apr 2001 12:00:03 -0700 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: OOWON@netscape.net Thanks, Bill, In the future, I'll not pass along anything unless I know much more about the reality of the threat. I don't want to waste kbits on non-rarefruit related matters. Take care, Leo OOWON@netscape.net wrote: |Leo, | |This is a hoax. | |The virus is merely that everyone sends this around... Been out a |while. That is has not been mentioned here before simply indicates |a better crowd. :) | |What is the suggested policy for mentioning eLists? | |BillSF9c mailto:OOWON@netscape.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: Babaco Doesn't Have Seeds Date: Mon, 2 Apr 2001 22:12:23 +0100 From: Juan Manuel Laulhe <bandama@intercom.es> Hi Leo, Babaco doesn't have seeds. Nice Regards, Juan Manuel Laulhe mailto:bandama@intercom.es

------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

Grumichama Tue, 03 Apr 2001 22:30:35 -1000 Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net>

The grumichama (Eugenia dombeyii), which we here in Hawaii confusingly call Brazilian cherry, is a very good tasting fruit. I find that it tastes similar to a European cherry, at least in this climate. I recently found out that there are yellow colored grumichamas as well as the red ones, but have not seen or tasted them yet. If anyone has a yellow fruited grumichama please let me know. Fruitfully yours, Oscar Jaitt mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Grumichama Date: Wed, 04 Apr 2001 06:50:16 -0700 From: Leo To: Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Hi Oscar, Are there reasons you know as to why more people (at least in Southern California) aren't growing grumichama? Is it propagated primarily from seed or by grafting? If grafted, is it grafted onto other Eugenias or on its own root? Do you ship into California? again, if you do. I'd like to see your plant list

Have I asked you about the R2T2 Mango? If you have experience with it, what's your opinion? I think I'd like to find either a tree of it or scion from one, if it's as good as some have indicated. Take care, Leo ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

Grumichama Wed, 4 Apr 2001 09:05:30 -0700 Ben Poirier <benplant@tfb.com> Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net>

Hi Sven and All, This past year, one of my Grumichama plants flowered and fruited (though only a couple fruits). Of the many Eugenia growing here, I think they are the best ! Similar to E. aggregata , but with a much more intense flavor. I am looking forward to another fruiting ! The only problem I have noticed with these plants is that they are prone towards chlorosis from insufficient iron, but this is easily corrected with some addition of iron to the soil. I have a few plants available in one gallon pots. Ben Poirier mailto:benplant@tfb.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: RE: Grumichama Date: Thu, 5 Apr 2001 09:19:53 -0700 From: Ben Poirier <benplant@tfb.com> Hi Leo The fruiting plant in now 5 - 6 feet tall, so was a foot smaller when first fruiting. This plant in a good deal of shade - one the same age in more sun is much smaller and bushier, yet hasn't fruited. (then again it has had a harder time, having been girdled by a weedeater some time back.) I think the plants are seven or eight years old now. Ben mailto:benplant@tfb.com

-----Original Message----From: Sent: To: Subject: Leo Manuel [SMTP:leom@rarefruit.com] Wednesday, April 04, 2001 11:49 AM benplant@tfb.com Re: Grumichama

|Hi Ben, | |How long does it take the Grumichama to bear? |that began to bear? |

How large is yours

|Take care, | |Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Where To Buy Rare Fruit Trees - Los Angeles or ...? Date: Wed, 04 Apr 2001 09:45:48 -0700 From: lee & lou <leelou@pacbell.net> Can anyone recommend a good source for rare fruit trees in Los Angeles or general California area? Have heard, but not confirmed, that plants grown and acclimated to California stand a better chance than those shipped in from Hawaii or Florida. Am looking for litchee (preferably Mauritius for higher quality), loquats, and miracle fruit. The litchee and miracle fruit will be a big challenge as I am situated in Santa Clara valley, northern California. Thanks in advance for any advice. E. Lou mailto:leelou@pacbell.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Harter Mango - Anyone Know Of It? Wed, 04 Apr 2001 21:22:14 -1000 Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com>

Hi Leo Have you ever heard of Harter mango? I have a small tree that is flowering profusely. A friend gave it to me, but I have not found any info on it, i.e. where it comes from, parentage, type of fruit, etc. Enjoy the newsletter, thanks for keeping it alive, Oscar mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Mangosteen Web Site

Date: From:

Thu, 5 Apr 2001 16:40:29 EDT Denise Woo <Dmshuck@aol.com> Hi Leo, I ran across this interesting web site while I was looking for information on mangosteen. It is from the University of Oregon. From what I have seen so far I think other subscribers to your news letter may be interested. http://www.orst.edu/food-resource/a/mangosteen.html Have a great day! Denise Woo mailto:Dmshuck@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Sugar Apple, Annona squamosa In S. Cal; Possible? Date: Mon, 9 Apr 2001 06:26:34 -0700 (PDT) From: Brett Badger <to_two_utes@yahoo.com> Hello All, I'm a new recipient of the newsletter and enjoy it. I've got a question about the Sugar Apple, Annona squamosa. Living in Southern California with temps ranging from 30F to 110F I've been told by a nurseryman that I shouldn't buy & plant a Sugar Apple in my back yard. I'm willing to put a thermostat based heat lamp near the tree if necessary but would like to know if anyone is having any success with this tree out there. Any recommendations on how to grow it successfully? I suppose I'm just being stubborn but now that he's told me I shouldn't buy the tree... I really want it. Thanks for any thoughts on this. Brett Badger mailto:to_two_utes@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Source Needed - Fruiting Cacti For United Arab Emirates Date: Fri, 06 Apr 2001 18:50:44 +0400 From: Ahmed Elobeidy <a.obeidy@uaeu.ac.ae>

Dear Sir, I am experimenting fruiting cacti in the deserts. I would like to know how can I get rooted cuttings of such plants. Here is a list of the cacti that I need: Carnegiea gigantea, Cereus hexagona, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus peruvianus, Escontria chiotilla, Hylocereus costaricensis, Hylocereus polyrhizus, Hylocereus triangularis, Hylocereus undatus, Pachycereus pecten-aboriginum, Pachycereus pringlei, Pachycereus thurberi, Pereskia aculeata, Selenicereus megalanthus, Stenocereus griseus, Stenocereus gummosus, Stenocereus montanus, Stenocereus pruinosus, Stenocereus queretaroensis, Stenocereus stellatus, Stenocereus thurberi Thank you for your consideration. Dr. Ahmed A. ElObeidy mailto:a.obeidy@uaeu.ac.ae United Arab Emirates University Fax: (971) 3 7632384 -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Source Needed - Fruiting Cacti For United Arab Emirates Date: Fri, 06 Apr 2001 20:27:50 -0700 From: Leo To: Ahmed Elobeidy <a.obeidy@uaeu.ac.ae> Hi Dr. ElObeidy, I've sent a a copy of your letter to two friends who may be helpful. Israel agricultural interest is high in growing fruiting cacti in their desert. I don't know where they get their plants, but possibly the following email address would lead to sources: (Dr. Mizrahi has written extensively about the subject, as I recall.) mailto:mizrahi@bgumail.bgu.ac.il Here are some internet sites I know about: (Some may have links to additional sites more directly of interest.) http://www.cactus-mall.com/ http://www.eisa.net.au/~cactus/info.html http://www.livingtreasures.com/cacti.htm http://www.mesagarden.com/cacplntf.html http://www.openlines.com/~richarde/cactus.html

http://www.cactus-heaven.com:80/seedn-z.html http://www.desertcacti.com/propagation.html I will also publish your letter in the next newsletter, and there may be help from other readers there. I wish you well, Leo Manuel -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: FWD: How can I get rooted cuttings of these cacti? Sat, 07 Apr 2001 10:25:47 -0700 Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net> Ahmed Elobeidy <a.obeidy@uaeu.ac.ae>

Dear Dr. ElObeidy, There are many cacti suppliers where you can obtain cuttings for most of the cacti you are looking for. For some of the Hylocereus species try Rainbow Gardens 1444 E. Taylor Street Vista, California 92084, U.S.A. Telephone: (760) 758-4290 Fax only: (760) 945-8934 E-Mail address: Rbgdns@aol.com For the rest I would recommend searching at http://www.cactus-mall.com/search.html Plants like Cereus jamacaru and Hylocereus triangularis may be hard to find while C. peruvianus and H. undatus will be easy to find. Good luck and I hope this helps. Best regards, Sven Merten mailto:scoutdog@pacbell.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Sources Sought For Rare Fruit Trees Date: Sat, 07 Apr 2001 10:57:23 -0700 From: Sven Merten <scoutdog@pacbell.net> Hi Lee & Lou,

There is a good list of nurseries at http://www.crfg.org/nurlist.html. There are nurseries listed that carry all the trees you are looking for. Best regards, Sven mailto:scoutdog@pacbell.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Fruit trees Fri, 6 Apr 2001 13:25:36 -0700 (PDT) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> leelou@pacbell.net

Lee and Lou You will find a Fruit Source List on the California Rare Fruit Growers's web page: www.crfg.org It would be a miracle if you could get lychee to fruit in Northern California - unless you have a green house. Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: Fwd By: From: To: FW: Banana "Trees" Turn "Squishy and Soft" Mon, 09 Apr 2001 20:07:55 -0700 Lon J. Rombough <lonrom@hevanet.com> Belinda <Boom6249@aol.com> lonrom@hevanet.com

At the end of the summer/fall season...I had 35 banana trees growing in my back yard. Have a hot, sunny environment around swimming pool. Usually by this time of year I start stripping the old leaves and exposing a little at a time, the new growth. We've had a great deal of rain and all my plants seem to have mildew and are just almost "melted".....squishy and soft. Do you think they will come back? Thanks for your time Belinda mailto:Boom6249@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Banana "Trees" Turn "Squishy and Soft" Date: Mon, 09 Apr 2001 21:39:24 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: Belinda <Boom6249@aol.com> Hi Belinda, Lon Rombough forwarded your letter to me to see if someone could help. Where do you live? If in the northern hemisphere, did you have any freezing or heavy frost that might have damaged the banana plants? If is of if so, they will probably grow back from the roots. Even if there some other cause, they may grow back. If you cut off the top one and dig down around the roots, you should be able to tell the whole plant has died.

There are banana diseases that some of the newsletter readers may know about, but it will be important to let them know where your banana trees are (or were.) Yours, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Which fruit varieties best suited to S. Cal coast? Date: Wed, 11 Apr 2001 10:21:08 -0700 From: Mike McCright <mike_mccright@hotmail.com> Hi Leo I moved to Oceanside about 3 weeks ago and am planning my garden. I have several questions relating to fruit trees. I'm hoping that you or your readers can assist me in my choices. I live about 6 miles inland near the top of a hill Northeast of College and Oceanside. The soil drains poorly. A one foot by one foot hole filled twice drains in about 2 hours and fifteen minutes. The soil is adobe above a sandstone base about four feet down. All the areas of planting will get good sun almost all day. Some of plants can be bought at most nursery, but others will probably be hard to get, so for those varieties, a suggested source would be appreciated. If somebody within an hour's drive or so and has some plants for sale, I game to go check them

out. A smaller plant size is fine with me for grafted varieties and air layers. 1.I want to plant an apricot that will consistently fruit on the coast. A neighbor a few doors down has two about 10 years old but they don't fruit for her. I know a guy in University City with the same problem. I'm guessing that I don't get enough chill hours for most varieties. Do you or your readers know of any apricot varieties that will fruit consistently on the coast? I would especially like one that fruited in mid to late summer. 2.I am looking for a very good tasting guava variety that should do well for me, any suggestions? 3.I would really like to plant a lychee. Are they self-fruitful? How big will they get in S. Cal? Can I keep them about 15 foot if they have a tendency to grow big? What should I do to ensure success? Should I dig a great big hole and fill it with compost? I've read that they like an organic acid soil and I don't have that. What variety would you recommend I like the color of Brewster, but are other varieties better suited to my growing situation? 4.I was at Pacific Tree Farms and bought a couple of trees about three weeks ago. They had a Thai Papaya for sale for about $30. They said it was sweeter than a Babaco. I didn't want to pay $30 for a short lived papaya that grows like a weed, but I was interested in a sweet papaya that will grow well here. Is the variety grown by seed and comes true or is it vegetatively propagated? Any suggestions? 5.After I get better settled I was thinking about planting a mango. I was spoiled when I lived in Miami with great fruit May through September. So I hesitate devoting a lager space to a tree or two that I may not get any good fruit from. But I still love mangos and a challenge. Can you recommend varieties and sources that have a good chance of working for me? I know that they are wind pollinated. Are there self-fruitful varieties? In Florida they get pretty big and I probably only have room for one. 6.If I planted a canistel, what kind of success could I expect? I love the fruit in a milk shake, but I know of no one who has one here. Suggestions, Sources? 7.I would like to plant a starfruit, I think that some folks know of good varieties that should do well. I would like a prolific variety with fairly large sweet fruit. That pretty well rules out all seedlings. How big will they get here? Are they self-fruitful? Suggestions, Sources? If any of your readers live near me (Oceanside, Vista, Carlsbad) and want to share plants or information, I would like to know who my gardening neighbors are. Please feel free to e-mail me back. Gardening/fruit growing is my passion, so I would welcome the contact.

Thanks Leo, Mike McCright mailto:mike_mccright@hotmail.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Fruit varieties best suited to the S. Cal coast Date: Wed, 11 Apr 2001 15:22:54 -0700 From: Leo To: Mike McCright <mike_mccright@hotmail.com> Hi Mike, Apricots bearing consistently may be hard to find, but there are undoubtedly some that will bear fairly well. Guavas that taste good will depend on your personal taste. Decide in general whether you want white or pink or some other color of flesh. Whether the smell should be subdued or pronounced. I have some air layers of some, if you remember what I have. Lychee is self fruitful, but tend to not bear heavily. If you almost like longan as well, they bear much more heavily. Kohala is a favorite, and I have some small ones, air layered, or you can look at nearby nurseries. Are you familiar with Exotica on East Vista Rd? There are mango varieties that perform well near the coast. 'Early Gold' is one that does very well but may be hard to find. Valencia Pride may do well. Another, 'Villa Se–or' is hard to find, but may do well. I don't have any experience with canistel, so I'll pass and see what other readers have to say. My starfruit hasn't borne, so I can't say much about that, either. Exotica is probably a good place to look, and perhaps readers will suggest others. I'll publish your letter. who lives near the coast. mailto:mshugart@ucsd.edu Also, I may forward a copy to someone Matthew Shugart

You know about the North County CRFG chapter that meets in Vista? I think maybe on the third Friday of most months. On the campus of the community college there. Leo

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: Fwd By: From: FWD: In Search Of Lucmo and Sapodillo Products Thu, 12 Apr 2001 10:47:59 -0700 Lon J. Rombough <lonrom@hevanet.com> Alasdair Carmichael <acarmichael@mindspring.com>

Would you know any distributors in the USA for lucmo: fruit, powder or paste, and also for sapodillo? Thanks Alasdair

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Date: From: To:

Longan: Time From Flower-to-Fruit? How To Repel Fruit Bats? Tue, 10 Apr 2001 13:55:51 +0700 Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Ian Crown <iancrown@mindspring.com>

|----- Original Message ----| |From: Ian Crown ... | |I had a technical question for you. |On average, and I realize each cultivar and each location's |conditions may impact on this, once a longan flower has opened |enough to produce viable pollen (anthesis), how long is it before |the fruit has ripened? Longan fruits can be harvested about 5-6 |months after anthesis - the hotter the weather the faster the |development process. | |Last year, before we could pick the fruit, bats took them all and |estimations became impossible. This year, we do not know what we |are going to do. I like bats and will never hurt them but I may |need some technique or repellant substance. We will see but your |thoughts would be appreciated. A few alternatives 1. Netting may be the best answer. The Aussies cover the entire plantation with net; the Thais put up nets every ten plants or thereabout.

2. One person I know uses mothballs. He put 15-20 mothballs in a thin piece of white clothe, and tie the clothe next to a longan pannicle. 3. Another person uses cassava head. He cuts the cassava and thereby causes the latex to ooze out. He then tie the cassava to a stick and hold it above every other longan tree. 4. Yet another grower uses 100-watt bulbs. He put the bulbs up above the trees and lights up the entire orchard. Take your choice, try it out and tell me how you fare. Also give me your thought on the viability of each alternative. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: My Diamond River is flowing downhill-First Response Mon, 2 Apr 2001 12:41:54 EDT Link2itc@aol.com sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

|Dear Sainarong, | |I have a Kohala, a Degelman and a third longan which is supposedly |a Diamond River. It has the smallest leaves with the softest |texture (almost like lychee) among the three which I have listed |in decreasing order of leaf size. Its youngest leaves are an |intense reddish purple, more so than the other two longans. If I |recall correctly, this is consistent with what you wrote in the |past. | |I mentioned to you before that the wood of my diamond River (DR) |is exceptionally soft, almost like pine, which was a surprise. The |second thing I have found thus far is that it appears to be poorly |tolerant of wet conditions. I grew my DR on a slope of dry soil, |and to encourage moisture retention, I put a good amount of peat |in the planting hole. In retrospect, I may have put in too much |peat as the soil is now "habitually" moist. What is odd is that |the tree did beautifully for one year, tripled in size, and then |started going downhill only AFTER a minor hurricane broke one of |its two main side branches. The side branch was properly pruned |off and sealed with fungicide. The cut surface is several inches |away from the main trunk. | |As you know, longans have an effective way of sealing off wounds |and diseased branchlets. They usually shed the small branches and |they just fall off, leaving a nicely healed 'scar.' An |interesting observation I have made with my DR is that with

|chronic wet feet, the tree now appears to be actually shedding its |main branches by a form of "auto-amputation": The BBR (branch Bark |Ridge) becomes gradually separated from the main trunk such that |the branches appears increasingly to be held by a diminishing |woody core. It doesn't look long before a strong gust of wind |could blow the branch clear off its attachment at the trunk. Have |you ever seen anything like this? | |After I pruned one of its main branches back, the DR has never |fully recovered. Instead, the bark kept shriveling towards the |main trunk. I think the excess moisture has hampered the tree's |ability to heal and I wonder if I should dig it up and |reconstitute the soil in order to save it. Any advice? | |Thank you, and best regards, | |Ed mailto:Link2itc@aol.com I have all three in my orchard. However, I am at the moment away from the orchard. When I get back, I shall take a closer look and get back to you. I am fairly sure that Diamond River has distinctly smaller leaves than the other two; the bark is also much smoother, more like that of a lychee tree than a longan tree. Diamond River fruit is rather watery, especially, when grown in a cool climate, certainly more watery than the other two. Maybe we are not talking about the same Diamond River. Can you send me pictures of the tree? Particularly the leaves. Diamond River should be the easiest to grow, followed by Kohala. BTW where are you? Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: CC: Re: My Diamond River is flowing downhill-Second Response Sat, 7 Apr 2001 11:57:29 +0700 Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> <Link2itc@aol.com> "Siree Suwannaket" <siree_s@hotmail.com>, "Nantarat (Dr.) Supakamnerd" <nantarats@yahoo.com>

----- Original Message ----From: <Link2itc@aol.com> |I have a Kohala, a Degelman and a third longan which is supposedly |a Diamond River. It has the smallest leaves with the softest |texture (almost like lychee) among the three which I have listed |in decreasing order of leaf size. Its youngest leaves are an

|intense reddish purple, more so than the other two longans. If I |recall correctly, this is consistent with what you wrote in the |past. This sounds like to Diamond river I know. | |I mentioned to you before that the wood of my diamond River (DR) |is exceptionally soft, almost like pine, which was a surprise. The |second thing I have found thus far is that it appears to be poorly |tolerant of wet conditions. I grew my DR on a slope of dry soil, |and to encourage moisture retention, I put a good amount of peat |in the planting hole. In retrospect, I may have put in too much |peat as the soil is now "habitually" moist. What is odd is that |the tree did beautifully for one year, tripled in size, and then |started going downhill only AFTER a minor hurricane broke one of |its two main side branches. The side branch was properly pruned |off and sealed with fungicide. The cut surface is several inches |away from the main trunk. I can only make some guesses as I cannot |see the tree. 1. Longan, like most other fruit trees, like moist soil but does not respond well to damp soil. A large, healthy longan tree can tolerate water-logged soil for only a period of time. 2. Many growers find that the sapling grows well in the first few years, after which the growth tends to falter. This is generally due to the fact that the young sapling does not need a lot of nutrients; its nutrient needs are adequately provide by the compost the grower put into the hole. However, as the tree grows, it needs more nutrients and its roots grow longer and deeper. It is then that the roots the natural soil which may not be conducive to the growth. The lesson to be learnt is that the grower has to improve the quality of the soil under the canopy of the tree as well. 3. My feeling is that the roots may have been severly damaged. In what ways I do not know. So, do what you would to a patient, examine the roots without damaging them. Often, the answer lies in the soil. 4. Quite often, trees unexplicably wither and die. Actually there are reasons, but the horticulturists have not found the reasons yet. |As you know, longans have an effective way of sealing off wounds |and diseased branchlets. They usually shed the small branches and |they just fall off, leaving a nicely healed 'scar.' An |interesting observation I have made with my DR is that with |chronic wet feet, the tree now appears to be actually shedding its |main branches by a form of "auto-amputation": The BBR (branch Bark |Ridge) becomes gradually separated from the main trunk such that |the branches appears increasingly to be held by a diminishing |woody core. It doesn't look long before a strong gust of wind |could blow the branch clear off its attachment at the trunk. Have |you ever seen anything like this?

| |After I pruned one of its main branches back, the DR has never |fully recovered. Instead, the bark kept shriveling towards the |main trunk. I think the excess moisture has hampered the tree's |ability to heal and I wonder if I should dig it up and |reconstitute the soil in order to save it. Any advice? Can it be that the nutrient uptake has been severely impeded? The answer often lies in the roots or the soil; sometimes the trunk has been damaged by insects. Again I repeat my recommendation. Dig down. Take a close look at the roots and the soil around it. I can give you more guesses but I think that this e-mail is getting too long. I wish you the very best of luck. -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: My Diamond River is flowing downhill Sat, 7 Apr 2001 17:32:35 EDT Link2itc@aol.com sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

|Dear Sainarong, | |Thank you for your explanation of the meaning of the Thai name suffix. |Very interesting. | |I have a question about your reply to my query about my Diamond River. |It seems to me word(s) are missing from your reply below indicated by |the *** | |May I trouble you to clarify? My tree canopy is but 3.5 to 4 feet |wide and I have conditioned an area at least that size in diameter, on |a gentle slope. I sometimes wonder if I am digging a fancy grave for |my trees when I go to such length to prepare an "improved" bed. Thank |you. | |Ed mailto:Link2itc@aol.com You said: ||2. Many growers find that the sapling (ARE YOU REFERRING TO THE

||DIAMOND RIVER SAPLING IN PARTICULAR OR TO LONGANS IN GENERAL?) ||grows well in the first few years, after which the growth tends to ||falter. This is generally due to the fact that the young sapling ||does not need a lot of nutrients; its nutrient needs are ||adequately provide by the compost the grower put into the hole. I am referring to most trees with fragile root system. Longan trees, in general, have fragile root systems; the root system of the Diamond River longan is less fragile. Trees with sturdy root systems, such as mangoes, can easily extend their roots well beyond the original hole and find sufficient nutrients. ||However, as the tree grows, it needs more nutrients and its roots ||grow longer and deeper. It is then that the roots *** the natural ||soil which may not be conducive to the growth. The lesson to be ||learnt is that the grower has to improve the quality of the soil ||under the canopy of the tree as well. The missing words are 'try to extend themselves into'. The implication is that if the root system is fragile, it may not able to extend very far out; this spells trouble especially if the natural soil is not fertile. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Coming to Thailand ? Date: Sat, 7 Apr 2001 12:58:30 +0700 From: Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> If you and your wife come to Thailand, I think you, not your wife, is the one who is going to be more frustrated. Horticulturally, there is so much to see and you would not be able to see them all. One of the reasons for this is the fact that Thailand is a shopping paradise, and practically all women anywhere are shopping addicts. As there are not many horticulture nuts around, you will be in the minority and will have to compromise! The Australian growers have turned this addiction in their favor; they have persuaded their wives to come back to Thailand again to do their shopping. While the wives shop, the men enjoy themselves as well! Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: 'Maha Chanok' - Polyembryonic? Date: Sun, 01 Apr 2001 11:20:11 -0700 From: Leo To: Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Hi Sainarong Do you know yet whether the 'Maha Chanok' mango is polyembryonic or not? I'm still hoping to visit Thailand sometime. My Thai daughterin-law 'threatens' to send me and my wife there next year for our golden (50 years) wedding anniversary. Since my wife doesn't share my enthusiasm for fruit - especially for the taste of Durian, I'm not sure that she would find it as much of a celebration as I would.... Thanks so much for your contributions to the newsletter. Sincerely, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: A Budding Superstar - The King's Mango - continued Date: Tue, 10 Apr 2001 14:09:24 +0700 From: Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> You may wonder why you have not heard about this wondrous King's mango. Well, the fact is that the King's mango has a lot of the attributes of the Indian-type mango, and Thai people are not fond of the Indian-type mangoes. So the King's mango is not popular in Thailand, it is primarily for export. However, the Thais are not very effective in coordinating the production and marketing functions. As a result, the King's mango remains relatively unknown, but not for much longer. Outstanding Attributes 1. The colour of the fruit and flesh is pleasing. The fruit size is medium. 2. Thick peel; The fruit is not easily damaged during harvest, handling and transportation. The fruit is relatively resistant to anthracnose, the scourge of mangoes. 3. Ripe fruit has a shelf life of 7-10 days or more.

4. The tree is resistant to stem borers. 5. The tree is easy to grow and looked after. 6. The fruit is amenable to food processing. It can be converted into many processed products. Major Uses 1. To be eaten ripe. 2. Can be processed/converted into many products such as mango juice, sherbet, jam, marmarlade, cake, jelly, etc. Major Weaknesses The major weaknesses are still to be discovered. Properties of the King's mango. 1. Leaves: large, thick, acute at the tip, red when young, dark green but not black when mature. 2. Stem and branch: strong stem, large canopy, thick branch, thick node. 3. Flower: red flower stalk, large panicles, high percentage of perfect flowers; ease of self-pollination; high percentage of fruit set; response well to forced flowering by pacolbutrazol; flower during November to February, leading to a long harvesting season. 4. Fruit: long; medium-sized; 350-500 grams per fruit or 3 fruits per kilogram; 79% of the weight is edible flesh; 4.1 When developing, the colour of the peel is green, but may turn red if exposed to sunlight; thick peel; 4.2 When ripe, the colour of the peel ranges from greenish yellow to yellow to deep yellow orange to orange to reddish orange, depending upon the environment, sunlight and temperature; the colour is eye-catching; the flesh is sweet with a tinge of sourness, and has a unique aroma; the flesh is golden yellow, fine, and thick with little fibre. 5. Seed: small, very flat. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From:

Re: 'Maha Chanok' - Polyembryonic? Mon, 9 Apr 2001 22:46:52 +0700 Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th>

|Do you know yet whether the 'Maha Chanok' mango is polyembryonic |or not? A Thai Ph.D. from Australia tells me that 'Maha Chanok' or the King's Mango is monoembryonic. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Fullerton Arboretum "Green Scene" April 28, 29 Date: Tue, 10 Apr 2001 09:53:13 -0700 (PDT) From: Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com>

Plant Sale

Probably the largest collection of garden vendors in California will be at the "Green Scene" Fullerton Arboretum event April 28, 29, 2001. 9 to 4 on Saturday, 10 to 4 on Sunday. I believe admission is $6 and children under 17 are free. Arboretum members will have first choice on Friday evening (plus refreshments). You can join at the gate for $25. The Orange County Chapter of California Rare Fruit Growers will offer a large selection of fruit trees. It varies every year but, for sure, will be avocado trees that are best for the home garden that are not sold commercially. We get the scion wood from the UC. Field Station. There will also be a large selection of potted deciduous trees from L.E. Cooke. The best tasting of all red raspberries, "Rosanna" will be available. All commercial sources have none left in stock. This variety does very well in our subtropical areas as well as colder ones. (Bill Nelson came and dug up some of mine so he would have some parent stock.) Lots of flowers, organic vegetable plants, succulents, garden tools, macadamia nut crackers, etc. and of course, food. (I am bringing 350 pepper plants, like the ones that are selling now for $4.99 a #, - O.C. Organic Gardening booth.) It is LOTS of fun! Plan to spend the day.

Eunice Messner

mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

P.S. I am also known as the "Hollyhock Lady" as I bring seed to the O.C. Horticulture booth from my English fluted and/or frilled hollyhocks unlike any others you have seen. The 300 packets I bring usually sell out on Saturday. >From the #57 Freeway, exit on Yorba Linda Blvd., turn west (left) to the next street, Associated Rd., and turn left again. There will be parking attendents to direct you. -----------------------------------------------Subject: Third Annual Tropical Fruit Fiesta (Florida) 7/21/01 Date: Mon, 2 Apr 2001 11:54:38 -0400 From: "Lisa Wishe" <lwishe@mail.ifas.ufl.edu> Third Annual Tropical Fruit Fiesta Contact: Gail Keeler 305/292-4501 or gkeeler@mail.ifas.ufl.edu When: Saturday, July 21, 2001 9 AM-4 PM Where: Bayview Park, Key West FL A full day of tropical fruity fun! Sample ripe tropical fruit, local tropical food and fruit products, buy fruit trees and native plants, learn how to grow your own fruit, and get familiar with new and lesser-known fruits. Get expert advice on fruit problems at the popular plant clinic. Homegrown fruit contests, demonstrations, raffle, many varieties of bananas on display, and lots more. Thank you. Lisa Wishe http://monroe.ifas.ufl.edu mailto:lwishe@mail.ifas.ufl.edu

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Tissue Cultured Banana Plants from India Date: Fri, 13 Apr 2001 06:19:28 +0530 From: Suresh J Naidu <whitehouseindia@vsnl.com> GREENEARTH BIOTECHNOLOGIES LTD. "Dynamatic Park", Peenya, Bangalore-560 058 India Fax: ++ 91 80 8394936 Phone: ++91 80 8398793(direct) / 8391032 E.MAIL: whitehouseindia@vsnl.com Dear Sirs,

Our Company, GREENEARTH BIOTECHNOLOGIES LIMITED, is a premier tissue culture Company near Bangalore which owns a commercial Tissue Culture Laboratory with a capacity of 5 million plantlets per annum. This state-of-the-art facility incorporates the use of sterile materials imported from Europe for its Clean Rooms and sophisticated Israeli computer controlled Greenhouses for hardening plants. A large portion of the Company's production is for customers in Europe, North America, the Far East and South East Asia. Zantedeschia (Calla tubers) of different clones are also being multiplied and tuberised to the extent of 5 to 10 cm. diameter and exported to our customers in New Zealand. The entire facility was designed to produce world class products at cost-effective prices. There is an R & D Laboratory, where starter cultures are prepared, plants are freed from virus and diseases, and improvements in production protocols are made. Extensive research work is also done for improving our crops for higher yields and better produce. We also can micro propagate any plant by tissue culture if mother plants are provided. Our product range is given below. S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. flower) 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Product Banana (Dwarf Cavendish/Robusta/Grandenaine/Williams Syngonium-Singles (Pixie/Red/White Butterfly/Lilliput) Spathiphyllum Petite (3+ clumps) Gerbera (Red&Pink cut flower variety/Red Potted variety) Calla Lilly (Pink Opal/Pink Persuasion/Pot of Gold / Sensation / Dominique/Mango/Black Magic & Cleopatra-cut Polyscias crispum Cordyline (Pink Edge & Red Edge) Philodendron (X & Royal Queen) Ficus (Golden King-Clumps) Ficus (Tenaki & Robusta-Singles)

Delivery: Will be committed after knowing your requirement. If you require any special plants to be multiplied on contract (Contract Propagation), please feel free to contact us. Hope to hear from you at the earliest. With best wishes and kind regards, Yours truly, Suresh J Naidu mailto:whitehouseindia@vsnl.com

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@onelist.com> <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU> <<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> From "rarefruit list" - mailto:rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<<<

None this time

>>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> <<< http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Subject: Vegetative Mulch Reduces Pesticide and Soil Losses in Runoff Date: Mon, 2 Apr 2001 07:37:03 -0400 From: Sharon Durham, (301) 504-1611, sdurham@ars.usda.gov "ARS News Service" <isjd@ars-grin.gov> <snip> As a mulch in vegetable production, the cover crop hairy vetch greatly reduces pesticide runoff and soil erosion, making it an excellent alternative to plastic mulch often used by vegetable

growers. This finding was presented Sunday by Agricultural Research Service scientist Pamela Rice during this week's meeting of the American Chemical Society in San Diego, Calif. Rice is with the ARS Soil and Water Management Research Unit, based at the University of Minnesota at St. Paul. Vegetable growers now often use plastic (polyethylene) mulch to maintain soil moisture and control weeds. When it rains, however, the plastic increases surface runoff because 50-75 percent of the field is covered with plastic that will not allow rain to penetrate into the soil. The runoff contains eroded soil and agricultural chemicals that may have potential harmful effects on organisms in nearby streams and rivers. In a three-year collaborative study, Rice and co-workers at the Environmental Quality Lab and the Sustainable Agricultural Systems Lab at the Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Md., have developed a more sustainable vegetable production system that uses hairy vetch, a vegetative mulch. ARS has demonstrated that hairy vetch is economical and can effectively control weeds. The study compared runoff and soil erosion from field plots using vegetative and plastic mulch. Fields with plastic mulch lost two to four times more water and up to 10 times more sediment than the plots using hairy vetch mulch. <snip> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000104B.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Rare Fruit News Online - May 1, 2001 - AKA RFN200105A.txt

>>>>> Notes In Passing <<<<< Subject: CRFG In Financial Difficulty

If you are a member of California Rare Fruit Growers (CRFG) and have read the May/June 2001 issue, you have seen the news that the cash flow has been negative, primarily due to the cost of the journal, Fruit Gardener. Consequently, the cost of a one-year subscription will increase as of July 1, 2001, to $25. It is a bargain, whether you attend any of the local chapter meetings or not.

If you are in a related business, you can help CRFG by advertising, or possibly you know someone who manages a nursery.... For rates, contact Ruth Wilnew, mailto:admin@crfg.org I have every issue from the beginning of the organization. It's an important publication and must not be permitted to die. Leo

Subject: Information Sought: Thailand Mango Fruit Trees [I just sent this to Dr. Rasananda, and thought that maybe another reader has information on one or more of these, grown in your climate.] I visited a nursery operated by a young Vietnamese friend, Quang Ong, and he had just imported some Thailand mango trees that I'd like to know whether I should acquire any of them. They are: Sai Tong Ice Cream Po Pyu Kalay Man Dian Guan Dupuis Saigon I copied the names from handwritten labels, and may have mis-read some of the letters. Thanks! Leo P.S. Quang Ong has a large selection of rare fruit trees just received. http://www.homestead.com/rarefruit/QuangOng.html has a the price list may not be current. Remember, he's only there on weekends, and you should telephone ahead to be sure he is available. (858) 277-8167 2528 Crandall Drive, San Diego He has a wide selection of longans, lychee (including 'Emperor') and mango trees, among others, that are beautiful specimens! Subject: Empty Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda This Time

Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda has no entries this time. Dr. Rasananda is possibly on holiday, or has taken a well-deserved reprieve from writing.

>> Table Of Contents - Headers; (Letters Follow Table Of Contents) <<

>>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber, Australia, Horticultural Consultant Ted Winston <twinston@znet.net.au> Thanks Ted Winston <twinston@znet.net.au> New Subscriber, Florida: What Else Can I Grow? Edward & Althia Musgrave <eamusg@quixnet.net> Suggestion: Index Back Issues For Ease In Searching Brenda Barnes <brendabarnes@hotmail.com> New Subscriber, South India Jeff Goodchild <jeff@auroville.org.in>

>> Readers Write <<

Re: Source Needed - Fruiting Cacti For United Arab Emirates David Karp <dkarp@sprintmail.com> To:Lon J. Rombough <lonrom@hevanet.com> Here Are Pitaya Growers To Recommend Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: bcarroll@mindinfo.com Re: Mango in Cold Winters Leo To:bcarroll@mindinfo.com

Re: Mango in Cold Winters Brian Carroll <bcarroll@mindinfo.com> Re: Mango in Cold Winters Leo To:bcarroll@mindinfo.com Re: Fruit varieties best suited to the S. Cal coast Matthew Shugart <mshugart@ucsd.edu> To: mike_mccright@hotmail.com Re: Fruit varieties best suited to the S. Cal coast McCright, Michael CWO <MMcCright@d11.uscg.mil> Apricot, mango and Thai papaya Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: mike_mccright@hotmail.com RFNO - Still Being Published? Doron Kletter <kletter@impact.xerox.com> Paterna Lawrence Dodson <dodsonlarry@msn.com> Re:Visit to Thailand Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Granadilla fruit/passion fruit. Snowindiva@aol.com Re:Paterna Lawrence Dodson <dodsonlarry@msn.com> RE:'Selma' Cherimoya Jay Ruskey <jruskey@earthlink.net> What I Grow In The Desert Arlyn Duval <arlynd@earthlink.net>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

None this time

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

Chanthaburi, Thailand - Amazing Tropical Fruit Fair and Parade Recommended By:Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> http://www.masterworksunlimited.com/Thailand/fruitfair.htm NEW -- largest durian site on the Net! over 55 megabytes of duriana! http://www.durianpalace.com

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time

<<<<

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<< None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<<

RE:Queensland nut Paul Kristiansen <pkristia@metz.une.edu.au> To: Craig Hardner <craig.hardner@pi.csiro.au> Plantain C. Kehler <g.musings@sk.sympatico.ca>

Mangos C. Kehler <g.musings@sk.sympatico.ca>

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<< None, this time

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

France-Based Lab Plays Key Role in U.S. Biocontrol Research ARS News Service <isnv@ars-grin.gov> For Better Strawberries, Grow Them Over Red Mulch ARS News Service <isnv@ars-grin.gov>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Subscriber, Australia, Horticultural Consultant Date: Mon, 23 Apr 2001 10:37:46 +1000 From: "Ted Winston" <twinston@znet.net.au> Dear Leo, I have recently come across "Rare Fruit News Online". Most impressed with the information contained in the last few years of newsletters. I am an independent horticultural consultant working both in Northern Australia and in SE Asia. I come from a research background on the physiology, nutrition, and agronomy of mango, lychee, longan, avocado, coffee and other lesser tropical fruit. I spend a lot of time helping to introduce and trying to identify the best fruit tree cultivars for local conditions. With in northern Australia I am now mainly working with mechanised coffee and fruit trees. I also spend about 50+% of my time in SE Asia, predominantly Laos at present. In that country I am involved with fruit (tropical to temperate), coffee, rice, vegetables, field crops and just about

anything other than animals. I especially have read the articles of Sainarong Rasananda with interest. I would appreciate being added to the mailing list. Yours sincerely, Ted Winston mailto:twinston@znet.net.au

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Thanks Date: Mon, 23 Apr 2001 14:45:08 +1000 From: "Ted Winston" <twinston@znet.net.au> Dear Leo, Thanks for the very quick response in adding me to the subscription list. I have followed your advise and have sent an Email to Sainarong Rasananda. He has some very interesting and practical writings. I travel to Laos about 4 times per year and perhaps one time I will be able to see him in Thailand. Yes I have down loaded the back issues. It is taking me some time to work through them! Cheers, Ted Winston mailto:twinston@znet.net.au

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Florida: What Else Can I Grow? Date: Thu, 26 Apr 2001 10:02:42 -0400 From: "Edward & Althia Musgrave" <eamusg@quixnet.net> I wish to subscribe to your newsletter. My name is Edward Musgrave I live in Brandon Fl. I belong to the Tampa Bay Rare Fruit Club. I am now growing Cherimoya, soursop bignay, paw paw, carambola,guiana chestnut, silly pilly, white sapote, star apple various persimmons, date palm, kei apple, tropical apricot, loquat, cherry of the rio grande, surinam cherry

longan, pineapple guava, japanese raison, litchi, macadamia nut, both kinds barbados cherry, tapioca, sapadilla, monstera deliciosa, plantains, jaboticaba, guava berry, screw pine, passiflora 6 kinds, brazilian guava, yellow mombin, miracle fruit, rose apple, brush cherry, tamerind, vanilla orchid, coontie, I am interested in any other fruit trees that will live between 32 degrees and 90 degrees, and 5.5 ph up with moderate shade dry sandy soil which I am improving with mulch. Any sugestions are appreciated also where I can buy them. Ed mailto:eamusg@quixnet.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Rare Fruit News Online Subscription Confirmation Date: Sat, 28 Apr 2001 17:08:48 From: "Brenda Barnes" <brendabarnes@hotmail.com> Thank you so much. I know there is nothing so enthusiastic (and annoying) as a new convert, but if I might offer a suggestion anyway. Isn't there software that automatically indexes things? I would love to read all your back issues, but I'm busy starting a permaculture farm in the desert!! If the back issues were indexed, I would have time to read just the ones about desert growing. Just a thought. Brenda Barnes mailto:brendabarnes@hotmail.com

From: Leo Manuel To: brendabarnes@hotmail.com Subject: Rare Fruit News Online Subscription Confirmation Date: Fri, 27 Apr 2001 12:57:16 -0700 |Hi Brenda, | |[There are mango trees grown commercially in the desert in |California. One variety is Keitt, but it has to be protected from |excessive sun by painting the exposed trunk, etc. You might check |to see what fruit Israel is growing in their desert climate, and |see if any of them are of interest. I know that they have |fruiting cactus (Hylocereus, Cereus, and other species) and that |they also have to protect from excesses of sunlight with shade |cloth, as I recall. You may know that you can check New Crops: |http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ for those and other |possibilities. Australia has also done testing, I believe, for |their desert climate.] | |

|Horticordially, | |Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, South India Date: Sun, 29 Apr 2001 17:45:53 +0530 From: "Jeff Goodchild" <jeff@auroville.org.in> Hello Leo, An acquantance of mine, Michael Zarky, in America told me that you have a fortnightly email letter with questions/answers about rare fruit. Would you mind putting me on your mailing list. About myself, I live in Auroville, an International community in Tamil Nadu in South India where I look after a small mixed farm with cows, coconuts, fruit trees, vegetables and when possible dry land rice. Greetings Jeff Goodchild mailto:jeff@auroville.org.in

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: From: To: Date:

FWD: Re: Source Needed - Fruiting Cacti For United Arab Emirates "David Karp" <dkarp@sprintmail.com> "Lon J. Rombough" <lonrom@hevanet.com> Fri, Apr 13, 2001, 9:35 PM Here are some possibilities for cactus cuttings: Check out the Texas A&M Cactus page http://www.tamuk.edu/webuser/cactus/ and the Professional Association for Cactus Development: http://www.tamuk.edu/webuser/cactus/cac_pacd.html McCarthy Jay. President, Professional Association for Cactus Development (210) 822-7733?; mailto:caz1999@aol.com Merten, Sven. CRFG Seed Exhange person, growing lots of pitahaya 16134 Whitecap Circle, Fountain Valley, CA 92798; tel. (714)

531-9404; mailto:scoutdog@pacbell.net Thomson, Paul. Founder California Rare Fruit Growers, author of booklet on pitahaya 4339 Holly Lane, Bonsall, CA 92003; tel. (760) 758-0054 Nerd, Avinoam. Israeli pitahaya expert, Institutes for Applied Research, Ben Gurion University of the Negev PO Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel; tel. 972-7-6461966 or 69; fax. 972-7-6472984 or 69; mailto:aavi@bgumail.bgu.ac.il Mizrahi, Yosef. Dept of Life Sciences, Institutes for Applied Research, Ben Gurion University of the Negev PO Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel; tel. 972-7-6461969; 972-7-6461966; 972-7-6461930; fax 972-7-6472969; 972-7-6472984; 972-7-6472992 Among his specialties are cacti fruits, pitahaya, nopalito, fruits of desert areas. Web site: http://www.bgu.ac.il/life/mizrahi.html mailto:mizrahi@bgumail.bgu.ac.il; Best of luck, David Karp Fruit Detective Venice, CA 90291-3846 tel (310) 306-5334 mailto:dkarp@sprintmail.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Pitaya Sun, 15 Apr 2001 09:18:34 -0700 (PDT) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Brian <bcarroll@mindinfo.com>

Brian... This is your lucky day! Did you know there was a chapter of the California Rare Fruit Growers in your area? Contact the chairpersons, Eva and Martin Berghuis, at <martinb@lightspeed.net>. We have a Pitaya Specialist and another pitaya person, Sven Merton, mailto:scoutdog@pacbell.net You will probably be hearing from him. Enjoy!! Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Mango in Cold Winters Date: Sun, 15 Apr 2001 15:42:40 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: bcarroll@mindinfo.com Hi Brian, At my former San Diego residence, the winters were much colder, with temperatures dipping into the low thirties and even upper twenties occasionally. I planted mango trees on the south side, very near the stucco walls, and on the west side, under the overhang of the roof. Those were very close to the house, and I even dug them up and moved them when I came here, and there was never a root problem. I am not sure what varieties are most cold tolerant, but after they get some size (five feet, maybe), they are less vulnerable. What are your winter lows? You might drop a plastic sheet, and put plastic or glass water containers under with the trees, to absorb some of the day's heat. If you can find a plastic sheet meant to slow the heat transfer, it would help. However, if it gets below the twenties, you'll probably need a greenhouse. Take care, Leo Brian Carroll wrote: |Hello Leo, | |Thanks for the recent collection of thoughts. I was caught by the |number of people mentioning new varieties of mango. Are any of |these varieties more cold resistant than the norm? I have a two |story spot right beside my house that would allow me to drop a |plastic sheet from the eves and thus give me a few extra degrees |of protection during the coldest months. However, putting it that |close to the house makes me wonder if I'm going to have roots |busting up a near-by sidewalk. In Colombia I had six varieties of |Mongo growing in my yard and I must admit I'm fond enough of a |good mongo to risk busting up a sidewalk. | |I hope you're getting to enjoy these spring days. | |Brian Carroll mailto:bcarroll@mindinfo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Mango in Cold Winters Date: Sun, 15 Apr 2001 16:48:32 -0700 From: Brian Carroll <bcarroll@mindinfo.com> Greetings Leo, We generally have one or two nights that get down to 26-28F in the local orange orchards, but here in suburbia, between houses, I don't think it even gets that cold. Two years ago I lost a yearling orange tree 15 ft from the house and once every seven-to-ten years it may get down to 20F. In 1996 I bought a mango at the Exotica nursery in Vista and lost it that winter while I still had it in the pot. The spot I'm thinking of faces east, and I know it's naturally warmer than the surrounding area because I currently have a grape vine there and it kept its leaves four weeks longer than identical grapes only fifteen feet away. What's your favorite mango variety? Has anyone tried grafting an assortment of varieties to one tree? I had no success at all with the grafts on mango that I tried in Colombia, but somebody must know the secrets. In Colombia I had two 25-year-old mangos that were the size of large walnut trees. They would have done-in any sidewalk within 6 or 8 feet of the trunk. Here I don't have that much space to play with, but what I might do is, before planting, put a deep trench at the edge of the sidewalk and pour a subterranean concrete wall to keep the roots from going under it. Horticulturally yours Brian Carroll mailto:bcarroll@mindinfo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Mango in Cold Winters Date: Sun, 15 Apr 2001 20:42:16 -0700 From: Leo To: bcarroll@mindinfo.com Hi Brian, Your winter lows sound a little scary for growing mango trees, but I think they are worth the risk. I had excellent results grafting mango both last year and the year before. I must have placed two dozen grafts, and had maybe one or two that failed. In past years, I wasn't so successful, so I'm not sure what factors to watch for.

I have nine varieties on one tree, but it will be a few years before I'll get fruit from some of them. Whether the roots damage nearby sidewalks or foundations might depend on whether mango trees have surface roots or not? Some trees do seem more prone to causing damage than others. Horticordially, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Fruit varieties best suited to the S. Cal coast Mon, 16 Apr 2001 14:15:29 -0700 Matthew Shugart <mshugart@ucsd.edu> mike_mccright@hotmail.com

Dear Mike: Leo sent me your query about fruit varieties adapted to the Carlsbad/Oceanside area. I live in Carlsbad, just south of the 5/78 freeway interchange and right near the City Hall, on the first ridge of the hills that rise from the beach. When I moved here, I assumed that I would get little chill and no frost. Boy was I wrong! It turns out that this is an excellent area for growing many deciduous fruit varieties that do not perform well in most other areas of the County, but a very challenging area for many subtropicals. You may be higher, of course, and so your climate may be significantly different. It is always risky generalizing from one grower's experience to another location, even one so close by. Characteristics of San Diego County's topography are canyons, hills, mountains, and estuaries that greatly impact how cold your own microclimate gets. But I have had frost every year, sometimes quite heavy and damaging. (One day this past winter I looked out and at first glance, could have sworn it had snowed!) The key seems to be the drainage patterns from the San Luis Rey and Santa Margarita rivers, as well as Loma Alta Creek (where Oceanside Blvd. runs) and Buena Vista Creek (where the 78 runs between Vista and I-5). These riverbeds--especially the San Luis Rey--drain large amounts of cold air from inland areas right down to the coast. If you are near any of these--even somewhat above them--you may be surprised at how much chill you get. Check out the daily weather archives from the IPM site at UC Davis: http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/calludt.cgi/WXSTATIONLIST?COUNTY=SD In particular, note the station for Oceanside, which is not the

Marina (as is the "Oceanside" reported in the local newspapers) but is a weather station somewhere near the Oceanside Airport and the San Luis Rey Mission, right in the heart of the valley. You will be amazed at how cold this location gets--frequently into the 20s in the winter months! Those of us who live up above these low spots do not get THAT cold, but we get plenty cold. Even the Oceanside Marina weather station--literally right on the water (albeit obviously low in elevation)--gets extraordinarily cold, and the reason is the drainage from San Luis Rey (and others). In over five years of tracking temperatures in my orchard, I have yet to see a sub-32 temperature, but I have been close many times. If your location is several hundred feet high, you will be far warmer overnight in the winter months. But if you are lower than that, you don't have to be at the valley floor to get cold air. And if you are exposed to sea breezes, your daytime highs will be quite mild. As for specific fruit varieties, let me tell you a bit about apricots. The most reliable for me is Newcastle, which fruits heavily nearly every year and has outstanding fruit. Royal is also quite reliable in my area (despite having a reputation as tough to grow elsewhere in the County). GoldKist is the recommended low-chill variety, and it does pretty well, but not as well as Newcastle for me. Floragold and Autumn Royal both produce, but somewhat less reliably (only after colder winters). The experience of your neighbor with the tree that does not fruit could be an indication that you don't get nearly as much chill as I do (it is not clear how high you are), but without knowing the variety (most often sold around here is Royal), it is hard to say. It could also be cultural. My almost 30-year-old Newcastle was unproductive under the previous owner of the property. TLC (watering, mulching, pruning) really does matter! For guavas, I really like Red Malaysian. Unfortunately, grafted ones are not available. But my seedling is very good and reliable. It fruits heavily every year. I have never tried lychee here. I fear that the cold winters and sea breezes would make it difficult, but maybe some day I'll try it. I have two mangoes. The Valencia Pride is one I highly recommend. It blooms and blooms, starting in early spring, and keeps going till it finally gets enough heat to set fruit. I have had fruit on it every year since 1997 (I planted it in May, 1996, from 5 gallon). Sometimes the fruit does not ripen till midwinter and once not till January! But it has never been bothered by the cold. The Nam Doc Mai, on the other hand, struggles, rarely blooms, and is now smaller than when I planted it! Valencia Pride is definitely self-fruitful (I think most are).

You ask about controlling size. Of course, this is not true of all fruit trees, but I live by the maxim that I am the grower, I am in charge, and no tree shall get bigger than I say! I have to do that, because I have 80+ trees on a suburban lot of less than half an acre. Matthew Shugart mailto:mshugart@ucsd.edu Carlsbad, CA

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Miscellaneous Topics Date: Tue, 17 Apr 2001 14:24:42 -0700 From: "McCright, Michael CWO" <MMcCright@d11.uscg.mil> Hi Leo, thanks for putting out my questions and especially for contacting Matthew Shugart. I have received a couple of e-mails already, one from Matthew. The e-mail I sent you was good, but I noticed some goofy errors on the returned transmission. Consequently I am using a different provider to reply to you. The old address, mmccright@d11.uscg.mil is the address I would prefer to receive the newsletter on. I did not know how many responses I would receive with my questions so I took the safer route with my hotmail vice work address. As far a guava's I am looking for a good tasting variety, to me most of the better ones seem to be pink. It seems that most of the seedling guava's that I have tasted did not have much flavor. But some of the named varieties were really good. I only have room for one, so I want a really good one. If you have air-layers of a good variety, I'd love to purchase one from you. Thanks Mike McCright mailto:MMcCright@d11.uscg.mil

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Apricot,mango and Thai papaya Date: Wed, 18 Apr 2001 11:02:04 -0700 (PDT) From: Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: mike_mccright@hotmail.com Mike... The Thomson mango is superior for flavor and productivity and does well near the coast. Early Golden apricot is very low chill and you will get fruit every year. However, there is no nursery

selling it that I know of. The Thai papaya from Bill Nelson could be a new introduction, but it could also be the one I introduced a few years ago. It has 4# fruit with excellent flavor, but chances are you will need a male for pollinization. Hope you can make it to the Fullerton "Green Scene". I will have Thomson mango in gallon cans. They should be grown on for another year before setting out. I will also have small Thai papaya seedlings 3 for #1.00. If I know you plan to come I will bring my newly grafted Early Golden Apricots (2 only) in a gallon can at $10 each. You will have a ball at this event. The Riverside chapter of CRFG will also have a booth and have large size grafted mango trees maybe "Thomson" and my new "Elixir" as I gave them graft wood. Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: RFNO - Still Being Published? Date: Fri, 20 Apr 2001 10:45:51 -0700 From: Doron Kletter <kletter@impact.xerox.com> Leo, Have you changed your mailing list lately? For some reason I did not receive the April RFNO issues. Would it be possible to forward the last two issues and put me back on the list? Regards, -- Doron -mailto:kletter@impact.xerox.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Paterna Date: Sat, 21 Apr 2001 10:06:12 -0700 From: "lawrence dodson" <dodsonlarry@msn.com> Greetings! Last fall a friend from Guatemala gave me a seedling from a fruit that he called a paterna. I have never seen the fruit and had never heard of it before. Thinking that the plant would not make it through the winter, I did not get excited about it and gave it little attention. To my surprise, it is thriving and is now about a foot high. What can you tell me about the paterna?

Thanks! Larry Dodson mailto:dodsonlarry@msn.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Paterna Date: Thu, 26 Apr 2001 20:20:44 -0700 From: "lawrence dodson" <dodsonlarry@msn.com> LEO, Thanks so much for the information. From the description that you sent, it appears that what I have is indeed the Inga Paterno. My friend from Guatemala calls it a patrerna, rather than paterno. However, it has to be the same plant from the way he described the tree and its seed pods. It made it through our Riverside winter. Now I'll have to nurse it through our blazing hot summer. I have about 20 guava seedlings from a fist-sized creamy white fruit that my friend has growing at his place in Puerto San Jose on the Pacific coast of Guatemala. I was there a year ago. His guavas are the best that I have ever tasted. I hope my seedlings produce fruit of the same quality. Perhaps sometime in June I'll have time to stop by your place in San Diego. I would love to see your collection. Larry mailto:dodsonlarry@msn.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Visit to Thailand Date: Tue, 24 Apr 2001 22:19:33 -1000 From: "Oscar Jaitt" <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Leo, thanks for the reply. Sainarong has replied and we will try to meet if at all possible. He also gave me the names and contact info of some other people in the tropical fruit field. If you have not already seen Shunyam Nirav's site on the Chantaburri fruit festival take a look at it. It reminds me of the Rose Parade, but all in fruits! http://www.masterworksunlimited.com/Thailand/fruitfair.htm Take care, Oscar mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com

From: Leo Manuel To: Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Subject: Re: Visit to Thailand Date: Sun, 22 Apr 2001 06:42:33 -0700 |Hi Oscar, | |I don't have an address or telephone number, but I sent your |request to him: Sainarong Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> | |It sounds like a great place to visit; I wish I could go! | |Take care, | |Leo Oscar Jaitt wrote: ||Hi Leo, I will be going to Thailand in a few days and was ||wondering if you have a contact address or telephone number for ||Sainarong Rasananda. Thanks for any help, || ||Oscar Jaitt -----------------------------------------------Subject: Granadilla fruit/passion fruit. Date: Thu, 26 Apr 2001 00:38:21 EDT From: Snowindiva@aol.com I am trying to find a grower who has passion fruit. Where I can buy and have some shipped to me in Sacramento? Are you aware of any growers in the northern California area? Thanks for any help. Mary B enthusiast. mailto:Snowindiva@aol.com Rare fruit

-----------------------------------------------Subject: RE:'Selma' Cherimoya Question Date: Sat, 28 Apr 2001 07:29:14 -0700 From: "Jay Ruskey" <jruskey@earthlink.net> Greetings Leo,

The "Selma" is a nice fruit to add to your collection of cherimoyas. It is a pleasant backyard variety, but commercially it has not a high yielder, at least not yet. It seems to develop more strawberry flavor and pink color in the cooler winters. In fact most of my friends and customer call it the "strawberry cherimoya"! <snip> I admire you (for) the serious amount of your time dedicated to Rare Fruit Online. Through your hard work you have created a wonderful culture of exchanging ideas, that benefit a wide variety of growers and hobbyist. <snip> With warm regards, Jay Ruskey Calimoya Exotic Fruits mailto:jruskey@earthlink.net http://www.calimoya.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: What I Now Grow In The Desert Date: Sun, 29 Apr 2001 22:22:22 -0700 From: "Arlyn Duval" <arlynd@earthlink.net> I don't want to miss anything, so when you have time, please change my address on your mailing list. Really appreciate your efforts for us. And while I'm here, let me update you on desert life. About two years ago, I asked for assistance with growing fruit preferably unique types, in the low desert of Imperial Valley. I received several replies. The gist was that low-chill wasn't the problem - it would be the unrelenting sun and heat. So - I'm using tree cover. There were some abused mature mullberries - these were encouraged to grow high and wide. A mature laurel was also shaped. On the west side, a patio framwork was built as light shade with shadecloth. Several more appropriate shad trees were planted, but of course, it will take time. So, what's growing? Strawberry guavas are doing fine, as is the Desert Gold peach. Both are in their second season, with good fruit set. The Santa Rosa plum (to be used as a grafting base) is doing well, as is the Pluot.The Apricot flowered out of sequence with the Aprium, but both are growing well. There's an Anna apple started, as well as a pineapple guava, a dwarf avocado, a nectarine, and a loquat. Just got a mango growing from seed - not

all sure there will be room for that one. Quite a change from the hard soil here two years ago. Again, thanks for all your hard work. Best wishes, Arlyn Duval mailto:arlynd@earthlink.net

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

None this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Chanthaburi, Thailand - Amazing Tropical Fruit Fair and Parade http://www.masterworksunlimited.com/Thailand/fruitfair.htm Oscar Says: If you have not already seen Shunyam Nirav's site on the Chantaburri fruit festival take a look at it. It reminds me of the Rose Parade, but all in fruits! Oscar mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com

-----------------------------------------------NEW -- largest durian site on the Net! duriana! http://www.durianpalace.com Including lore, botany, cultivation, harvesting, selecting, eating, nutritional properties, gourmet uses, festivals, aphrodisiacal properties, more ... and a photogallery of over 600 durian photos from southeast Asia over 55 megabytes of

and Hawai`i!

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@onelist.com> <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>> Discussion list for New Crops mailto:owner-newcrops@purdue.edu <<<<

Subject: Date: From: To:

RE: Queensland nut Thu, 19 Apr 2001 10:55:23 +1000 "Paul Kristiansen" <pkristia@metz.une.edu.au> "Craig Hardner" <craig.hardner@pi.csiro.au>

Hi Margaret and List, The Australian Macadamia breeding program began about 5 years ago and have collated a lot of info of varieties. There are several hundred, but most are only of minor or historical interest. There are about a dozen main commercial cultivars (more or less, depending on who you speak to) grown in Australia that may be worth including in your collection, depending on the aims of your collection. The breeding program has recently posted a web site <http://www.pi.csiro.au/Research/LHortCropImp/SubPrograms/AMBU/breeding.htm > and if you follow the "Cultivar database" link you will see some brief info, but they are planning to post the full variety database soon. Craig Hardner <mailto:craig.hardner@pi.csiro.au> is involved with the program and he may be able to help you with seed of one or two varieties.

Also, Hawaii, South Africa and several other places have been developing varieties suited to their conditions, so you may like to chase up some of those and have a really international Mac collection. The research station at Hilo, Hawaii for example has (had?) some good germplasm collections. Check out the US-based National Plant Germplasm System site <http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/>, click on the "search GRIN" link, click on the "Accession Area" link, and then type in Macadamia, (tick the box for "Include historical and unavailable accessions..." if you want to look at some unavailable, but interesting background material), click "Submit" and you'll see stacks of germplasm holdings. Good luck and happy eating. Paul mailto:pkristia@metz.une.edu.au

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Paul Kristiansen BSc, GradDipHortSc, GradCertGIS PhD student Agronomy & Soil Science School of Rural Science & Natural Resources University of New England Armidale 2351 AUSTRALIA Visit the Organic Weed Management research project web site: http://www.une.edu.au/agronomy/weeds/organic/ -----Original Message----Sent: Wednesday, April 18, 2001 9:32 PM To: newcrops@purdue.edu Subject: Queensland nut |I am looking for sources for various cultivars of the Queensland |nut (Macadamia), in order to add to a collection at the Fruit and |Spice Park, a county park in Dade COunty, Florida. | |We currently have Beumont and Dana White | |Maggie | | |NewCrop Archives are available at: |http://bluestem.hort.purdue.edu/newcroplistserv/Search.html -----------------------------------------------Subject: Plantain Date: Fri, 27 Apr 2001 14:04:01 -0500 From: "C. Kehler" <g.musings@sk.sympatico.ca>

Does anyone know of anyone growing Plantain commercially? mailto:g.musings@sk.sympatico.ca NewCrop Archives are available at: http://bluestem.hort.purdue.edu/newcroplistserv/Search.html -----------------------------------------------Subject: Mangos Date: Fri, 27 Apr 2001 14:05:46 -0500 From: "C. Kehler" <g.musings@sk.sympatico.ca> Do anyone know where someone can get a good source of mangoes? company needs it for a chutney ingredient. mailto:g.musings@sk.sympatico.ca NewCrop Archives are available at: http://bluestem.hort.purdue.edu/newcroplistserv/Search.html An

>>>>>> From "rarefruit list" - mailto:rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<<<

None this time

>>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> <<< http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Subject: France-Based Lab Plays Key Role in U.S. Biocontrol Research Date: Tue, 17 Apr 2001 09:43:58 -0400 From: "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov> <snip> Parasitic wasps, flies, fungi and bacteria abound at the Agricultural Research Service's European Biological Control

Laboratory (EBCL) in Montpellier, France. There, ARS and collaborating scientists are subjecting these organisms to a battery of tests aimed at pitting them against non-native insects and weeds that endanger U.S. agriculture. Montpellier, on France's Mediterranean coast, is a strategic locale: From this seaside city, EBCL scientists can hop flights to the pests' points of origin in North Africa, the Middle East, Balkans and Asia, where natural enemies can be found. Typically, they'll explore sites where the crops, climate or habitat matches a particular U.S. region where a pest has become established and a biocontrol agent is needed. Entomologists Kim Hoelmer and Dominique Coutinot, for example, are now rearing Hymenopterous wasps, collected last fall from Tunisia, that parasitize olive fruit flies. In California, the fly's establishment threatens the state's $33.9 million olive industry. Charles Pickett, a California Department of Food and Agriculture cooperator, is seeking fruit fly parasites that could be released into olive groves as part of an integrated approach to controlling the pest. Tim Widmer, meanwhile, is testing the host specificity, virulence and other features of dozens of fungi and bacteria cultured from salt cedar, yellow starthistle, giant reed and other Eurasian weeds. While collecting diseased reed specimens in Nepal's wetland areas in September, the plant pathologist picked up--and had to pick off--another inhabitant: leeches. Widmer's stateside cooperators have requested pathogens from the weeds' native range that could help diminish U.S. infestations of these pesky plants. Some other pests on the EBCL "hit-list" include diamondback moths, gypsy moths, pink hibiscus mealybug, Asian long-horned beetles, wheat stem sawflies, apple leafrollers, knapweed, hoary cress, and rush skeleton weed. You can read a longer story about the Montpellier lab and its scientists in this month's issue of Agricultural Research magazine on the Web at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/apr01/world0401.htm <snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: For Better Strawberries, Grow Them Over Red Mulch Date: Mon, 30 Apr 2001 09:51:23 -0400 From: "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov> <snip> Strawberries grown on red plastic mulch are sweeter and more

flavorful than conventionally grown berries, Agricultural Research Service scientists report. The researchers grew strawberries on raised beds covered with red plastic mulch. By using a specially formulated red plastic, the scientists were able to keep the water- conservation benefits attributed to black plastic mulch, yet alter the amounts of far-red and red light reaching developing berries. That light, reflected from the red mulch on the soil surface, acted through the plants' natural growth-regulating system to influence the size and flavor of developing berries. The research was done by plant physiologists Michael J. Kasperbauer and John H. Loughrin at the ARS Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Laboratory, Florence, S.C., working with plant physiologist Shiow Y. Wang at the ARS Fruit Laboratory, Beltsville, Md. Strawberries that ripened over the red--versus standard black--plastic mulch were larger and sweeter. They had higher sugar-to-organic-acid ratios and gave off higher concentrations of favorable aroma compounds. Strawberries are a high-value specialty crop whose fruit size and flavor are important to both growers and consumers. Americans each eat about four pounds of the berries every year. Fat-free and low in calories, strawberries are full of vitamin C. They also furnish folate--a B vitamin--plus potassium and fiber. And they contain ellagic acid, a compound that fights cancer. Kasperbauer, who pioneered the use of colored plastic mulches, has found that the higher amounts of certain growth-enhancing wavelengths of sunlight reflected by red plastic mulch improved many crops, including tomatoes and basil. Plastic mulches--most often black--are frequently used in raised-bed culture to conserve water, control weeds with less herbicide, keep fruit clean and produce ripe berries earlier in the season. The research is scheduled for publication in the July issue of Photochemistry and Photobiology. The author's manuscript is now available on the web (in PDF file format) at: http://www.aspjournal.com/accepts/kasperbauer.pdf <snip> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000105A.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - May 15, 2001 - AKA RFN200105B.txt Rare Fruit News Online consists primarily of messages from subscribers. Sometimes there are questions to be answered by those with knowledge and experience (and, we are fortunate to have them among us.) Others consist of feedback to letters posted in an

earlier issue. Sometimes there are references thought to be of interest, such as books, periodicals, or - more likely - web pages and their URL addresses. It works, because of the teamwork among you, and I'm pleased to be part of it. If you ever want to write about changing your email address or unsubscribing or almost anything, please include your WHOLE name (especially the LAST name) as my address book is set up that way. The web page for Rare Fruit News has been updated. You'll find that you can view and download back issues of the newsletter, near the bottom of the page. Let me know if any of the links do not work properly. You will see that the current year shows the newsletter at least through the January 15 issue. RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO in in in in in in 2001: 2000: 1999: 1998: 1997: 1996: http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN2001AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN2000AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1999AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1998AllYr.Txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1997AllYr.Txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1996AllYr.Txt

For another place to see back issues of the newsletter, visit the online group, "OldRFN" OldRFN is at http://www.visto.com/j.html?g=16812838.WDY3NjdX

Please keep me advised of trouble with the OldRFN webpage. If you are in the neighborhood, let me know, and hopefully I'll be home for you to drop by. I am a rare fruit garden addict, and plant far more than I have time to tend them properly, but I'd like to show you what you can grow here. For some reason that I do not understand, names disappear from the address book occasionally. If your copy of this newsletter doesn't arrive on the first and fifteenth of each month, please let me know, so I can investigate and re-instate. Sincerely, Leo

>> Notes In Passing << Have Questions And Need Quick Response? Frequently, readers ask questions in letters that arrive soon after the newsletter has been published. When the topic is one of a half-dozen or so, and I know other readers who will be helpful, I often forward the question to one of those, and the requesting

reader usually gets a response right away. The letter goes out with the next newsletter, anyway, so other readers have an opportunity to respond as well. CRFG 'Editorial' - What's Your Opinion? In the May 1 newsletter, I expressed a concern about the difficulties of the California Rare Fruit Growers organization. I realize that some of you may not agree with my opinion. I'd like to keep controversial topics out of the newsletter, but I would like to know whether you do or do not feel as I do. I will report the poll data later, simply as the number of readers who respond each way to this survey. I may include a few quotes, but probably not the names of respondents. I don't expect a large number of responses either way. For one thing, most of us are too busy around the yard to even read the newsletter, much less to sit down and write. 'Indestructible' Polyester Labels - See 'Web Sites To Consider' At my home, snails eat paper tags and labels on pots. I'm hoping that these 'Indestructible' Polyester Labels will stay on. They are designed for laser printing, but you can write directly on them with indelible marking pen. >> Table Of Contents - Headers; (Letters Follow Table Of Contents) <<

>>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber, in Homestead, Florida Burkesnursery@aol.com New Subscriber, New Zealand, Interested In S. Amer. Plants Swani <swani@clear.net.nz> New Subscriber, Austria, Interested in Noni Morinda citrifolia Eddy <matala@netway.at> Morinda citrifolia - Indian Mulberry, Noni, Cheesefruit Leo To:matala@netway.at

>> Readers Write <<

Mangoes - You Wanted Information On These Maurice Kong <CHINO228@aol.com> Banana Digging Tool Lou <ARBSFRUIT@aol.com> Re:FW:Tips on planting Jujube dried Jujube dates Roger Meyer <exoticfruit@95net.com> To: j.kolling@chello.nl Thailand Is Heaven! "Oscar Jaitt" <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Transplant Mango - How To? Nan Sterman <nsterman@mindsovermatter.com> Re:Transplant Mango - How To? Leo To: Nan Sterman <nsterman@mindsovermatter.com> Mangos - Valencia Pride Good Near The Coast? Jeff Struthers <jstruthers@ucsd.edu> Re: Mangos - Valencia Pride Good Near The Coast? Leo To:Jeff Struthers <jstruthers@ucsd.edu> Yellow Passion Fruit Source Sought linda-too@excite.com Re: Yellow Passion Fruit Source Sought "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> To: Linda <linda-too@excite.com> Protecting Longan Trees In Winter - How To? Sue <interact@ic-net.com.au> Re: Protecting Longan Trees In Winter - How To? Leo To: Sue <interact@ic-net.com.au>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Protecting Fruits Animals and Fowls "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Ian Crown" <iancrown@mindspring.com> Sweet Pitaya and Papayas "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Nantarat (Dr.) Supakamnerd" <nantarats@yahoo.com> Scaring Away Some Pests "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Ian Crown" <iancrown@mindspring.com>

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

'Indestructible' Polyester Labels (Label Plants In Pots?) http://www.desktoplabels.com/view.phtml?paper=White_Poly http://www.kellogggarden.com/products/amendplus.html Amend Plus - Web page says:.... "Data lost," says Dr. Chiranjit Parmar "Dr. Chiranjit Parmar" <parmarch@vsnl.com>

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time

<<<<

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<< None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<< None, this time

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

New Surveillance Device Uncovers Insects "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov> Jim Core <jcore@ars.usda.gov> Bringing Back Native Soil Fungi "ARS News Service" <isjd@ars-grin.gov> Don Comis, (301) 504-1625, comis@ars.usda.gov

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Subscriber, in Homestead, Florida Date: Thu, 3 May 2001 13:17:41 EDT From: Burkesnursery@aol.com Hi I am Clifford Burke, in Homestead, Florida 33031. My email address is burkesnursery@aol.com. Currently I have allspice, jaboticaba, avocado, lychee, longan, surinam cherry, jakfruit, etc., etc. I would appreciate being added to your news letter. Thank you,

Clifford

mailto:Burkesnursery@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, New Zealand, Interested In S. Amer. Plants Date: Sun, 6 May 2001 21:46:05 +1200 From: "Swani" <swani@clear.net.nz> Hi I am Swani Harris, living in Nelson, New Zealand, (the top of the South Island). USDA zone 9-10, a couple mild only just frosts a year I am now growing Apple, pear, kiwifruit (Actinida), Peach, Fig, Tamarillo, Cherimoya, Loquat, Avocado, Mountain Pawpaw, Naranjilla, mostly young plants that I am propagating, a few established. I want to grow any new subtropicals, especially the Sth American as they seem to grow well here. Swani -----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Austria, Interested in Noni Morinda citrifolia Date: Tue, 8 May 2001 19:52:40 +0200 From: Eddy <matala@netway.at> Hello! I am Eddy Paschinger and i live in Austria - 3550 Langenlois Mittelberg 4 I am very much interested in the morinda ctrifolia - does anyone know where i can get seeds or plants? How long is the time until the seeds begin to grow? What are the best conditions for the plants? Thanks a lot for your informative homepage!!! Eddy mailto:matala@netway.at ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Morinda citrifolia - Indian Mulberry, Noni, Cheesefruit Date: Tue, 08 May 2001 19:03:06 -0700 From: Leo To: matala@netway.at Hi Eddy, If you have Cornucopia, there is some information, as stated below: Cornucopia II, by Stephen Facciola, Page 213 Morinda citrifolia - Indian Mulberry, Noni, Cheesefruit Grown in tropical Asia. Here are some sources of seeds: The Banana Tree Easton, PA Deep Diversity, Santa Fe, NM Hurov's Seeds, Chula Vista, CA Royal Palm Enterprises; PO Box 645, Kurtistown, HI, 96760 B&T World Seeds, sarl, Paguignan, Olonzac 34210, France Bush Tucker Supply Australia; PO Box B103, Boronia Park, NSW 2111, Australia. Peter B Dow & Co., PO Box 696, Gisborne 3800, New Zealand Nindethana Seed Service, PO Box 2121, Albany, WA 6331, Australia I will publish your letter with questions, and you will probably hear from other readers as well. Yours, Leo

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Mangoes - You Wanted Information On These Date: Sun, 6 May 2001 15:46:28 EDT From: Maurice Kong <CHINO228@aol.com> Hi Leo: Regarding your trying to locate origin of various mangoes at Ong Nursery, both the Ice Cream mango and the Po Pyu Kalay mangoes were introduced in the US by me after the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew among many others not indicated in your list. The Ice Cream mango is from Tobago, the sister Island of Trinidad. It is

the only mango from the West Indies to the best of my knowledge that can also be eaten mature green unlike most of the Indian type mangoes from the Caribbean. When it is picked mature green and allowed to ripen, according to Trinidadians, the flavor is reminds them of vanilla ice cream. The Pop Pyu Kalay is from Burma, one of the six Burmese varieties I introduced about seven years ago. The Zill nursery thinking this name might not be easily remembered, I'm told, plans to release it under the name Lemon merenge mango. The Dupre Saigon is a variety that has been around Florida for at least ten years but is not one of my introduction. Maurice Kong mailto:CHINO228@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Banana Digging Tool Date: Tue, 1 May 2001 13:04:38 EDT From: ARBSFRUIT@aol.com Hi Leo, Don't know if you remember me.. Having been a musa culture fan for years raising 'nanas in Fla and now in Ca. l find digging in the clay soil dificult at best.. But l finally found a source for the tool for working the Banana mats without to much damage to the corms... Keeping mats to 4 to 6 corms produces larger harvests and allows you to harvest new suckers and start more mats or start more fans with free plants...(gotta keep the hobby growing) Anyway the tool l'm refering to is a iron digging bar weiging 17 to 24 pounds with a point on one end and chisel end on the other end... You can find them at big home&garden centers (Home Depot, Lowes, etc.) for around $20... Thanks for promoting the hobby, Lou Arbolida mailto:ARBSFRUIT@aol.com Wildomar, Ca

[Note: I bought one of those at Home Depot last year, and it's great!. It is heavy enough that you don't need to do much more than lift drop it, and the sharpened chisel will cut off the pup. Leo] -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: FW: Tips on planting Jujube from dried Jujube dates Date: Thu, 03 May 2001 22:34:33 -0700

From: To:

Roger Meyer <exoticfruit@95net.com> j.kolling@chello.nl Your request for jujube seed information was forwarded to me for response. First, please be aware that many jujube cultivars produce seed which is sterile and will not produce a plant. If you open up one seed, look to see if there was an entire, whole kernal inside. If not, the seed was sterile and thus useless. If there was a kernal, then go ahead and just plant your remaining seeds. Stratification is usually not necessary to sprout them. If you have additional questions, please feel free to ask. Best, Roger Meyer mailto:exoticfruit@95net.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Thailand Is Heaven! Date: Wed, 09 May 2001 02:51:08 -1000 From: "Oscar Jaitt" <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Hello Leo, I am writing to you from Chantaburri, Thailand, capital of the Durian world. This year there was a tremendous crop and all the varieties produced at the same time. So prices are very low, 10 to 20 baht per kilo. That converts to 22 to 45 cents per kilo, if you can believe it!!! There are also tons of rambutans, mangosteens, long kongs, and salak fruits. Thanks to the help of a Thai friend who is acting as translator and to the fact that I am travelling with Shunyam Nirav who has been here previously, we have been able to experience a lot and meet many key people in a short time. Today we went to the Chantaburri Horticulture research center and talked to Dr. Salakpatch, who was very helpful and friendly. We also toured the research station. We saw some incredible sites. One that sticks out in my mind were one year old mangosteen plants that were already fruiting!!! Would not have believed it if I did not see it with my own eyes. In a few days I hope to meet with Sanarong Rasananda. He is not on holiday or taking a break, as you mentioned, but giving a series of conferences, so is very busy travelling around. Hopefully I will see him in Chiang Mai in a few days. Shunyam and I have taken loads of photos, so please look for them at his site, durian palace, or mine, fruitlovers.com/megalinks, in the future. Warmest regards, in fact quite sweltering,

Oscar

mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From:

Transplant Mango - How To? Thu, 10 May 2001 09:17:00 -0700 Nan Sterman <nsterman@mindsovermatter.com>

I have a Nam Doc Mai mango in the ground for 2 years and it is doing poorly, I suspect because it is in a spot that freezes a bit in winter. The tree is only about 3 feet tall, though it did put on about 12 inches of growth last year, but lost it over the winter. I want to move the tree to a warmer corner of the yard. Does anyone have any advice on transplanting my little tree? Nan Sterman mailto:nsterman@mindsovermatter.com County Sunset zone 24, USDA hardiness zone 10b or 11 -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Re: Transplant Mango - How To? Thu, 10 May 2001 12:19:34 -0700 Leo To: Nan Sterman <nsterman@mindsovermatter.com> San Diego

Hi Nan, I'll relay my limited experience, and publish your question in the newsletter. I have successfully transplanted at least one mango tree, probably older than yours, by first moving it into a large (probably 20 gal.) pot, being careful to move as large a root ball as I could comfortably handle, but pruning roots to make it fit the pot. The pot was placed in semi-shade and a large clear plastic bag was placed over the tree, with the bag tied around the trunk rather tightly. The tree showed no signs of being set back, and I moved it back into the ground a year or so later. Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Transplant Mango - How To?

Date: From:

Thu, 10 May 2001 15:29:43 -0700 Nan Sterman <nsterman@mindsovermatter.com> Hmmm... why did you put it into a pot rather than putting it directly into another planting hole ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Re: Transplant Mango - How To? Date: Thu, 10 May 2001 17:37:36 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: Nan Sterman <nsterman@mindsovermatter.com> Hi Nan, I wanted to keep the plant in a shady place until it indicated that the move had been tolerated. If I had put a plastic bag around the tree while planted in the yard, then I'd have to put some type of shade over it, to avoid cooking the plant in the sun. Also, I wasn't in a hurry to re-plant it. Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Mangos - Valencia Pride Good Near The Coast? Date: Thu, 10 May 2001 13:14:23 -0700 From: Jeff Struthers <jstruthers@ucsd.edu> Hi Leo, I'm on your mailing list but I would like perhaps some faster info as I'm planning some planting this weekend. I have read that the Valencia Pride is a good Mango for costal zones but in an e-mail to Ong Nursery here in S.D., I was told that there are better varieties in his stock. (Keit, Kent, Carrie, Nam Doc, Phillippine ) Do you have any thoughts as to what would be better for my area ? I'm 1 mile east of Mt. Soledad. Thank's for the help, Jeff mailto:jstruthers@ucsd.edu

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: CC: Re: Mangos - Valencia Pride Good Near The Coast? Thu, 10 May 2001 13:42:07 -0700 Leo To: Jeff Struthers <jstruthers@ucsd.edu> "Shugart (CA), Matt" <mshugart@ucsd.edu>

Hi Jeff, I think that Valencia Pride is definitely a good one. I don't think that you will regret trying it. Contact "Matt Shugart" <mshugart@ucsd.edu> for his opinion. I believe that he has Valencia Pride, and is very near the coast. Take care, Leo [Note: Any supporting or conflicting opinions, readers?]

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Yellow Passion Fruit Source Sought Date: Thu, 10 May 2001 18:45:12 -0400 From: linda-too@excite.com Can you please tell me where I can purchase the yellow variety of passion fruit? I have tried for months without any luck. Can you help? My email is : linda-too@excite.com Thank you!! mailto:linda-too@excite.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Yellow passionfruit Fri, 11 May 2001 07:04:16 -0700 "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> Linda <linda-too@excite.com>

Hello Linda, Your only chance of finding yellow passionfruit is to go to Hawaii. There both yellow fruits can be found, but probably not for sale. The most common yellow fruit is from P. edulis f. flavicarpa. Not many people I have met would eat this fruit out

of hand. It's great with other fruits in a salad or in a smoothie. The other "yellow" fruit is actually more yellow-orange, P. laurifolia. This fruit can definitely be eaten out of hand. P. edulis f. flavicarpa grows wild on many Hawaiian islands, so the only place you would find it for sale would be at a Farmer's Market. P. laurifolia can be found growing wild (I found one on Kauai), but more likely you would find it for sale also at Farmer's Markets or in juice bars (I found them at one in Kailua on Oahu). But here in the continental U.S. your chances are slim, unless you know someone growing the vines in Florida. Happy hunting, Bob Holzinger -----------------------------------------------Subject: Protecting Longan Trees In Winter - How To? Date: Fri, 11 May 2001 16:00:37 +0800 From: "ic" <interact@ic-net.com.au> Hi Leo, just a quickie to see if any of you can give suggestions to protecting baby longan trees during his first winter in the ground.. Sue mailto:ic@ic-net.com.au -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Protecting Longan Trees In Winter - How To? Date: Fri, 11 May 2001 07:47:11 -0700 From: Leo To: Sue <interact@ic-net.com.au> Hi, Sue When I lived where winter temperatures dipped into freezing, I would protect my young trees (longan, cherimoya, and mango) as follows: I made a miniature circular greenhouse for each of the young trees I needed to protect. The materials used can vary, but these are what I used: 1. Galvanized poultry woven wire, 4 feet high, about 10 feet in length (will give you an inside diameter of a little more that three feet)

2. Clear plastic sheet, heavy guage, ten feet in length, but a width of about six feet. (See * below) 3. Jugs of water to place inside each greenhouse, to collect warmth during the day. It helps if the jugs are dark colored. (Black would be ideal.) 4. Stakes to put in the ground and keep the greenhouse from blowing away, if in an area subject to winds. Optional: (To make the greenhouse lie flat during the summer storage.) 5. Two thin strips of wood, 4 feet in length. lath) (I used redwood

6. Fasteners attached to the wood strips. These enable the circular greenhouse to stand upright, wooden strips adjacent to each other, *When the greenhouse is standing, this excess plastic is at the top. Keep the top open during the day, to avoid cooking the plants, but close the top at night, to hold in the heat. You can, instead, make a separate cover for each greenhouse, to place over the top at night. If you do, you won't need that excess width of plastic. Another trick is to plant sensitive trees on the south or west wall of your home, or of some other structure. Sometimes the roof overhang will help to protect trees planted close. In the Southern Hemisphere, that might be on the North or West? I will publish your letter so other readers can give you their advice. Horticordially, Leo Manuel

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Protecting Fruits from Animals and Fowls Date: Sun, 6 May 2001 21:32:48 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Ian Crown" <iancrown@mindspring.com>

This interesting method of protecting fruits on the trees from birds, animals (and maybe bats) comes from Ed Musgrave. It is true that very bright, intermittent, fast-moving light scares of many kinds of animals. The light reflected off certain surfaces, such as cds, has this property. The question is which cds should we use?! Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

----- Original Message ----From: Edward & Althia Musgrave I also have fruit stealers (squirrels, birds). I have found that c-d records hung on phone wires help stop them, sun reflects off them and makes bright whirrling lights on the ground, perhaps the moon has enough light to do the trick. Write and tell me if it does any good. -----------------------------------------------Subject: Sweet Pitaya and Papayas Date: Sun, 6 May 2001 22:51:50 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Nantarat (Dr.) Supakamnerd" <nantarats@yahoo.com> I have recently returned from a very interesting horticultural trip to south Taiwan. South Taiwan is definitely subtropical. They have done some very interesting works on fruit trees. One of the interesting new cultivars the Taiwanese developed is a sweeter strain of red pitaya. Outwardly, it looks just like any ordinary pitaya; the cultivation is also exactly the same. However, I was unfortnately not able to taste a sample which I was told is a very sweet 22 Brix (if my memory serves me correctly)! I visited the main fruit market there and saw some imported red pitayas from Vietnam. The sellers told me that, as soon as the Taiwanese cultivar comes in season, there is almost no market for the imported Vietnamese cultivar at all, as the locals much prefer the sweeter pitaya. However, it must be borne in mind that the cooler climate of south Taiwan naturally produces sweeter, fuller fruits than the tropical climate of South Vietnam. I brought some specimens back with me; we shall see whether they are as sweet as the Taiwanese claim. A Taiwanese company called "Known-You" has developed many new interesting varieties of papayas, the most well-known of which is called Red Lady. As "Known-You" is very commercial-minded, most of their new cultivars are very promising. "Known-You" sells seeds of

their developed cultivars in large quantities - they are not cheap. If any of our readers are interested, I could get you in touch with "Known-You." I do not think you will be disappointed. By the way, if any of you is thinking of visiting Taiwan, you'd better brush up on your beer drinking prowess. Taiwanese make friends and close up business deals over many glasses of beer, but, one word of advice, do not touch their locally-brewed rice whiskey! Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Scaring Away Some Pests Date: Mon, 7 May 2001 11:45:02 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Ian Crown" <iancrown@mindspring.com> Ian Crown who has a problem with bats is going to give cds a go. Sainarong ----- Original Message ----From: Ian Crown They sell a reflective tape that one can put up to scare birds. It hangs in the tree like the tail of a kite. I will try that and the CD's. AOL keeps sending them so now I have a use for them. Ian mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

'Indestructible' Polyester Labels (Label Plants In Pots?) http://www.desktoplabels.com/view.phtml?paper=White_Poly Indestructible Multi Purpose - 8821 White Polyester Size: 2 5/8 in x 1 1/2 in ( 6.68 cm x 3.81 cm ) 21 Per Sheet 50 Sheets Per Box

1050 Per Box

Indestructible I.D. label - 8810

White Poly

Size: 4 1/4 in x 2 in ( 10.79 cm x 5.08 cm ) 10 Per Sheet 50 Sheets Per Box 500 Per Box Indestructible Shipping Label - 8806 Size: 4 1/4 in x 3 1/3 in ( 10.79 cm x 8.46 cm ) 6 Per Sheet 50 Sheets Per Box

300 Per Box

Desktop Labels Polyester Label Material is the toughest Laser Label you will find! If you need a label for harsh environments, industrial type applications, outdoors, or underwater, the Polyester label is what you need. This is a 3M¨ material and with DeskTop labels 3M¨ Preferred Convertor Status you will be happy to know that you are getting one of the finest materials made for laser printing. -----------------------------------------------http://www.kellogggarden.com/products/amendplus.html Amend Plus - Web page says: "We asked and you told us! You wanted a complete, ready to use potting soil that was free of weed- seeds and pests. You also asked for an outdoor potting soil that's formulated to "jump start" new roots and continue feeding for months. We listened to you and created all natural AMEND PLUS with organic nutrients. "Why organic nutrients? Outdoor conditions can be harsh on newly planted plants and flowers. Regular indoor- outdoor potting soils use chemical fertilizers that can wash out of the soil with every watering. AMEND PLUS is formulated with all natural organicscomposted chicken manure, bat guano, kelp meal and worm castings. The difference? Organics stimulate fast rooting then stay in the soil, releasing nutrients for months." -Home Depot garden department spokesman said they may soon carry the huge 30 cubic foot loads of this. In the meantime there's a $1 off each bag, for up to ten dollars rebate. The ingredients look good to me. Leo ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From:

"Data lost," says Dr. Chiranjit Parmar Sun, 13 May 2001 12:38:41 +0530 "Dr. Chiranjit Parmar" <parmarch@vsnl.com>

Dear all, I had a mishap with my PC due to which I lost the folders of Outlook Express containing the e-mails from many of you on which action was to still to be taken. So please write me once again in case you have not had any response from me for yours orders/enquiries or other mails sent by you durting the past seven days. I am extremely sorry for the inconvenience caused by it to you all. Best regards, Very truly yours, Dr. Chiranjit Parmar mailto:parmarch@vsnl.com http://www.lesserknownplants

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@onelist.com> <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU> <<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> From "rarefruit list" - mailto:rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<<<

None this time

>>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> <<< http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Subject: New Surveillance Device Uncovers Insects Date: Fri, 11 May 2001 09:43:24 -0400 From: "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov> Jim Core, (301) 504-1619, jcore@ars.usda.gov Monitoring insect infestations in crops under demanding field conditions will become easier than ever because Agricultural Research Service scientists and cooperators are developing an easy-to-use, hand-held device as the newest weapon in the war against insect pests. Richard Mankin, a research entomologist with the ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), in Gainesville, Fla., has established a cooperative research and development agreement with Acoustic Emission Consulting Inc. (AEC) of Fair Oaks, Calif., to transfer recent insect-detecting advancements to an existing product. The new device will be designed to help growers and warehouse managers survey and target insects, thus reducing the amounts and extent of pesticide use. Mankin's latest research involves acoustic detection of insects in crop plants. ARS researchers at CMAVE recently built low-frequency acoustic systems that successfully detect insects hidden from view in stalks or subterranean soil. These surveillance devices can distinguish insect activity from background noises such as wind or vehicle traffic. The researchers created computer programs that made profiles of different sounds they encounter when searching for infestations. Often, they can determine what type of insect is present in fields by the unique sounds it produces when moving or feeding. With slight modifications to the equipment, they can hear inside packages of post-harvest products, such as cereal boxes and bags

of dog food. However, CMAVE's researchers had technical problems in converting microphones, sensors, clamps and computer software into practical applications. AEC, designers of ultrasonic systems for industrial leak detection, provides the expertise needed in this area. Now, the scientists say, an individual won't have to be an acoustic expert to use the device; one only has to push some buttons and look at a read-out. <snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Bringing Back Native Soil Fungi Mon, 14 May 2001 06:35:40 -0400 "ARS News Service" <isjd@ars-grin.gov> Don Comis, (301) 504-1625, comis@ars.usda.gov

When you think of endangered species, you never think of soil fungi. Yet the fungi that make plants hardier have had their numbers greatly reduced by the intensive agriculture practiced in the United States since the 1950s. Agricultural Research Service scientists are trying to figure out how to put these beneficial soil fungi back, as farmers make the transition to using less chemicals. Lead scientist Philip E. Pfeffer and colleagues David Douds and Gerry Nagahashi at the ARS Eastern Regional Research Center in Wyndmoor, Pa., are learning how to grow and package the fungi for practical use on farms. One approach the researchers are evaluating is to mix the fungi--called mycorrhizae--into potting soil planted with grass or other host plants. Farmers would buy these "inoculated" seedlings and plant them in compost. Then, after the fungi multiplied, farmers would apply the colonized compost with manure spreaders. The mycorrhizal fungi are beneficial organisms that live on plant roots and help them extend their reach for water and fertilizer. In exchange, the plant gives the fungi the sugar they need to grow. The most common type lives inside root cells and extends long, rootlike threads into the soil. Farmers today have to rely on whichever of these native fungi survived years of chemical use--from synthetic fertilizers to fungicides. ARS scientists are testing the compost idea at the Rodale Institute Experimental Farm in Kutztown, Pa., which was founded by the late Robert Rodale, a leader in modern American organic farming. They also have experiments under way at Stoneleigh

Estates, near Wyndmoor. An ultimate goal is to produce the fungi in large quantities efficiently and economically, without host plants. They would then be applied as a biofertilizer before planting. You can read more about this research in the May issue of ARS' Agricultural Research magazine, which can be found on the World Wide Web at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/may01/fungi0501.htm <snip>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000105B.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - June 1, 2001 - AKA RFN200106A.txt Rare Fruit News Online consists primarily of messages from subscribers. Sometimes there are questions to be answered by those with knowledge and experience (and, we are fortunate to have them among us.) Others consist of feedback to letters posted in an earlier issue. Sometimes there are references thought to be of interest, such as books, periodicals, or - more likely - web pages and their URL addresses. It works, because of the teamwork among you, and I'm pleased to be part of it. If you ever want to write about changing your email address or unsubscribing or almost anything, please include your WHOLE name (especially the LAST name) as my address book is set up that way. The web page for Rare Fruit News has been updated. You'll find that you can view and download back issues of the newsletter, near the bottom of the page. Let me know if any of the links do not work properly. You will see that the current year shows the newsletter at least through the January 15 issue. RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO in in in in in in 2001: 2000: 1999: 1998: 1997: 1996: http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN2001AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN2000AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1999AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1998AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1997AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1996AllYr.txt

For another place to see back issues of the newsletter, visit the online group, "OldRFN" OldRFN is at http://www.visto.com/j.html?g=16812838.WDY3NjdX

Please keep me advised of trouble with the OldRFN webpage.

If you are in the neighborhood, let me know, and hopefully I'll be home for you to drop by. I am a rare fruit garden addict, and plant far more than I have time to tend them properly, but I'd like to show you what you can grow here. Have suggestions to improve either the webpage rarefruit.com or this newsletter? Please let me know. Leo

>> Notes In Passing << Selma Cherimoya - Pink Flesh - Slight Raspberry Flavor - Interesting! I got a 'Selma' cherimoya at the extreme end of the season for that variety (so it may not be typical.) The outside of the fruit was similar to some atemoya I have seen - slight golden tint. This particular one wasn't really pink flesh throughout, but there was a tinge of pink near the skin. I got my fruit from Calimoya in Goleta, California and had heard that their customers sometimes call it a Raspberry Cherimoya. I was surprised that there really was a slight flavor suggesting a fruity flavor, of possibly raspberry or even possibly grape. I am looking forward to trying the fruit from my own newly grafted cherimoya in the future. "Safer" Fungicide - in green spray bottle. Have you tried it for controlling fungus on bloom of mango? Our very damp May probably continuing into June will keep blooms of mango at risk for fungus. What have you tried that really works? I don't like to use chemicals more than necessary. The weather isn't rainy, but a sometimes heavy mist that washes away almost anyting you apply. >> Table Of Contents - Headers; (Letters Follow Table Of Contents) <<

>>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber: Ardea, Italy Fausto Uccello <theseed17@hotmail.com>

New Subscriber, AZ: Have Mango; Want To Grow Sweet Cherries Dr. Peggy McGarey <peggy@eigi.com> New Subscriber, PA; Moving To AZ Glenn Whitmire <ghw2consults@earthlink.net> New Subscriber, CA - Never Enough Room For Enough Trees John C. Carlson <jcc@tstonramp.com> New Subscriber, St. Augustine, FL, Can't Find Atemoya Trees Jeff Sievert <JSIEVERT26@aol.com>

>> Readers Write <<

Re: Yellow passion fruit Leo A. Martin <leo1010@attglobal.net> Yellow P. Fruit Buckner, Geoff T (PWCSD 980) <BucknerGT@PWCSD.NAVY.MIL> To: 'linda-too@excite.com' <linda-too@excite.com> Coastal Mango Buckner, Geoff T (PWCSD 980) <BucknerGT@PWCSD.NAVY.MIL> To: 'jstruthers@ucsd.edu' <jstruthers@ucsd.edu> Yellow Passion Fruit Mike <mnm@tstonramp.com> Mycorrhiza, Etc. OOWON@netscape.net ( ) Pollinating Atemoya Problem.... Richard.Prior@furman.edu Re: FWD: Pollinating Atemoya Problem.... George F. Emerich <gemerich@tfb.com> Dwarf Sapodilla named "Pot" Brett Badger <to_two_utes@yahoo.com>

Transplanting A Fruit Tree Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Banana Pup Removal Tool Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Yellow passion fruit - How To Get Fruit? Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Ong Nursery: Bought Lychee And Mangosteen Dmshuck@aol.com Re: Ong Nursery: Bought Lychee And Mangosteen Leo To: Dmshuck@aol.com Re: Ong Nursery: Bought Lychee And Mangosteen Dmshuck@aol.com To: leom@rarefruit.com Re: Ong Nursery: Bought Lychee And Mangosteen Leo To: Dmshuck@aol.com Problem with guava? Nan Sterman <nsterman@plantsoup.com> Re: Problem with guava? Leo To: Nan Sterman <nsterman@plantsoup.com> Re: New Tropical Fruit Seed Introductions Available Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> To: leom@rarefruit.com Re: New Tropical Fruit Seed Introductions Available Leo To: Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> RE: Longan Teng Family <cdteng@vtay.com> To: <interact@ic-net.com.au>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Fw: Bird Scare Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> How To Attach CD's To Fruit Trees? Leo To: Jeff Struthers <jstruthers@ucsd.edu> Re: How To Attach CD's To Fruit Trees? Jeff Struthers <jstruthers@ucsd.edu> Re: How To Attach CD's To Fruit Trees? Leo To: Jeff Struthers <jstruthers@ucsd.edu> Re: Keeping in touch Teng Family <cdteng@vtay.com> To: Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th>

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

New Tropical Fruit Seed Introductions Available Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Fwd: Seed Prices Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> To: leom@rarefruit.com

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time

<<<<

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<< None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<< None, this time

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Subscriber: Ardea, Italy Date: Fri, 27 Apr 2001 23:14:37 +0200 From: "Fausto Uccello" <theseed17@hotmail.com> I am Fausto Uccello I want to subscribe (to) a rarefruit group. Yours sincerely Fausto Uccello Via Gaeta, 32 mailto:theseed17@hotmail.com 00040 Ardea (RM) ITALY

------------------------------------------------

Subject: New Subscriber, AZ: Have Mango; Want To Grow Sweet Cherries Date: Thu, 17 May 2001 18:46:12 -0700 From: Dr. Peggy McGarey <peggy@eigi.com> Hi, I am Dr. Peggy McGarey in Scottsdale, AZ.

I have 43 fruit trees presently. They are growing in a small backyard; in fact, I just found out there is actually a name for what I've been doing for 15+ years---backyard orchard culture! And I just thought I was weird! I have apples, apricots, peaches, plums, pears (including Asian), plumcot, figs, pomegranate, all kinds of citrus, kumquat, loquat, tropical guavas, elderberries, pineapple guavas, pawpaws, banana, avocado, and mango. The mango, avocado, and banana are very experimental. think of it, so are the pawpaws. What I really want to grow are sweet cherries. I started out wanting to have fruit ripening every month of the year and to have so much shade from the fruit trees that the infernal Bermuda grass would die out. I've accomplished the former, but not the latter. P.S. How much does the Buddha's Hand citron (prefer 5 gal.) cost? Thanks, Dr. Peggy McGarey mailto:peggy@eigi.com Come to

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, PA; Moving To AZ Date: Tue, 22 May 2001 19:1:19 -0400 From: Glenn Whitmire <ghw2consults@earthlink.net> I am Glenn H. Whitmire. Currently I live (?) in Pittsburgh, PA. However, I am considering relocating to the southwest (most likely northern Arizona). I am Chairman & C.E.O. of a specialized environmental company doing business in California. Investigating the producing of special products from exotic fruits. Searching for all information on Gayava fruit currently !!! All information and/or leads will be greatly appreciated. My E-mail address is: ghw2consults@earthlink.net

Looking forward to reading your newsletter. Glenn H. Whitmire mailto:ghw2consults@earthlink.net

------------------------------------------------

Subject: New Subscriber, CA - Never Enough Room For Enough Trees Date: Sun, 27 May 2001 20:03:38 -0700 From: John C. Carlson <jcc@tstonramp.com> Leo & Betty Thanks for offering your newsletter. My name is John Carlson & I live in Diamond Bar, CA (18 Mi. SE of L.A) My lot has about 17,000 SF but most of that is on an upslope. We live in a shallow canyon. I now have three huge Eucalyptus trees on the hill, two of which I will have cut down because their too huge & I'm concerned about them falling on the house. The third is a very attractive black trunk Eucalyptus which I will keep. Most of the orchard I plan will be in the space currently dominated by the two Euc's I'll have cut down. Currently I only have one Peach (unknown variety) & one lemon, again unknown variety. At the foot of the hill I have a "square foot" type vegetable garden with tomatoes, beans, etc. I have been researching dwarf fruit trees as a way maximize the number of trees. I'm currently in the "...gosh, I'd like to plant one or two of every kind of fruit tree known to man "....stage, however, I know I'll need to get "real" & plan carefully. I would appreciate any help you can give, and would like to be included on your newsletter list Thank you John C. Carlson mailto:jcc@tstonramp.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Hi! Please email your newsletters. I'm currently growing carambola and citrus in ground and lychee and key lime in pots. I want to grow atemoya, but can't find trees for sale in N or Central FL. Home is in St. Augustine, FL. Dr. Jeff Sievert mailto:JSIEVERT26@aol.com New Subscriber, St. Augustine, FL, Can't Find Atemoya Trees Thu, 31 May 2001 20:36:13 EDT Jeff Sievert <JSIEVERT26@aol.com>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Re: Yellow passion fruit Date: Mon, 14 May 2001 22:03:25 -0700 From: Leo A. Martin <leo1010@attglobal.net> If you mean round yellow, that would be flavicarpa. But the so-called banana passion fruit, Passiflora molissima, has one of the best tasting fruits. It has flamingo pink, long-tubed flowers that hang down. The fruits are bright yellow when ripe and much longer than wide, so they look like small yellow squash (I suppose bananas if you're really reaching.) I first saw it growing wild (introduced) on Kauai at intermediate altitudes. They call it lilikoi, which seems to be the name of passionfruit there. It prefers cooler temperatures than some lowland Passiflora. If it doesn't get much above 90F where you are, try to find some seed and grow it. Leo A. Martin Phoenix, Arizona, USA mailto:leo1010@attglobal.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Yellow P. Fruit Tue, 15 May 2001 07:39:49 -0700 Buckner, Geoff T (PWCSD 980) <BucknerGT@PWCSD.NAVY.MIL> Linda <linda-too@excite.com>

Linda, I have several small yellow passion fruit plants in pots. You are welcome to have one, I don't have room for all of them. I collected the seeds from fruit I ate in Kauai a couple of years ago. The parent fruit was sweet-tart and tasted good out of hand. Are you in the San Diego area? Geoff Buckner mailto:BucknerGT@PWCSD.NAVY.MIL

------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

Coastal Mango Tue, 15 May 2001 07:54:30 -0700 Buckner, Geoff T (PWCSD 980) <BucknerGT@PWCSD.NAVY.MIL> Jeff <jstruthers@ucsd.edu>

Jeff, I live on the west slope of Point Loma and get blasted by the prevailing winds and fog off the ocean. I currently have or have had the following mangos: Valencia Pride (VP), Okrung, Nam Doc Mai, Carrie, and Pim Sen Mun (PSM). For me, the VP performs by far the best. It always seems to be in bloom. My biggest problem is trying to promote vegetative growth. On the other end of the spectrum, the PSM needs the most maintenance. It grows fine but without supplemental treatment for mildew, it will not set a single fruit. The others perform somewhere in between the VP and the PSM. I hope this helps... Geoff Buckner mailto:BucknerGT@PWCSD.NAVY.MIL

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Yellow Passion Fruit Date: Tue, 15 May 2001 11:41:59 -0700 From: Mike <mnm@tstonramp.com> Hi Leo, I noticed in the "Rare Fruit News Online - May 15, 2001" that one of your subscribers was looking for yellow passion fruit. We do have yellow passion fruit plants available. You can forward the following message to the subscriber (Linda). Hi Linda, We do have about 100 yellow passion fruit plants available. They were grown from seed collected in Brazil. Please feel free to call me for further info. Mike mailto:mnm@tstonramp.com Tropical Oasis Nursery Rancho Cucamonga, California -----------------------------------------------Subject: Mycorrhiza, Etc. Date: Tue, 15 May 2001 16:34:12 -0400

From:

Bill <OOWON@netscape.net> The myco was interesting! I have great interest in this, but the government wants to develop (take away) what folks have been doing and making a living from?!? Hmmm... Sure doen't please Thomas of http://www.tandjenterprises.com. He has a BioVamMycorrhiza list and has been very helpful. Everyone seems to love his stuff. Bob Cannon uses someone else, and so does Lon R, famous for the grape section in Sunset Western, and a book or two... Hang in there dude! BillSF9c -----------------------------------------------:>)

Subject: Pollinating Atemoya Problem.... Date: Wed, 16 May 2001 14:11:39 -0400 From: Richard.Prior@furman.edu Funny you should mention needing a quick response! I was about to shoot you off a message (thinking it was the 14th) when I got the newsletter and realized I was a day off. The question is simple and you may be able to field it for me without a problem. I have an atemoya (container) and it's in bloom. I understand the theory of the flowers going from F to M and hand pollination. However, theory and practice are a bit different. I try to collect the pollen in the male stage for the next flower to open. (This tree's opening one at a time with a few days between each.) My collection efforts tend to wind up with a dead flower with all it's dead flower bits mixed in. Timing seems to be the key, and I'm not hitting it right. Is the pollen 'ripe' at a certain time? When is the female stage most receptive? Any tips would be appreciated! Richard mailto:Richard.Prior@furman.edu

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: FWD: Pollinating Atemoya Problem.... Date: Wed, 16 May 2001 12:40:22 -0700 From: George F. Emerich <gemerich@tfb.com> Leo:

You are right, I think. I am not an expert on Atemoya. I assume they are about the same as Cherimoya but I am not sure of that. They do set unaided better than Cherimoya, I think. There isn't much information on how long Cherimoya pollen can be stored. There is an indication that it loses much of its viability even overnight. It may be almost useless after a few days but I don't know that. George Leo Manuel wrote: | | | | | | | | | | | Hi George, Could you field a atemoya pollination question, please? I would have suggested that it's too early to be concerned, and that earliest blossoms may not set anyway. Is that correct? Thanks Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Dwarf Sapodilla named "Pot" Date: Fri, 18 May 2001 16:24:09 -0700 (PDT) From: Brett Badger <to_two_utes@yahoo.com> Hello All, I'm interested in finding a dwarf variety of sapodilla. I understand there is one named "Pot". Could someone point me in the right direction to obtain this or another variety of dwarf sapodilla? Also, very much enjoying reading your bimonthly newsletter. Thank you. Brett Badger mailto:to_two_utes@yahoo.com mailto:gemerich@tfb.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Transplanting A Fruit Tree Date: Sun, 20 May 2001 07:49:20 -0700 (PDT) From: Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com>

Nan... To be on the totally safe side in transplanting an established tree, you may encircle the tree to the size rootball you plan to take and dig down and sever any roots in that area. Then wait several months or longer to let the plant adjust to this pruning and then transplant. Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Banana Pup Removal Tool Date: Sun, 20 May 2001 07:58:13 -0700 (PDT) From: Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Lou... I will have to try the pry bar you and Leo mentioned. I presently use a narrow, flat spade and find it does minimum damage to the mother plant. I pot up the pups and add some Sul-Po-Mag to the planting mix (or when I plant in the soil, I bury it beneath the pup). I grow the pups on for our annual sale at the Fullerton Arboretum in April. Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Yellow passion fruit - How To Get Fruit? Date: Sun, 20 May 2001 08:03:00 -0700 (PDT) From: Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Has anyone ever fruited the yellow passionfruit in California. I grew from seeds the Hawaiian and Costa Rican ones which far surpass edulis for flavor. Although the vines grew well they never flowered here in Southern California for me. Ditto for the Banana passion vine. Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Ong Nursery: Bought Lychee And - Mangosteen Date: Mon, 21 May 2001 13:06:57 EDT

From:

Denise Woo <Dmshuck@aol.com> Hi Leo, I just thought I would drop you a quick note. We went to Ong nursery last Saturday and picked out a lychee Bosworth-3, carambola and I had to get the mangosteen. I thought I could grow it next to the house where the papayas are doing so well. The lychee Emperor sounded intriguing since the fruit is the size of golf balls. I went with the Bosworth-3 because I think the fruit will taste better. How is the kelp working for you? Happy gardening, Denise Woo mailto:Dmshuck@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Ong Nursery: Bought Lychee And Mangosteen Date: Fri, 25 May 2001 19:58:46 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: Dmshuck@aol.com Hi Denise, I also have the Emperor lychee and it bore last year about a dozen fruit, while still in the pot. I haven't had a systematic approach with the kelp, just hit and miss, here and there, and will get serious with it very soon, now that I have some non-fruit projects out of the way. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Ong Nursery: Bought Lychee And Mangosteen Date: Sat, 26 May 2001 19:09:16 EDT From: Dmshuck@aol.com Hi Leo, Was the fruit from the Emperor lychee really the size of golf balls and did it taste good?

Take care, Denise mailto:Dmshuck@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Ong Nursery: Bought Lychee And Mangosteen Date: Sat, 26 May 2001 19:17:39 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: Dmshuck@aol.com Hi Denise, No, the fruit wasn't *that* large, but definitely larger than usual. How something tastes is so subjective that it's hard for someone else to decide what will taste good to you, but I liked it, but it had a different taste than other lychees I remembered eating. No other lychee here had fruit at all. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Problem With Guava? Date: Fri, 25 May 2001 07:31:54 -0700 From: Nan Sterman <nsterman@plantsoup.com> I have a seedling guava that is about two years old. It came up with bronze leaves but now the leaves are mottled bronze, gold and green. It is about 4 ft high and this year, the new growth is all withered and dead, as if the little tree were completely dried out -- which it isn't. Full sun, regular water, good drainage so those are not the problem. what do you think? Nan Sterman mailto:nsterman@plantsoup.com San Diego County, CA Sunset zone 24, USDA hardiness zone 10b or 11 -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Problem With Guava? Date: Fri, 25 May 2001 19:34:55 -0700 From: Leo To: Nan Sterman <nsterman@plantsoup.com>

Hi Nan, Unfortunately, I haven't much skill at diagnosing to determine what's wrong. I'd probably make sure it's a little under watered for a few days, as it can't handle much water when it's in stress. Normally, guava seem to be exceptionally hardy and hell-bent to survive and grow strongly. Let's see what others of the readers think. Yours, Leo mailto:leom@rarefruit.com -----------------------------------------------From: Leo Manuel To: Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Subject: Re: New Tropical Fruit Seed Introductions Available Date: Fri, 25 May 2001 19:54:39 -0700 Hi Oscar, I don't know which plants will survive outside of a greenhouse here, where the low 40 degree F. is not uncommon in the winter, occasionally. Sounds like a great trip. Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: New Tropical Fruit Seed Introductions Available Date: Sat, 26 May 2001 04:46:23 -1000 From: Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Leo, another member also asked me about the cold hardiness of these plants. I do not know. I doubt that anyone knows yet., please do correct me if I am wrong. At the Chiang Mai horticultural station they did tell me that the year before last they had several nights of 0 celsius (32 F). So these plants do have some cold hardiness. I was surprised to find out that their Rambutans survived these nights. They said they dropped all their leaves but then

recooperated. It seems they can stand freezing for a few hours but not extended 40F nights, that is my guess. I finally did meet with Sainarong Rasananda in Chiang Mai. It was a pleasure talking to him and he seemed to me to be a very knowledgeable and interesting person. He struck me as a bit of a maverick. I only got to talk to him for about an hour and a half, though I wish that it would have been much longer, I learned quite a bit in the short time, not just about longan cultivation, but also about the Thai culture. Professor Rasananda referred me to a researcher specializing in plant nutrition at the Chiang Rai horticultural station, Dr. Nantarat. I later met with her and two lychee specialists, Dr. Nipat and Dr. Montree. They were all kind enough to answer my endless questions and to give me a tour of their Ag station. On this trip I was also lucky enough to be able to meet with Dr. Salakpetch, a researcher on durians at the Chantaburri horticultural station. Dr. Salakpetch was the main speaker at least year's tropical fruit conference in Hilo, Hawaii. Unfortunately I missed this conference, so I was especially glad to get a second chance to meet her. I also met with Kanjana Kirasak at the Hangchat horticulture station near Lampang. She is a specialist on tissue culture. Actually we mostly talked about their techniques for making longans produce regularly through the use of potassium chlorate and timed fertilizing. She was kind enough to run me through some of the details of their experiments as well as give me a tour. All these people have been extraordinarily kind with their time and information. Hopefully some day I can put some of my notes together and share them with you also. Soon I hope to visit Bao Sheng farm in Penang, Malaysia. They have a lot of varieties of durians and have won many prizes for best tasting durians. They have an interesting web site at http://www.durian.com.my Sawadee from Thailand, Oscar mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Longan Mon, 28 May 2001 20:28:30 +0800 Teng Family <cdteng@vtay.com> Sue <interact@ic-net.com.au>

Hi Sue, My name is Clement and I'm from Perth, Western Australia.

I understand that you're after suggestion to protect your young Longan this winter. Winter is not that cold in Perth, as such 3 post with shade cloth around will protect the tree from cold wind. For me I have a 5 years old Heaw , a Khohala and a Biekiew ( both planted last summer) in which I just let them grow without any protection at all . So far they are doing very well. If you need more information, Just drop me a line. Cheers Clement mailto:cdteng@vtay.com

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Fw: Bird scare Date: Fri, 18 May 2001 09:34:43 +0700 From: Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> ----- Original Message ----From: Jeff Struthers <jstruthers@ucsd.edu> |I have tried both reflective tape (mylar) and cd's in my apple |trees. I think the cd's work a little better as AOL keeps sending |them for free and the tape seems to lose it's reflective surface |after a month of flapping in the wind. It also seems that the |closer you can put the reflector (cd,tape) to the fruit the |better. | |Good luck, | |Jeff mailto:jstruthers@ucsd.edu -----------------------------------------------Subject: How To Attach CD's To Fruit Trees? Date: Tue, 29 May 2001 21:00:38 -0700 From: Leo To: Jeff Struthers <jstruthers@ucsd.edu>

Hi Jeff, I have found CDs to work well in fruit trees, but I haven't found a satisfactory way to attach the CD to the tree. The CD should be free to rotate and swing freely in the breeze, I think. I've tried punching holes in the edge and suspending them with string, and it isn't too bad. I've considered trying to balance them and to swing them horizontally, somehow, but haven't tried it. Yours, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: How To Attach CD's To Fruit Trees? Date: Wed, 30 May 2001 19:46:17 -0700 From: Jeff Struthers <jstruthers@ucsd.edu> To: Leo Hi Leo, I'm glad the CD's work, I have used fishing line as it's pretty flexible. It will break after about three weeks and needs to be reattached. I have a question for you, How do you separate the Banana Pups from the main root ? I have read that note in your letter from someone who used a large wedge shaped bar. Are you supposed to dig beneath the Pup then bust it off ? Thank's Jeff -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: How To Attach CD's To Fruit Trees? Date: Tue, 30 May 2001 21:00:38 -0700 From: Leo To: Jeff Struthers <jstruthers@ucsd.edu> Hi Jeff, I'm glad you wrote, as I just dug out my old (20+ years) fishing tackle box and found surf leaders with swivels on both ends. I put strapping tape (has fibers running lengthwise) on one end of each old CD I had no use for, punched a hole in the end, then

attached one end of the swivel with a clip on it and on the other end with the other swivel, I put a very short piece of wire and wrapped the wire around a limb above the fruit. I'm sorry to hear that the fishing line doesn't hold up longer. I may need to use a piece of nylon fishing line, or some other longer lasting material. For banana separation, I dig around and beneath, but the advantage of the bar is that it has a cutting edge on the end, and the bar is heavy enough that if you lift it over the place you want to sever the pup from the mother plant, just dropping it will be sufficient to sever the connection. Severing that connection is perhaps the thing to do first, as sometimes it will immediately be free enough to lift out the pup. If you live nearby, you can borrow my tool as it's not likely you'll need it often. If interested, I'll give you the address either by email or phone. (I'm listed in the phone book, but the address isn't there.) Leo -----------------------------------------------From: To: Subject: Date: Teng Family <cdteng@vtay.com> Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Re: Keeping in touch Sun, 27 May 2001 21:10:47 +0800

G ' Day Dr Sainarong , I'm fine over here just staying dormant for a while. Thanks for asking. Longan trees :Heaw- about 2 meters with only about 200 Longan fruits (still on the tree ) with PH (7.5-8) problem. Problem arise when I used chicken manure. Just applied sulphur 2 weeks ago. BeiKiew - Double the size ( 1 meter ) since planted last year Kohala - Planted the same time as Biekiew but only grown by 1.5 times I still don't have any chance of tasteing the fruit of 2 White Sapote. Planted 18 months ago and about 2.5 meter tall and doing well. Unfortunatey after the renovation to our house, Sapote are only 4 meter away from the wall. and a meter from Patio. Might have to remove them and plant another Longan tree.

Plumcot - No fruit at all. Only sending sucker 10 meter away from the tree. Grafted Peaches, Plum and Prunes on the tree are doing well, expecting to fruit next season, I hope. Custard Apple (Cherimoya) - With winter next month, at the moment fruit drop at size of tennis ball. Other than the size of the fruit, it tastes great. Other than the 55 sq meter that was taken up for the renovation. Everything are growing well when I invest in bore water (45 meter deep ) which water every evening due to the sandy condition over here. Cheers Clement Teng

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Tropical Fruit Seed Introductions Available Date: Tue, 22 May 2001 04:29:10 -1000 From: Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Hello to all members, I am in Thailand collecting seeds and plants right now. Thought you might like to know that I will have Korlan and Rambi seeds available soon. Korlan is a fruit that looks like a small Lychee, although it is actually closer related to a Rambutan, i.e. a type of Nepheliun. Rambi is a fruit that grows on clusters like grapes, but it is a tree. The latin name is Baccaurea racemosa. Both of these are extremely rare. The Korlan has never been available before. I will also have available upon my return in early June: Durian, Mangosteen, Long Kong, Salacca wallichiana, Sweet Tamarind, and many others. Please e mail me for more details at fruitlovers@hotmail.com. Oscar Jaitt, mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com Fruit Lover's Nursery -----------------------------------------------Subject: Fwd: Seed Prices Date: Sat, 26 May 2001 04:53:41 -1000

From:

Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Here are the prices for the new fruit seed introductions. All prices are postage paid inside the USA. Inquire please for mailing costs outside of the USA. KORLAN (Nephelium sp.) 10 for $20, 25 for $40 This is an indigenous tree of northern Thailand. The fruits look just like miniture lychees. Unlike lychee it is a regular bearer. This fruit has not been grown previously outside of Asia.. RAMBI, called MAFAI in Thailand, (Baccaurea racemosa) 10 for $15, 25 for $25 This is also an indigenous tree of northern Thailand. There are many types ranging in flavor from sour to sweet. These seeds are from sweet types. The fruits hang in long clusters, similar to grapes. DURIAN 10 for $25, 25 for $40 MANGOSTEEN 10 for $25, 25 for $40 SWEET TAMARIND 10 for $10, 25 for $20 Yes, they really are totally sweet. A wonderful snack food. LONG KONG (Lansium domesticum) 10 for $20, 25 for $40 There are 3 different types of Lansium domesticum: Langsat, Duku, and Long Kong. Long Kong is locally considered the best tasting of the three, and I agree. The fruits are the largest of all three varieties, excellent taste with no latex or bitterness. Most fruits are seedless, occasionally there is a fruit with one seed. DRAGON'S FRUIT aka PITTAYA $8 (Hylocereus undatum) 10 for $4, 25 for

RAMBUTAN 10 for $10, 25 for $20 SANTOL 10 for $15, 25 for $25 SALAK (Salacca wallichiana) 2 types, 10 for $15, 25 for $25 The first type is elongated, large, and brownish in color. The second is orange, more rounded, and a bit smaller. IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN ANY OF THESE PLEASE PUT YOUR ORDER IN IMMEDIATELY. THESE SEEDS ARE ALL VERY PERISHABLE SO I WOULD LIKE TO SEND THEM OUT AS SOON AS I RETURN (JUNE 6), SO PLEASE PREPAY WITH A MONEY ORDER TO Fruit Lover's Nursery, PO Box 1597, Pahoa, HI 96778. Thank you, Oscar Jaitt mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@onelist.com> <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU> <<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> From "rarefruit list" - mailto:rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<<<

None this time

>>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> <<< http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

None this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000106A.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - June 15, 2001 - AKA RFN200106B.txt

Rare Fruit News Online consists primarily of messages from subscribers. Sometimes there are questions to be answered by those with knowledge and experience (and, we are fortunate to have them among us.) Others consist of feedback to letters posted in an earlier issue. Sometimes there are references thought to be of interest, such as books, periodicals, or - more likely - web pages and their URL addresses. It works, because of the teamwork among you, and I'm pleased to be part of it. If you ever want to write about changing your email address or unsubscribing or almost anything, please include your WHOLE name (especially the LAST name) as my address book is set up that way. You know that you can view and download back issues of the newsletter, near the bottom of the webpage http: www.rarefruit.com. Let me know if any of the links do not work properly. You will see that the current year shows the newsletter at least through the January 15 issue. RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO in in in in in in 2001: 2000: 1999: 1998: 1997: 1996: http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN2001AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN2000AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1999AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1998AllYr.Txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1997AllYr.Txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1996AllYr.Txt

For another place to see back issues of the newsletter, visit the online group, "OldRFN" OldRFN is at http://www.visto.com/j.html?g=16812838.WDY3NjdX

Please keep me advised of trouble with the OldRFN webpage. If you are in the neighborhood, let me know, and hopefully I'll be home for you to drop by. I am a rare fruit garden addict, and plant far more than I have time to tend them properly, but I'd like to show you what you can grow here. Have suggestions to improve either the webpage rarefruit.com or this newsletter? Please let me know. Sincerely, Leo

>> Notes In Passing << 1. Del Mar Fair in San Diego County begins June 15. I'm helping in the CRFG booth for the first shift. Drop by if you're there....

2. It's time to begin grafting mango trees, in Southern California. I'm behind schedule. How about you? I have grafted cherimoya (last month) that are beginning to grow. 3. Does anyone know where in Southern California I can get large heavy gauge plastic barrels that when divided in two, make two barrels almost equal in size to half whiskey barrels. I'd like for them to not have contained toxic chemicals, and I've heard that sometimes you can get them that have only had hydrogen pyroxide, which is about as benign as you can get. 4. One seedling mango only fruits on one branch on the south side of the tree. The rest of the tree is not unduly shaded. Several others in greater shade that bear uniformly all over. The fruit is good, and I've been tempted to cut away all of the rest of the tree. 5. Mango set seems to be much better than in recent years, and I'm looking forward to trying some that I only grafted in the last year or two, such as Kensington (probably same as Kensington Pride from Australia), Julie, Early Gold, and Zill. Anyone have experience with the fruit of these? Saigon didn't bloom yet....

>> Table Of Contents - Headers; (Letters Follow Table Of Contents) <<

>>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber, Florida: Has Papaya, Macadamia, Starfruit, .... Jacob Alifraghis <plumeria14@juno.com> New Subscriber, San Francisco: Espalier White Sapote?? Shawn Hannon <Shawn.Hannon@efi.com> Aware Of Space Requirements For Trees You Want? Leo Manuel To:Shawn Hannon RE: Aware Of Space Requirements For Trees You Want? "Shawn Hannon" <Shawn.Hannon@efi.com>

>>>> Readers Write <<<<

Questions About Emperor Lychee And Your Opinion lee & lou <leelou@pacbell.net> Litchi For A Botanical Garden In Mexico Moshe Nadler <nadler_m@yahoo.com> Re: Litchi For A Botanical Garden In Mexico Leo Manuel To: Moshe Nadler <nadler_m@yahoo.com> Guava Dmshuck@aol.com To: nsterman@plantsoup.com FW: What To Grow In Trinidad, West Indies, & Where To Obtain? "Lon J. Rombough" <lonrom@hevanet.com> Emperor Lychee "Oscar Jaitt" <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Pine Nut Trees - Information Sought Jan Bennicoff <jbennicoff@home.com> Where Can I Buy Passion Fruit Online? "Jennifer Leggitt" <jleggitt@hotmail.com> RE: [Fwd:question] Online Store To Buy Rare Fruit "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> Custard Apple (Atemoya) - hand pollination "Teng Family" <cdteng@vtay.com> To: <Richard.Prior@furman.edu> Hanging CD's Dmshuck@aol.com Paw Paw Recommendation For Southern California? Dmshuck@aol.com Re: Hanging CD's

Leo Manuel To:Dmshuck@aol.com RE: [Fwd:question] Online Store To Buy Rare Fruit "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> Problem With Guava? "Buckner, Geoff T (PWCSD 980)" <BucknerGT@PWCSD.NAVY.MIL> To: "Nan Sterman" <nsterman@plantsoup.com> Safer Fungicide "Buckner, Geoff T (PWCSD 980)" <BucknerGT@PWCSD.NAVY.MIL> Dragon fruit - Supply Needed "Lon J. Rombough" <lonrom@hevanet.com> Re: Dragon fruit "George F. Emerich" <gemerich@tfb.com> Re: Dragon fruit Sven Merten <scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net> FWD: Hylocereus As Herb? Roy <roy.dynan@talk21.com> Hylocereus as a herb... Joris Wanders <orange_tag@hotmail.com> RE: Hylocereus as a herb... Leo Manuel To: Joris Wanders <orange_tag@hotmail.com> RE: Hylocereus as a herb... Joris Wanders <orange_tag@hotmail.com>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

None, this time >>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

Two wild growing Himalayan trees deserving attention. "Dr. Chiranjit Parmar" <parmarch@vsnl.com>

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time

<<<<

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<< None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<< None, this time

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Putting the "Bite" on Plum Curculio Weevils "ARS News Service" <isjd@ars-grin.gov> Linda McGraw, (309) 681-6530, mcgraw@ars.usda.gov

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Subscriber, Florida: Has Papaya, Macadamia, Starfruit, .... Date: Tue, 12 Jun 2001 06:08:32 -0700

From:

Jacob Alifraghis <plumeria14@juno.com> I am Jacob Alifraghis, Clearwater, Florida

Fruit trees that I am now growing are: papaya, macadamia, starfruit, pomegranate, cherry of the rio grande, passionfruit, surinam cherry, sugar apple, and pineapple guava Jacob Alifraghis mailto:plumeria14@juno.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, San Francisco: Espalier White Sapote?? Date: Fri, 1 Jun 2001 18:11:12 -0700 From: Shawn Hannon <Shawn.Hannon@efi.com> Hello, My name is Shawn Hannon. I live in the Excelsior district of San Francisco (not as warm as the Mission district but not as foggy as the Sunset district). Some of the tree I am growing are: stewart avocado, strawberry guava, meyer lemon, bearss lime, trovita orange, a number of figs, white sapote seedlings, cherimoya seedlings, Honeyhart cherimoya (just acquired), trask feijoa, fuyu persimmon. I only moved into my house a year ago so most have only been in the ground a year or less. Some trees I want to grow are: any grafted white sapotes I can get, any grafted cherimoyas, Gwen avocado, Tanaka loquat, more figs, and whatever comes along that's good... Has anyone tried espaliering white sapotes? Thanks, Shawn Hannon mailto:Shawn.Hannon@efi.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Aware Of Space Requirements For Trees You Want? From: Leo Manuel To: Shawn Hannon Sent: Friday, June 01, 2001 9:12 PM Hi Shawn,

I don't know how much space in your yard you have, but white sapote gets quite large, would probably not be easily espalaried but can be kept small if you prune several times each year. Don't plant it near a sidewalk or drive, as the fruit goes 'splat' and makes a bit of a mess. I seriously doubt if you want more than one of them and probably one cherimoya, and the HoneyHart is an excellent choice. Figs can also take up quite a bit of space. I will publish your letter and let the readers give you their opinions, and they are often more astute than I. Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: RE: Aware Of Space Requirements For Trees You Want? Date: Sat, 2 Jun 2001 10:05:36 -0700 From: Shawn Hannon" <Shawn.Hannon@efi.com> Leo, Thank you for your quick reply. The newsletter is a great idea - very enjoyable. As for your specific comments, I have actually read a lot about all of the plants I am growing and understand what you are saying. However, stubborn persistence has won me over again. I figure I have to at least try these things in a dwarf/pruned version. The figs I am growing in pots or along a fig to train them in a space saving espalier. The white sapote and cherimoya are very experimental here. I grew seedlings for several years and they seem content with and survive our cold, but setting fruit and ripening will be the test. I have read of cherimoya's that were espaliered, and produced very large fruit. I asked Bruce Asaskawa on his radio garden show once if he thought it possible to espalier white sapote in a green house and he thought it might be. So, as I will need the extra heat I will probably try some pruned variation of this until too big to contain. Anyway, sometimes we just push to limits of what we know possible until we fail beyond repair. We'll see. Thanks, Shawn mailto:Shawn.Hannon@efi.com

P.S. Feel free to include our exchange in the next newsletter so others will better understand where I am coming from before replying with essentially what you said. Wouldn't want to waste anyone's time.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Questions About Emperor Lychee And Your Opinion Date: Thu, 31 May 2001 21:29:29 -0700 From: lee & lou <leelou@pacbell.net> Dear Leo: What other lychees are you growing and how have they been doing? Since you are the only person I know who is successfully growing the Emperor lychee. I would like to know how you would describe their size, appearance and growth habit. (upright? willowy? attractive? ) I have limited space in which to offer my lychee. (I've just ordered a mauritius lychee from Pine Island Nursery in FLA). Thanks much! E. Lou mailto:leelou@pacbell.net Mountain View, CA

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Litchi For A Botanical Garden In Mexico Date: Fri, 1 Jun 2001 00:29:45 -0700 (PDT) From: Moshe Nadler <nadler_m@yahoo.com> Hi Leo, I didn't write to you for a long time but I get your e-mails and read then all. I'm still working in Mexico, one of my friends there who runs a botanical garden asked me to get him one or two Litchi trees. I think that the best way will be to ship them from the USA. Bare roots, by air. Variety is not so important, as long a it's not Brewster. Do you know of someone that can ship them to me ? I'll pay for all the expenses.

thanks Moshe mailto:nadler_m@yahoo.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Litchi For A Botanical Garden In Mexico Date: Fri, 01 Jun 2001 06:11:09 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: Moshe Nadler <nadler_m@yahoo.com> Hi Moshe, I am not sure whether Quang Ong mailto:quang12@aol.com will ship, but he has the best selection. He's in San Diego 619-277-8167 (Area code may be 858) He has another job as Agricultural Inspector during the week, so he's available to talk during weekends. Another local source is Pacific Tree Farms http://www.kyburg.com/ptf/index.html mailto:kyburg@ix.netcom.com 4301 Lynwood Drive Chula Vista, CA 91910-3226 His prices are higher, but he does ship, I believe. I'm glad you wrote. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Guava Date: Fri, 1 Jun 2001 09:59:48 EDT From: Dmshuck@aol.com To: nsterman@plantsoup.com Hi Nan, I read your question about your guava in Leo's newsletter. We live in Rancho Penasquitos (San Diego, Ca.) I have 2 guavas that go through the same cycle. One tree is 2 years old and the second tree is 6 years old. The older tree out does itself in producing fruit every year. They drop all of their old growth every year and replace it almost at the same time with the new growth. After the new growth comes in I spray it once a month with a folier kelp spray I get from Richard Pesta at

858-274-6594. Happy gardening, Denise Woo mailto:Dmshuck@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: FW: What To Grow In Trinidad, West Indies, & Where To Obtain? Date: Fri, 01 Jun 2001 15:41:06 -0700 From: Lon J. Rombough <lonrom@hevanet.com> Leo: I have no idea how I got this. than me. -Lon Rombough ---------Subject: What To Grow In Trinidad, West Indies, & Where To Obtain? From: Ram Shane <ramshane2000@yahoo.co.uk> Date: Fri, Jun 1, 2001, 3:17 PM --- Ram Shane <ramshane2000@yahoo.co.uk> wrote: |Hi, | |I am interested in introducing Lychee (seedless, dawf, etc), figs, |durian, loquat to my orchard here in TRINIDAD, WEST INDIES. |Tissue cultured plants in sealed sterile containers would be preferred |to air layered/grafted(bare root)plants. | |My climatological data is as follows: | |Basic tropical climate, | |night:17-22 *celsius(Dec-Feb) | |22-26 * celsius(Mar-Nov) | |Day:26-30 * celsius(Dec-Feb) | |31-34 * celsius (mar-Oct) | |Av.annual rainfall 1995-2000: 2153 inches. | |10 deg N lat,66 deg W long Thought you could do more with it

mailto:lonrom@hevanet.com

| |Your company was recommended by Francis Zee. | |Any other varieties you care to suggest would be welcomed. | |Can you please assist? | |Regards Conliffe Poyer mailto:ramshane2000@yahoo.co.uk -----------------------------------------------Subject: Emperor Lychee Date: Sat, 02 Jun 2001 04:15:03 -1000 From: Oscar Jaitt <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> About the Emperor lychee. I tried some here in Thailand. Here they call it Jakapat, which means emperor. The fruit is much larger than other lychees, about the size of a golfball is correct, although the shape of course is not round but oblong. (I took some photos and will post them on my site later on.)The taste was very good in my opinion. It had a typical lychee flavor. The emperor variety here commands a much higher price than the other variety usually sold here, which is Tai So. By the way the lychee harvest this year in Thailand was very poor as they had a warm winter. Even girdling does not help when winters are overly warm. In Penang I had afruit called Chempadek which I really liked. It is a close relatrive of the Jackfruit. It tastes similar to Jackfruit but is sweeter and more creamy. I would describe it as Jackfruit ice cream. Chempadek has several advantages over the Jackfruit. First it is much easier to open and eat than the Jackfruit as there is not as much fiber in the fruit and all the flesh is close together and easy to pick out. Second, I was told here that the tree is much more productive than the Jackfruit. Here in Malaysia it commands a higher price than Jackfruit. Like the Jackfruit the Chempadek puts out a strong odor when ripe. Maybe it is even stronger than the Jackfruit , so it is best eaten outdoors. The hotel I stayed in had a no Durian and no Mangosteen sign posted at the door, but they did not say anything about Chempadek. So I took one to my room. A few minutes later someone disturbed me from my shower banging on my door. Please take the fruit out they asked. I found out from a local that the reason they do not want mangosteens in the room is that they stain. If anyone is interested in getting Chempadek or any other seeds from my travels please e mail me at fruitlovers@hotmail.com Oscar mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Pine Nut Trees - Information Sought Date: Sat, 02 Jun 2001 15:48:16 -0500 From: Jan Bennicoff <jbennicoff@home.com> Hi: Does anyone raise pine nut trees ?? I'm thinking of planting one and would like to know about fertilizing them, how long they take to mature, and whatever other information there is available. I live in Springfield, MO. There are two trees I'm thinking of buying from Edible Fruit that would do well in my area. Thanks, Jan Bennicoff mailto:jbennicoff@home.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Where Can I Buy Passion Fruit Online? Date: Sat, 02 Jun 2001 14:08:23 -0700 From: Jennifer Leggitt <jleggitt@hotmail.com> My name is Jennifer Leggitt and I was wondering if there was an online store to buy these kinds of fruit. . . especially passion fruit. . . Thanks Jennifer Leggitt mailto:jleggitt@hotmail.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: RE: [Fwd: question] Online Store To Buy Rare Fruit Date: Wed, 6 Jun 2001 07:13:02 -0700 From: Holzinger, Bob <bholzing@amgen.com> Leo, I don't know of anyone selling passiflora fruit online. Bob mailto:bholzing@amgen.com ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

Custard Apple (Atemoya) - hand pollination Tue, 5 Jun 2001 21:48:09 +0800 Clement Teng <cdteng@vtay.com> Richard Prior <Richard.Prior@furman.edu>

G' Day Richard, My name is Clement, I'm from Perth, Western Australia. I understand that you are having problem pollinating your Custard Apple. The tree flowers in Summer when it is hot and dry and where temperature reaches 42 deg.C. Pollen from Cherimoya loses much of its viability when remove from flowers. As such I just pollinate within minutes of collecting the pollen. From my experience, I just give the tree a light spray of water in the afternoon before I hand pollinate in the evening. You may put buckets of water under the tree if you like.That way will help to create humidity so that flowers (female stage) will be ready by the evening for pollination. I used a fine paint brush to pollinate my flowers. I wet the brush with clean water before starting. Used the wet brush to pick up the pollen from fully opened flowers ( male stage ). Then brush the pollen collected brush onto the centre of flowers that are just open ( female stage most receptive ) As an indicator, I break ( or use a marker pen ) one of the petal to indicate which flowers had been pollinated. Good Luck Clement mailto:cdteng@vtay.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Hanging CD's Date: Tue, 5 Jun 2001 23:31:51 EDT From: Denise <Dmshuck@aol.com> Hi Leo, Here is another idea for tying the CD's, use raffia. You get it at craft stores. Although I thought your idea with the swivels was great. You could put the swivels on the raffia. This year I wanted easy to read plant markers for my vegetable garden. I ended up getting large craft sticks and using a wood

burner to write the variety on the stick. I then drilled a hole at one end and hung them up on the supports with raffia. It seems to be working out very well so far. Much better than the string I have used. The raffia hasn't broken or stretched out when it gets wet. Thank you for the information on the digging bar. I picked one up and dug up 4 pups last weekend. It was much easier than using the shovel. Sincerely, Denise mailto:Dmshuck@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Paw Paw Recommendation For Southern California? Date: Tue, 5 Jun 2001 23:34:26 EDT From: Denise <Dmshuck@aol.com> Is there a good variety of Paw Paw for Rancho Penasquitos (San Diego)? I checked the fruit facts except I didn't see any one recommended for the San Diego area. Thank you, Denise mailto:Dmshuck@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Hanging CD's Date: Wed, 06 Jun 2001 06:12:07 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: Dmshuck@aol.com Hi Denise, I've used popsicle sticks for temporary tags trays or pots in the hotbed, marked with permanent black marking pen, which won't fade. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Problem With Guava?

Date: From: To:

Wed, 6 Jun 2001 14:12:08 -0700 Buckner, Geoff T (PWCSD 980) <BucknerGT@PWCSD.NAVY.MIL> Nan Sterman <nsterman@plantsoup.com> Nan, I have guavas that are exposed to the cold damp wind coming off of the ocean. Early in the growing season (even now) the leaves will typically be stunted and yellowish (almost white) in color. During particularly cool and windy weather the leaf edges will turn black and die. One could interpret the problem as lack of water, however, I am pretty sure my symptoms are caused by cool June gloomy spring weather. Other guavas that are protected from the wind on the south side of the house look green and healthy and are starting to bloom profusely. Maybe your problem is the cool weather? Geoff Buckner mailto:bucknergt@pwcsd.navy.mil

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Safer Fungicide Date: Wed, 6 Jun 2001 14:19:38 -0700 From: Buckner, Geoff T (PWCSD 980) <BucknerGT@PWCSD.NAVY.MIL> Leo, I have used Safer's fungicide on mango blooms the last couple of years. Of the mango varieties that need it, it seems to work very good. Because I am not a big chemical fan either, I use it sparingly. An application about every 2 weeks during the worst of the gloomy weather usually seems to be enough. Geoff Buckner mailto:bucknergt@pwcsd.navy.mil

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Dragon fruit - Supply Needed Date: Thu, 07 Jun 2001 09:17:15 -0700 From: Lon J. Rombough <lonrom@hevanet.com> I just had an inquiry from a food company looking for a few (5 pounds or less) of Dragon fruit or Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) for some initial tests. If the tests work, they will want commercial quantities. Do you know of any sources, even for the small "starter" amount?

-Lon Rombough mailto:lonrom@hevanet.com Grapes, writing, consulting, more, plus word on my grape book at http://www.hevanet.com/lonrom -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Dragon fruit Date: Thu, 07 Jun 2001 16:31:54 -0700 From: George F. Emerich <gemerich@tfb.com> Leo: I doubt any Pitahaya fruit is available now except possibly from the tropics. From what I see now, I will have my first bloom in a week to ten days and it takes six to eight weeks after that for the fruit to mature. My earliest fruit could be ready about the first of August. Paul Thomson appears to be about a week ahead of me. George mailto:gemerich@tfb.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Dragon fruit Date: Thu, 07 Jun 2001 17:46:54 -0700 From: Sven Merten <scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net> Lon, I also may have some fruit this year, but it won't ripen for another few months. Let us know if they are still interested and maybe we can get some fruit together for them in August. Where are they located? Regards, Sven mailto:scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: FWD: Hylocereus As Herb? Thu, 14 Jun 2001 14:27:33 GMT+01:00 Roy <roy.dynan@talk21.com>

Hi Leo, I don't know if you still monitor epi@yahoogroups.com, but I thought I'd copy you the slightly enigmatic message below. I haven't asked permission of the sender, and I'm not up to speed on the etiquette aspects - so should the author's name and address be removed if you wanted to include it in the newsletter? Regards Roy --Subject: Hylocereus as a herb... From: Joris Wanders <orange_tag@hotmail.com> Date: Thu, 14 Jun 2001 00:31:12 -0000 Maria I don't know right now, how Thai people use Hylocereus as a herb. My neighbours sometimes come 'poaching' (borrow as they say....) in our garden, taking away all kinds of green, roots or the more crawling/ hovering division...most of it I don't think of when I get hungry, but who knows, one day.... . So far they didn't trim my very bushy Hylocereus. I asked them; they don't know. What I've seen was a piece of land somehere around here in the mountains, full of Hylocereus undatus. They had them grown around a 10 inch drainage pipe, about 3 meters long, put upright and supported by a small wooden frame. Once at the top, the cacti started to spread and become pendant. Some looked liked miniature palm trees. The first person we saw, we asked what it was used for; his short reply: "herb". No information whether it should be eaten or used as an ointment/cream. They not use any part of the flowers as we've seen many dried-up remains of what surely was a nice, big flower..... I'll try to ask the cacti- merchants at the flowermarket... Who knows what it is used for? I'll keep you posted. If you're very much interested in (medicinal) use of domestic / rural Thai 'living things', I think there's a book about it, and I can find out title and ISBN -nr. for you. Meanwhile I'll take a good look at my Hylocereae; fast growers also, it's the rainy season, and every wet day adds somewhere between 1 or 2 inch to every young section. You'd almost want it to rain all year round. Joris Wanders, Tambon Pa Pai, Chiang Mai, Thailand

------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

RE: Hylocereus as a herb... Thu, 14 Jun 2001 07:39:37 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Joris Wanders <orange_tag@hotmail.com>

Hi Joris, Your letter about Hylocereus caught my attention. Do you know which Hylocereus? Undatus, Polyrhizus, ...? I am growing these and others for fruit in Southern California, and am interested in all aspects of the use of the plants. I'd be very much interested in learning what you find about the use of them. What is the purpose of the vertical drainage pipe? I could see a possible use by filling it with soil for the pitaya to grow into with the arial roots. Is that what they did? Would you say that it's an effective way to grow them? Sounds interesting.... Would you mind if I use your letter in my newsletter, Rare Fruit News Online? Also, I would like to ask a Thailand friend, "Rasananda, Sainarong " <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> what he knows, if anything, about Hylocereus as an herb. Horticordially, Leo Manuel in San Diego, California, USA -----------------------------------------------Subject: RE: Hylocereus as a herb... Date: Fri, 15 Jun 2001 01:28:17 -0000 From: Joris Wanders <orange_tag@hotmail.com> Hi Leo, It's Hylocereus undatus, but I'm not quite sure how 'throughbred' it is as other people told me this specie has been around in Thailand for a long time. You grow them for the fruit? And then, make jam, jelly, fruit juices and sweets out of them? I envy you; although mine are big, flowers are not yet as abundant as I want but that's normal when they're still young and in a (big) container. In 6 months we will move to our new piece of land, and over there they will be planted according to their needs and allowed to grow wherever they want. In the meantime I will purchase them here in the local supermarket....

No, I don't mind your publishing any letter in your newsletter, as a matter of fact, I'm also interested in "strange" crops or different use of fruit, vegetables and other plants, so tell me where I can find this newsletter online. Any seeds for sale? Thailand is a big source of nice fruits and it comes in many varities as it is grown in as many different climate zones. Recently they started the "Royal Project" in the high mountains, in an effort to make the hill tribes growing other crops than they used to, the poppy fields I mean. So all of a sudden there's even more different fruit and vegetables, because they can grow crops with much lower temperatures and the local markets start to sell 'western' veggies. Whenever I buy a pineapple, for example, my girlfriend 'curses' at me because I bought the 'Chiang Rai version' instead of 'the Phuket version' (about 1500 km. apart) . Thai know exactly when each fruit from which region is the best. And as they use ripe, sweet ones and green, sour in different dishes, it's still a little bit confusing for me. But the pineapple was okay........ I'll keep you and the Epi-gang posted on the herb question, this afternoon I will be visiting the flowermarket and I'll ask around. Sawadee for now and good luck on growing your rare fruits. Joris Wanders mailto:orange_tag@hotmail.com in Tambon Pa Pai, Thailand

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

None this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Two wild growing Himalayan trees deserving attention. Date: Tue, 12 Jun 2001 17:40:31 +0530 From: Dr. Chiranjit Parmar <parmarch@vsnl.com>

Dear plant lovers, I want to inform you folks about the existence of two Himalayan wild growing flowering trees, virtually unknown, but deserving promotion. One is locally called KARIALE and the other is PAJA. KARIALE, which is Bauhinia variegata, has a very magnifient bloom of 5-6 week' duration. The floweer buds are edible and sold at the local vegetable shops. The foliage is used as cattle fodder. This plant has sevreral medicinal uses too. PAJA (Prunus cerasoides var. majestica) has a very unique trait. It flowers in October-November, when all its relatives are dormant. This tree also has several uses. Both the trees grow in forests in the mid-hill regions. to be promoted as new flowering trees. The need

Please e-mail me for more information and pictures of these plants. Dr. C. Parmar mailto:parmarch@vsnl.com Horticultural Consultant

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@onelist.com> <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU> <<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> From "rarefruit list" - mailto:rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<<<

None this time

>>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> <<< http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Subject: Putting the "Bite" on Plum Curculio Weevils Date: Wed, 6 Jun 2001 12:19:34 -0400 From: "ARS News Service" <isjd@ars-grin.gov> Linda McGraw, (309) 681-6530, mcgraw@ars.usda.gov Anyone who has ever bitten into a "wormy" apple will appreciate the efforts of Agricultural Research Service chemist Fred J. Eller, who has developed and patented a pheromone bait that can give fruit growers an early warning of plum curculio weevils. Pheromones are chemicals secreted by animals, especially insects, that influence the behavior or development of others of the same species, often acting as a sex attractant. Plum curculio weevils, Conotrachelus nenuphar, attack apples, peaches, cherries, pears, apricots and plums in the southern and eastern United States. Adult female weevils lay eggs under the skin of developing fruits, causing yield loss and scarring. Normally, growers become aware of the pests only after the eggs are laid, when a telltale "crescent moon" blemish appears on the fruit. Once this moon appears, the fruit is permanently scarred. The plum curculio is only one-quarter inch long, with a brown and gray body, and a long snout. The female beetle lays her eggs inside pome and stone fruit, causing "wormy" fruit. Eller, based at ARS' National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research at Peoria, Ill., identified the pheromone released by the male curculio weevil. The chemical attracts both female and male curculios. He incorporated the chemical, called grandisoic acid, into a trap that was originally designed for boll weevils by ARS researchers in Mississippi. Eller placed several traps baited with the chemical attractant in orchards at blossom time. He found significantly more weevils in the baited traps than in the unbaited traps. More work is needed to expand the use of the pheromone and to add

volatile compounds, such as fruit odors, to enhance the attractiveness of the pheromone and capture weevils even at low densities. Currently, other researchers at the ARS Appalachian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, W.Va., are combining the pheromone that Eller identified with apple odors to make a more attractive lure for the plum curculio. Ultimately, a pheromone-baited trap may one day offer a reliable monitoring tool to help growers reduce pesticide use by spraying only after pest populations are detected and prior to significant crop damage. ARS is seeking companies to license the technology. ARS is the chief scientific research agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. <snip>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000106B.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - July 1, 2001 - AKA RFN200107A.txt Rare Fruit News Online consists primarily of messages from subscribers. Sometimes there are questions to be answered by those with knowledge and experience (and, we are fortunate to have them among us.) Others consist of feedback to letters posted in an earlier issue. Sometimes there are references thought to be of interest, such as books, periodicals, or - more likely - web pages and their URL addresses. It works, because of the teamwork among you, and I'm pleased to be part of it. If you ever want to write about changing your email address or unsubscribing or almost anything, please include your WHOLE name (especially the LAST name) as my address book is set up that way. The web page for Rare Fruit News has been updated. You'll find that you can view and download back issues of the newsletter, near the bottom of the page. Let me know if any of the links do not work properly. You will see that the current year shows the newsletter at least through the January 15 issue. RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO in in in in in in 2001: 2000: 1999: 1998: 1997: 1996: http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN2001AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN2000AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1999AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1998AllYr.Txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1997AllYr.Txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1996AllYr.Txt

For another place to see back issues of the newsletter, visit the online group, "OldRFN"

OldRFN is at

http://www.visto.com/j.html?g=16812838.WDY3NjdX

Please keep me advised of trouble with the OldRFN webpage. If you are in the neighborhood, let me know, and hopefully I'll be home for you to drop by. I am a rare fruit garden addict, and plant far more than I have time to tend them properly, but I'd like to show you what you can grow here. Have suggestions to improve either the webpage rarefruit.com or this newsletter? Please let me know. Sincerely, Leo

>> Notes In Passing << 1. See Benefits Of Mycorrhizae In Growing Tropical Fruits in "Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider" if you want to possibly increase the odds of tropical/sub-tropical fruit trees bearing for you. Such as longan, lychee, jakfruit, durian, .... I had planned to wait until my current supply of myco is gone, before ordering from Will, but Sven seems to recommend it, and the web page has pretty persuasive data.... It's suggested that using mycorrhizae instead of rooting hormone may provide superior rooting of air layers. Has anyone found that Will's product is not as good, or at least, no better, than other locally-available products? 2. Another site to check: Propagation Of Banana, at http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/crops/i_banana.htm#top for techniques I have never used. Let me know what you think. 3. I've been grafting quite a bit of various cacti onto H. undatus, and had only one absolute failure. I made the mistake of treating it as I do other grafts, by putting a plastic bag around the scion with a moist paper towel inside. It quickly rotted.... Quite a few of the rest seem to be making it, but it's too soon to make a recommendation for the best way. (Besides, I'm sure I didn't try a 'best' way.) Armstrong Garden Centers has quite a few items of interest in the flier that came today (6/29). 30% off many "Tropical Fruit Trees." Kiwi Vines $9.99/gallon; Ultra-Dwarf Citrus, 3-gallon $20 each. Fragrant Plumeria $9.99/gallon; "Hotbiscus" 2-gallon $19.99 each. This was in San Diego mail today, and it's been years since I was in one, but maybe I'll take a look.

4.

5. Florida readers may want to check David's Garden Nursery - Miami, Florida - for Tropical Fruit Trees, as recommended by a reader.

>> Table Of Contents - Headers; (Letters Follow Table Of Contents) <<

>>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber, Tampa, FL, Now Growing Mainly Citrus "Robin Musilino" <rlmuso@tampabay.rr.com> New Subscriber, Malaysia, Growing Durian, Rambutan, Pulasan, .... "elango velautham" <elangove@hotmail.com> New Subscriber-Oceanside, CA-What To Plant Near Coast? "John Wyman" <mr-borego@home.com> New Subscriber, S. CA: Recipies Wanted For Passion Fruit Judith L. Ecklund <Voneckgsd@aol.com> Possible New Subscriber: Wants Commercial Pitaya Information Hostmaster <hostmaster@jeffmand.com>

>> Readers Write <<

Mystery Strawberry Fruit From China (Cornus kousa?) Leo Manuel Re: Strawberry Fruit - Do You Know The Chinese Name? Zhenxing Fu <zfu@ucsd.edu> To: Leo Manuel Re: Hylocereus As Herb Zhenxing Fu <zfu@ucsd.edu> Re: Yellow passion fruit Sven Merten <scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net> To: Leo Martin <leo1010@attglobal.net>

RE: Yellow passion fruit - How To Get Fruit? Sven Merten <scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net> To: eunicemessner@yahoo.com Hylocereus as herb "Leo A. Martin" <leo1010@attglobal.net> Re: Hylocereus As Herb "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Pitaya roy.dynan@talk21.com plastic barrels "Helga and Bert Dunn" <helbert@idirect.com> A more permanent marker Link2itc@aol.com Re: A more permanent marker Leo Manuel To: Ed <Link2itc@aol.com> Re: A more permanent marker Link2itc@aol.com Espaliers Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: Shawn.Hannon@efi.com Wholesale Fruit on line Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: jleggitt@hotmail.com Where To Find Rare Fruit Pictures On Internet? "elango velautham" <elangove@hotmail.com> Re: Subscription Confirmation "elango velautham" <elangove@hotmail.com> Carambola and Pollination

Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> RE: Red Iholina - Is Flesh Red? "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> Re: Pitaya roy.dynan@talk21.com Horrible Fruit Results From Brown-Thumbed Novice Brett Badger <to_two_utes@yahoo.com>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Fruit Set Problems on Longan Tree "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: <Tongfat@aol.com> CC: "Nantarat (Dr.) Supakamnerd" <nantarats@yahoo.com> Potassium Chlorate and Longan "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: <Tongfat@aol.com> CC: "Nantarat (Dr.) Supakamnerd" <nantarats@yahoo.com> Re: Potassium Chlorate and Longan Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Re: Potassium Chlorate and Longan "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: Leo Manuel Re: Longan tree "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: <Tongfat@aol.com>

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

David's Garden Nursery - Miami, FL - Sells "Our" Fruit Trees Ungphakorn Carlyn <sakcarlyn@yahoo.com>

Benefits Of Mycorrhizae In Growing Tropical Fruits Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> http://www.tropfruit.com/mycobenefit.html Tropical Thai Fruits Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> http://www.amari.com/event/tta/cooking/links_tropical.htm Propagation Of Banana (from Banana General Information) http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/crops/i_banana.htm#top Permaculture Design Course Online Dan <Permacltur@aol.com>

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time

<<<<

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<< None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<< None, this time

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<< None, this time

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

New Lure Works Better Than Pheromones for Codling Moths "ARS News Service" <isjd@ars-grin.gov>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Subscriber, Tampa, FL, Now Growing Mainly Citrus Date: Sun, 17 Jun 2001 07:21:20 -0400 From: "Robin Musilino" <rlmuso@tampabay.rr.com> My real name is...Robin Musolino Here's where I live...Tampa, FL My e-mail address-for receiving newsletter-rlmuso@tampabay.rr.com Fruit trees I am now growing are....mainly citrus I am a new member of the California RFCI and my local chapter here in Tampa, Florida. I also grow orchids. I have a small grove of about 18 trees, mainly citrus, with a few loquat and guava, as well as dabbling in herbs and tomatoes and peppers. Many thanks, Robin Musolino mailto:rlmuso@tampabay.rr.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Malaysia, Growing Durian, Rambutan, Pulasan, .... Date: Wed, 20 Jun 2001 09:53:19 +0800 From: "Elango Velautham" <elangove@hotmail.com> My real name is...Elango Velautham Here's where I live..in a montane environment Janda Baik, Pahang, West Malaysia.Add: Pejabat Sitrac, Jalan Janda Baik, 28750 Bentong Pahang. West Malaysia.

My e-mail address-for receiving newsletter-if different from this email address elangove@hotmail.com Fruit trees I am now growing are....durian(Durio zibethinus), rambutan(Nephelium lappaceum), pulasan(N. ramboutan-ake), dokong(Lansium domesticum), Nona(Rollinia sp.) and Mangosteen(Garcinia mangostana). These are tropical fruits from the rainforests of Malaysia with the exception of Rollinia sp. Some I want to grow are....I really wanted to get my hands on Annona cherimola, and I saw your pic! (on Rarefruit.com) Wow. Comments: I think this would be an excellent opportunity to expose the treasure trove of our pomological heritage, I am pretty sure I have some fruits up my sleeve that would drop your jaw, the same way you guys impressed me!!! Good job Elango mailto:elangove@hotmail.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber-Orange, CA-Has Passion For Growing Everything Date: Wed, 20 Jun 2001 11:40:25 -0700 From: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Yes, I would like to subscribe to your magazine. I find subtropical fruits fascinating. I am originally from New Jersey, where the cold winds blow. I have been living in SoCal since 1993, and working as an Engineer. I have been living in my house in Orange California, with my wife Tina and two kids, for over 2years now. I caught the subtropical bug from CRFG about 3yrs ago. At last count I have 36 fruiting bushes or trees on a 8000sq ft lot, yes it is packed but i a tasteful manner. The rare fruits I have currently fruiting are; Pepino Dulce (a MUST have), Fig (2 types), Passion Fruit, Fejioa, Strawberry Gauva, Jujube (So variety), Meiwa and Nagami Kumquats, Papaya, Mexican Cream Guava, Giant Fuyu Persimmon. Rare Fruit trees that have not fruited yet (but will very soon) are; Manila Mango, Vista Loquat, Suebelle White Sapote, Lady Finger Banana, Cherimoya (Nata already flowering), Carambola (Fwang Tung), Hawaiin Papaya, Jaboticaba, Gwen Avocado (dwarf), and 2 types of SugarCane. I also have some common stuff like; Bluberries (O'neal-excellent fruit), Blackberries, Muscat and Flame Grapes, Plum, Apricots (Heaven), Peach, Nectarine (Desert delight- so much fruit), Lemons (the best I've had), Moro and Navel Oranges, not to

mention an assortment of veggies to choke a horse. I also have a Fuji apple and a pear that will be removed this year. They only have one fruit, and the Fuji did not even loose its leaves this year. Wasting valueable subtropical land on apples and pears is stupid.I have had serious sucess with everything fruiting and flowering (early) as my land gets alot of sun and has masonary walls to help. I am also growing several rare fruits from seed. Much of my collection is dwarf or semi dwarf. I keep the garden neet and trimmed so its not overcrowded. My favorite web sites are CRFG, Purdue Newcrops (Julia Morton), and Desert-Tropicals. So far our favorite fruits are the Pepino Dulce, Strawberry Guava, and of course the Figs, but I am waiting with drool for the White Sapote. The cactus collection stops cars in the front of the house. I don't know how many, but the planter is 45 ft long. Many flowering types, and the dible Nopalitos, and the Pitahaya. I also am an avid Bonsai planter. I have several works that I have done in a variety of styles. I even have a Sumastu Dwarf Orange fruiting as a Bonsai in wind swept style. I can only thank my Dad and my wife for this passion of plants. You may contact me for any reason as conversations about fruit and plants is always of interest to me. Todd Abel mailto:tabel@statek.com Orange, CA 92867

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber-Oceanside, CA-What To Plant Near Coast? Date: Fri, 22 Jun 2001 21:51:58 -0700 From: "John Wyman" <mr-borego@home.com> Hi, Please add me to your rare fruit growers email. My name is John Wyman and I live in Oceanside, California. I just bought a house that has some land. I want to plant citrus, tropical fruits, nuts, and other more common fruit. I am interested in varieties that do well near the coast and with mild winters. And of couse they have to taste good. I am not currently growing any fruit trees. I only have land that is on a slope for planting. I plan to make a circular cutout in the slope for the fruit trees. I am not sure how large of diameter to make the cutout in the slope, or does that depend on the type of tree and its root system. I am looking forward to learning about rare fruit trees.

John

mailto:mr-borego@home.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, S. CA: Recipies Wanted For Passion Fruit Date: Fri, 29 Jun 2001 14:00:15 EDT From: Judith L. Ecklund <Voneckgsd@aol.com> My name is Judith L. Ecklund. I live in Southern California. I am an organic gardener. I keep a small city garden and some fruit trees. When I was young, my family rented an old, turn of the century house that had unusual and rare plants. Among my favorites was the passion fruit plant. I liked the blossoms. A few years ago I found a plant on a vacant lot. I took home a fruit and planted it. Now I have a beautiful vine that is producing fruit. I was wondering if anyone had any recipes or other uses for the fruit. Thank you. Judith L. Ecklund mailto:Voneckgsd@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Possible New Subscriber: Wants Commercial Pitaya Information Date: Fri, 29 Jun 2001 08:52:37 -0400 From: Hostmaster <hostmaster@jeffmand.com> Hello, My name is Armando Pryll

I live in New Smyrna Beach , FL I am growing Meyer Lemons (Organically) and starting to grow some lettuce in NTF Hydro system. I would like to research the possibility of growing Hylocereus undatus for the fruits. I am living in zone 9 and have a shade house of 170 x 30 with 47 % shade cloth in place. Can you help with info about available literature and where to get the starter plants here in the U.S. ? Thank you kindly Armando mailto:sales@jeffmand.com

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Mystery Strawberry Fruit From China (Cornus kousa?) Date: Mon, 25 Jun 2001 From: Leo Manuel Hi, The father of Zhenxing Fu (see letter below) brought samples of a fruit directly from China. She said that its name was "Yang Mai" in Chinese. Several of us at the home of Jim Neitzel had not seen this beautiful red fruit. I'll get a digital photo of four of the fruit posted on a web page soon. If I forget, please remind me. There were two varieties, one smaller (about one-inch diameter) and one larger (about 1.5 inch diameter.) The exterior looked very much like Arbitus unido, but the interior was totally different. The interior was red, darker at the outer part, becoming less dark as you got closer to the seed, which was a single seed, similar to that of a plum. The flesh was much more juicy than Arbitus unido. We called it a Chinese Strawberry Fruit for a few days, but I ran across a reference in Cornucopia II (page 81): (However Zhenxing doesn't believe it's the same fruit.) The oblate red fruits, called yang-mai, are very juicy and of a fair flavor. Consumed in some parts of China. Young leaves are eaten by mountain peoople in Japan.... CULTIVARS {GR} Big Apple: A vigorous and unique variety with large, attractive flowers in the spring followed by cascades of very large, bright red fruit in the fall. Grows to 15 feet tall. Striking both in bloom and in fruit. Milky Way: Large, one inch fruits that are said to have somewhat the flavor of papaya. Ripens in October. Also a prolific producer of attractive white flowers beginning in late June. Heavier blooming and more fruitful than other types. -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Strawberry Fruit - Do You Know The Chinese Name?

Date: From:

Mon, 25 Jun 2001 10:01:20 -0700 Zhenxing Fu <zfu@ucsd.edu> To: Hi Leo,

Leo Manuel

The Chinese name for the strawberry fruit is Yang Mai. It is distributed in the middle-east part of China where winter is wet and cold (occasionally below freezing) and summer is hot and humid. I will need to check the book to define the area it grows and what the climate it likes and let you know. I think the reason it has not been grown here in the US may be that the Canton province where the early Chinese immigrants are from to the US is not a part of the Yang Mai growing area. The Cantonese people are not familiar with this fruit. I never saw or heard of this fruit in the US market. I grow up in Shanghai where it is a very popular fruit during June. Its season is between loquat and stone fruits like peach and plums. It is a good tasting fruit and I like it. I took some pictures of those I brought to Jim's home on Sunday and I will show you once they get developed. I wish I have some pictures which would show the fruits on the tree. The book cover that I brought yesterday has a little picture of a few Yang Mei fruit and leaves. I will try to scan it and send to you. I would like to visit your garden someday. I live in university city which is not too far from you. I like mango too. I can not forget the taste of a mango picked ripe from the tree in a friend's yard in Hawaii. I have a small manila mango tree in my front yard and it is in blossom. I will get back to you when I have the pictures ready. Hopefully via the internet we will find some new Chinese immigrants from the Yang Mai growing area like myself have already started to try to grow Yang Mai somewhere in the US. Happy Gardening, Zhenxing Fu mailto:zfu@ucsd.edu

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Hylocereus Blossoms As Food Date: Fri, 29 Jun 2001 11:34:00 -0700 From: Zhenxing Fu <zfu@ucsd.edu> Hi Leo, Thank you for the picture. It looks very nice. I talked to my friend who is from Canton province and learned how they eat the flowers of Hylocereus. They pick the open flowers and

quickly dip them in the boiling water for seconds, then lay them flat to dry by the sun and saved for future cooking. There are different ways to cook it. My friend likes to cook it this way: Make a pot of chicken (or any meat) broth and bring it to boiling, then add the dried Hylocereus flowers and some chopped squash, simmer for 1 to 2 minutes after boiling. Her family likes the taste of the soup with the Hylocereus flowers. It sounds yummy and maybe someday I will try to cook it myself. I don't have the copy of the Cornucopia II. Jim and I talked about the strawberry fruit last night after the presentation. It seems to me that those two plants described on the list you gave to me may belong to the different species from the Chinese Yang Mei. Chinese Yang Mei is the only one out of four species in the genus which is consumed as fruit and it has about a dozen of different varieties (red, dark purple and white-pinkish fruits). All the fruits of that species ripen from mid-June to early July. The fruits of two plants described on the list ripe in fall, which made me think that they might belong to other species. The fruits from other three species has different taste and people use them either as herb medicine or as the landscaping plants in China. I think maybe we could use those plants available from the nurseries as the root stock and graft the scion wood of Chinese Yang Mei to it. Let me know if I can help with more info about Chinese food or herb medicine. Thanks. Happy Gardening, Zhenxing -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Yellow passion fruit Thu, 14 Jun 2001 22:18:36 -0700 Sven Merten <scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net> Leo Martin <leo1010@attglobal.net>

Hi Leo, I've read several descriptions of the banana passion fruit and how good the flavor is. I finally tried it this year and was very disappointed. I tried it at two different places and although one was better than the other, they were both rather bland and insipid. Almost no flavor and no sugar. To me the Frederick and even the flavacarpa are far superior to the banana passion fruit which I felt was hardly worth eating. Do you like the P. molissima better than the flavicarpa? Maybe they don't develop the same flavor here in Southern California that they do in more tropical areas.

Regards, Sven mailto:scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net

|Subject: Re: Yellow passion fruit |Date: Mon, 14 May 2001 22:03:25 -0700 |From: Leo A. Martin | | | If you mean round yellow, that would be flavicarpa. | | But the so-called banana passion fruit, Passiflora molissima, has | one of the best tasting fruits. It has flamingo pink, long-tubed | flowers that hang down. The fruits are bright yellow when ripe and | | | | | | | | | | | | much longer than wide, so they look like small yellow squash (I suppose bananas if you're really reaching.) I first saw it growing wild (introduced) on Kauai at intermediate altitudes. They call it lilikoi, which seems to be the name of passionfruit there. It prefers cooler temperatures than some lowland Passiflora. If it doesn't get much above 90F where you are, try to find some seed and grow it. Leo A. Martin mailto:leo1010@attglobal.net Phoenix, Arizona, USA

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: RE: Yellow passion fruit - How To Get Fruit? Thu, 14 Jun 2001 22:36:40 -0700 Sven Merten <scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net> eunicemessner@yahoo.com

Hi Eunice, Both Isabel Barkman and Ed Valdivia have heavily fruiting flavicarpa vines, I assume that is the yellow passion fruit you are talking about. I still think the Frederick easily beats them as far as flavor is concerned. But that is just my opinion. Ed and Jose Gallego both have fruiting banana passion fruits. To me those aren't really worth eating out of hand, but they look nice. Ed grafts all his onto P. cerulia (sp?). Regards, Sven mailto:scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net

|Has anyone ever fruited the yellow passionfruit in California. I |grew from seeds the Hawaiian and Costa Rican ones which far |surpass edulis for flavor. Although the vines grew well they never |flowered here in Southern California for me. Ditto for the Banana |passion vine. | |Eunice Messner -----------------------------------------------Subject: Hylocereus as herb Date: Thu, 14 Jun 2001 23:30:30 -0700 From: "Leo A. Martin" <leo1010@attglobal.net> Hello All, Genus Hylocereus is closely related to genus Selenicereus in family Cactaceae, tribe Hylocereeae. Both are vining, mostly epiphytic tropical cacti with large nocturnal flowers. In general, Selenicereus stems are very much thinner than those of Hylocereus, and Hylocereus stems are frequently three-, four-, or five-ribbed. Some Selenicereus species can take a fair amount of frost, though not as much as in a temperate winter. Hylocereus are more tender. Alkaloids very similar to digitalis are readily extracted from most Selenicereus in large quanitities. These are used to treat some kinds of heart failure and irregular heartbeats. Other plants containing these alkaloids are genus Digitalis (foxglove), Nerium (oleander), and Thevetia (yellow oleander.) In fact, these alkaloids are the poison in oleander. Remember that people have died after eating hot dogs roasted over a fire on oleander branch skewers. This stuff is VERY toxic! I don't know whether Hylocereus contain these alkaloids, but I would not take any chances. Let somebody else figure it out. Leo A. Martin Phoenix, Arizona, USA mailto:leo1010@attglobal.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Hylocereus As Herb Date: Sun, 24 Jun 2001 15:41:31 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th>

I have searched a Thai book on find the mention of Hylocereus its medicinal properties. Am I Hylocereus is not native to SE inhibitants of its native land Hylocereus that we are. Have Fun! Sainarong

Thai herbal medicine and cannot anywhere. I myself am not aware of correct in understanding that Asia? If this is so, the should be more familiar with

mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Pitaya Date: Fri, 15 Jun 2001 16:50:54 BST From: Roy <roy.dynan@talk21.com> Hi Leo, I'm glad to hear your yellow pitaya seedlings are doing well; my few seedlings fell foul of a fairly hard winter, but some Hylocereus seedlings in the same spot got killed too. I may have made a mistake by not coddling them more - I gave them a lower priority because I'd heard Selenicereus were extra difficult, but on the other hand yellow pitaya are supposed to be x Hylo at some point (?). Have you noticed them being significantly less hardy than Hylocereus or more trouble in any way? I've got some prized Hylocereus cuttings that came with a recommendation, so I don't really need my untried Hylo seedlings I'd dump them (or graft them) and use that precious space for yellow pitaya if I thought I'd have any success. Regards. Roy mailto:roy.dynan@talk21.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Plastic Barrels Date: Sat, 16 Jun 2001 04:04:58 -0400 From: "Helga and Bert Dunn" <helbert@idirect.com> Hello Leo We have scads of them in Canada (perhaps as we are heavy importers

of foodstuffs). My plastic barrels have come with olive oil from Italy, apple juice concentrate from Argentina, fruit pulp from the Balkans &c. Try food importers, jam makers, olive, olive oil importers &c. Too bad you're not close by. I'm giving away 4 half barrels when I find a someone who wants them. Cheers Bert Dunn mailto:helbert@idirect.com www.hardygrapes.tottenham.on.ca see also http://www.littlefatwino.com/bertslist.html -----------------------------------------------Subject: A more permanent marker Date: Sun, 17 Jun 2001 00:13:56 EDT From: Ed <Link2itc@aol.com> Hello Leo, I find the "permanent" marker ink to be rather transient under the bleaching FL sun. I use an old plastic miniblind (available cheap at your local thrift/Salvation Army store), cut each vane into short pieces, round off the sharp corners with a pair of scissors so no injury will be done to the plant, punch a hole at one end with a single-hole paper punch, and label the tag with a lead pencil. If the blind is exceptionally glossy (a potential problem I have not yet come across) such that marking with a pencil is not easy, then rub the gloss off the tag with Scotchpad or fine sandpaper before marking with pencil. I then affix the tag to a limb with aluminum wire or other attachment means. Ed mailto:Link2itc@aol.com

Leo, You said: |Ed | |I've used popsicle sticks for temporary tags trays or pots in the |hotbed, marked with permanent black marking pen, which won't fade. | |Take care, | |Leo ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Re: A more permanent marker Date: Sat, 16 Jun 2001 22:19:48 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: Ed <Link2itc@aol.com> Hi Ed, If you can find the old-fashioned metal blinds, they would probably last longer. My experience with most plastic labels is that the elements cause them to break and lose contact with the plant they're with. I always use aluminum tags that can be embossed with an old ball-point pen. Then I replace the aluminum wires (that weather and break off) by either copper wire or stainless stell wire. It's absolutely essential that the tag stay united with the plant/tree. I have too many trees and too little in the way of a reliable memory to remember the names without being prompted. The popscicle sticks were back when my grandson was around a lot. I used them only for seed trays or small pots, as they don't last long. Thanks for writing! Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: A more permanent marker Date: Sun, 17 Jun 2001 17:54:40 EDT From: Link2itc@aol.com Hi Leo, I agree the aluminum would be even better and had actually bought an aluminum miniblind for that purpose but forgot where I put it. I find it necessary though to use a diamond tipped marking pen in order to mark on the alum miniblinds. I know that alum wires are brittle and break off if your "kink" it at a sharp angle, so I curve the wire around a round bottle-cap. Do they still break off even when you don't stress it by sharp kinking? In addition to the tree tags, I also keep a computer log of what I have done where. The latter, of course, is not as site-specific as a good tag. Keep up the good work with the newsletter. Your efforts are much appreciated.

Happy Father's Day! Ed mailto:Link2itc@aol.com

|I always use aluminum tags that can be embossed with an old |ball-point pen. Then I replace the aluminum wires (that weather |and break off) by either copper wire or stainless steel wire. |It's absolutely essential that the tag stay united with the |plant/tree. I have too many trees and too little in the way of a |reliable memory to remember the names without being prompted. -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Espaliers Sun, 17 Jun 2001 15:50:14 -0700 (PDT) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Shawn.Hannon@efi.com

Shawn... Most figs are trainable (Black Mission being an exception). There are dwarf figs. Black Jack and Tena are two I can think of. Most figs can be pruned back to main branches each winter so give espaliering a try. I sure wouldn't want to try to curb the branches of two sapotes I have grown, 'McDill; and 'Nettie'. They are BIG!! and have 10 ft of growth in a season. I haven't grown Lemon Gold but it may be more amenable. Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Wholesale Fruit on line Sun, 17 Jun 2001 15:57:36 -0700 (PDT) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> jleggitt@hotmail.com

Jennifer Here are two wholesale distributors that will mail you fruit. Both are in the Los Angeles basin. http://www.melissas.com Eunice Messner http://www.friedas.com mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Where To Find Rare Fruit Pictures On Internet? Date: Wed, 20 Jun 2001 10:13:12 +0800 From: "Elango Velautham" <elangove@hotmail.com> Hi. It's me Elango again,

Date:

I was wondering if you knew of a site where the pics of rare fruits trees can be found. Thanks. Elango mailto:elangove@hotmail.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Subscription Confirmation Date: Wed, 20 Jun 2001 16:48:09 -0000 From: "Elango Velautham" <elangove@hotmail.com> Hi there, Well, to begin with, I don't know much about temperate pomology, so I can't say what will grow in your climate. But as a horticulturist who has a foot in reforestation, I dare say that some species can be acclimatized to perform fairly well in a climate not too extreme for its existence. Here, I also have commonly grown Annona muricata, A. squamosa, A. reticulata and Rollinia sp. and all of them bear fruit well. I suppose A. cherimola should be able to at least survive, if not bear fruit. Then I can start thinking about acclimatization. No harm trying. For starters, I would like to get to know by name and also photos of the existing fruits in your collection or database, please let me know of the sources/addresses so I can browse through them myself. <snip> Thanks for the quick response. Cheers, Elango mailto:elangove@hotmail.com

------------------------------------------------

Subject: Carambola and Pollination Date: Wed, 27 Jun 2001 08:18:23 -0700 From: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Leo, I do not know your experience with Carambola. I have a Fwang Tung in full sun, doing very well. It has not flowered or fruited yet, but it is about 5 ft already. Is the Fwang Tung variety self-fertile? Todd Abel mailto:tabel@statek.com Orange, CA

-----------------------------------------------Subject: RE: Red Iholina - Is Flesh Red? Date: Wed, 27 Jun 2001 07:34:12 -0700 From: "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> Leo, I've never seen or heard of really red fleshed bananas. Orangish or pinkish maybe, but not red. The Iholena family of bananas are very slender, so they tend to be easily blown over and top-heavy with fruit. But otherwise there's nothing unusual to growing them. Lin needs to be in San Diego mid-week in a couple of weeks. come down with her and visit my friends (finally). I need to Jim to see if he air-layered the guava I like so much when I there last. If I decide to drive down with Lin I'll let you the days. Bob mailto:bholzing@amgen.com I may call was know

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Possibilities For Snail/Slug Control Date: Thu, 28 Jun 2001 11:51:50 GMT+01:00 From: Roy <roy.dynan@talk21.com> Hi Leo, Like absolutely every gardener in the UK, I have slug and snail problems outdoors and occasionally one gets into my greenhouse - I picked a large and very intrepid snail off the inside of the ridge

bar at midday once! (8 feet up - it's only a small greenhouse). The best solution I've found outside is to grow plants at risk near a wildlife pond - the frogs must get every one because I have no holes in my hostas at all (this is almost unheard of in England). Unfortunately the zone of complete protection only extends one foot with some effect up to a yard away, and I've no experience if it would work as well for tall plants.. Some HDRA authors have used moats successfully (hdra.org.uk), and others use exposed copper wires on barriers or copper running alongside other metals (zinc, aluminium) for a definite electrochemical jolt. Some authors swear by a pair of exposed wires connected to a battery. Within the growing area itself you presumably use beer traps etc? One weird thing - over the last five years my usual semi-chequered type of snail has been overtaken by ones with very clear black spirals on ochre - global warming? On the other hand the spiral one looks like the edible or Roman snail and I do have lots of neighbours from the Mediterranean area. I haven't got round to trying them as food (the snails) yet, but I've had them in restaurants and they are nothing much - about 10 years ago there was a scandal in France when someone passed off bits of cooked animal lung in shells as escargot - I've eaten the odd bit of lung when picking over a roast chicken carcase and personally I'd say it's much more tasty than escargot! One more thought - they say that the tracks of big snails suppress the growth of smaller snails - so if you kill the big ones there is an endless source of more in a kind of feedback loop. So why has nobody synthesised the chemical that suppresses snail growth??? It might be expensive but I'd guess it's quite powerful. The things I'd do if I had a research lab! Maybe you could milk the B*%*%s for it! My cactus grafting is straight from the book too(nearly all show how to graft christmas and other epiphytic cacti onto Opuntia or Hylo), and so far I've had no luck - on the other hand I've always been trying to save a seedling whose roots rotted off and the books say the success rate for that is MUCH lower. I hope that when I graft healthy epis (to speed them up) I'll have more luck - I don't have much trouble doing miniature work with razors because I used to be a keen aeromodeller when I was a kid. I'm not sure grafting would benefit pitayas very much since they are x Hylo anyway - have you noticed them being significantly slower than H.undatus? I suppose grafting onto vigorous Opuntia would provide a tougher root system, but beware - several books I've read say Opuntia are riddled with virus. I don't know if Opuntia seedlings carry the

virus or not - if not there's a chance that commercial prickly pears will yield seedlings with manageable spines - I've got two seedlings from a particularly good fruit and they are much less spiny than the wild O. ficus-indica - more importantly they have very few glochids. I'm sure you are familiar with the nasty hooked glochids absolute torture - but have you ever tried shaving the skin they are embedded in? I can guarantee instant relief because glochids are too thin to hurt if they don't get snagged - I even shaved my tongue once (without soap though). My prized pitaya cuttings are one labelled 'rickford' (rixford?) and two others unnamed but described as good pollinators - I think one has pink flowers and the other red - maybe red flesh too. I imagine your new cuttings will be OK - they were among the very first species brought to Europe from the Americas - nothing else could stand a three to ten week voyage in a C16 wooden ship. One bit of news - I got partial fruit set on a pawpaw for the first time ever, but they fell off at wheatgrain size - maybe better luck next year? Regards Roy mailto:roy.dynan@talk21.com

PS. I read in Brogdale (research station) fruit news that you can grow Ashmead's Kernel apples in Alabama. If any of your readers can find them I can't recommend them enough - they are the No.1 enthusiast's apple in the UK - if you like them crunchy, sweet/sharp, aromatic and juicy. Two things though - they look like nothing much, and if left on the tree too long in a hot 'indian summer' they can become so sweet that they go glassy inside. -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Hi, Sorry to trouble you. Hope you can offer some advice. I've had numerous problems this year, my second. Southern California, about Zone 10. Summers to 100+F, winters to 30F. Jim Bacon Avocado: Fruits grow to about 3 inches and then top half turns black and they fall off. Horrible Fruit Results From Brown-Thumbed Novice Fri, 29 Jun 2001 10:49:06 -0700 (PDT) Brett Badger <to_two_utes@yahoo.com>

Stuart Avocado(Mexicola type): black and they fall off.

Top half of small fruit turns

Royal Apricot: One side of the fruit turns dark brown like it has been sunburned or something. The rest of the fruit is somewhat mealy and not very tasty. Santa Rosa Plum: Very Very few fruits. Fruits got to about 1 inch diameter and then

Giant Babcock Peach: stopped developing.

Necta Zee Nectarine: Absolutely no fruit formed after being covered with flowers. Goldkist Apricot: Loaded with good fruit.

Lane Late Dwarf Navel Orange: Plenty of flowers formed only one fruit that is still developing. Kohala Longan(1st yr): Flowers form but no fruit formed. just turned brown and died. Stalk

Mauritius Lychee(1st yr): Flowers form but no fruit formed. Stalk just turned brown and died. Very grateful for anything help at all. your time. Brett Badger Thanks in advance for

mailto:to_two_utes@yahoo.com

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Date: From: To: CC:

Fruit Set Problems on Longan Tree Tue, 19 Jun 2001 19:54:53 +0700 "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> <Tongfat@aol.com> "Nantarat (Dr.) Supakamnerd" <nantarats@yahoo.com>

Question I live in California and I have a couple of longan trees, but the problem is that the flowers always dropped before the fruit is set. Could you please give me several reasons why the flowers drop?

Answer 1. The cultivar - each cultivar has different response to the climate, particulry where flowering and fruit set are concerned. 2. The temperature - cold temperature during blooming and fruit setting time is never favorable. 3. The humidity - very dry climate is unfavorable. 4. Rain - a lot of rain during the critical period is not favorable. 5. Absence of insects which assist the pollination. These should the main factors, the other factors may be as follows: 6. Spraying with certain chemicals. 7. The state of the tree - it may not be very healthy. Can anyone think of any more? I am sure you can. Please write. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: CC: Potassium Chlorate and Longan Tue, 19 Jun 2001 20:26:24 +0700 "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> <Tongfat@aol.com> "Nantarat (Dr.) Supakamnerd" <nantarats@yahoo.com>,

Question I would like to know if the Potassium Chlorate will induce flowers for seedlings even though they have not reached the mature stage. Does this chemical also induce flower during the offseason like for instance right after the longan tree has finished fruiting Answer The answer to both questions is yes. Having said this, I would like to add that there are many variables involved in this particular equation, and the Thai researchers are still hard at work on this topic. We still do not know the mechanism by which potassium chlorate induces flowering. So if any of the readers has experiences with potassium chlorate, I would ask you to share it with the others. By the way, many people find that the longan trees require more

potassium chlorate in the second application. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Potassium Chlorate and Longan Tue, 19 Jun 2001 09:26:26 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th>

Hi Sainarong, Is Potassium Chlorate sold through farm fertilizer outlets? Thanks Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Potassium Chlorate and Longan Wed, 20 Jun 2001 08:48:56 +0700 "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Leo Manuel

I do not think so. In Thailand, there are some potassium chlorate which is sold through the farm fertilizer outlets, but it is not the main channel of distribution. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Longan tree Wed, 20 Jun 2001 19:58:43 +0700 "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> <Tongfat@aol.com>

Question The problem is that the longan flowers always dropped before the fruit is set. Could you please give me several reasons why the

flowers drop? The same question for lychee also. Answer I put the question to my friend who is a lychee specialist. She says that the same reasons should apply for both longan and lychee. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: David's Garden Nursery - Miami, Florida - Sells "Our" Fruit Trees Date: Sat, 30 Jun 2001 11:14:10 -0700 (PDT) From: Ungphakorn Carlyn <sakcarlyn@yahoo.com> Hi Leo, I don't know if you are aware of this nursery in Florida, but I thought of you when I saw it in a Thai publication we get from Tampa. It's called David's Garden Nursery---Tropical & Exoctic Fruit Tree: Plants. They have coconut, akee, banana, star-apple, egg fruit, jujube, guava, fig, jak fruit, longan, lychee, mamey, bay leaf, mulberry, papaya, sapodilla, soursop, tamarind feizoa, sugra-apple, wax-jambu, pomegranate, persimmon, ginkgo, catambala, mango, calamandin, kumquat, avocado, pear, mussaendas, floss silk, magnolia, bamboo, camellia, lotus, ylang, jasmin, ginger lily. and rare plants. I know several of these are available locally, but listed all as not everyone who reads your newsletter has access to them. The owners are David and Anna Chu, 3900 SW 99 Ave, Miami, Fl 33165 They did not have an e-mail or website listed but the phone number is (305) 382-0339, Fax: (305) 229-6826, Bonsai phone: (305) 229-6999. Carlyn Unghpakorn --------------------------------------------------Subject: Benefits Of Mycorrhizae In Growing Tropical Fruits Date: Sun, 24 Jun 2001 09:29:57 -0700

From:

Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> http://www.tropfruit.com/mycobenefit.html To contact Al Will about any of the products mentioned in this article, call or write him at his home/office: Arbor Grow, 1661 SW 27th Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33312, USA. Ph. (954) 583-8634 Fax: (954) 583-2389 mailto:arbor123@aol.com --------------------------------------------------BENEFITS OF MYCORRHIZAE IN GROWING TROPICAL FRUITS Al Will Speaks to the Rare Fruit Council International, Miami, Florida by Donna McVicar Cannon and Robert Sarnack Al Will, Jr. was a Professor of Botany at Broward Community College, west of Ft. Lauderdale, for 35 years, until his retirement last year. The topic of his presentation to the Rare Fruit Council a couple of months ago was something you read about last year in TFNews, a word to challenge any spelling bee champion, a mysterious substance called mycorrhizae. <snip> It is due to this mycorrhizal association that the plants of the forest grow and prosper. Removed from the jungle, even a plant exquisitely nurtured will still frequently decline and die. Transplanted, it leaves behind the mycorrhizae with which it maintained a virtually symbiotic relationship. Due to this beneficial association, the roots are able to absorb a much greater proportion of minerals and water than they are able to on their own. What the fungus gets out of this partnership is thirty-five to forty percent of the photosynthates that are its food, created by the plantÕs usual process of photosynthesis. <snip> Professor Will posed some significant questions: "How many of you have tried to grow durians? How many of you have successfully grown durians? There isnÕt anyone in the room that has successfully grown durians here in Florida. ThatÕs not the only (fruit). WeÕve grown these things in greenhouses here and lost them. They canÕt grow. Why? We donÕt really know." He truly believes it could be due to the loss of "extremely important" mycorrhizal association. "You take this soil we have here. ItÕs sand or coral rock and we say Ôgrow!Õ in this miserable soil. We do whatever we can to get these plants to survive Ð without much success. I believe that mycorrhizae is the answer to many of our problems. IÕm not saying

all of our problems, but IÕm saying many of them." <snip> He ... conferred with the Dr. Don Marx, who recommended inoculating the root system with a mycorrhizal product when pruning ... roots in preparation for transplanting. "This was in October/November. I wrote the specifications, including the mycorrhizae. We actually did the root pruning starting in the first week in January. We added the mycorrhizae as we were instructed to. We started moving the trees at the end of May, the first part of June. In the meantime, we found out, as I surmised, in this area there was finger coral. This is a white, sterile sand with pieces of coral-like fingers that stick up in various locations. We couldnÕt box it, or ball-and-burlap it. There was no method we could use. We would have to move these trees bare-root out of sugar sand. When you lift the tree the sand just falls off the roots. There is nothing there to hold it. With the mycorrhizae added to that, as it was time to move the trees, we dug down into trenches and opened up. There were some very large roots we had to cut, and out of that root eighteen to twenty-four inches of new root growth had occurred from January to the end of May. Five months. Fantastic growth back inside the ball. Absolutely unbelievable growth of roots where there shouldnÕt be any small fine roots. Now there are loads of small fine roots. We brought in cranes to move these trees. 160-ton and 120-ton cranes, in tandem, to lift one oak tree. They did the best they could, getting in there to cut out the finger coral. We had an 8-yard front-end loader getting down below the ball trying to break out some of this coral. We had almost 200 tons of dead-lifting pressure to pull up and break the ball loose, and they finally did it. This was my introduction to mycorrhizae." <snip> "I was told that the best way to inoculate the soil is to take a pile of it (mycorrhizae), three ounces of it, and put it in a pile on top of the soil. Take an auger with an electric drill and drill down ten to twelve inches, and as the soil comes up, mix it with the mycorrhizae and put it back into the hole. One of my students came up with an idea to just mix some mycorrhizae with some soil, then we take a shovel, push the shovel in the ground there, push the shovel forward, take a handful, and put it in the hole. That would be a lot easier than the auger. So thatÕs what we did at Bill WhitmanÕs. We mixed it in a ration of 10:1. Ten parts soil to one part mycorrhizae. We put these holes about thirty inches apart and we would go from thirty to sixty inches in from the drip line, to thirty to sixty inches out from the drip line, in a complete circle around the trunk. The growth has been phenomenal. Bill keeps saying, ÔI donÕt know if it has to do with the fertilizer I put on there or what.Õ "Randy Lacey is working with BillÕs wifeÕs son, Ray, and theyÕre going to grow a grove of jak fruit. HeÕs gotten about

five-thousand jak fruit seeds and seedlings now. He potted these up and said he would really like to get some mycorrhizae. So I said I would get him a pail and he put some of the mycorrhizae in with the fruit in pots. He asked how he should put it in. There are many ways to do it. Take a pencil, poke holes in the soil, and put a teaspoon in each hole. That is what he did. Now he is taking it and actually incorporating it in with the soil mix and putting the plants in it. He has had some phenomenal growth on the jak fruit. He got some more of the mycorrhizae." He is delighted with the "unbelievable response" he has personally gotten on jak fruit, including one of Bill WhitmanÕs seedlings, "about two feet tall . . . in a two-gallon pot", that by December had attained six feet in height. "HasnÕt stopped growing. The leaves are twelve inches long." Although he feels that the mycorrhizae may not be "the panacea", the substance that will solve all the problems and answer all the questions, "ItÕs going to be damned good . . . We have to do more experimentation (on this), one of the newest materials in horticulture now commercially available." RFCI member, Mark Ellenby, has used mycorrhizae on his Redlands grove. "He has since ordered two more pails. That should tell you something. He said the response in five weeks time has been phenomenal." Maurice Kong is in the midst of his investigation of the substance. "What weÕre doing is what Mother Nature has done for millions of years. WeÕre just incorporating it back into the soil . . . Many research people are doing work with mycorrhizae now . . . working with individual species of mycorrhizae and testing on individual plants." Don Marx worked for the USDA for thirty-five years "with the U.S. Forest Service in research on forest trees. He worked primarily with ectomycorrhizae." After retiring, he "has made what he calls a Ôcocktail mix.Õ" Surprisingly, to the more than 2,500 species of ectomycorrhizae, there are only 150, approximately, species of endomycorrhizae. Dr. Marx has determined, though his years of research, "which species of mycorrhizae are most common to most plants." Mycorrhizae are apparently exceptionally adaptable, as a few thousand species have adapted to the needs of the "half a million different species of plans in the world . . . Then we find that on one single root system of a plant you may have two, three, four, or five different species of mycorrhizae." Although the research Don Marx has performed is still comparatively limited in its scope, the species of mycorrhizae studied "are the best to use at this time. Until we find some others and add them to the list, we are going to use these. So heÕs made a Ôcocktail mix.Õ To this heÕs added humic acid, seaweed extract, feather meal, dried blood, and some bacteria."

At the University of Oregon, Dr. Linderman has been doing "a lot of work with the endomycorrhizae. Most of the work that Don Marx has done is with the ectomycorrhizae. There is a fellow in Texas, a research person, who is actually growing mycorrhizae. The problem with the endomycorrhizae was that you couldnÕt get the spores to reproduce. What theyÕre doing now is ÔtrickingÕ the mycorrhizae into producing spores. They have their proprietary methods of ÔtrickingÕ them into producing spores. Then theyÕre harvesting the spores along with some of the mycelium. It is hard to separate them all. The endomycorrhizae spores are quite large, compared to the ectomycorrhizae. "By the way, on the ectomycorrhizae, how many of you know what puff balls are? ThatÕs the fruiting body of the ectomycorrhizae. So, the ectomycorrhizae are very easy to get the spores of. But what do we use down here on all our fruit trees? Endomycorrhizae. This is more of a problem. So, it costs quite a bit to get enough of the endomycorrhizae spores to put in a commercial mix so that you would be able to use it on your plants. The cost of the products is not cheap." Which is why he has students experimenting "to find out how little you use to get by." The amount with which you can "get by" is so small an amount, "theyÕre amazing themselves . . . So, the recommendations that come in the box are not necessarily something you have to follow. You can actually use a smaller amount and come up with good results." This discussion was followed by a slide presentation of the transplanting of the big oak trees. Looking at the slides, Professor Will said, "After treatment with mycorrhizae, five months later those roots are twenty-four inches long. ThatÕs an amazing amount of growth, and we had similar growth back inside the balls." The trees were moved by drilling holes in the trunks, and steel beams were inserted in the holes so the cranes could lift up the trees. Although only "three ounces of mycorrhizae per hole" were used, "the root mass was unbelievable. The holes are thirty inches on center in concentric circles, starting about sixty inches out from the main trunk, and going out to the end of the root ball. The ball diameter was ten inches per inch diameter of trunk. So, we had one ball there that was thirty feet in diameter. We added the mycorrhizae after we root pruned it and before we had moved the tree. After we planted it we added more mycorrhizae." The tree was not cut back, surprisingly. "The only thing that was cut was dead wood and crossing branches. We did a good pruning job using good pruning practices. "Once you inoculate, the mycorrhizae are going to grow and reproduce themselves, and hopefully keep up with the growth of the plant. Is it necessary to re-inoculate? We donÕt know. Theoretically, no." (question from the audience): "Is there any adverse effect of

fertilizer on them?" "Yes. IÕm coming to that. One of the things is because this is a Ôcocktail mix,Õ it contains nutrients. When you apply the mycorrhizae, you do not fertilize for at least a month. That gives the mycorrhizae spores an opportunity to germinate and start growing, and remember thereÕs nutrient in there. ThereÕs feather meal, thereÕs dried blood, thereÕs algae . . . you donÕt have to fertilize." A slide showed the difference between genip (Melicocca bijuga ) seedlings that werenÕt inoculated with mycorrhizae, and some that were. Those that were inoculated "have leaves on them. TheyÕre much larger. So, right from seed, you put your seeds in the seedbed and you inoculate your seedbeds. YouÕre going to get better growth . . . "How many of you have had success air-layering Spanish-limes (melicocca bijuga)? Not a lot, right? These had 100% on all branches they were tried on. They were inoculated and air-layered on July 12 th, 1997 with one teaspoon of mycorrhizae (mixed into the layering media) per air-layer. This next slide is December 13th, 1997. Look at the masses of roots. The students mixed it right with the sphagnum moss. No hormones, just mycorrhizae. Will it work on all plants? I donÕt know. I have absolutely no idea. This stuff is so new we just have to try it in as many different ways as we can think of. "One of the things my students came up with is the Ôshake-and-bakeÕ method. TheyÕre taking seedlings that have been germinated without the mycorrhizae, put some mycorrhizae in a zip-lock bag, take the plant and shake it up in the mycorrhizae, take it out, and plant it. Do anything you want with it. It canÕt hurt or burn the plant." A slide of Randy LaceyÕs jak fruits showed a "very obvious" difference as to "what he has treated and what he hasnÕt treated." In six weeks there was "a spectacular difference" in the growth of the mycorrhizae-treated plants. ( question from the audience ): "Does it effect the ultimate size of the tree?" "I have no idea, but IÕll say this Ð Bruce Livingston has treated his yard with mycorrhizae, and he is so up on it itÕs unbelievable. Right now his peach trees are in full bloom. HeÕs got other people around that he knows have trees that donÕt have blooms. Is it due to the mycorrhizae? Possibly, yes, but he has had spectacular growth in his yard on bananas. He has a wampi (Clausena lansium ) in there that hasnÕt done well for awhile, and all of a sudden itÕs in full bloom . . . right now. He has mangos that came into bloom in August, and he ate ripe mangos in late November! Is it due to the mycorrhizae? I canÕt be absolutely positive. In my own mind I have absolutely no qualms about saying,

ÔIt works!Õ Does it work on everything? I donÕt know, but most of the things we tried it on . . . itÕs been fantastic with so far. <snip> Q: "Do we have to treat the soil in any way to prepare for the mycorrhizae?" A: "Continue the same practices you have been using, mulching, fertilizing, but you can cut down on fertilizing. The interesting thing about mycorrhizae is that it is a fungus. When itÕs in with the root system of the plant, itÕs going to protect itself and its host plant from pathogens such as Pithium or Rhizoctonia. YouÕll find that you have less root problems when you use the mycorrhizae. Another advantage of using mycorrhizae is it forms a sheath around the plant which will not allow the mycelia of pathogens to get in. there is a report that it does have some effect on nematodes." <snip> Q: "What is the best time of year to apply the mycorrhizae?" A: "What we have done so far is to mix it with the medium, the soil mix itself. Dry mix it in. WeÕve also done it by mixing it with ten parts soil to one part mycorrhizae. Take a shovel, open up a hole, and put a good handful in there. You can also do it by injection. ThereÕs an injectable form where you can put this into a 100-gallon spray tank, with agitators, and inoculate it under pressure in the ground with an injection nozzle. I recommended that they do it that way in the Weston development. We treated a thousand oak trees that had been in the ground for up to three years, inch-and-a-half to four inch caliper oak trees. The soil in Weston is terrible. It was just dredged material, lime rock. The trees had been sitting there, growing an inch or two, or maybe three inches. Five weeks after we inoculated the trees, they had twenty-four inch growth flushes. That was with PT, Pisolithus tinctorius. The response has been absolutely fantastic. Q: "Do you use the mycorrhizae medium mix only around the roots?" A: "Yes. You have to put the mycorrhizae in the root system. You canÕt put it on top of the soil and water it in. It doesnÕt work. With PT it will. ThatÕs the ectomycorrhizae. You can actually put it on the loose soil and water it in, and a good portion will filter its way down. You cannot do that with the endomycorrhizae because the spores are too big." <snip>

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Tropical Thai Fruits Date: Sun, 24 Jun 2001 09:37:17 -0700 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> http://www.amari.com/event/tta/cooking/links_tropical.htm Tropical Thai Fruits

Mango (Ma-Muang) Thailand grows more than a dozen varieties of mango, the variety determining the way in which it is eaten. Some, particularly the light yellow and slightly darker types, are traditionally served at the peak of ripeness, accompanied by sticky rice and coconut milk. Others are more often eaten as a condiment or in salads when the skin is still dark green and the flesh white. Some mangos can be pickled. <snip> [Lots of fruit and their pictures to see on the site.] -----------------------------------------------Subject: Propagation Of Banana (from Banana General Information)

http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/crops/i_banana.htm#top Banana General Information <snip> PROPAGATION Bananas are propagated from offshoots (suckers or keikis) or corms (bullheads). If enough buds are present, large bullheads can be halved or quartered. Planting material should be treated for nematodes: (1) Cut off bottom half of corm and, if discolored, trim off up to 2/3 of the bottom of the corm until only clean white tissue remains. (2) Trim off about 1/2 inch of tissue around the sides of the corm.

(3) If bullheads are used, cut off the pseudostem 3-4 inches above the top of the corm. (4) Either, (a)Immerse the trimmed corms in a hot water bath at 50 - 52 degrees C (122 - 126 degrees F) for 15 - 20 minutes. Before planting, place the corms in a transparent plastic bag at room temperature until new roots begin to appear. Or, (b) Coat the corms with parafilm wax prior to shipment or storage. <snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: Permaculture Design Course Online Date: Fri, 15 Jun 2001 16:27:31 EDT From: Dan <Permacltur@aol.com> Online Course Elfin Permaculture's sixth annual Permaculture Design Course Online will begin Oct. 14, 2001. The course runs about six months and includes reading from texts, weekly posts of "lectures" sent via email, email discussion of course topics, and a set of student reports, including a full permaculture design report from all certificate candidates. Instructors are Dan and Cynthia Hemenway of the USA, assisted by Willem Smuts of South America and Tim Packer of New Zealand. We list full details of the program, including financial arrangements, in the course protocol, listed at http://barkingfrogspc.tripod.com/frames.html and http://www.permaculture.net/~EPTA/Hemenway.htm Email us at BarkingFrogsPC@aol.com if both web pages pose difficulties for you. Enrollment is limited to 20 full students, of whom no more than ten may submit full designs in this session. There are a variety of other arrangements, including unlimited room for monitors, detailed in the course protocol. One scholarship is currently available for this course. This can be split as two half scholarships, etc. The deadline for completed scholarship applications to be received at Barking Frogs Permaculture Center, Sparr FLORIDA, USA, is August 1, 2001. No extensions for any reason. Email Dan Hemenway at Permacltur@aol.com for details on how to apply. Contributions for additional scholarships, and to assist scholarship students with

purchase of reading matter, are greatly needed.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@onelist.com> <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

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>>>>>> Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU> <<<<<<

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>>>>>> From "rarefruit list" - mailto:rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<<<

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>>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> <<< http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Subject: New Lure Works Better Than Pheromones for Codling Moths Date: Wed, 20 Jun 2001 06:14:29 -0400 From: "ARS News Service" <isjd@ars-grin.gov>

ARS News Service Agricultural Research Service, USDA Kathryn Barry Stelljes, (510) 559-6069, kbstelljes@ars.usda.gov Apple, pear and walnut growers will soon have a new tool to control codling moths, thanks to Agricultural Research Service scientists and a commercial company. ARS entomologist Douglas M. Light discovered that one of the chemicals responsible for a pear's sweet odor, known as the pear ester, attracts both female and male codling moths. Light works at the Plant Protection Research Unit of ARS' Western Regional Research Center (http://www.pw.usda.gov) in Albany, Calif. Codling moths are the most severe and widely distributed pest of apples, pears and walnuts in the world. Uncontrolled, the larvae--the "worm in the apple"--can destroy up to 95 percent of an apple crop and up to 60 percent of a pear crop. In walnuts, the larvae damage the nuts and create holes in the hull and shell that can allow fungi to enter. Pheromones, sex hormones produced by the females, are widely used in monitoring and mating disruption programs, but only attract male moths. Researchers estimate that 90 to 95 percent of male codling moths in an orchard must be trapped or prevented from finding a mate to reduce the number of fertile eggs laid by females to an economically manageable level. Capturing female moths has an even greater potential to reduce offspring without widespread spraying of chemicals. Through a cooperative research and development agreement, TrŽcŽ, Inc., of Salinas, Calif., is developing commercial monitoring tools using the pear ester. TrŽcŽ also plans to include the attractant in a sprayable lure formulation known as an "attracticide," which contains small amounts of insecticides. ARS and TrŽcŽ share a patent on this technology and additional patents are pending. A story on this research appears in the June issue of Agricultural Research, the agency's monthly magazine. View it online at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jun01/moth0601.htm ARS is the chief scientific research agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. <snip>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000107A.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Rare Fruit News Online - July 15, 2001 - AKA RFN200107B.txt >>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Reader Asks, "What To Do With Passion Fruit" Cheffuruta1@aol.com Re: What To Do With Passion Fruit "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> To: Ken <Cheffuruta1@aol.com> New Reader Asks About Growing "Aztec Fruit" "Dr. John M. Collins" <johnmaxwellcoll@smartchat.net.au> Re: Aztec Fruit Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: "Dr. John M. Collins" <johnmaxwellcoll@smartchat.net.au> Re: Aztec Fruit "Dr. John M. Collins" <johnmaxwellcoll@smartchat.net.au> Re: Aztec Fruit Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: "Dr. John M. Collins" <johnmaxwellcoll@smartchat.net.au> Re: Aztec Fruit "Dr. John M. Collins" <johnmaxwellcoll@smartchat.net.au> New Subscriber: How To Safely Handle CashewNut Fruit? Maria Batalini <miapsd@worldnet.att.net> New Subscriber: Lives in Michigan BUT Gardens In Bahamas "P. C. Andrews" <pcamusa@hotmail.com> New Subscriber, Florida: Faced Drought, Fire; However... WAYNE COUGLE <wayle45@yahoo.com> New Subscriber, FL: Wants To Grow Cherimoa, Canistel, .... Sonya Stahl <drosera@ufl.edu> New Subscriber, Indiana: Garden Writer - Tropical, .... "Sheri Ann Richerson" <voulezvous@fwi.com> New Subscriber, CA: Looking For Ume (or Prunus Mume) John Heenan <heenanconstruction@home.com>

>> Readers Write <<

"Yang Mai" is Myrica rubra (!) Zhenxing Fu <zfu@ucsd.edu> "Yang Mai" is Myrica nagi (?) Leo Manuel Yang-Mei Tree Source Zhenxing Fu <zfu@ucsd.edu> Yang mai Anne Boboricken <aan@ix.netcom.com> Where To Buy Pineapple Plants By Mail? Darlene4kids@aol.com Sweet Grandilla - Any Luck In California? Doron Kletter <kletter@impact.xerox.com> To: Bob Holzinger <bholzing@amgen.com> Suggestion For New Californian Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: tabel@statek.com Re: Planting on a slope Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: mr-borego@home.com Edible fuschia? Nan Sterman <nsterman@plantsoup.com> To: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Re: Edible fuschia? Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: Nan Sterman <nsterman@plantsoup.com> Mango and Banana Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: Dina <kadina@juno.com> Mangoes Schmidt Jason D PSNS <schmidtj@psns.navy.mil> Tropical Fruit Picture Tayninh <tayninh@go.com> Looking For Miniature Grapes Ltroutt@aol.com Re: Looking For Miniature Grapes "Lon J. Rombough" <lonrom@hevanet.com> To: Ltroutt@aol.com

Link suggestion Ralph Schmidt <rschmidt@telocity.com> Cattley Guava-Won't Set Fruit!! "Robin Musolino" <rlmuso@tampabay.rr.com> Re: Myrica nagi; Myrica rubra Any Difference? Bob Batson <rcb@kc.rr.com> Re: Myrica nagi; Myrica rubra Any Difference? "Dr. Chiranjit Parmar" <parmarch@vsnl.com>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Re: Is Hylocerus Used As Herb? "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Potassium Chlorate and Longan - Part 1 "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Ralph Schmidt" <rschmidt@telocity.com> CC: "Nantarat (Dr.) Supakamnerd" <nantarats@yahoo.com>

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

Myrica rubra = Chinese Bayberry, Yang-mei Per Cornucopia II Myrica rubra Cultivation Notes Tsukuba Botanical Garden http://www.tbg.kahaku.go.jp/Tsukuba_Botanical_Garden/x/ep289.htm Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc. http://www.nfc.co.kr/nat/flora/flora&02/myr/myri/myri&01/ Myrica rubra - Natural History of Hiroshima City http://www.huis.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/~nomura/Y/yamamom.html

Department of Fruit Trees (in Israel) http://www.agri.gov.il/Horticulture/FruitTrees/FruitTrees.html Agricultural Research Organization (Israel) http://www.agri.gov.il/Volcani.html

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time

<<<<

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<< None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<< None, this time

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<< None, this time

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

USDA Launches New Web Site on Food Safety "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Reader Asks, "What To Do With Passion Fruit" Date: Sat, 30 Jun 2001 21:21:24 EDT From: Cheffuruta1@aol.com Hi I live in Florida, we have bananas, citrus and mangos. I rent so I can't plant trees. I was wondering what to do with the passion fruits I found in a local market. I love the juice, but don't know how to make it or what else to do with them.I know they are sour, but I love the flavor. Ken mailto:Cheffuruta1@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: What To Do With Passion Fruit Tue, 3 Jul 2001 08:07:55 -0700 "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> Ken <Cheffuruta1@aol.com>

Hello Ken, Your question on what to do with a ripe passionfruit is probably asked many, many times when they are in season. The easiest way to enjoy them is to cut the fruit in half and scoop out the seeds and pulp with a spoon. I eat this seeds and all, but it can be put through a strainer to separate the juice from the seeds and pulp. Then you can do whatever strikes your fancy. For good ideas you might consider ordering a book called A Passionfruit Cookbook by Patrick Pons-Worley. It can be found at his website: www.ponsworley.com. Enjoy! Bob Holzinger mailto:bholzing@amgen.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Reader Asks About Growing "Aztec Fruit" Date: Wed, 11 Jul 2001 10:06:29 +0800 From: "Dr. John M. Collins" <johnmaxwellcoll@smartchat.net.au> I am Dr. John Collins

I live in Western Australia My email address is as on this communication I am only growing lemons, monstera and passion fruit in my new garden I am wanting to find out information on Aztec Fruit to see if this Central American fruit is suitable for our mediterranean climate here in Perth. John mailto:johnmaxwellcoll@smartchat.net.au

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Aztec Fruit Tue, 10 Jul 2001 21:25:15 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> "Dr. John M. Collins" <johnmaxwellcoll@smartchat.net.au>

Hi John, Could you describe the fruit as to whether it's from a tree, how it's eaten, etc.? I know of no such fruit with only that name. The Aztecs lived in Mexico, rather than Central America, I believe. There are cactus fruits in Mexico, but also, many others. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Aztec Fruit Date: Thu, 12 Jul 2001 10:20:10 +0800 From: "Dr. John M. Collins" <johnmaxwellcoll@smartchat.net.au> Dear Leo, The Aztec Fruit is about the size of an apple and the skin almost the colour of a granny smith. The fruit colour inside is creamy white and contains four quite large seeds - one in each quarter of the fruit. It grows on a tree I believe but I have no idea of its size. One of my friends suggests that another name for it may be

white sapote. Does this give you any ideas? Thanks for your interest. John mailto:johnmaxwellcoll@smartchat.net.au

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Aztec Fruit Wed, 11 Jul 2001 21:17:02 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> "Dr. John M. Collins" <johnmaxwellcoll@smartchat.net.au>

Hi John, Where did you get the name of Aztec fruit for it? It sounds like you may be describing white sapote, but I don't think it's ever called Aztec fruit. If it's white sapote you want to know about, it's very easy to grow, is hardy, drought resistant, and should do well. Probably you have them in nurseries there. There are several Australian readers of the newsletter and possibly one of them will know. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Aztec Fruit Date: Thu, 12 Jul 2001 21:20:35 +0800 From: "Dr. John M. Collins" <johnmaxwellcoll@smartchat.net.au> Thanks again Leo. A friend gave me two of the fruit to sample. In fact I had the last one this evening for desert. He told me it was called Aztec fruit and some described it as 'the fruit of the gods'. After eating the two I can understand the description. They were delicious. I have put the seeds in propagation mix so we will see what happens!

How do I get onto your newletter data base? contact I would like to retain it. John

Now we have made

mailto:johnmaxwellcoll@smartchat.net.au

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber: How To Safely Handle CashewNut Fruit? Date: Sun, 08 Jul 2001 09:59:18 -0400 From: Maria Batalini <miapsd@worldnet.att.net> Good Morning, My name is: Mrs. Maria L. Batalini

My family and I live in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. We moved into our present home a couple of months ago and need help taking care of our tropical fruit and nut trees. We have mango, cashewnut and lychee nut trees growning in our back yard. The cashewnut tree is loaded with fruit and nuts, but we have no idea how to harvest it and have not wanted to touch it as we were told that it is toxic and has to be handled with care. Also, our lychee tree's leaves are being eaten by something. All the leaves are full of holes. We would appreciate any information on any of the above. email address is miapsd@yahoo.com Thank you very much. God Bless you. Maria Have a great day! mailto:miapsd@worldnet.att.net My other

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber: Lives in Michigan BUT Garden's In Bahamas Date: Sun, 08 Jul 2001 21:46:53 -0400 From: "P. C. Andrews" <pcamusa@hotmail.com> Hi I am Phil Andrews, living in Michigan but my garden in the Abacos, Bahamas. Fruit trees I am now growing are mostly young, since the last hurricane:

Achras sapota; Aegle marmelos; Ananas comosus; Annona muricata; Annona reticulata; Averrhoa carambola; Berschemia discolor; Carica papaya, various, including unknown volunteers; Carissa edulis; Chrysobalanus icaco; Citrus aurantiifolia; Citrus sinensis (L.) cv. 'Valencia'; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limon; Citrus paradisi; Coccoloba uvifera; Cocos nucifera; Coffea arabica; Cordia sebestena; Diospyros digyna (D. ebenaster); Ehretia rigida; Eugenia aggreata; Eugenia dombeyi (E. brasiliensis); Eugenia victoriana; Ficus carica; Mangifera indica; Malpighia glabra; Melicoccus bijugatus; Moringa oleifera; Musa cultivar- "Dwarf Brazilian"; Musa cultivar- "Dwarf Red"; Musa cultivar-"Pysang Raja"; Musa cultivar- "Raja Puri"; Musa cultivar- "Sugar Apple?"; Persea americana; Pithecellobium dulce; Pleiogynium timorense (P. cerasiferum); Pouteria campechiana; Pouteria sapota; Psidium guajava; Psidium littorale; Punica granata; Spondias mombin; Syzygium cuminii; Tamarindus indica; Vaccinium sp. Some I want to grow are: Anacardium occidental; Myrtus ugni; Byrsonima lucida; Phyllanthus acidus; Theobroma cacao My garden is on a Zone 11 barrier island with all the associated problems: coral sand, severe winds in March, frequent droughts, iron & magnesium deficient, and the garden is behind 20' dunes but gets significant salt spray in storms. Not too much shade available since the last hurricane. I mulch heavily and that makes up somewhat for the low rainfall (~10"/yr. Water is from cisterns that fill during rainy years and I use drip irrigation to get things started but water is precious. The bananas I grow are in a grey water mulch pit otherwise its hopeless. Questions to be answered by newsletter readers: 1.) I'm on my second cherry of the rio grande and it is not doing especially well. Its in direct sunlight, I've mulched it, and its on a one gallon a day drip. I've fed it acid fertilizer, given it micronutrients, and applied wettable sulphur. I'm considering moving it to a more shaded location. I usually get it right the second time on my trees but this one is tough. My problems may be related to my less than ideal experience with tropical blueberries and star fruit that also prefer lower soil pH values. Does anyone have suggestions for helping my cherry of the rio grande? How about making acid soil plants happy in limestone? Phil mailto:pcamusa@hotmail.com

--------------------------------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Florida: Faced Drought, Fire; However... Date: Wed, 4 Jul 2001 18:40:25 -0700 (PDT) From: WAYNE COUGLE <wayle45@yahoo.com>

Hi! My name is Wayne Cougle and I have been attempting to grow exotic fruits here in Pierson, Florida for the past four years. The past three years have been tough as drought and fire have prevailed. This year seems to be yielding typical rainfall patterns. I have planted: citrus, jujubes, raisin trees, rose apples, feijoas, capulin cherries {prunus}, guavas- {including lemon, strawberry, tropical}, figs, pecans, cherry of the Rio Grande, and a half acre of highbush blueberries. I lost two macadamias in last year's freezes. I would be interested in corresponding about these and any subtropicals. I an a member of c.R.F.G. Thanks for "listening". Sincerely, Wayne Cougle mailto:wayle45@yahoo.Com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, FL: Wants To Grow Cherimoa, Canistel, .... Date: Fri, 06 Jul 2001 11:42:26 -0400 From: Sonya Stahl <drosera@ufl.edu> Hi! I'm Sonya Leonore Stahl, a student at the University of Florida in Gainesville. I'm a violinist who loves to compose music and some of it is about plants I have 25 persimmon seedlings that I planted out by our Horticultural Sciences complex. I have been fascinated by tropical fruit for as long as I can remember. I grew up (and my mom still lives in) Broward County, FL. All I've grown so far is the persimmons but someday I hope to fool around with cherimoya, canistel, damson plums, loquats... Check out my website if you want to see a bunch of original whale watching photos and stuff. http://www.sugarbanana.net If you live in north Broward or Gainesville and can hook me up with canistel fruit I'll love you forever!!!!!! :-D Sonya mailto:drosera@ufl.edu

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Indiana: Garden Writer - Tropical, .... Date: Mon, 2 Jul 2001 07:03:07 -0500 From: "Sheri Ann Richerson" <voulezvous@fwi.com> Hi I am Sheri Ann Butcher in Marion, Indiana I am now growing an orangetree and want to grow lemon, variegated ones, peach, cherry, pineapple guava, persimmion, anything unusual I am a garden writer who specializes in tropical, rare and exotic plants. Sheri mailto:voulezvous@fwi.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, CA: Looking For Ume (or Prunus Mume) Date: Fri, 13 Jul 2001 18:21:27 -0700 From: John Heenan <heenanconstruction@home.com> Hi, I just found your website through a link from Pacific Tree Farms. I would love to subscribe to your Rare Fruits News Online. My name is John Heenan and I live in San Rafael, CA (Marin County, north of San Francisco). I have a standard size residential home and lot and am currently growing mostly non rare fruits, genoa fig, panache fig, with the exception of two Japanese citrus trees common name, Yuzu, Citrus junos Siebold ex Tanaka, which I started from bare root last year and which are doing fabulously! I purchased a Hunza apricot (Armeniaca Vulgaris), last year however it died before spring. I am currently looking for a source for the Japanese plum (apricot), Prunus mume or, P. salicina, or P. (Siebold) Siebold et Zucc. var. mume, or P. mume Siebold et Zucc. var, microcarpa Makino, or P. mume Siebold et Zucc. var. bungo Makino, with the common name of Ume (used for the salt plum called umeboshi), so far unsucessfully. Perhaps you know of a source?

Additionally, I would like to find a source for another Japanese citrus with the common name sudachi. I believe the latin name is Citrus Sudachi hort. ex Shirai. Any help or suggestions would be greatly appreciated. Thanks for your consideration and I look forward to receiving my first issue of Rare Fruits News Online. John Heenan mailto:heenanconstruction@home.com

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: "Yang Mai" is Myrica rubra (!) Date: Wed, 11 Jul 2001 10:51:08 -0700 From: Zhenxing Fu <zfu@ucsd.edu> Hi Leo, I finally have the botanical name of Yang Mei: Myrica rubra (or Chinese Arbutus). The web page attached has a picture which looks exactly to me like the Yang Mei tree. We preserve the fruit in rice wine (sake) too in China, which can be used as the herb medicine. I liked the taste of the wine as well as the preserved yang mei. I used to see my grandfather drink it every day in a tiny cup with one or two yang mei in it. Have a nice day, Zhenxing mailto:zfu@ucsd.edu

http://www.huis.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/~nomura/Y/yamamom.html [Leo's Note: I placed several references to Yang-Mei = Myrica Rubra, including places to view photographs, cultivation notes, and sources of seeds and plants, in the section: Announcements and/or Web Sites To Consider.] -----------------------------------------------Subject: "Yang Mai" is Myrica niga (?) Date: Friday, 13 Jul 2001 From: Leo Manuel

Stephen Facciola says, for Myrica niga, "See Myrica rubra. see "Websites To Consider" for another reference. Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Yang-Mei Tree Source Date: Tue, 10 Jul 2001 10:02:51 -0700 From: Zhenxing Fu <zfu@ucsd.edu> Hi Leo,

Also,

I have a good news. I contacted someone in a fruit export company in China to seek the possibility of exporting yang mei tree. After several rounds of e-mail, I got response back that it is possible to ship the yang mei tree to USA. It is said that the best season to do it is Dec and Jan. I am looking forward to it. I am asking for the cost right now then we can decide how many to order. I will keep you informed. Zhenxing mailto:zfu@ucsd.edu

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Yang mai Date: Fri, 06 Jul 2001 13:29:31 -0700 From: Anne Boboricken <aan@ix.netcom.com> Hi, I am in charge of the Internaitonal Rare Fruit Orchard in Prusch Park in San Jose. The Yang Mai sounds very interesting and I would like to add it to our collection. I am a volunteer worker, but I am willing to amount for seeds or plants. Do you have any obtain them? Please keep this e-mail in case responses to your article that might contain would be useful to me. I thank you in advance for your assistance. Yours in Rare Fuit, pay a reasonable idea where I can you have any information that

Steve Boboricken CRFG

mailto:aan@ix.netcom.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Where To Buy Pineapple Plants By Mail? Date: Thu, 5 Jul 2001 12:29:18 EDT From: Darlene4kids@aol.com Hi, my name is Darlene Griffin and I am trying to find a place where I could purchase pineapple plants through the mail. Do you have any suggestions? Darlene Thanks -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Sweet Grandilla - Any Luck In California? Sat, 30 Jun 2001 21:12:06 -0700 Doron Kletter <kletter@impact.xerox.com> Bob Holzinger <bholzing@amgen.com> mailto:Darlene4kids@aol.com

Hello Bob, Have you tried or had any success in growing the sweet garandilla (P. ligularis) in California? I think it does not like it too cold or too warm. I was wandering if the cooler Bay Area climate would be any good. Regards, -- Doron -mailto:kletter@impact.xerox.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Suggestion For New Californian Sat, 30 Jun 2001 15:50:48 -0700 (PDT) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> tabel@statek.com

Todd Abel...Hello!

Do you know about the Orange County chapter of the California Rare Fruit Growers? We meet once a month, usually at Silo Bldg at the O.C. Fairgrounds. For July we are invited to Denmans Garden and Tool Store and the new Hortus Nursery next door. Call me for particulars. I don't have all the data today. You will love this group! Eunice Messner Anaheim Hills, CA mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Planting on a slope Sat, 30 Jun 2001 15:39:53 -0700 (PDT) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> mr-borego@home.com

John... I have a mature orchard of subtropical fruit trees, and everything else that is good to eat. You are welcome to visit and maybe take home an idea or two for how to plant on a slope. I have 155 steps down a 45 degree slope, so come and spend some time looking around. Eunice Messner Anaheim Hills CA mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Edible fuschia? Date: Tue, 3 Jul 2001 16:43:22 -0700 From: Nan Sterman <nsterman@plantsoup.com> Ever heard of an edible fuschia? I was at a home in Lemon Grove today where the gardener grows edible fuschia. The flowers are characteristically pink though very elongated and the fruits are cyllindrical and deep maroon with rounded edges, about 1" long each. Soft and sweet like a berry. what is this plant? Thanks Nan Sterman mailto:nsterman@plantsoup.com San Diego County CA Sunset zone 24, USDA zone 10b or 11 ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

Re: Edible fuschia? Tue, 03 Jul 2001 20:10:25 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Nan Sterman <nsterman@plantsoup.com>

Hi Nan, I have a fuschia with edible small fruit, probably smaller than the one inch you describe. It was here when I came and I tried the fruit, never many at a time in a crowded planting in my front courtyard area. I don't know its name and don't know whether fruit from other fuschia are edible as well. We'll see if any readers of RFNO know. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Mango and banana Mon, 02 Jul 2001 17:32:38 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> kadina@juno.com

Hi Dina, You can plant the seed of a good mango and the tree that grows will probably have good fruit - eventually. If you are impatient, I'd suggest that you go to a nursery to buy a grafted tree. There are several nurseries with mango trees, but I'd suggest that you call around to be sure that they have it before you go. Newsletter readers of Rare Fruit News Online seem to be especially pleased with the tree "Valencia Pride." Several nurseries also sell one "Manila" but I haven't had good luck getting one of those to bear. If you want to visit my home in Rancho Pe–asquitos, I have several mango trees in the ground and they seem to be going to have a larger crop than usual. You will want to plant them so that they get sun for most of the day, but they will tolerate some shade. You will get mildew growing on mango trees if they don't get enough sun. I wouldn't fertilize young banana or mango trees until they are

established. Banana needs more fertilizer than mango, but I'd use fertilizer with N-P-K numbers lower, so it won't burn the plant. It's easy to grow a mango from seed. Remove the husk carefully, and plant it in a pot with the concave side down (like an archway, facing so you'd go under it, if it were large.) Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Mangoes Date: Mon, 2 Jul 2001 15:21:28 -0700 From: Schmidt Jason D PSNS <schmidtj@psns.navy.mil> Hi, I'm writing this for my wife. My wife's name is Dina. She's a native born Filipino, and she really misses her mango tree from home. She's thinking of planting a seed from a store bought mango and putting it in the ground. I'm thinking that it can't be that easy. So, what I'm asking, how do you do it? We saw a booth at the Del Mar fair and talked to the guy there. He said we need to find sterile soil (like what you buy in a gardening store) and to remove the husk from the outside of the seed.(I did not know you could do that) He said that the seed may or may not germinate, and that the fruit it might produce would be mediocre at best. He suggested that we go to a nursery and get a known variety that had been grafted onto viable root stock. What do you suggest? We live in National City, CA. I have never seen it freeze where we are, so I don't think frost will be a problem. We also have a young banana tree attempting to grow in our back yard. Could we have a few pointers? Is too much shade a problem for bananas and mangoes. What kind of plant food, if any, should we get? My wife's name is Dina Schmidt. Thanks, Jason Schmidt mailto:schmidtj@psns.navy.mil Her e-mail is kadina@juno.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Tropical Fruit Picture Date: Sun, 01 Jul 2001 08:03:45 -0700 (PDT)

From:

Tayninh <tayninh@go.com> Hi Leo, I tried to find as a wall paper I just made one large size: 157 a good picture of tropical fruits that I can use on my computer, but could not find a good one. So, and want to share it with you (it's relatively Kb).

Tien Tran mailto:tayninh@go.com http://flowerpictures.terrashare.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Looking For Miniature Grapes Date: Sat, 7 Jul 2001 11:26:11 EDT From: Ltroutt@aol.com I am looking for starts for a Black Corinth grape I have also seen it called a Zante Currant, these Grapes are about the size of a cranberry, seedless, originate in Greece. I have also learned that other than Greece California is the greatest producer of these grapes, however I still cannot seem to locate a source. Any info would be greatly appreciated. Thank You, Lonell Routt mailto:Ltroutt@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Looking For Miniature Grapes Date: Sat, 07 Jul 2001 16:20:52 -0700 From: "Lon J. Rombough" <lonrom@hevanet.com> To: Ltroutt@aol.com Hi Leo: I do have this grape, and I sell cuttings of it. I've also put a little article about it on my website about why it's not a home grower's grape. -Lon mailto:lonrom@hevanet.com

Grapes, writing, consulting, more, plus word on my grape book at http://www.bunchgrapes.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Link suggestion Date: Tue, 10 Jul 2001 14:49:43 -0400 From: Ralph Schmidt <rschmidt@telocity.com> Hi Leo, I am just beginning to explore your newsletter, and have found your E-mails helpful. I am now trying to get more info on potassium chlorate and longans. My seedling, now 20 ft. tall, 4 in. at the base, and about 10 years old finally bloomed and set fruit this year on four branches. A few years ago someone girdled the tree, taking off about a foot of bark. The top is still flourishing. The fruit tastes sweet, and I am giving it another week to get even better. Pleases link to http://www.tropicalfruit.org to share our Florida experiences. Peace and good growing, Ralph Schmidt mailto:schmidtj@psns.navy.mil

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Cattley Guava-Won't Set Fruit!! Date: Sun, 1 Jul 2001 06:59:55 -0400 From: "Robin Musolino" <rlmuso@tampabay.rr.com> Dear Leo: I have a Cattley Guava that is 7' tall, in ground and extremely healthy and very attractive. It puts out beautiful small frilly blooms in profusion, but has never set fruit. I am considering yanking it as in ground space is too precious to waste on a non-fruiting tree. I treat it the same as my citrus as far as maintaining. Can you help? Robin Musolino mailto:rlmuso@tampabay.rr.com Tampa, FL

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Re: Myrica nagi; Myrica rubra Any Difference? Fri, 13 Jul 2001 19:35:24 -0500 Bob Batson <rcb@kc.rr.com>

At 1:12 PM -0700 7/13/01, Leo Manuel wrote: >I have a Chinese friend from the mainland, who remembers >eating the fruit of Myrica rubra (known there as Yang-Mei) >and wants to grow them here. I've seen references to a >very similar fruit from Myrica nagi. > >Do you know if they are the same plant? > >Do you know of a U.S. source for plants (preferably) or >seeds? > >I need to import them into California. The 1998 edition of _Cornucopia_ lists the following source for Myrica nagi plants. They are only $25 per plant. OREGON EXOTICS Rare Fruit Nursery 1065 Messinger Road Grants Pass, OR 97527 Tel: 541-846-7578 FAX: 541-846-9488 Web site: http://exoticfruit.com The _Fruit, Berry and Nut Inventory, 3rd Edition_ (copyright 2001, ISBN 1-882424-56-5) lists the following company as a source for seeds. COLVOS CREEK NURSERY PO Box 1512 Vashon Island, WA 98070 Bob Batson mailto:rcb@kc.rr.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Re: Myrica nagi; Myrica rubra Any Difference? Sat, 14 Jul 2001 12:33:16 +0530 "Dr. Chiranjit Parmar" <parmarch@vsnl.com>

Dear Leo, Myrica rubra tree is bigger and the fruits are also slightly larger. It grows in Japan. I have a picture of this tree and can e-mail to the intrerested member. Myrica nagi grows in Himalayas. It is an excellent fruit. It is sold in local market. It has not been cultivated yet and the fruits are collected from forests only. I can send a seed packet, two photographs and detailed information about this fruit to the interested members. Myrica nagi has also been described in detail in my book, WILD

FRUITS OF THE SUB HIMALAYAN REGION. Dr. Chiranjit Parmar Horticultural Consultant on Leser Known Fruits. 186/3 Jail Road Mandi HP 175 001 INDIA Phones:(01905)22810; 98160-22810 Fax:(01905) 25419 http://www.lesserknownplants.com E-mail: parmarch@vsnl.com

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<< Subject: Re: Is Hylocerus Used As Herb? Date: Tue, 10 Jul 2001 20:34:17 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> > I don't know right now, how Thai people use Hylocereus as a > herb. My friend, a qualified Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioner, who learnt his trade at a university in China, told me that, as far as he knows, there is no record of usage of Hylocerus as herb in the TCM annals. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: CC: Potassium Chlorate and Longan - Part 1 Tue, 10 Jul 2001 19:01:30 +0700 "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> "Ralph Schmidt" <rschmidt@telocity.com> "Nantarat (Dr.) Supakamnerd" <nantarats@yahoo.com>

Ralph Schimdt writes: Please send me the details on the use of potassium chlorate on longans. Sainarong answers: This is a lenghty topic, so I shall answer in a series of e-mails beginning with this one. Potassium chlorate causes longan to flower both in season and out of season. The effectiveness of potassium chlorate depends upon the following factors: 1. The concentration of potassium chlorate.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

The The The The The The The The The The Et

method of application. variety of longan tree. age of the longan tree. health of the longan tree. stage of the longan tree. type of soil. dampness of the soil. ambient or the soil temperature. ambient climate. ambient humidity. cetera.

You can see that the effectiveness of potassium chlorate depends on many factors. The above statement is based upon empirical tests and observations. No one really knows the mechanism by which potassium chlorate forces longan trees to flower, and as long as you do not understand the mechanism, you cannot be certain that your application method will work under all circumstances. Frequently, after I thought that I have got the usage method licked, my next application does not work well at all! This is why I have been hestitant to write about potassium chlorate. However, as there have been many requests on this subject, i see that I cannot escape the task any longer. Please wait for the next installment Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

------------------------------------------------

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Myrica rubra = Chinese Bayberry, Yang-mei Per Cornucopia II Date: Wed, 11 Jul 2001 12:32:11 -0700

Stephen Facciola says (in Cornucopia II) page 157: The aggreeable, subacid, deep red fruits are eaten fresh, cooked, preserved, or made into a refreshing drink or a kind of liqueur. Seed kernels are also said to be edible. Recommended for improvement by selection and breeding. Eastern Asia. Hendrick 1919, Parmar C., Tanaka, Uphof;

D92M G66

The Flowery Branch Seed Company P O Box 1330, Flowery Branch, GA 30542 770 536-8380 CAT $4 Lawyer Nursery Inc., 950 Highway 200 West, Plains, MT 59859 1-800-551-9875 CAT free

I74{PL} Oregon Exotics Nursery, 1065 Messinger Rd., Grants Pass, OR 97527 CAT free K38 K63G M7M Province of China N84 P5 R47 (in France) (in Australia) (in Australia) F W Schumacher Co Inc., 36 Spring Hill Rd., Sandwich, MA 02563 CAT free Sheffield's Seed Co, 273 Auburn Road, Route 34, Locke, NY 13092 Trans-Pacific Nursery, 16065 Oldsville Rd., McMinnville, OR 971128 CAT free; Some seed collected from Yunnan

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Myrica nagi AKA Yang-Mae, Yamomomoki, ÀMyrica rubra? Date: Fri, 13 Jul 2001 13:16:40 -0700 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/listing/myricanagi.htm Common Name(s): yang-mae syn yamomomoki syn san syn sophee Crop Use(s): fruit Reference Source(s): sturtevant Number of Papers/Mentions: 9 References (Biological Abstracts 1988-2000): <snip> Latest update 30 January 2001 by: RF -----------------------------------------------Subject: Myrica rubra Cultivation Notes (Wax Myrtle, Chinese Bayberry,...)

Date:

Wed, 11 Jul 2001 13:25:58 -0700 Myrica rubra Cultivation Notes

This article was provided care of 'Plants For A Future' Latin Name: Common Name: Family: Synonyms: Myrica rubra Chinese bayberry Myricaceae M. nagi. non Thunb.

Known Hazards: Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, there is a report for some members of this genus that some of the constituents of the wax might be carcinogenic[222]. Author: Habit: Sieb.&Zucc. Evergreen Shrub

Habitat: Forests of C. and S. Japan[58]. Coastal districts in warm countries[174]. Height: 15.0 Width: (?)

Cultivation Details: Prefers a moist soil. Grows well in an open position in a well-drained soil in sun or light shade[200]. Thrives in any ordinary garden soil[11]. Prefers a lime-free loamy or peaty soil[1]. Not very hardy in Britain, it succeeds outdoors in the milder areas of the country according to one report[1], whilst another says that it only succeeds in zone 10 and does not tolerate frosts[200]. Plants succeed outdoors in Japan as far north as Tokyo, but it is difficult to get them to fruit there[174].. This plant has been recommended for improvement by selection and breeding for its edible fruit. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200]. Many species in this genus have a symbiotic relationship with certain soil micro-organisms, these form nodules on the roots of the plants and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200]. Propagation Notes: Seed - best sown as soon as ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Barely cover the seed and keep it moist. Stored seed germinates more freely if given a 3 month cold stratification and then sown in a cold frame. Germination is usually good[78]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow on in pots for the first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer[K]. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 - 8 cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Pot up and overwinter in a cold frame. Fair to good percentage[78]. Cuttings of mature wood in November/December in a frame. Layering in spring[200]. Division of suckers in the dormant season.

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Tsukuba Botanical Garden Date: Wed, 11 Jul 2001 13:08:27 -0700 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> http://www.tbg.kahaku.go.jp/Tsukuba_Botanical_Garden/x/ep289.htm <snip> *@MYRICACEAE *@Scientific name* *@MYRICACEAE <snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc. Myrica rubra Sieb. & Zucc. Myrica rubra Sieb. & Zucc.

http://www.nfc.co.kr/nat/flora/flora&02/myr/myri/myri&01/ -----------------------------------------------Subject: Myrica rubra http://www.huis.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/~nomura/Y/yamamom.html Natural History of Hiroshima City Bayberry Scientific name: Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc. Japanese name: YAMA MOMO ( â‰â†âˆâˆ ) Photograph data: June 29, 1995 ( Hiroshima City ) This fruit is eaten fresh or preserved in salt. In the Ryukyus, momo-sake or Myrica wine is produced by preserving the fruits in awamori ( a kind of wine ). <snip> Nomura Masato mailto:nomura@huis.hiroshima-u.ac.jp

<snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: Department of Fruit Trees (in Israel) http://www.agri.gov.il/Horticulture/FruitTrees/FruitTrees.html State of Israel, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Agricultural Research Organization, The Institute for Horticulture Department of Fruit Trees

In the Department of Fruit Trees all various aspects of cultivation of deciduous, subtropical and tropical fruit crops, are investigated in order to raise the grower's income. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Staff members Major activities -----------------------------------------------------------------------Dr. Chemda Degani DNA fingerprinting of subtropical fruit (Head) trees; assessing the effect of the pollenizing cultivar on the fruit set, fruit abcission and fruit characteristics in subtropical fruit trees, using genetic markers. Prof. Raphael Assaf Breeding, selection, introduction of deciduous new Cultivars and rootstocks, and fertigation trials. Deciduous fruit and grapes gene bank. Dr. Amos Blumenfeld Developing new fruit tree crops for Israel. Tropical and subtropical fruit trees. Persimmon cultivation. Productivity. Fruit development and harvest. Directing horticultural research. Prof. Amnon Erez Breaking of dormancy, meadow orchards, mobile orchards, growth control and physiology. Dr. Moshe Flaishman Molecular plant physiology and breeding of deciduous trees. Dr. Eliyahu Tomer Selection and fruit development of mango; water requirements of avocado. Dr. Emanuel (Emi) Nutrition and water relations - avocado and banana, Lahav breeding-avocado, tissue culture-banana. Dr. Uri Lavi Application of DNA markers and classical breeding of subtropical fruit trees. Dr. Shmuel Zilkah Propagation of fruit trees by tissue culture; new methods for thinning peaches, nutrition and productivity in avocado. <snip>

ARO Home Page| ARO web site map Copyright © 1997, The State of Israel. All Rights Reserved. (Terms of Use) Created by: Dr. Michael Striem. Comments and suggestions: vhstri@agri.gov.il Updated: 5 July 2000 -----------------------------------------------Subject: Agricultural Research Organization (Israel) Date: Mon, 02 Jul 2001 20:21:42 -0700 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: undisclosed-recipients:; http://www.agri.gov.il/Volcani.html State of Israel / Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development <snip> Copyright © 1998, The State of Israel. All Rights Reserved. (Terms of Use) Comments and suggestions: feedback@agri.gov.il

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@onelist.com> <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU> <<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> From "rarefruit list" - mailto:rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<<<

None this time

>>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> <<< http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Subject: USDA Launches New Web Site on Food Safety Date: Mon, 2 Jul 2001 11:59:32 -0400 From: "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov> <snip> WASHINGTON, July 2-- The U.S. Department of Agriculture today launched a new Web site (http://www.nal.usda.gov/fsrio) aimed at providing a database of food safety research projects to the research community and the general public. The Web site provides detailed information on food safety research projects, spending, and accomplishments by U.S. Federal agencies, along with links to other important food safety research information. "This Web site is a tool that researchers and policy makers can use to examine research needs and priorities in food safety," said Agriculture Secretary Ann M. Veneman. "The goal is to measure the progress of our food safety research and continue efforts to educate the public about these important issues." The searchable database provides information on nearly 500 food safety research projects dating from 1998 to the present including research done or funded by: USDA Agricultural Research Service; USDA Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service; the Food Safety Consortium (researchers from the University of Arkansas, Iowa State University, and Kansas State University); and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Food and Drug Administration.

Also on the Web site are: *Program and planning information, as well as various food safety reports, *Food safety news and information, and *More than 100 links to Web-based food safety research information provided by U.S. and foreign governments and educational and professional organizations. The new Web site was created by the Food Safety Research Information Office at USDA's National Agricultural Library with information from related government food safety agencies. The National Agricultural Library, part of the Agricultural Research Service, is the world's largest and most accessible agricultural research library, and the principal resource in the United States for information about food, agriculture, and natural resources. <snip>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000107B.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - August 1, 2001 - AKA RFN200108A.txt >>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber: Recommended Fertilizer For Rare Fruit? Kevan Snowball <snoworry@cygnus.uwa.edu.au> New Subscriber, CA: Want Palm, Bamboo Information "April Love" <cbyc@earthlink.net> New Subscriber, Florida, Works For A-One-A Produce.... Lisa Pettineo <lisap@aonea.com> New Subscriber, Nevada: Coping With Weather Extremes "Lois Goldberg" <lolypops@lvcm.com> New Subscriber, Redlands, CA, Has Lots Of Room Shane Ripley <someone2b@ev1.net> New Subscriber, Florida, Looking For Ideas

Terry Martin <zerx@flinet.com> New Subscriber-Tallahassee, FL: Temps from 12 to 100+ Degrees! Bernie <bmorris@growinggreengardens.com> New Subscriber, Solana Beach, CA; Has Questions.... Adelelevy@aol.com New Subscriber, Texas: How To Get Banana To Fruit? RFISHDEN@aol.com New Subscriber, Perth, W. Australia: Wants Dwarf Orchard "Clay (Rhibosome)" <rhibo@iinet.net.au> New Subscriber, Indonesia, Editor Of Ag Magazine "onny" <ou@trubus-online.com> New Subscriber, Virginia, Interested In All Fruit "Marc A. Edwards" <edwardsm@vt.edu>

>> Readers Write <<

Can You I.D. This Fruit From Photograph? Sven Nehlin <snehlin@reacciun.ve> Re: Can You I.D. This Fruit From Photograph? Maurice Kong <CHINO228@aol.com> To: Sven Nehlin <snehlin@reacciun.ve> Leaf Miners - What's The Solution? WAYNE COUGLE <wayle45@yahoo.com> Too much compost? lee & lou <leelou@pacbell.net> Re: Stephen Facciola Says You Have Myrica Rubra - But... Gerry Roe <groe@WorldPlants.com> Guava Fruit - Source Online Wanted

ron@woodbury.org Email Address Check Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: Amos Blumfeld <vhamos@agri.gov.il> Re: Email Address Check "Dr. Amos Blumenfeld 03-9683397 VH" <vhamos@agri.gov.il> Grafting Longan/Lychee; Managing Banana Bloom Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: "Dr. Amos Blumenfeld 03-9683397 VH" <vhamos@agri.gov.il> Re: Grafting Longan/Lychee; Managing Banana Bloom "Dr. Amos Blumenfeld 03-9683397 VH" <vhamos@agri.gov.il> Re: Grafting Longan/Lychee; Managing Banana Bloom Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: "Dr. Amos Blumenfeld 03-9683397 VH" <vhamos@agri.gov.il> Re: Graftng Longan/Lychee; Managing Banana Bloom "Dr. Amos Blumenfeld 03-9683397 VH" <vhamos@agri.gov.il> Sweet Cherries In Southern California! Matthew Shugart <mshugart@ucsd.edu> Atemoya Problem plumeria14@juno.com Growing Mangos From Florida Seed - How To Accomplish? Douglas Spaulding <spauldin@bellatlantic.net> Re: Growing mangos Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: Douglas Spaulding <spauldin@bellatlantic.net>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Longan and Potassium Chlorate - cont. "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Potassium Chlorate Method for Longan Bloom "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Re: Hylocereus as a Herb? Wim <veerwn@sr.net> To: "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th>

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

San Diego Home Depot: Passiflora Cultivars and Soil Amendments Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Long-Lasting Pollutant Found in Fertilizer, Fish life-doc@home.com Asian Fruit Quiz On-line Dmshuck@aol.com http://chinesefood.about.com/library/blfruitquiz.htm

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time

<<<<

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<<

Chinese Che, Grafted To Osage Orange; Information Sought "R. Keith Etheridge" <grandpa@chipsnet.com> Re: Chinese Che, Grafted To Osage Orange; Information Sought Claude Sweet <sweetent@home.com>

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<< None, this time

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<

Tropical Fruit Tree Nursery, El Monte, CA, Recommended "Gary Siegel" <Siegel2@home.com> Wash Those Imported Lychees! I Got Sick.... Donna <Ivanthecool@aol.com> Re: Wash Those Imported Lychees! I Got Sick.... tabbydan@yahoo.com Re: Wash Those Imported Lychees! I Got Sick.... Sean Cloninger <seanstud@tampabay.rr.com> Cyanogenic glycoside From Passionfruit Seeds Mike <dreadlox@cwjamaica.com> Re: Cyanogenic glycoside From Passionfruit Seeds tabbydan@yahoo.com

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm. None, this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Subscriber: Recommended Fertilizer For Rare Fruit? Date: Sun, 15 Jul 2001 13:07:38 +0800 From: Kevan Snowball <snoworry@cygnus.uwa.edu.au>

Hi Leo, Betty and Group, I thought it would be nice to join the group because I grow a number of semi-tropicals, namely casimiroas, sapodillas, mangoes and feijoas in an area south of Perth, Western Australia. I know it is an area one should not be able to do this but after 10 years (!) they have all fruited. However not without some problems. I am a bit at loss to know the best regime of fertilizing the above. Perhaps some members would know how often for NPK Mg and T.EÕs and whether some of the above semiÕs have paticular requirements for these fertilizers. The soil is a loamy gravel and the climate is ÔMediterraneanÕ that is wet winter and hot dry summers, but of course the orchard is irrigated. My family think I am a bit mad but they do enjoy the fruit out of season; a touch of the forbidden! Regards Kevan Snowball mailto:snoworry@cygnus.uwa.edu.au

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, CA: Want Palm, Bamboo Information Date: Mon, 16 Jul 2001 12:08:29 -0700 From: "April Love" <cbyc@earthlink.net> Hi, We are James and April Love. We live in the hills of Los Angeles, California. We just bought our house and it came with the following fruit trees....we think :) peach, apple, fig, lemon (Myers), kumquat. We also have in the subtropical realm a plumeria and white ginger. We would like to grow papaya, avocado, pineapple, and anything else we can fit in :) In addition we looking for information on growing palms and bamboo. Any referrals to favorite web sites will be appreciated. April Love mailto:cbyc@earthlink.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: New Subscriber, Florida, Works For A-One-A Produce.... Tue, 17 Jul 2001 19:06:16 -0400 Lisa Pettineo <lisap@aonea.com>

Dear Leo Manuel,

My name is Lisa Pettineo and I was refered to you by Bruce Livingston. He told me that you were in charge of a wonderful online rare fruit magazine. Can you please add me to your list? I was just hired by A-One-A Produce, and I am in charge of their Specialties Department. I get a lot of questions about the tropicals and your magazine would be a great help to me. I would love to learn everything that I can. Thank you very much, Lisa Pettineo mailto:lisap@aonea.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Nevada: Coping With Weather Extremes Date: Wed, 18 Jul 2001 14:01:12 -0700 From: "Lois Goldberg" <lolypops@lvcm.com> Hi I would like to subscribe to your rare fruit editions, e mail. My name is Lois Goldberg, originally from St Paul, Minnesota, moved to California, because my husband, who was in the marine corps was stationed there, plus Florida, I grew wonderful things such as luffa sponges etc. We retired in Las Vegas, Nevada. I brought many plants with me and needless to say everything died The temperature in the summer can go to 120 degrees and in winter below freezing, the soil is absolutely dead, no nutrients at all, but I was not going to let that stop me I have on a small lot a complete orchard, nectarine, peach trees, 3 apricots, apples, plums, cherries, Fuyu persimmons. I am sure you trees, well I on the inside a plum and an and an aprium are saying what has this to do with rare fruit will tell you. I have a surprise apple, which is red as well as the outside, I have a pluot tree which is apricot mix, more plum it is absolutely delicious, tree which is apricot and plum mix, more apricot

Hoping to hear from you soon Lois mailto:lolypops@lvcm.com

------------------------------------------------

Subject: New Subscriber, Redlands, CA, Has Lots Of Room Date: Thu, 19 Jul 2001 08:39:42 -0700 From: Shane Ripley <someone2b@ev1.net> I am Shane Ripley, and would like to receive your news letters. We live in Redlands, California, we have about one acre, we have two Grapefruits, one Valencia Orange, two very old Plum trees, one Royal Peach, a Apricot, and a small Citrus maybe a Orange tree, one very large Bacon Avocado. We just bought the property, and hope to plant many rare fruit trees, and a few vines and shrubs. We are going to try to do it organically. I should have room for at lest 50 trees, with 20 foot spacing. As to our temp here in Redlands, There should not be to great of a frost danger, as citris and avo's grow here well, I would think we could get a degree or two lower than San Bernardino. I am told Mango's would grow well if facing south. Thank you again, and we look forward to the news letter. Shane Ripley mailto:someone2b@ev1.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Florida, Looking For Ideas Date: Sat, 21 Jul 2001 16:17:31 -0400 From: Terry Martin <zerx@flinet.com> Hi, Terry Martin here. I live in West Palm Beach, Florida, on a promising piece of land. We just purchased a Spanish Guava and a papaya tree. Any information would be welcome. Thanks Terry mailto:zerx@flinet.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber-Tallahassee, FL: Temps from 12 to 100+ Degrees! Date: Sat, 21 Jul 2001 09:50:24 -0400 From: Bernie <bmorris@growinggreengardens.com>

Greetings, My name is Bernie. I live in N. Florida (Tallahassee specifically). As we are pretty far from the coast the seasonal variations in temp can be pretty extreme. It has been as cold as 12 F. and in the summer it climbs to 100+ with some regularity. Winters here are the hard part, last winter we had a few cold snaps when the daytime high was around 70, but the nighttime low was in the teens. I'm currently growing several different varieties of banana with local provinence. I have Musa "Raja Puri", "Ice Cream" and an unknown dwarf variety that I got from a friend who has had a mat north of here for at least 8 yrs. The two named varieties are from a local nursery called "Just Fruits" and supposedly will actually produce fruit in the area occasionally. I also have a small Loquat tree that I liberated from a clients yard (I'm a landscaper/gardener by profession).These do really well here and produce fruit regularly after 5-7 yrs. growth. I'm extremely interested in methods to extend the season and carry some of my tropicals and semi-tropicals through our outrageous winter temperature variations. I also grow a large variety of tropicals of all sorts (tree ferns, bromeliads, nepenthes, gingers, and plumeria). I'm constantly on the look-out for tropicals with local provenance or history that can survive winters here. For example, I have several plumerias that survived last winter outdoors in large pots sunk in the ground and under a layer of oak leaf mulch. The bananas and gingers return every year as well. The nepenthes and bromeliads come in when it's too cold. I'd love to grow mangos as I enjoy the fruit so much. I just doubt I can find any that with last several seasons here. Looking forward to joining the list. Bernie Morris mailto:bmorris@growinggreengardens.com http://www.growinggreengardens.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Solana Beach, CA; Has Questions.... Date: Sat, 21 Jul 2001 20:39:52 EDT From: Adelelevy@aol.com This is fun. I have been searching for some information and I finally found someone other than Papaya Recipes! My name is Adele Levy and we live in coastal San Diego. I just

received three solo papaya's in a 6" pot. I would like to plant them and was told to plant them together for pollination. I need a definition of together...same distance as in pot or a few feet apart. We are new to the area. In the last year I have cleaned out the lower part of our property and planted: Gold Kist Apricot, Washington Navel (doing poorly), Meyer Lemon (successful), Oro Blanco Grapefruit (finally looking healthy), Fig (fruit), Fuyu Persimmon (two fruits stayed on), Anna Apple (stick like but flowering), Fuerte Avacado being enjoyed by something. The papaya will remain in the pot until further notice. Am looking forward to all the help and I can get and hope to return the favor. I have grown roses for years. This is my first venture into fruit trees. Thank you, Adele mailto:Adelelevy@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Texas: How To Get Banana To Fruit? Date: Sat, 21 Jul 2001 14:45:49 EDT From: RFISHDEN@aol.com Hi! My name is Dennis Rhodes, I live in Alvin, Texas, which is 30 miles due east of Galveston. I currently have about 6 banana trees in my yard, one putting on fruit. I am planning to plant 2-3 mango trees as well, and perhaps some other types of tropical fruit. I do have a question that I really have tried and cannot find an answer to. What can be done to assist a banana tree to start putting out fruit? Thanks Dennis mailto:RFISHDEN@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Perth, W. Australia: Wants Dwarf Orchard Date: Mon, 23 Jul 2001 16:34:42 +0800 From: "Clay Chipper" <rhibo@iinet.net.au> Hi My name is Clay Chipper, in Perth, Western Australia.

I am interested in dwarf fruit and nut trees. I am currently growing a dwarf nectarine and peach on my patio... I would like to have a dwarf orchard. Please include me on you mail list as I have found the back catalogue of your emails very interesting. Thanks. Clay Chipper mailto:rhibo@iinet.net.au

web. http://www.rhibosome.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Indonesia, Editor Of Ag Magazine Date: Tue, 31 Jul 2001 03:49:03 +0700 From: "onny" <ou@trubus-online.com> Dear Sir, My name is Onny Untung. I live in Bogor, 60 km from Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. I'm a chief editor of Trubus, agriculture magazine in Indonesia. Every month we publish a lot of issue related to agriculture. We divided our magazine at 7 column, namely: fruit, ornamental plant, herbs and spices, vegetables, forestry and plantation, livestock, fisheries. I'm very interested with your newsletter. I'm sure that our readers would like to know about rare fruit in the world. So, if you don't mind, please send me your newsletter from 1996 until the recent issue. My post address is: Wisma Hijau, Jl. Raya Bogor Km 30, Mekarsari, Cimanggis, Bogor 16952, Indonesia. Homepage: http://www.trubus-online.com. Best Regards, Onny Untung mailto:ou@trubus-online.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Virginia, Interested In All Fruit

Date: From:

Mon, 30 Jul 2001 22:36:56 -0600 "Marc A. Edwards" <edwardsm@vt.edu> I am Marc Edwards, in Blacksburg, VA Fruit trees I am now growing are: Chinese pear (Ya Li), Mulberry, 10 varieties blueberry, 6 varieties gooseberry, 3 Elderberry, jostaberry, black, white and red currants, all common brambleberries, ligonberries, common arctic kiwi's, persimmons, paw paw Others I want to grow are more temperate fruits for zone 6 Comments: Just want to learn from the experts Marc mailto:edwardsm@vt.edu

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Can You I.D. This Fruit From Photograph? Date: Sun, 29 Jul 2001 17:46:55 -0400 From: Sven Nehlin <snehlin@reacciun.ve> Hi, I wonder if anyone can identify this fruit tree which is with lots of fruits at the moment. It seems like a Myrtaceae, like Syzygium cumini, but the fruits are oblong about 3,5 cm long and 2 cm wide, sweet acid, very agreeable in contrast to S. cumini which is astringent. The leaves are leathery with a light midrib, 17-18 cm long and 8 cm wide with extended apex. Regards, with thanks in advance, Sven Nehlin mailto:snehlin@reacciun.ve

Encl. Name: myrt-8.JPG Type:JPEG Image (image/jpeg) [Note: I'll send a copy to anyone who's interested. Leo] -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Can You I.D. This Fruit From Photograph? Date: Sun, 29 Jul 2001 22:44:52 EDT From: Maurice Kong <CHINO228@aol.com>

To: Hi!

Sven Nehlin <snehlin@reacciun.ve>

The photo you sent with the fruits and leaf in my opinion is Java plum ( syzygium cumini). Fruit color, shape as well as the leaf is that of the Java plum of which I am very familiar. The fact that it has a sweet acid and agreeable taste can mean that you either tasted a very ripe fruit or you found one that is not as astringent as most Java plum which would be welcome news. The only way to determine this is to have your fruit friends and other CRFG members who are familiar with this fruit to evaluate the fruits from this treee.I have been told of a few trees that are sweet in Florida but I have not tasted any. Others who have claim it is OK but not that sweet. If you wish another opinion, you could mail me a few fruits via 'priority' mail for evaluation. I will be more than happy to reimburse you for postal expenses. Mail to: Maurice Kong 14735 SW 48 Terrace Miami. FL 33185

Sweet varieties do exist in other countries, I'm told. The problem as is with most fruits is to find them. Only recently I heard of a white skin variety that is very sweet so now I'm now trying to get this plant for my collection. It would be better yet if I could find a seedless and sweet variety if it exists. Maurice mailto:CHINO228@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Leaf Miners - What's The Solution? Date: Sun, 15 Jul 2001 05:45:38 -0700 (PDT) From: WAYNE COUGLE <wayle45@yahoo.com> Leo Please tell me if we have found a viable solution to the citrus leafminer problem- oils do not seem to work. Thanks, Wayne mailto:wayle45@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Too much compost? Date: Sun, 15 Jul 2001 08:03:58 -0700 From: lee & lou <leelou@pacbell.net>

My gardener dumped about 6" of compost in my yard... I believe from a landfill. Perhaps too much of a good thing? Most of the soil is looking good and I see lots of worms... so I don't think it is contaminated. I am worried cause plants are not doing well and wondering if the stuff is just too rich? Crabgrass, however, is flourishing. The lychee and mandarin orange 5 gal. young treelings were just planted in this stuff w/ some real dirt mixed in and are looking funnny. Leaves are turning yellow, starting from center working way to edge. More pronounced on the mandarin orange than on the lychee. Lychee still has some leaves on lower branches that are dark green. Both were healthy plants w/ dark green leaves prior to being put in the ground. I also added a few tspn. of the mychorrizial (sp?) powder around the roots before planting. Could this be part of the problem? Also, many of the lavender (about 15) planted in this new soil mixture seemed to dry up and die. No wilting... just started to turn brown from base of plant and slowly moved up until the entire plant turned brown, as if it had never been watered. Others I pulled out and repotted and are recovering. Have you seen these symptoms before? Any recommendations you have for saving these trees (and future plantings) would be much appreciated. Yours truly, E. Lou mailto:leelou@pacbell.net No. Calif.

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Stephen Facciola Says You Have Myrica Rubra - But... Date: Sun, 15 Jul 2001 09:27:14 +0000 From: Gerry Roe <groe@WorldPlants.com> It's possible we may have had seeds at one time, but we don't at present. Here are two seed sources: Flowery Branch Seed Company (Catalog $4.00) P.O. Box 1330 Flowery Branch, GA USA 30542-1330 Telephone 770-536-8380 Fax 770-532-7825 Sheffield's Seed Co., Inc. 269 Auburn Road, Rt. #34 Locke, NY USA 13092 Telephone 315-497-1058 Fax 315-497-1059 seed@sheffields.com The wholesaler Monrovia also lists it, so anybody in California ought to be able to find it or have it ordered by any garden center dealing with Monrovia, which should include most of them.

Gerry Leo Manuel wrote: | | | | | | | | | | | | | Hi

mailto:groe@WorldPlants.com

I have a Chinese friend from the mainland, who remembers eating the fruit of Myrica Rubra (known there as Yang-Mei) and wants to grow them here. Stephen Facciola, in Cornucopia II, says you have either the seeds or plants of these. I couldn't find them on the webpage, however. Thanks Leo

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Guava Fruit - Source Online Wanted Date: 16 Jul 2001 21:23:43 -0700 From: ron@woodbury.org Do you have any idea where I can order guavas (fruit) online? Thanks for your help. Ron Woodbury mailto:ron@woodbury.org

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Email Address Check Thu, 28 Jun 2001 15:24:34 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Amos Blumfeld <vhamos@agri.gov.il>

Hi Dr. Blumenfeld It was good to meet you and your wife at our home in San Diego. Your pictures were great, and various discussions about fruit you are working with in Israel most stimulating. I wish I could remember more of the details. Sincerely,

Leo Manuel -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Email Address Check Date: Tue, 17 Jul 2001 10:59:34 +0300 (IDT) From: "Dr. Amos Blumenfeld 03-9683397 VH" <vhamos@agri.gov.il> Dear Leo, Thank you for your e mail. We returned to Israel after a very interesting visit in the USA, including a visit to your place. Keep in touch, Amos. mailto:vhamos@agri.gov.il

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Grafting Longan/Lychee; Managing Banana Bloom Tue, 17 Jul 2001 05:21:08 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> "Dr. Amos Blumenfeld 03-9683397 VH" <vhamos@agri.gov.il>

Dear Dr. Blumenfeld, You mentioned grafting longan and/or lychee as being easier than most of us think. Many of us would like to know how to accomplish those grafts successfully. Your explaining the 6-6-6 method was interesting, (for managing the blossom time of bananas) but I may not have remembered correctly. Here's what I later remembered: First take time to study the growth and bloom cycle of bananas. Suppose that ideally (for the bloom time of the banana to ripen before winter?) on the 6th day of the 6th month, there should be six leaves on the banana candidate (6-6-6). There should be a new leaf each month, and if on, say the 6th of August, there were more than the eight leaves it should have, then you top the banana down below the top four leaves - twice the number of excess leaves. How close is that? I assume that having bananas perform at that growth rate depends on ones fertilizer regime. What is used in Israel?

My friend, Jim Neitzel, who was busy with the citrus wood, was so engrossed that he missed the opportunity to see some of the pictures you showed me. I hope to see you and Mrs. Blumenfeld again. Sincerely, Leo Manuel -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Grafting Longan/Lychee; Managing Banana Bloom Date: Thu, 19 Jul 2001 12:10:23 +0300 (IDT) From: "Dr. Amos Blumenfeld 03-9683397 VH" <vhamos@agri.gov.il> Dear Leo, We top graft longan during its active growth period generally later than most other crops (when it is warmer). We cover the scion with parafilm and sometimes protect it from direct sun. Same is done in litchi but with much less success (ca 20%). Differentiation of bananas at optimal temperatures of the terminal bud, which is at the top of the corm, inside the pseudostem, gives big bunch (30-50 kg), while when the same plants differentiate at a lower or higher temperature, it gives small useless bunch. You should therefore direct the differentiation to the optimal time, in order to obtain best results. I can give you an interesting explanation what happens. However, due to time constrains I state that in order to find the optimal sucker size in your conditions, you should have the following information: Number of leaves produced in each month by new suckers, date of emergence of each inflorescence, and size of each bunch. From those data it is possible to calculate what should be the optimal sucker size in each month for obtaining big bunches under your local condition. (It is an empiric calculation which I can explain its basis). Probably the formula, which you will obtain, will be different than the 6.6.6. If you understand the basic physiology, it is much better than learning formulas, which differ under different conditions. In a 20 minutes talk one can explain how it works. With best regards, Amos. mailto:vhamos@agri.gov.il

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Grafting Longan/Lychee; Managing Banana Bloom Thu, 19 Jul 2001 06:59:03 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> "Dr. Amos Blumenfeld 03-9683397 VH" <vhamos@agri.gov.il>

Hi Dr. Blumenfeld, Thanks for your response. Do you treat grafts of longan and lychee differently than mango or other evergreen fruit trees, except for the time of year restriction? What kind of graft, if it is important? Does success seem to have anything to do with varieties of longan or lychee? Do different varieties of banana have different rates of leaf production? I appreciate your taking time, and next time you're giving a 20 minute talk anywhere around, let me know, as I'd like to be there! Sincerely, Leo Manuel -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Graftng Longan/Lychee; Managing Banana Bloom Date: Sun, 22 Jul 2001 07:46:10 +0300 (IDT) From: "Dr. Amos Blumenfeld 03-9683397 VH" <vhamos@agri.gov.il> Dear Leo, We graft longan and litchi like mango. All cvs respond the same way. We graft split-graft on young plants and under the bark mature trees. Yes there are some differences between banana cultivars. I do not plan to be in the USA in the near future. Regards, Amos mailto:vhamos@agri.gov.il

------------------------------------------------

Subject: Sweet Cherries In Southern California! Date: Thu, 26 Jul 2001 15:52:34 -0700 From: Matthew Shugart <mshugart@ucsd.edu> Dear Leo and RFNO readers: Sweet cherries are certainly a "rare fruit" for growers in coastal areas of southern California, but this summer I was able to harvest my own home-grown cherries for the first time! There were only three, but it's a start. The tree is a 'Stella' that I planted from bare-root (ordered from Bay Laurel) in 1999. This was the second time it had bloomed, but the first fruit. The tree is only about 4.5 feet tall, and has two upright branches that start about two feet up. So it is not much of a "tree"! The rootstock is a dwarf known as GM61, which is perhaps a bit too dwarfing (not much vigor). I was afraid the fruit would not be very tasty, given all the gloom this spring here. But they were excellent. Very sweet and rich. I have heard that the self-fruitful cherries can set fruit without the high chill normally required for standard varieties that require pollination (e.g. Bing). However, this year's first (albeit small) crop hardly confirms that, given that this was the Winter That Would Not Quit and we easily had over the 800 chill units that the nursery tag says this variety needs. The real test will come if we have a mild winter in the next year or two. I previously had a Craig's Crimson (also self-fruitful) but it died after less than two years without ever blooming (and almost without ever growing). I may try it and/or Lapins in the future, but not on GM61. (I always used to plant the most dwarfing rootstock I could find for all my fruits because of my limited space, but now realize that it may be better to plant a standard and just prune it to the desired size. Of the dwarf stocks I have used, only Citation for the "Prunus" has proved really satisfactory to me.) Anyway, I thought you might enjoy reading about sweet cherries fruiting within a mile and a half of the coast in San Diego County. Cheers, Matthew mailto:mshugart@ucsd.edu

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Atemoya Problem

Date: From:

Fri, 27 Jul 2001 16:32:20 -0400 plumeria14@juno.com Hi Leo I have a Priestly atemoya tree and the leaves turn yellow in certain areas and then they turn brown in the area where the areas were yellow. The rest of the leaves are green and look normal. Also I have a macadamia nut tree with some fruit on it. About what time do the nuts ripen The nuts are about as big as they get. I went to a rare fruit meeting and they had the nuts there and they are as big as mine are on the tree. But it's been about a month since the nuts stopped growing. Are they going to ripen? I live in central Florida mailto:plumeria14@juno.com ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Growing Mangos From Florida Seed - How To Accomplish? Date: Sat, 28 Jul 2001 21:44:28 -0400 From: Douglas Spaulding <spauldin@bellatlantic.net> Hi I would like to grow mangos with a seed from a mango grown in Florida. Do you know how to do this. Thank you for any help you can give me. Margie Spaulding mailto:spauldin@bellatlantic.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Growing mangos Sat, 28 Jul 2001 22:24:56 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Douglas Spaulding <spauldin@bellatlantic.net>

Hi Margie, If you carefully remove the seed from the husk around it, you will usually find that the seed is shaped similarly to a kidney bean. I get a one gallon pot, fill with a potting mix that drains well,

and put the seed into the mix, concave side down, with only the curved back side barely showing. I'd keep it in a warm and sunny place until it sprouts and grows to a height of about 8 - 10 inches, transplant it into a larger pot, protecting it until the tree has grown a trunk with a diameter of about one-half inch at the base, then plant it into the ground. If there is any possibility of frost, I'd keep the plant protected during the winter. Planting a seed directly into the ground will work if the ground stays warm during the winter, but if not, the growth will be very slow. Let's see what other readers of the newsletter say. Take care, Leo

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Longan and Potassium Chlorate - cont. Date: Sun, 29 Jul 2001 00:04:32 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Relationship with the age of the longan trees. It has been observed that the trees which are most receptive to potassium chlorate are those between 5 and 12 years old (bear in mind that trees in Thailand grows very fast). You tend to get very good blossoms, evn with the second or, in some case, third year. The younger trees are probably too young to produce proliferous blossoms and good fruits. The older trees produce proliferous blossom in the first year (especially those which did not bear a lot of fruits previously), but the second-year application tends to be disappointing. This is the result of empirical observation for 3 years. I do have sufficient information to draw any firm conclusion from this. Relationship with the health of the trees It has been observed effective the use of is probably directly harvest and the time observed that, under that the healthier the trees, the more potassium chlorate. The health of the trees related to the quantity of the previous the last harvest took place. It has also been natural conditions, older trees (more than 15

years old) may take 2 to 4 years since the last harvest to blossom again. The flowers are, however, profuse. The young trees may flower every year ot every other year. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Potassium Chlorate Method for Longan Bloom Date: Sun, 29 Jul 2001 07:14:24 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Ralph Schmidt <rschmidt@telocity.com> asks: | Is it possible to make longans bloom and fruit more than | once a year, or is that being too greedy? The answer, from bitter experience, is yes and no, in that order. Don't kill the goose that lay the golden egg. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Hylocereus as a Herb? Wed, 25 Jul 2001 23:04:12 -0700 veerwn@sr.net "Sainarong Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th>

Hi Sainarong, As you know I am also interested in the hylocereus. The h. undatus which I brought from Thailand is growing nicely, but has not yet flowered. But about a year ago I saw a yard with lots of 'queen of the night' flowers coming from another type of hylocereus. In the house lived an elderly Chinese he did not speak Dutch, Surinamese or So next day I returned with a Chinese and some other Chinese languages, and him more friendly. but I could not communicate: any other language I know. friend who speaks Mandarin a bag of rambutans to make

It came out he spoke Hakka, and had brought the cactus from China years ago. Lots of nice big flowers but never a fruit. Yes, I could have some cuttings, thanks for the rambutan. And

then, when we left, there came an old Chinese lady outside, with a bunch of dried flowers. 'Put them in the soup, very good for your stomach and all other problems'. Next day I had my wife prepare a soup with the flowers, but I did not notice any difference from normal. But my Chinese friend afterwards met a restaurant owner who imports dried flowers, so they are definitely used. In Hakka phonetically they called the flower PAA-WONG-FAA, which means Flower of the Emperor. At first I was happy to hear they had picked the flowers, thinking that explained why they had no fruit. But since the cuttings of my friend has flowered (mine's not grown very big), he has NOT picked the flowers but even then - no fruits. But it is definitely not h. undatus, a little greener, and the pricks are bigger. I made some pictures of the first flowers and will try to attach a small one. Greetings Wim mailto:veerwn@sr.net

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: San Diego Home Depot: Passiflora Cultivars and Soil Amendments Date: Sat, 28 Jul 2001 13:20:08 -0700 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> I found a 'Ruby Glow' Passionflower (hybrid with P. alata) at the Home Depot on Mira Mesa Boulevard, in San Diego. It was the last one in at that time, but I saw several other cultivars of Passiflora in the nursery department. I also noticed that the variety available of bulk loads of soil amendments has been increased. With some you order what you want in advance, and get it later. Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Long-Lasting Pollutant Found in Fertilizer, Fish Date: Wed, 18 Jul 2001 23:50:44 -0700 From: life-doc@home.com

Long-Lasting Pollutant Found in Fertilizer, Fish By Keith Mulvihill NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Biosolids, the treated sewage sludge that is spread on cropland as a fertilizer, contain "high concentrations of an environmentally persistent class of organic pollutants" called brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs), study results indicate. And the researchers report that they found BDEs in 87% of fish sampled from Virginia waters, with one fish close to setting a world record for contaminant levels. ``This finding indicates that significant environmental release of these pollutants is occurring in the United States and that humans may be exposed to them through their diet,'' according to Dr. Robert C. Hale and colleagues from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science in Gloucester Point. BDEs are added to polyurethane, the synthetic foam used to make seat cushions and many other materials, as a fire retardant. The European Commission (news - web sites) plans to ban BDEs due to mounting concerns about their potential health risks and a recent study that found concentrations of BDEs on the rise in human breast milk, Hale explained in an interview with Reuters Health. ``What's new here is the fact that BDEs are a persistent pollutant--meaning that it does not readily break down in the environment--and they have not been well studied,'' Hale told Reuters Health. Notably, Hale pointed out that concentrations in US biosolids exceed those typically found in European biosolids by a factor of 10 to 100. In the study, published in the July 12th issue of the journal Nature, the researchers analyzed 11 samples of treated biosolids from California, New York, Virginia and Maryland. The total concentration of BDEs in the biosolids was 1,100 to 2,290 micrograms per kilogram of dry weight, ``suggesting that input was high and consistent, regardless of the region of origin and irrespective of pre-application treatment,'' the authors write. The researchers found BDEs in 87% of 334 fish from Virginia waters that they tested. In fact, a carp from one stream in Virginia contained 47,900 micrograms per kilogram of total BDEs, ``rivaling the highest fillet burdens reported in the world so far,'' the report indicates. ``The jury is still out about how toxic BDEs are, but the fact

remains--they do bio-accumulate and they are persistent,'' Hale said. Hale also noted that BDEs are ``quite similar in structure to the drug thyroxine'' and said that the chemicals may mimic the drug's activity in humans. Thyroxine is used in the treatment of thyroid disorders and helps regulate growth and cell metabolism. Over half the sewage sludge produced annually in the United States is applied to land, amounting to roughly 4 million tons in 1998, the authors note. SOURCE: Nature 2001;412:140-141. -----------------------------------------------Subject: Asian Fruit Quiz On-line Date: Sat, 28 Jul 2001 18:06:07 EDT From: Dmshuck@aol.com Hi Leo, If you are interested, you can copy and paste the address below and take an Asian fruit quiz. You will see some pictures and be given some multiple choice answers. Thanks to all of the knowledge from CRFG I was able to get them all right! The web site even provided some recipes for most of the fruits. http://chinesefood.about.com/library/blfruitquiz.htm Sincerely, Denise Woo mailto:Dmshuck@aol.com

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> NAFEX List See: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/nafex <<<<<<

Subject: Date: ReplyTo: From:

Chinese Che, Grafted To Osage Orange; Information Sought Sat, 28 Jul 2001 15:28:47 -0500 nafex@yahoogroups.com "R. Keith Etheridge" <grandpa@chipsnet.com>

This spring I successfully grafted chinese che (female) on two 3 in diameter, 5 ft. up, osage orange trees. At one time almost each 40 acres here were divided with osage orange as a hedge, most were bulldozed out, but I still have a Quartermile and many as weeds in pasture and other non-crop land. Does any one information not noted in the CRFG page? Hardiness? ability to fruit without male? palatability? etc. Keith Etheridge DVM mailto:grandpa@chipsnet.com Lower zone 5

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: ReplyTo: Re: Chinese Che, Grafted To Osage Orange; Information Sought Sat, 28 Jul 2001 13:50:54 -0700 Claude Sweet <sweetent@home.com> nafex@yahoogroups.com

Some seedlings will generally produce either male or female flowering plants, but some plants do produce a perfect flowers. Pollination is required, but plant's perfect flowers will self pollinate, producing a smaller fruit. Fruit quality is quite variable. I have not tasted any worthy of eating out of hand, but they make an attractive garnish. The fruit could also be used as a natural red dye. I do not recall anyone writing about grafting it to osage orange rootstock. Interesting. My only experience was with a grower in Valley Center, California who was attempting to promote the fruit commercially; but it did not catch on. The limited market window of fruit availability does not make it easy to promote. Claude Sweet San Diego, CA mailto:sweetent@home.com

>>> Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU> <<<

None this time

>>> [rarefruit] List - http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rarefruit <<<

Subject: Date: From: ReplyTo:

Tropical Fruit Tree Nursery, El Monte, CA, Recommended Sun, 15 Jul 2001 14:56:01 -0700 "Gary Siegel" <Siegel2@home.com> rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

To Southern CA rare fruiters: I just discovered a great place to get grafted rare fruit trees; Sugar Apples, Longans, Lychees, Jakfruit, ect. The place is called Tropical Fruit Tree Nursery and is located at 4252 N. Tyler Ave. in El Monte. I just bought a few trees from them . The grafts are done well and the trees are good size. They only sell grafted trees, no seedlings. They don`t ship, but might in the future. I know that this may sound like an ad for them, but its not. I thought a place like this is so unusual that rare fruiters in So CA would like to know about it. Gary mailto:Siegel2@home.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: ReplyTo: Wash Those Imported Lychees! I Got Sick.... Sat Jul 28, 2001 6:14 am Donna <Ivanthecool@aol.com> rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

Cecelia, Be careful eating those lychees from the market. Wash them really well! The last time I bought fresh Lychees from the market, I wound up with organophasphate poisoning from the pesticides they

had sprayed them with. I handled them a lot as I was peeling them for myself and my daughter and the poisons wound up on the fruit we ate. Mine was much worse since I peeled all of them. ~Donna mailto:Ivanthecool@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: ReplyTo: Re: Wash Those Imported Lychees! I Got Sick.... Sun, 29 Jul 2001 02:49:43 -0000 tabbydan@yahoo.com rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

Hmmm. I don't doubt that you were poisoned by something on the fruit but how do you know it was organophosphates? I ask because I used to be a chemist and many of the phosphate ester pesticides that are used are EXTREMELY transient (water often causes them to break down - even atmosphereic moisture... as well as many other things). They tend to be EXTREMELY toxic (a number of WWII chemical weapons were organophosphates) but as they are transient it is rather rare for consumers to be poisoned by them (usually it is the people who apply them or the people who live near the field...). mailto:tabbydan@yahoo.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: ReplyTo: Re: Wash Those Imported Lychees! I Got Sick.... Sat, 28 Jul 2001 18:19:55 -0400 Sean Cloninger <seanstud@tampabay.rr.com> rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

What a timely e-mail. My girlfriend and I just returned from the store with a variety of lychee fruit that we don't grow ourselves. Since we usually just eat the fruit of our own trees, and since they have never had any insect problems, nor have we ever sprayed any pesticide on them, we never would have thought of washing the skins. My girlfriend is a science teacher, and if you don't mind telling, she would like to know what your symptoms were and what treatment (if any) you received. If you'd rather, you can e-mail us directly at mds@tampabay.rr.com. Hope you're better, and thanks. Sean Cloninger mailto:seanstud@tampabay.rr.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: ReplyTo: Cyanogenic glycoside From Passionfruit Seeds Sat, 28 Jul 2001 17:42:27 -0700 dreadlox@cwjamaica.com rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

Tell me more (about) this Cyanogenic glycoside business, what are the side effects?? Im really interested to know as recently I dumped a whole bowl of shrimps after I had had some passionfruit juice, and I was eating them with soysauce and peppers... I wonder if I kicked the wrong culprit?? Yes I did blend the seeds and strain... hmmm Interesting. Mike Barnett mailto:dreadlox@cwjamaica.com JAMAICA, West Indies

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Cyanogenic glycoside From Passionfruit Seeds Date: Sun, 29 Jul 2001 02:59:23 -0000 From: tabbydan@yahoo.com ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com I can't say what the symptoms are but the deal is: cyanogenic glycosides + stomach acid = cyanide production (probably in the form of HCN). The end result is the same as if you had consumed some cyanide. So for the symptoms I'd do a web search on google (something like "cyanide poisioning" or "symptoms of cyanide poisioning). Sub-lethal doses of cyanide just make you sick, it is the kind of poision that is SLOWLY removed from the body so a series of (ordinarily) sublethal doses can lead to death. Aside from the aforementioned cyanogenic glycosides there are other plant produced cyanogenic molecules (usually they have a nitrile group that can easily be peeled off on exposure to acid). I have heard that peach pits have this property. mailto:tabbydan@yahoo.com

>>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> <<< http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

None this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000108A.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - August 15, 2001 - AKA RFN200108B.txt Notes In Passing - Leo 1. I tried budding citrus and grafted a tiny 1/8" diameter scion at the same time. I doubt if any buds will grow, but the graft has tiny leaves. Have you noticed whether budded citrus have better takes when in a sunny location? 2. I also tried budding a mango on the same day, and it looks more promising than the citrus buds. Is budding generally less successful than grafting mango? 3. You'll want to check out Sainarong Rasananda's Mailbag for more longan information. Contents: The letters are separated into categories, with a brief description and the names of the senders. Then, following the "Contents" list are the letters. >>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber, Florida, Has Mango, Starfruit, Lychee, .... Steve Cassidy <concorer2000@yahoo.com> New Subscriber, Florida, Providing Fruit For Other Primates Nesshr@aol.com New Subscriber, Looking For Good Feijoa Cultivars "Bill Bromley" <bbromley@houston.rr.com> Re: New Subscriber, Looking For Good Feijoa Cultivars

Leo Manuel

To: "W R Bromley" <bbromley@houston.rr.com

>> Readers Write <<

Handling Cashew Nuts Brian Carroll <bcarroll@mindinfo.com> To: Maria Batalini <miapsd@worldnet.att.net> Re: Organophosphate, cyanide poisoning "Leo A. Martin" <leo1010@attglobal.net> Re: Rare Fruit News Online - August 1, 2001 - 7 -- Bamboo Permacltur@aol.com Fwd: Book on Himalayan Wild Fruits-SPAMBernie <bmorris@growinggreengardens.com> Complaint By Reader Of Rare Fruit News Online Leo Manuel To: parmarch@vsnl.com Re: Growing Mangos Douglas Spaulding <spauldin@bellatlantic.net> Re: Growing Mangos Leo Manuel To: Douglas Spaulding <spauldin@bellatlantic.net> Plum Fruit - Source Wanted Ann Jamison Hewat <ann.hewat@snet.net> Re: Plum Fruit - Source Wanted Leo Manuel To: Ann <ann.hewat@snet.net> Custard Apple In India; Information Sought Linda A Holler <lholler2@mindspring.com> Re: Custard Apple In India; Information Sought "George F. Emerich" <gemerich@tfb.com> To: Linda A Holler <lholler2@mindspring.com>

Fwd: Grafting cherimoya Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Planting papaya Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: Adelelevy@aol.com Millennium Mango; Available In US? Brett Badger <to_two_utes@yahoo.com> Passiflora Mollissima Questions; Eden Project in Cornwall.... "Roy Dynan" <roy.dynan@talk21.com> Passifloras "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> To: "Roy Dynan" <roy.dynan@talk21.com> Re: Passifloras "Roy Dynan" <roy.dynan@talk21.com> To: "Bob Holzinger" <bholzing@amgen.com> Re: Passiflora Mollissima Questions; Eden Project.... Leo Manuel To: "Roy Dynan" <roy.dynan@talk21.com> Indian Guava - when is ripe too ripe? Gavin ATKINSON <Gavin.Atkinson@premiers.qld.gov.au> Best Mango Variety For So. Cal.? Nursery For Lamb-Hass Avo? "David" <rack12@earthlink.net> Re: Best Mango Variety For So. Cal.? Nursery For Lamb-Hass Avo? Leo Manuel To: David <rack12@earthlink.net> Banana (musa); Fruit Or Pups - Which Comes First? "Amy Fernandez" <marvelousgardens@mediaone.net> Soursop (Also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Re: Soursop (Also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) Leo Manuel To: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com>

RE: Soursop (Also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Re: Soursop (Also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) Leo Manuel To: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Re: Soursop (Also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) "George F. Emerich" <gemerich@tfb.com> "Abel, Todd" <tabel@statek.com> Re: Soursop (Also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) Sven Merten <scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net> To: Todd <tabel@statek.com> Re: Soursop (also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) "Paul Fisher" <MageeThor@aol.com> >>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Re: [longan-research] cultivar name "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Re: [longan-research] cultivar name Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Longan and Potassium Chlorate - cont. "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th>

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

Durian Adventures in Thailand http://www.durianpalace.com/durianstories.htm New Rare Fruit Seed Offerings http://www.fruitlovers.com/seedlist.html

Newsletter - (Promoting RFNO!) Debby Williams <debbywi@yahoo.com> Reply-To: debby@debbywilliams.com California Tropical Fruit Tree Nursery http://www.tropicalfruittrees.com/

>>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time

<<<<

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<< None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<< None, this time

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<

Re: Banana questions Console IIci <tfnews@gate.net> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm. None, this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Subscriber, Florida, Has Mango, Starfruit, Lychee, .... Date: Sun, 5 Aug 2001 16:34:55 -0700 (PDT) From: Steve Cassidy <concorer2000@yahoo.com> My name is Steve Cassidy. I live in SW Ranches, Florida. We are curruntly growing Mangoes, Starfruits, Lychees, Barbadoss cherries, Avocadoes, Star apples, and Papayas. Steve mailto:concorer2000@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Florida, Providing Fruit For Other Primates Date: Wed, 8 Aug 2001 07:35:46 EDT From: Laura Shroyer <Nesshr@aol.com> Hi! My name is Laura Shroyer. My husband Eric grows bananas, heliconias and ginger. We are volunteers at a primate sanctuary in central florida. We are collecting edible plants, fruits, berries, etc to start a large garden at the sanctuary. We live south west of Miami. Please put us on your list. We are trying to learn all we can so we can provide the largest variety for these beloved apes. Thank you, and pant hoot from the chimps Laura Shroyer mailto:Nesshr@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Looking For Good Feijoa Cultivars Date: Fri, 10 Aug 2001 08:03:58 -0500 From: "W R Bromley" <bbromley@houston.rr.com> Hi

I'm W. R. Bromley. I live in Houston, Tx. Today I heard on the news all of the whining about the heat on the East coast and I've never heard such cry babies about a few days of heat. Spend July and August in Texas and they'll shut up and be grateful. I've tried planting from pots in the heat everyone says if a plant is in a pot you can transplant it anytime. Maybe in California and Illinois and Alaska but Bubba that ain't true in Texas. I get about a 50% success rate and I think I know how to plant a tree or flower. I think a person in south Texas is better served by keeping the plant in its pot on the East side of the house where it gets shade most of the day and then put it in the ground in October and let it set roots in the winter, both days. I'm growing several varieties of peaches, asian pears, apples and persimmons, pluot, apriums and plums. Giving up on the apples, asian pears, pluots, and plums due to the terrible heat we have they just don't want to bear very well even though I have them on a watering system. Asian Pears getting fireblight and the fruit is good and plentiful and the squirrels thank me for them. I've had a Warren Pear for 10 years and it has never fruited. I intend to increase planting of persimmons and loquats as they produce well with little work. My favorite fruit and one that apparently no one else likes is the feijoa. I am trying to find a nursery that sells the Edenvale, Improved Coolidge, Trask, Mammoth or any other good, edible variety and that bears regularly. I've had Nazemeth in the ground for 8 years but never any fruit although I've been assured that if it ever fruits it is a wonderful taste. I think maybe a x-pollinator might help as well as provide me some fruit. If anyone knows where I can purchase about 20 of these plants I would be most appreciative. please contact me and we'll work out something for January. Bill mailto:bbromley@houston.rr.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: New Subscriber, Looking For Good Feijoa Cultivars From: Leo Manuel To: "W R Bromley" <bbromley@houston.rr.com> Date: Friday, August 10, 2001 9:19 AM Hi Bill Are you familiar with NAFEX (North American Fruit Explorers)? If not, you should also get on their mailing list, as they have wide ranging discussions about most of the fruit you are growing, and may have recommendations for varieties that will do better where

you live. Contact them at the web page http://groups.yahoo.com/group/nafex Take care, Leo

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Date: From: To:

Handling Cashew Nuts Tue, 31 Jul 2001 20:10:58 -0700 Brian Carroll <bcarroll@mindinfo.com> Maria Batalini <miapsd@worldnet.att.net>

Greetings Maria, I saw your question in the Rare Fruit newsletter. I now live in central California, but I lived on the Colombian Llanos for nine years, and cashews grew wild in our neighborhood. I only know one person who went to the bother of curing the nuts. Instead, the local kids ate the fruit and discarded the nut and its hard outer shell. They loved this juicy flesh, but I tried it a few times and decided that the fruit was an acquired taste that I wasn't very likely to acquire. When eating the fruit it was very important to lean way over, because any juice that dripped on clothing turned into a permanent dark stain. One friend of mine collected these nuts in a hanging mesh bag until he had quite a few to work with. Cracking the nut requires a hammer and pinchers, because the chemistry of the nut is so caustic that it will burn skin or burn through some kinds of gloves. The final step is deep fat frying, using a submergible wire basket. My friend always did this outside, because the fumes were over-powering if attempted in a poorly ventilated room. I never actually was present when he did this, but just his description of it was enough to keep me from trying it. If you are brave enough to try this, let me know how successful it turns out. Brian Carroll mailto:bcarroll@mindinfo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Organophosphate, cyanide poisoning Date: Tue, 31 Jul 2001 23:46:56 -0700

From:

"Leo A. Martin" <leo1010@attglobal.net> Hello, Animals use various chemicals for transmission of electrical impulses from one nerve cell to another. One such chemical is acetylcholine, used by nerve cells involved in thinking, sweating, salivating, producing tears, bowel function, muscle contraction, breathing, pupil constriction, urination, heartbeat regulation, and more. After a nerve cell releases acetylcholine to signal another nerve cell, an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase chops up acetylcholine, stopping the target nerve cell from firing. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. So, poisoning with such compounds produces nausea, vomiting, diarrhea; headache; urinary incontinence; excessive tear, sweat, and saliva production; heart abnormalities; delirium (the person is awake but completely and usually wildly out of their mind) or coma; muscle twitching or even paralysis; and cessation of breathing. Death may result. Nicotine poisoning causes many of the same symptoms. Marathon is a nicotine-like poison. Tobacco tea is a very good insecticide. There are specific antidotes for such poisoning. Following recovery, there may be permanent impairment of many bodily functions. Malathion is among the least toxic organophosphate to mammals. We have an enzyme that degrades malathion quickly, whereas fish and insects do not. It can still kill us. When you are using pesticides, PLEASE BE VERY CAREFUL. Wear heavy rubber gloves; don't dilute pesticides indoors; don't breathe fumes; and wear eye protection. If you spill some on your skin, RUN to water and wash it off for at least 10 minutes. Then wash over and over again with soapy water. If you begin sweating and salivating heavily, or have trouble breathing, call 911 and go to an emergency room. There have been instances of patients with massive pesticide exposure being brought to emergency rooms and poisoning the emergency room staff from pesticide on the patient's skin and clothing. Cyanide prevents cells from using oxygen. Cyanide poisoning is like suffocating to death while awake. Inhaling hydrogen cyanide kills within minutes. This is what is used in gas chambers. Eating cyanide kills in hours. Laetrile, made from peach pits and a widely promoted quack cancer treatment in the 1970s, has been

responsible for many cyanide deaths in cancer victims. There is a specific antidote for cyanide poisoning. If one supects cyanide poisoning, call 911 at once because rapid treatment will increase the chances for survival. Tell the operator that cyanide poisoning is suspected. The emergency response team will need to take precautions to prevent being poisoned as well. I've also seen mention of chlorate use in this discussion. Be careful with this, too! Chlorates are highly oxidative and damage skin and other tissues the way strong acids or alkalis would. When ingested they cause methemoglobinemia, a condition in which hemoglobin (the red oxygen-carrying pigment in blood) cannot carry oxygen and the organism may suffocate. Chlorates may also cause kidney failure. For further reading, see Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. Leo -- Leo A. Martin, MD Diplomate, mailto:leo1010@attglobal.net American Board of Anesthesiology Phoenix, Arizona, USA Cactus and Succulent Society of America http://www.cssainc.org Central Arizona Cactus and Succulent Society http://www.centralarizonacactus.org -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Rare Fruit News Online - August 1, 2001 - 7 -- Bamboo Date: Wed, 1 Aug 2001 07:47:59 EDT From: Permacltur@aol.com April, The American Bamboo Society has a number of web pages: http://www.bamboo.org/abs http://www.bamboo.org/abs/PlantAndProductSources.html Bamboo Society/ IBG Archive: http://home.ease.lsoft.com/archives/bamboo.html

American

They have a Southern California chapter, and I think dues will run about $35/year, though I'm not quite sure. ABS also has lists of suppliers of bamboo plants. Most species of bamboo take several years to become fully established and produce full-size canes. It makes sense to look into different genera, species and varieties as there is a huge variety of forms, from ground covers that are only a few inches high to timber bamboos that may grow to 70 feet. The individual species are of course adapted to a variety of climates and soil conditions, so you probably should check with the local ABS chapter to find out what varieties are best adapted to the LA region. Above all, remember that some genera are

runners, sending up shoots all over the place, and some are clumpers, that grow outward only slowly. And some are intermediate or do both. You would not normally place a runner bamboo near a foundation or footing, for example, but a clumping bamboo might make an excellent windbreak or screen. Dan Hemenway mailto:Permacltur@aol.com Barking Frogs Permaculture http://barkingfrogspc.tripod.com/frames.html -----------------------------------------------Subject: Fwd: Book on Himalayan Wild Fruits-SPAMDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2001 16:38:08 -0400 From: Bernie <bmorris@growinggreengardens.com> Hi, Sorry to bother you, but I've recently joined the list and I received this a day or two following your email. I admire his initiative, but I loathe spam. I do not know what your list policies are, but I feel you should be aware that members are being spammed by this man.I've included a copy of the spam as well as my response. (I know I shouldn't respond to spam.I just had to when I saw he misspelled his own domain name.) Before I replied, I did a search of the archives that you have posted on your web site.I could only find one posting from Dr. Chiranjit Parmar. I assume he has joined your list many years prior to the date that the archives include. One informative posting in five years doesn't make up for spam. Thanks for your time, Bernie mailto:bmorris@growinggreengardens.com

Offending email follows-<snip> (Concluding with a copy of the letter he sent to the sender. ) -----------------------------------------------Subject: Complaint By Reader Of Rare Fruit News Online Date: Thu, 02 Aug 2001 05:51:19 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: parmarch@vsnl.com Dear Dr. Chiranjit Parmar,

A reader was very annoyed at receiving unsolicited mail from you regarding your book on Himalayan wild fruits. Please do not use the email addresses of subscribers to this newsletter as a source for anything that may be interpreted as spam. Many people have been overwhelmed by unwanted email, finding that advertisements for unwanted products actually exceeds the mail that they want to receive. I hope you will cooperate. Sincerely, Leo Manuel -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Growing mangos Date: Fri, 03 Aug 2001 00:10:39 -0400 From: Douglas Spaulding <spauldin@bellatlantic.net> Mr. Manuel, Thank you for responding so quickly. I followed your instructions and am excited about having a mango tree. We live in the Mid-Atlantic area and do get several inches of snow during the winter. In the winter, I plan to move the mango tree into our heated sunroom with sky lights, two walls of glass and catheral ceiling. Do you think the mango tree would survive with these conditions? Thank you for your help, Margie mailto:spauldin@bellatlantic.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Growing mangos Date: Fri, 03 Aug 2001 07:09:29 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: Douglas Spaulding <spauldin@bellatlantic.net> Hi Margie, Survival of the mango tree is probably easy to get, but fruiting may require supplemental full-spectrum light when it's indoors,

depending on how much natural light you get through the skylight. You might talk to a nurseryman or someone who has a greenhouse, as they often add special lighting in the winter. Good luck, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Plum Fruit - Source Wanted Date: Fri, 03 Aug 2001 14:23:55 -0700 From: Ann Jamison Hewat <ann.hewat@snet.net> Hi, I live in Ct. and can't easily get Santa Rosa plums. I would like to find a source, pref. organic, and buy them mail-order in quantity. (We like to eat them frozen, so spoilage isn't a problem.) Do you have any suggestions? Thanks, AJ Hewat mailto:ann.hewat@snet.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Plum Fruit - Source Wanted Date: Fri, 03 Aug 2001 12:01:10 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: ann.hewat@snet.net Hi Ann, I don't think that the readers of Rare Fruit News Online will be able to help. I will publish your letter in the newsletter, in any case. You might talk to produce managers in local stores to see if they have ideas for sources. Also, you might search on the internet. Take care, Leo

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Custard Apple In India; Information Sought Date: Sun, 05 Aug 2001 20:31:32 -0700 From: Linda A Holler <lholler2@mindspring.com> Hello Leo & Betty, I am Linda Holler and I'm writing you because I had a custard apple in India a few years ago. It was delicious. It looks like a cherimoya, but is it really the same thing? Thanks for your time, Linda mailto:lholler2@mindspring.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Custard Apple In India; Information Sought Date: Mon, 06 Aug 2001 14:36:13 -0700 From: "George F. Emerich" <gemerich@tfb.com> To: Linda A Holler <lholler2@mindspring.com> Linda: Leo forwarded you question to me and I will try to answer it as best I can. The name 'Custard Apple' has been applied to many of the genus Annona at various times and various places. It is probably most correctly applied to Annona reticulata which is also called 'Ilama' in many Spanish speaking regions. It has been also applied to Annona squamosa (best known in English as 'Sweet Sop'); Annona cherimola x squamosa (usually called 'Atemoya') and Annona cherimola ('Cherimoya'). My guess is that what you had was 'Atemoya' a hybrid of Cherimoya and Sweet Sop which is quite similar to Cherimoya and will thrive and produce in the lowland tropics. If your fruit was grown at higher altitude, it could have been Cherimoya which is indigenous to the equatorial Andes at elevations of 6,000 to 8,000 feet. If you liked what ever you had, you'll love Cherimoya as (in my humble opinion) it is the best of all Annonaceae fruit. George F. Emerich mailto:gemerich@tfb.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Fwd: Grafting cherimoya Date: Mon, 6 Aug 2001 12:48:26 -0700 (PDT) From: Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Leo... Last year, when I did my annual second pruning in August, I grafted some seedlings that were about 5/8' is diameter. They responded better then spring time grafts and the larger size may have had something to do with it. I noticed George Emerich demonstrated grafting on this size seedling. I have a wonderful set on my trees this year - no hand pollinating! I just hose the trees down in the morning. Anyone coming this way is welcome to scion wood of my new 'Elixir' It has far less seeds, is very large and has yellow skin. The flavor is outstanding, too. It is a seedling of Fino de Jete. (Sorry, no mailing). Eunice Messner Anaheim Hills, CA -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Planting papaya Mon, 6 Aug 2001 13:00:38 -0700 (PDT) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Adelelevy@aol.com mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

Adele... Solo papaya are one of the few papayas that have both sexes in the flower so you can plant them where ever you want as you do not need to depend on a male and female in close proximity. (4' is a good spacing) Do plant them on a mound, hillside or where ever they will get good drainage. I just planted some inbetween blueberry plants and they sure are responding to that peaty soil. I'm hoping the papayas will give the blueberries a little shade. I've tried all of the Hawaiian varieties but like my Thai and Florida Jack varities the best. I have seed of the Thai offered in the seed bank but don't plant them until maybe March. They do not like cold, wet winters unless you have a greenhouse.

Eunice Messner

mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Millennium Mango; Available In US? Date: Mon, 6 Aug 2001 16:59:02 -0700 (PDT) From: Brett Badger <to_two_utes@yahoo.com> Hello, Is the Millennium mango available in the US yet? where/when/how it can be obtained? Any idea

Also, I understand that certain strains of the Philippine Carabao mango are superior, particularly those from Guimaras Island. Any idea where these specific strains might be obtained? Finally, the CRFG site states that mango "roots are not destructive." How many feet from my house would it generally be "ok" to plant a mango? Tropical Fruit Tree Nursery, El Monte, CA... I visited this nursery and while they do seem to have a good selection I was a bit frustrated. Two workers I spoke with didn't know what types of Sapodilla or Mango they carried. I could see the plants but wasn't knowledgeable enough to identify varieties by viewing the plant itself. I'm sure a more knowledgeable enthusiast would have had more success. Thank you, Brett Badger mailto:to_two_utes@yahoo.com San Bernardino, CA

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Passiflora Mollissima Questions; Eden Project in Cornwall.... Date: Wed, 8 Aug 2001 12:07:15 GMT+01:00 From: "Roy Dynan" <roy.dynan@talk21.com> Hi Leo, Hope your Hylos arrived OK. I've just been catching up with OldRFN, and I was somewhat dismayed to read that so many people find the banana passionfruit bland - I've been trying to coax one (P. mollissima) to fruit for the last four or five years - I hope I haven't been wasting my time! I'm even more worried about the opinion that they do better

in hotter climes - no chance of that here - I'll just have to hope it's the sugar that's low and the acid stays high (I don't have a sweet tooth and anyway, I'm not too dogmatic to add sugar to anything significantly sourer than a meyer's lemon). Is there anything I can do to improve my chances of well-flavoured fruit (if I ever get any at all)? I'm also waiting to see flowers on the red version (P. x-exoniensis) - is its fruit any better? I've just received P. actinia which is supposed to be just that bit hardier (just enough for outdoors hopefully), and is described by two sources as having 'tasty' fruit (both flowers and fruit look a lot like sweet grenadilla in miniature, though on the downside it has a plain and rather boring oval leaf). Anybody have any experience of it? I'm interested in grafting some shoots of any or all of these onto P. caerulia as suggested in your July A issue - what are the best months to do this? Any recommended graft? Anybody tried budding onto a really thick stem? I'm a bit worried about cutting the rootstock plant back hard as some people say this can kill the whole vine - any suggestions? If not I will graft 10 - 20% of the existing stems and cut the rest back say 10% a month over a season or more.... A bit of news - the strawberry guava I have growing in open land (on my allotment) has finally produced leaves and shoots after being cut down well below soil level by last year's hard winter (with only four layers of fleece to protect it). This is one tough plant; though with only two months of photosynthesis before the next frost it's not surprising it's getting smaller every year. I manhandled a 300 gallon galvanized steel water tank behind it in November '00 only to find I couldn't fill it (I forgot that the water gets turned off in October). I really thought that meant I'd lost it. I'll make sure the tank is full this September and hopefully it will keep all its leaves this winter. Incidentally, (re July B) I had a hunza apricot seedling (3yo) that seemed to die in '99 but it sprang up from the roots the following year and is now the same size as its sibling! Anybody know what my chances of fruit are? PS. I've just got back from the Eden project in Cornwall - a great experience and a huge range of mature and nearly-mature trees. All the 'common' tropicals are there like pineapples, mangoes, breadfruit, sapodilla, white sapote and rambutan etc. - you might find them boring (I don't recall seeing a lychee or a durian), but the structure itself should make up for it!. They have a reasonable selection of the more exotic - more than I can remember - there's a nice mangosteen even if it's too far from the path to see any fruit; they have a Jaboticaba complete with dried out fruit on the stem. The thing that impressed me most was seeing

flowers on a sweet grenadilla (true P.ligularis) and fruit on a naranjilla/lulo - everything I've read on both says that if you're temperate you need high altitude and low latitude, but there they were (though they may have arrived like that courtesy of hormones and/or growlamps) - so I'll keep trying with my own lulos (I'm getting better overwi! ntering now they are on Cyphomandra rootstocks). They had a fruiting Opuntia ficus-indica with pads only 6in diameter - could that be a dwarf variety or are they fudging the labels? The Mediterranean biome was correctly sparse at this time of year - the best time to see it must be spring - though I think they should be encouraged to display the more xerophytic 'new crops' like other cactus fruits, argan, aussie bush-tucker etc. - it would be an ideal filler for an exhibit that many found slightly disappointing. PPS. I can recommend an excellent and luxurious B&B guest house practically next door - run by an ex-US Navy man - I'm happy with a plastic sheet under a tree myself, but my wife loved it and she's less easy to impress. Roy mailto:roy.dynan@talk21.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Passifloras Thu, 9 Aug 2001 12:16:20 -0700 "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> "Roy Dynan" <roy.dynan@talk21.com>

Hi Roy, Leo passed your passiflora questions to me. I applaud you for trying to push the envelope, but unfortunately diligence and hard work will not always give the desired results in this case. P. mollissima is really two plants-- the one found in the wild in Columbia and the one sold and traded around the U.S. The former has larger, darker flowers and a supposedly tasty fruit and the later has pale pink flowers with bland fruit. There are no cultural conditions that I know of that will turn the later fruit into something good to eat. P. 'x-exoniensis' isn't self fruitful and I don't know of anyone who has fruited it, so I can't comment on the fruit. One of it's parents does have a good fruit, so you could be in luck here. P. actinia is a hardier species, but from reports on the fruit, I'd say it was nothing special.

As for grafting onto P. caerulea , it can be done and was done here in So. California by one individual. The grafts took and grew well until it got too cold, when the grafted part died back to the P. caerulea rootstock. So the cold tolerance of the rootstock did not help the tender scion survive. That makes the question of how far to cut back the rootstock a mute point. To grow a passiflora with cold hardiness and get a good tasting fruit, I would try different clones of P. incarnata. The clone I have does have a tasty fruit, but since it is not self fruitful, you will need a cross pollinator and another clone will work out fine, especially if it has good fruit also. Good luck, Bob Holzinger mailto:bholzing@amgen.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Passifloras Fri, 10 Aug 2001 16:32:37 GMT+01:00 "Roy Dynan" <roy.dynan@talk21.com> "Bob Holzinger" <bholzing@amgen.com>

Hi Bob, Thanks very much for replying so quickly (thanks Leo). I have two versions of P. mollissima, a 'floriferous hyrid' called Smythiana (which at 12 feet of growth has yet to flower) and a tiny plant of 'true' mollissima - which is nevertheless described as hardy at or near freezing. Both these labels come from the supplier, John Vanderplank, and though he is extremely scrupulous I have to say he was caught out (in his first edition) by an aliasing problem similar to the one you describe ie. antioquensis/exoniensis. I will observe the flower colours with great interest! Grafting for hardiness might still have some benefits here - in the case of all but P. caerulia the roots are the No 1 problem. It's the long , damp months of winter - mostly freezing rain with very few sights of sun. I'm just inside the N circular road in London, the houses are shoulder to shoulder with 2 x 80ft gardens between the rows - it only gets down to -18C here about once a decade and I doubt that the wall I use for P.caerulia gets below -5C even then - so maybe there's a chance that a Tacsonia might survive in a fleece wrapping if it's on P. caerulia rootstock (?). I'd be interested in your opinion on cutting a 12 foot plant down to 6 foot in say late September before bringing it in for the

winter (or wrapping it outside). Would this degree of pruning shock the plant? The root problem is a killer for P. incarnata in this climate over the years I've lost three plants and maybe a dozen seedlings, 90% of them in their first winter and the rest got smaller every year. No amount of perlite seems to help, though I can't swear that I've ever left a pot completely and utterly dry from September to May. I'm giving up on pots - the next plant I get my hands on is going into a 3 foot high sand and rubble mound covered in plastic over winter. My allotment is the only place I can erect such an eyesore, and it's colder there - but cold in itself isn't the problem with P. incarnata is it? Thanks again, and regards. Roy mailto:roy.dynan@talk21.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Passiflora Mollissima Questions; Eden Project.... Date: Wed, 08 Aug 2001 06:08:32 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: "Roy Dynan" <roy.dynan@talk21.com> Hi Roy, The only Hylocereus that I had been expecting to arrive was some a reader sent from Thailand, and they were confiscated at the Los Angeles airport. Seems that there's some international agreement that the cacti are protected (regardless of whether raised in a domestic setting or wile) and the only way you can import it is by having permission from the country from which it's coming from. To say I was disappointed is an understatement. I grafted some Passiflora vitafolia onto cutting grown Passiflora edulis 'Frederick' a few weeks ago. The rootstocks were only about one foot in height, and I put a cleft graft onto each, with scion height being about 6 inches. It's too soon to say I succeeded, but they're all looking very good, with new leaves showing. I don't know how long it takes to be sure they'll survive. I put them in one gallon pots in a hotbed with bottom heat. They are getting filtered natural light, but are shaded much of the day. Each scion is enclosed in a plastic bag, with a moistened paper towel piece inside, and tied tightly just below the union.

Have you ever been to the Inverewe, Scotland? There's apparently an exceedling warm ocean current nearby, so that outdoors are fuchsias flourishing, and there's a large garden of plants that mostly shouldn't be surviving outdoors at that latitude. It's worth the drive, in my estimation. You might want to read about it first. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Indian Guava - When Is Ripe Too Ripe? Date: Thu, 9 Aug 2001 08:47:11 +1000 From: Gavin ATKINSON <Gavin.Atkinson@premiers.qld.gov.au> Hi Leo Here's a query for the Rare Fruit list about Indian Guavas. I planted a seedling about 2 years back and have got about 3 fruits from it so far. The fruit turns from green to a yellowy-cream colour, and starts taking on a fragrance very similar to passionfruit. The big question I have for list members is when is the right time to eat it? I think I've left it too late in the past when a very, very strong fragrance comes from the fruit - so much so that if I leave it on the kitchen sink for a few days, the whole room smells of it. And then when I eat it, it is so sickly sweet I can't stomach it! Has anyone else grown Indian Guavas, and if so, am I leaving it too long to ripen, or is it always this sweet (if so it's going to have to go, and I'll plant something else in its place)! Regards Gavin Atkinson mailto:Gavin.Atkinson@premiers.qld.gov.au http://www.thevegetablepatch.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Best Mango Variety For So. Cal.? Nursery For Lamb-Hass Avo? Date: Thu, 9 Aug 2001 22:47:20 -0700 From: "David" <rack12@earthlink.net>

After riding my bike past a large mango tree covered with fruit in Culver City today, I decided that, dad-gummit, I'm gonna finally grow mangos. There are so many varieties. Does anybody know which variety is best for Southern California? Oh...... and it's not enough to know which variety is best without knowing where to get it. That was the problem with the avocado articles in the Fruit Gardener awhile back. They recommended varieties but had no idea where to obtain them. Which reminds me....anyone know where to get lamb-hass avocados? Thanks David mailto:Rack12@earthlink.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Best Mango Variety For So. Cal.? Nursery For Lamb-Hass Avo? Date: Fri, 10 Aug 2001 06:37:03 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: David <rack12@earthlink.net> Hi David, I'll post your letter in the next Rare Fruit News Online. Not only is it not enough to know which variety without knowing where to get it. It's also important to know whether you're very near the coast with the different climate than away from the immediate coast or maybe closer to the desert. If you aren't close to the desert, I believe you'll find that that "Valencia Pride" will be a good choice. It's also available at a number of nurseries, but someone will undoubtedly let you know which nurseries near Mar Vista are likely sources. In the meantime, call around at various nurseries. Are you a member of CRFG? If so, there are often advertisements in the "Fruit Gardener" of nurseries. There are nurseries in San Diego county that will likely carry the special avocado varieties, between Vista and Fallbrook. If you are coming down to that area, I'll look up the names of them. Take care, Leo ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Banana (musa); Fruit Or Pups - Which Comes First? Date: Sat, 11 Aug 2001 22:27:00 -0700 From: "Amy Fernandez" <marvelousgardens@mediaone.net> My name is Amy Fernandez I live in No. Tustin Calif zone 10 or Sunset 23 I am now growing a Petite Nigra fig tree and some musas, Blue Java Ice cream and dwarf Cavendish and the very dwarf Cavendish (1 1/2 to 2 feet tall), Kru and Red Ilohene, and 2 Papayas from some papaya seeds (the pink one from Hawaii) I threw on the soil, not sure what sex they are yet, but one of them is blooming with the flowers on a stalk (male?) and the other is retarded, no blossoms, yet, BUMMER. I don't know what to look for inside the flowers to see if it is capable of self-pollinating. I had thought I'd read that the musas would fruit first and then send out its pups, but some of my musas have sent out pups without even being full grown and not having fruited. Is this "normal" and will they still fruit or should I just cut the "old" one down? One of them was fully grown, when I do cut them down, do I cut at ground level, straight across or on a slant? Thanks much, Amy mailto:marvelousgardens@mediaone.net Orange County, So. CA http://people.we.mediaone.net/marvelousgardens -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Soursop (Also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) Tue, 14 Aug 2001 10:57:24 -0700 Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> zone 10 or 23 in

Do you know of anyone growing the Soursop (Guanabana) in Southern Cal. Can they be container grown? I am also considering the Wax Jambu. It seems to be getting more and more popular. Fruiting trees in 15gallons are available in Orange at Greenmart (expensive), with at least 50 fruit on a 3ft tree, amongst several other nurseries. I recently had an exciting addition to the collection. I planted a Sapodilla (Alana graft) in full sun. It is growing already. I am using rock mulch for extra heat as I do on most of my trees. The winter will be the true test.

Todd Abel

mailto:tabel@statek.com

Orange, CA 92867

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Soursop (Also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) Date: Tue, 14 Aug 2001 12:19:16 -0700 From: Leo Manuel To: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Hi Todd, I will put your letter in the newsletter which goes out tomorrow. Also, I've sent copies to other people who know probably something about one of more of the items. I know that Wax Jambu is sometimes grafted onto Rose Apple. I bought one almost a year ago from Ben Poirier Poirier mailto:benplant@tfb.com> near Fallbrook, so he probably could tell you about that option, and also, he may have trees to sell. I also am interested in getting a so-called sweet wax jambu. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: RE: Soursop (Also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) Date: Tue, 14 Aug 2001 12:33:56 -0700 From: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Is your Wax Jambu Fruiting? How big is it? Are you planting in the ground or container? Does the rose apple improve the cold tolerance? California Tropical Fruit Tree Nursery has the sweet wax jambu. Todd mailto:tabel@statek.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: Re: Soursop (Also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) Tue, 14 Aug 2001 12:52:43 -0700

From:

Leo Manuel Hi Todd,

To: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com>

My Wax Jambu is maybe 30 inches tall, and still in a pot. I plan to put it in the ground. I haven't had frost yet, and also have a Jakfruit in the ground. (Not long enough to know how it will survive, but it's been in for over a year.) I don't know if rose apple rootstock improves the cold tolerance, nor if long-range compatibility is an issue. How much the sweet wax jambu sells for, if you know? Thanks

Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: FWD: Soursop (also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) Tue, 14 Aug 2001 13:05:25 -0700 "George F. Emerich" <gemerich@tfb.com> "Abel, Todd" <tabel@statek.com>

Todd: Leo forwarded your note to me so I'll try to give you my take. At the outset, don't take any negative comments of mine as discouragement from trying to grow and fruit anything you can lay your hands on. I have seen strange and surprising things happen with just the right combination of cultivars, microclimate and tender touch. I do not know of Soursop (Annona muricata) to fruit outside in southern California. I have had trees grow outside for several years and attain considerable size but inevitably along come an extended cold spell (you know I don't get frost) and they just give up. Most of such tropical plants go into shock at about 55F and repeated shocks will cause them to succumb. You may realize that Miami has more frosts than I have but it passes quickly and probably followed by days of tropical weather. Two weeks of 40F nights will kill a lot of things, Wax Jambu (Syzygium samarangense) and Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota) are both marginal but in my opinion somewhat more possible of

success here than Soursop. I do not know of anyone actually fruiting either of them outside in Socal. You know that the sap of the Sapodilla plant also known as Chicle Sapote was the original raw material for chewing gum. Back to Soursop, Maria Erlandson actually got some small fruit from a potted plant in a pretty good greenhouse in Escondido. Good Luck, give them all a try and keep us informed. George mailto:gemerich@tfb.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Soursop (also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) Wed, 15 Aug 2001 07:00:18 -0700 Sven Merten <scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net> Todd <tabel@statek.com>

Dear Todd, I'm growing all three. The Soursop are very cold sensitive so I keep them in the greenhouse. The other two do fine outside, with the sapodilla being the most cold hardy. The Soursop has done fine in a pot. As you can see from the pictures below, it is really doing well this summer and it's still in a 5 gallon. I'll probably transplant it into a 7 or 15 next year. This one is just about 3 years old now. They definitely need protection in the winter. My first attempts failed because I left them outside. Wax Jambu is a little more hardy and will survive outside in the warmer areas of SoCal. I have some smaller seedlings, but I am planning to get some larger grafted trees out of Florida one of these days. I know of one couple who had a large tree planted outside that fruited every year. Roger Meyer sells these from his nursery, I think they are about $35, but don't quote me on that. The Sapodilla is much more hardy and should survive in most areas around here, the only question is how well they will fruit. I got one fruit on my Hysea (sp?) last year and it was absolutely wonderful. Have you tried them yet? I've got 7 varieties (just got 3 more, but I'm not sure if the grafts will take) and I plan to try as many as possible to see which will do well here. I've got about 65 trees and I'm going to try to grow them commercially. Dave Silber at Papaya Tree Nursery has had some success and sells the trees, although his prices are a little high. The rock mulch sounds like an interesting idea. Do you just use gravel? By the way, I believe the variety name is Alano, not Alana. I am going to go by Green Mart today and check out their Wax Jambu. What other nurseries have you seen them at?

Best regards, Sven - Fountain Valley mailto:scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Soursop (also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) Date: Wed, 15 Aug 2001 14:40:33 EDT From: "Paul Fisher" <MageeThor@aol.com> Leo, I am growing Soursop in the ground on my south facing slope in the front yard. So far it dies back every winter, then makes a little progress every summer. After my experiences, I believe to fruit this plant you will need a greenhouse to be successful. Wax Jambu does very well here in most of the warmer parts of the county. Little or no leaf drop with my four varieties that I grow, in the winter. They are flourishing in these warmer summer months.As with most of these plants, Quang Ong seems to have the greatest selections and best prices. I have four Sapodillas in the ground. One has fruit now, one is full of flowers, and the other two are growing lots of vegetation. I'm experimenting with their growing locations with two planted on the north slope, one on the south slope, and one right in the middle of my property. I hope this little information is some help. Any more questions feel free to contact me for more info. Paul Fisher mailto:MageeThor@aol.com

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Re: [longan-research] cultivar name Date: Wed, 8 Aug 2001 20:23:51 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> About 8 years ago, a 'new' longan cultivar was 'discovered' in the tropical, central province of Samut Sakorn (Samut means ocean and

Sakorn means water - Samut Sakorn is a seaport town where a river flows into the sea), just south of Bangkok. The owner says that the 'new' cultivar came with a load of marcotted E-Daw he bought from Lampoon in the north of Thailand. He assumed that it must have mutated from E-Daw. He named it Petch Sakorn (Petch means diamond), in honor of his province. I would presume that Petch Sakorn and Diamond River is one and the same. Close inspection shows that Petch Sakorn is nothing like E-Daw in every aspect, except that they are both longans. I would assume that DNA finger-printing would reveal that Petch Sakorn cannot mutate from E-Daw. Petch Sakorn is certainly a tropical longan. It is very easy to grow in the tropic, and blossoms naturally once or twice a year in the tropic. The blossoms are profuse.The taste is generally agreed to be definitely inferior to E-Daw and Biew Kiew. The fruits taste rather watery, although, with proper care, this effect can be satisfactorily reduced. I would say that Petch Sakorn belongs to a tropical sub-species, which is not uncommon in central Thailand and South Vietnam. In my opinion, Petch Sakorn has been around a long time, but has been only discovered lately. May I add further that the best tropical cultivar of longan IMO is native to South Vietnam, and goes by the name of Xuong com Vang. If you want to know more about Xuong com Vang, please advise. Sainarong Rasananda ----- Original Message ----From: Jonathan H. Crane <jhcr@mail.ifas.ufl.edu> To: Longan Research egroup <longan-research@yahoogroups.com> Sent: Wednesday, August 08, 2001 6:55 PM Subject: Thai cultivar name | | | | | | | | I am trying to find the correct Thai and English name to a cultivar called 'Diamond River' in English and I think 'Petsacon' in Thai. Anyone know if this is correct and have any cultivar description. Thanks. JH Crane

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: [longan-research] cultivar name Wed, 08 Aug 2001 11:27:47 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Sainarong Siripen Rasananda <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th>

Hi Sainarong, I definitely would like to learn more about Xuong com Vang and am pretty sure several of the readers would as well, when convenient for you. We are truly blessed by your contributions. Sincerely, Leo Manuel -----------------------------------------------Subject: Longan and Potassium Chlorate - cont. Date: Fri, 10 Aug 2001 22:59:35 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> There are 3 known methods of applying potassium chlorate, namely, injection into the trunk, foilar application and soil application. Injection does not work well, but it does have the better of flowering only above the particular trunk/branch whic is injected. I shall leave foilar application until later on, and shall concern myself with soil application here. I shall begin by saying that I have not yet met anyone whom I consider to understand fully the mechanism of soil application. I know many who say s/he knows exactly how to apply Potassium chlorate to the soil, but I am not convinced that s/he really knows. I would naturally assume that potassium chlorate is taken up in the form of water solution by the fine roots. Then I come up against the fact that second application does not work well, particularly on an older tree. Moreover, one often has to apply more chemical than the first time. Why is that? Could it be because the fine roots have been damaged by potassium chlorate? This is possible as sodium chlorate, a very similar chemical, can be used as a herbicide. Could it be because the roots somehow do not absorb the chemical so well as the first time? Could it be because the channel bywhich the chemical is carried from the roots to the tip has been damaged? And so on. I am not sure. Maybe you can help me by conducting experiments by yourselves. Anyway, what I now do is allow the plant sufficient time to recover (its fine roots?) before applying the chemical again. Moreover, I try in induce the growth of fine roots near the

surface by applying a lot of chicken manure before applying the potassium chlorate. Sainarong Siripen Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Durian Adventures in Thailand Date: Mon, 13 Aug 2001 13:42:04 -1000 From: "Oscar Jaitt" <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> My durian guru, Shunyam Nirav, has created a new page on his website. In it you can get a taste of our travels together in Thailand. The page is at http://www.durianpalace.com/durianstories.htm Hopefully soon I can extend Nirav's description and add more photos on my own site, http://www.fruitlovers.com. In Thailand I noticed that many durian growers hand pollinate their flowers...so no need for fruit bats there either :<) Oscar Jaitt mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Rare Fruit Seed Offerings Date: Mon, 13 Aug 2001 14:01:26 -1000 From: "Oscar Jaitt" <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> I am now offering several new fruit seeds including: Bilimbi (Averrhoa carambola) Blackberry Jam Fruit (Randia Formosa) Cabelluda (Eugenia cabelluda) Lucmo (Pouteria obovata) Maile (Alyxia olivaeformis) Monkey Jack (Artocarpus lakoocha) Neem (Azadirachta indica) If anyone is interested please let me know right away as they need to be planted ASAP. Peanut Butter Fruit (Bunchosia argentia) Hawaiian Chili Pepper Tree (Capsicum annuum) This plant produces small red chilis year round in a little tree that can grow to be 6 to 8 feet tall. Very hot! Please check my seedlist at http://www.fruitlovers.com/seedlist.html I plan to be adding even

more seeds soon so please check in periodically. There is also now an online order form for your convenience. Thank you, Oscar Jaitt, mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com Fruit Lover's Seed Co.

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Reply-To: Leo, I wanted to let you know I featured your newsletter in my newsletter this past weekend. If you can tell when people ask to subscribe, could you let me know if you get a good response? I have over 100 subscribers, so am hoping that some may actually respond! Here is the newsletter: <snip> ~~~ Fruit Gardens 45-Second Newsletter Issue #3 Greetings fellow Fruit Gardeners! Rare Fruit Newsletter This week I would like to introduce Rare Fruit News Online. This newsletter has a different format than we are accustomed to. It is produced on a bi-monthly basis by Leo Manuel. Leo monitors the Internet for interesting fruit news and discussions, combines this with e-mails received by him from various subscribers and then publishes it in this free newsletter. To access the archives and find information on how to subscribe, visit: http://www.rarefruit.com/ For all the best resources on Fruit Gardens, visit: http://wz.com/homegarden/FruitGardens.html <snip> Happy Gardening! Debby Williams mailto:DebbyWilliams@wz.com Your Fruit Gardens WZ-ard http://www.debbywilliams.com/ Friday, Aug 10, 2001 Newsletter - (Promoting RFNO!) Tue, 14 Aug 2001 07:29:50 -0700 (PDT) Debby Williams <debbywi@yahoo.com> debby@debbywilliams.com

-----------------------------------------------California Tropical Fruit Tree Nursery http://www.tropicalfruittrees.com/ Hours: Monday through Saturday 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM Sunday 9:00 AM - 1:00 PM

Our Mailing Address: 580 Beech Avenue; Suite A; Carlsbad, CA 92008 Our Growing Grounds: Located in Vista, California. Please call and make an appointment to visit our growing grounds. Our Phone: (760)434-5085 Our FAX: (760)434-1460 mailto:tropical@tropicalfruittrees.com

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> NAFEX List See: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/nafex <<<<<<

None this time

>>> Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU> <<<

None this time

>>> [rarefruit] List - http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rarefruit <<<

Subject: Date: From: ReplyTo:

Re: Banana questions Fri, 03 Aug 2001 10:45:22 +0000 Console IIci <tfnews@gate.net> rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

Hi Robert, I checked in Bill Lessards Book (out of print) and called Don Chafin of "Going Bananas". To quote Don: "When the stem emerges scratch the date on it with a knife. When the bananas get plump and change from a dark green to a lighter green check the date. If you find it to be 3 1/2 to 4 months you should be able to cut the stalk. Hang the stalk INVERTED so that as the bananas ripen they support each other. This keeps them from falling off onto the ground. Eat them as they ripen. Removing the male part of the flower can increase the size of the fruit by 5%." Bill Lessard also notes the fact that in cooler weather the fruit may take longer to ripen. Bananas like it warm to hot. If anyone on the group is looking for a good source of bananas they might contact Going Bananas (tell them where you got their name). Going Bananas; Dao & Katie Chafin; 24401 SW 197 Ave Homestead, Florida USA 33031-1174 (305) 247-0397 They have a web site Best of growing, Bob mailto:tfnews@gate.net SW Florida http://www.going-bananas.com

Robert Walton wrote: | | | | given | to me as a good general judge of time. Is it 120 days? | | I'd also like to know if anyone cuts off the male part of the I have a couple of questions about my bananas. Someone once told me that when they fruit you should mark down the date and in "x" amount of days (120?) they are ready for cutting. Of course, you need to look at them to be sure they are ready, but that was

| | | | | | | | |

flower when it comes out. I have read that cutting this off is better, because it saves the plant the energy of producing the useless male flowers. Any thoughts? I am in Hollywood (Southeast Florida). I am growing Saba, Red Cuban, FHIA-3, Cardaba, Giant Platano, Dwarf Cavendish (I think :), and another unidentified "neighborhood" variety. Bob Walton

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

None this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000108B.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - September 1, 2001 - AKA RFN200109A.txt Notes In Passing - Leo I apologize for the excessive length of this issue (76k), but I had trouble cutting out any of it. The "Gleanings From The Internet On Pitahaya" consumes 8k, but for those of us interested in them, I think it's worthwhile to include. >>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber, FL - Question About Bailey's Marvel "Jamie Meade" <jmeade@tampabay.rr.com> New Subscriber-Bakersfield, CA Wants Info On Passiflora and.... "kelly cecil" <k.cecil@worldnet.att.net> New Subscriber, Australia; Likes So. American Fruits "George Allen" <allekis@tpg.com.au> New Subcriber, Texas - Interested In Hardy Exotics

Scott Harris <scott@treefolks.org> New Subscriber, South CA, Learning About Cherimoyas DavidCMcK@aol.com Re: New Subscriber, South CA, Learning About Cherimoyas Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: DavidCMcK@aol.com CC: "Emerich (CA), George" <gemerich@gate.tfb.com> New Subscriber, Nipoma, CA - Interested In Cherimoya And .... Tina <ANOLUS@aol.com> Re: New Subscriber, Nipoma, CA - Interested In Cherimoya And .... "George F. Emerich" <gemerich@tfb.com> To: Tina <Anolus@AOL.com> CC: "Ruskey III, John \"Jay\"" <jruskey@earthlink.net>

>> Readers Write <<

Passionflowers - My Experiences Gilbert <gilbertaa@earthlink.net> To: Roy <roy.dynan@talk21.com> Re: Soursop (Also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) Ben Poirier <benplant@tfb.com> To: Todd <tabel@statek.com> Re: Custard Apple In India; Information Sought "Oscar Jaitt" <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> To: Linda <lholler2@mindspring.com> Re: Custard Apple In India; Information Sought Michael Zarky <mzarky@earthlink.net> To: lholler2@mindspring.com Re: passionflowers-mollissima Roy <roy.dynan@talk21.com> To: Aaron <gilbertaa@earthlink.net>

Passifloras "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> Passifloras and blueberries "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> To: "Kelly" <k.cecil@worldnet.att.net> Calendar For Tropical Fruit Ripening - Exists? "Lisa Pettineo" <foodgroupie@pop.prodigy.net> Introduction Of Cherimoya To Russia "Luke O'Sullivan" <uczwldo@ucl.ac.uk> Re: Introduction Of Cherimoya To Russia "Alex" <alexkl@newmail.ru> Re: Introduction Of Cherimoya To Russia "Sergei Moiseev" <moisserg@hotmail.com> To: "Luke O'Sullivan" uczwldo@ucl.ac.uk Edibility Of The Elephant Apple - And Bats Avoid Pepper Juice "Juan A. Rivero" <jarivero@caribe.net> Re: Genus Inga Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: "Juan A. Rivero" <jarivero@caribe.net> Sweet varieties wax jambu are now available CHINO228@aol.com Papaya Seeds Wanted plumeria14@juno.com Moving Sale - Few Potted Fruit Trees - Garden Grove, CA "Karen Janssen" <ilea.wj@gte.net> Where To Buy Cornucopia? "Juan A. Rivero" <jarivero@caribe.net> Re: Juan Asks, "Where Can I Get Cornucopia?" Stephen Facciola <Kzyl-Uruk@worldnet.att.net>

Plants (maybe seeds?) & Books Wanted In Japan "Gifu Seed Co., Ltd." <gifuseed@roy.hi-ho.ne.jp> Fwd by: "Lon J. Rombough" <lonrom@hevanet.com> White Sapote Recipies? frisk <frisk@frisk.net>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Longan and Potassium Chlorate -cont "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Ralph Schmidt" <rschmidt@telocity.com> Re: Caution - Use Chlorate with Care "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Leo A. Martin" <leo1010@attglobal.net> Progress Report On Longans Between: Clement Teng and Sainarong Siripen Rasananda

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

FW: Virus Warning Ron Castle [mailto:roncastle@earthlink.net] Gleanings From The Internet On Pitahaya Dan Kinnard <dkinnard@exo.com>

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time

<<<<

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<<

None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<<

Re: Fruit Trees - Seedlings Come True? "Anne Gillen" <amgillen@ucdavis-alumni.com>

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<

Thai Green Mango Brett Badger <to_two_utes@yahoo.com> Re: Thai Green Mango Mark Turner Re: Thai Green Mango "Steve Tewes" <rfruit@netzero.net> Re: Pond apples Console IIci <tfnews@gate.net> RE: Pond apples "Erica Lynne" <ericalynne@earthlink.net> Dragon fruit Christian Lavigne <lavigne@cirad.fr>

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New Subscribers

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Subject: New Subscriber, FL - Question About Bailey's Marvel Date: Wed, 25 Jul 2001 21:18:02 -0400 From: "Jamie Meade" <jmeade@tampabay.rr.com> I stumbled across your web-site and found it interesting. My name is Jamie Meade, and I am from Palmetto, Florida. I currently started a Bailey's Marvel Mango tree along with a Haden and a Keitt variety each. I also have a Choquette Avocado and two Brogdon avocados as well. I would like to start some nut trees, but am not familiar with which varieties do well here. Does anyone know? I live about 20 miles inland on the Gulf coast, about 40 miles south of Tampa. Also, is the Bailey's Marvel variety a hybrid mango? Jamie Meade mailto:jmeade@tampabay.rr.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber-Bakersfield, CA Wants Info On Passiflora and.... Date: Thu, 16 Aug 2001 16:47:07 -0400 From: "kelly cecil" <k.cecil@worldnet.att.net> Hi, My name is Kelly Cecil and I live in So. Ca. near Bakersfield. I'm currently thinking about planting blueberries as well as passion fruit. I would like any information. Such as, varieties and pollination concerns. Thanks, Kelly mailto:k.cecil@worldnet.att.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Australia; Likes So. American Fruits Date: Fri, 17 Aug 2001 23:54:04 +1000 From: "George Allen" <allekis@tpg.com.au> Hi, My names George Allen, I live in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (Subtropical) on a quarter acre block (1090 sq. Mtrs.) with my wife Judy. We have been growing fruit trees, rare and common, for about 10 yrs now, we do it for pleasure in a strictly amateur way. There are approximately 100+ trees of different varieties and types, not much grass left! If we don't like the fruit the tree goes through the shredder to make way for something new. We are growing at present, bearing trees: Jackfruits 2, Jaboticabas 3, quasaro, loquats 2, avocados 2, bananas 3 types, casimiroas 2, citrus (mandarins, tangelos, oranges, 1 Tahitian lime, 1 Australian finer lime), Lychee, longan, wampi, yellow jaboticaba? Soursops, star apple, star fruit, custard apple, tropical apples, pitombas, cherry of the rio grande, carica papaya, mangoes, saba nut, macadamia nut, araca (just stared fruiting) and others. There is a number of non-fruiting young trees planted or waiting for a spot. Trees were selected for taste, size and interest (sometimes a conflict), they are all different varieties or seedlings. I'd like to get a good selection of Cereus peruvianus & jamicarus (cutting), also Talisia esculenta and some of the smaller growing Rheedia species. (I've a liking for the S. American fruits), amongst others. George Allen mailto:allekis@tpg.com.au

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Subject: New Subcriber, Texas - Interested In Hardy Exotics Date: Thu, 23 Aug 2001 14:17:40 -0500 From: Scott Harris <scott@treefolks.org> Hi My name is Scott Harris and I live in Austin, Texas. I manage a program called the Urban Orchard Project for a non-profit urban forestry organization called TreeFolks. Check our website at www.treefolks.org. My program plants fruit and nut trees in common spaces (parks, community gardens, schools) and educates local residents in their care. We grow a full range of adapted temperate fruits but we are also experimenting with some more

exotic varieties such as Jujube (Chinese), hardy Citrus, Pawpaw, Capulin Cherry and Che. I'm interested in more exotic varieties but they do need to be somewhat hardy. We usually have some time in the low 20's in the late winter. We are able to grow kumquats and loquats, for instance, but satsumas are still questionable. Bananas usually die back but we get a crop every five years or so. I would like to receive your newsletter at the address I'm sending this e-mail from. Scott mailto:scott@treefolks.org ------------------------------------------------

Subject: New Subscriber, South CA, Learning About Cherimoyas Date: Sun, 26 Aug 2001 21:37:35 EDT From: DavidCMcK@aol.com I am David McKinney, a former stockbroker and Professor of Finance. I recently moved to the area north of San Diego, California. In the process of looking for a mountain on which to build a house, I discovered a cherimoya grove for sale. I am amazed about the pre-Inca history of this fruit and am now in the process of learning as much as I can. I believe I am now on my way to become a successful grower of this very special fruit. David McKinney mailto:DavidCMcK@aol.com

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Subject: Date: From: To: CC:

Re: New Subscriber, South CA, Learning About Cherimoyas Sun, 26 Aug 2001 20:37:00 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> DavidCMcK@aol.com "Emerich (CA), George" <gemerich@gate.tfb.com>

David, George Emerich in Fallbrook is the nearest thing to an Annona specialist whom I know mailto:gemerich@gate.tfb.com and you will probably want to contact him. You will also want to consider membership in the California Rare Fruit Growers http://www.crfg.org for lots of great leads.

George is a past president of that organization, also, and can help with any questions about it. The Fruit Gardener is a bi-monthly magazine and worth the price of membership. I will get the standard letter of welcome to the newsletter under separate cover. Horticordially, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Nipoma, CA - Interested In Cherimoya And .... Date: Wed, 29 Aug 2001 12:33:17 EDT From: Tina <ANOLUS@aol.com> Hi My name is Tina Grietens. I live in Nipomo, CA. Several months ago, I was given some cherimoyas. I have succesfully started twenty plants from seeds. I am looking for information on the culture of these plants. I live on 10 acres of hilly oak woodland/chapparal in the central coast. We have coastal influence, foggy mornings, warm sunny days. I'm thinking of putting in a small greenhouse, (the plants are in my living room at the moment). I am also interested in propogating other semitropical fruits. Thank you for your information!! Tina mailto:Anolus@AOL.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: .... Date: From: To: CC: Re: New Subscriber, Nipoma, CA - Interested In Cherimoya And Wed, 29 Aug 2001 12:58:57 -0700 "George F. Emerich" <gemerich@tfb.com> Tina <Anolus@AOL.com> "Ruskey III, John \"Jay\"" <jruskey@earthlink.net>

Tina, If you are really interested in subtropical plants, you might consider joining the California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc. (CRFG). The information on joining is on line at: http://www.crfg.org There is also a large quantity of cultural material available on the site Choose "CRFG Fruit Facts on-line" and you will find data on 42 interesting plants including Cherimoya. After joining CRFG

you should contact the Central Coast Chapter: Chuck Atlee / Laura Lopez central_coast@crfg.org 5080 Hacienda Ave. San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 mailto: (805) 544-6298

and become associated with a very active group with interests similar to yours. We also have the California Cherimoya Association, Inc. (CCA) with a web-site at: http://www.cherimoyas.org that should be interesting and I as current vice-president urge you to join. I have taken the liberty of sending a copy of this to Jay Ruskey, probably your nearest Cherimoya expert, who might be available to advise you on the special cherimoya problems in your area. He has a web-site ( http://www.calimoya.com ) which you might also like to visit. Your little seedling plants a very valuable, but you should plan to graft them to superior cultivars either before or after planting them in the ground, Seedling Cherimoyas while they might produce fruit are not advised for many reasons particularly if you plan a commercial venture. Please contact me as concerns arise in you endeavors. George F. Emerich (760) 728-3281 mailto:gemerich@tfb.com

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Date: From: To:

Passionflowers - My Experiences Mon, 27 Aug 1956 22:32:34 -0700 Gilbert <gilbertaa@earthlink.net> Roy <roy.dynan@talk21.com>

Hello Roy and Leo I have grown all the species you are concerned with here in Northern California, a cool foggy environment. While I get some sun just about everyday, the summers are still quite cool, and all the passionflowers you are trying to grow thrive here. These species all like cool weather as they come from mountainous regions with similar weather. P. Mollissima- this is a very vigorous plant, at least in N. California. I have grown several varieties, the 'Susan Brigham' and two varieties supposedly directly imported from the

the wild. They are all very similar, and produce a bounty of fruit each year. The hummingbirds love them so you are guaranteed pollination here. Fruit can be bland in all the varieties I have grown, but the trick is to let the fruit sit on the plant till it falls off. It might seem that the fruit is "overripe" by other standards, but passion fruit gets sweeter this way. I think the fruit is ok. P. edulis has the best flavor by my taste. "A tiny plant of 'true' mollissima"?? Here I think your facts are off. The "wild" varieties have slightly different shaped leaves and flower color but they are all really one plant or variety or specie. All are large growing and sprawling plants here in Northern California. You would have to be an "expert" and look really close to see the differences. I tried hybridizing the "best" specimens, wild and domestic, that I collected several years ago. I was not able to make any real improvement, except that I got a more vigorous plant. But in the city this was not a desirable trait as I have limited space. One of my favorite passionflowers. P. X-exoniensis- I am not sure what this is. Here in California we get P. exoniensis and it is a sterile hybrid with beautiful neon pink flowers. Very vigorous here. I killed mine by deadheading (and cold?) It last fall. It was a giant 10 year old plant!! I had it growing all over the place! Great plant. P. actinia- this is a great plant for N. California. I had it in a pot for several years and it was unhappy the whole time. When I planted it in the ground it got happy and really took off. An early spring bloomer with small fruit. Never gotten fruit off it as I do not give it enough water in summer and cut it back, but they seem to be about the size of a grape. P. antioquiensis- I am trying this one right now. A slow grower, I had it in a pot for a season but it seemed unhappy so I planted it this spring. Growing slowly without any flowers yet in the second season in my garden. Also try Manicata and "Coral Glow" for cold hardiness. In general I have found that all these passion flowers are more happy with their roots in the ground rather then a pot. The cold does not seem to be a problem unless you get frost. The last couple of years has seen drastic shifts in the weather here in Northern California. You can have a week of really nice summer weather and then a week of arctic winds and storms, from December to March. Such rapid changes seem to upset the passionflowers. This seems to have killed my exonisis that was in the ground while the manicata (pot), acitina, mollisima, all survived just fine. I have one mollisima that I brutally deadheaded and it survived the weather and the pruning! So it really depends on the plant and the location. Your conditions seem harsher then Northern California so keep that in mind when planting outdoors and taking my advice. P. Incarnata supposedly will survive snow and ice and come back

from the roots. Never tried it but maybe this is the plant for you . Also be aware that Vanderplanks book has many errors in it, especially concerning plants and conditions for Northern California. He is the man with the only good book on passionflowers, but I take everything he says with a grain of salt and test it against my own experience. Why graft passionflowers? They will come back from the roots when abused and I really can not see any advantage to doing this, unless it is fun and/or interesting. Aaron Gilbert mailto:gilbertaa@earthlink.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Soursop (Also Wax Jambu and Sapodilla) Wed, 15 Aug 2001 18:47:52 -0700 Ben Poirier <benplant@tfb.com> Todd <tabel@statek.com>

Hi Todd I have seen Soursop fruiting in a greenhouse in this area and this has spurred me on to keep a couple growing here (and a couple plants avaialble for sale). This particular plant was rooted in the ground within the greenhouse and I would guess about six feet tall. I have tried them outside, but lost everyone that I tried. Another annona I think will do well is the Ilama (Annona diversifolia) grafted unto Cherimoya rootstock. Wax Jambu should do well if the right variety is found - they seem to vary in their cold hardiness. Over the last couple years I have obtained 5 different varieties (airlayers) and noticed different cold tolerance - lost one of them last winter. These I have been grafting onto Rose Apple root stock; hoping to take advantage of the Rose Apple's tolerance of our cold and wet soil in the winter and its vigor. A couple plants are avialable for $20 Very interesting to hear that Sapodilla are doing well for you in full sun ! I have heard they can be grown in the desert. However, from my experience, I have had plants sunburn in full sun and am now growing them either in partial sun or in the shadehouse. Good growing ! Ben Poirier mailto:benplant@tfb.com ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

Re: Custard Apple In India; Information Sought Wed, 15 Aug 2001 19:40:18 -1000 "Oscar Jaitt" <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> Linda <lholler2@mindspring.com>

Hello Linda, I saw your posting to the Rare Fruit News On Line. Thought you might like to know that the fruit you had in India was definitely the Custard Apple, also called Sugar Apple and Sweet Sop, Annona squamosa. I have been to India several times and seen it there sold in many markets. I have never seen Atemoya or any other Annona fruit there. Oscar Jaitt Linda A Holler wrote: |Hello Leo & Betty, | |I am Linda Holler and I'm writing you because I had a custard |apple in India a few years ago. It was delicious. | |It looks like a cherimoya, but is it really the same thing? | |Thanks for your time, | |Linda mailto:lholler2@mindspring.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Custard Apple In India; Information Sought Thu, 16 Aug 2001 07:38:10 -0700 Michael Zarky <mzarky@earthlink.net> lholler2@mindspring.com mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com

Dear Linda, Having been in India several times, with people who grow some annonas, I will give you my take on what you might have eaten. The main annona offered in India is A squamosa. The versions I had were always disappointing, with a poor flesh-to-seed ratio, resulting in a lot of work separating the seeds in the mouth. It is usually pretty symmetrical, and often somewhat pointed opposite the stem. The segmented lobes are quite prominent. The other possibility is the reticulata, which is called

bullock-heart and often has a reddish color to it. It is larger and has more edible flesh. But it is much less common in the markets, though that could relate to the seasons when I visited. It has less symmetry, a more blob-like shape. While I've often thought that atemoya would make a fine crop in India I'm not familiar with people growing it. I would doubt that cherimoya is grown in India - the only possibility would be in the Himalayan foothills. It would be too hot most places. So, part of the answer to what you ate could be helped by knowing where you were in India. I would wholeheartedly agree with George Emerich that the cherimoya is far better than what you would have tasted; and in season they are quite affordable at my local farmers' markets; but if you live in Florida, not California, you'll find atemoya the main locally grown annona. Hope this adds to your understanding. I wonder if the readership could contribute to some further identification. First, George identifies reticulata with "Ilama", while Julia Morton says "Ilama" is diversifolia. [she also says reticulata is erroneously called 'ramphal' which she says is applied to squamosa - I would disagree. In my experience it is the common name indeed given to reticulata; 'ramphal' contrasted with 'sitaphal', the name given to squamosa. (Rama and Sita are husband/wife in the ancient epic Ramayana).] So what about that? Also, what is the annona (large, good small seed amount) available in the shops in Queensland and NSW (I forget what they called it, maybe custard apple, but the name is as we see quite indeterminant). Would it be atemoya? What is grown commercially in Australia? Michael Zarky mailto:mzarky@earthlink.net

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Subject: Date: From: To:

Re: passionflowers-mollissima Thu, 16 Aug 2001 18:33:28 GMT+01:00 Roy <roy.dynan@talk21.com> Aaron <gilbertaa@earthlink.net>

Hi Aaron, Thanks for passing on the info, especially about ripening and about pruning - I too lost an exoniensis a few years ago by pruning too hard - though I didn't know it at the time - a spade

fell on it and broke the main stem so I didn't really learn much from that experience. I will definitely trim my current one with care! I suppose its tendency to form a single stem should have warned me - on the other hand mollissima types seem to produce a lot more stems that are a lot more slender - I suppose that's why you find it buds easier from old wood? I have found some useful stuff on an English website http://www.passionflow.co.uk/index.htm - though like most of my compatriots he seems more interested in flowers and general appearance than flavour - the flower of utilitarianism seems to have withered here.... Anyway, he has some interesting pictures of P.actinia showing the grape-like fruit you mention alongside superior (golfball sized?) fruit he got by cross fertilisation with P.caerulia I think, (it has a reputation for aggressive pollen). No hummingbirds here unfortunately, and the big problem is cold damp soil in winter (especially London clay) - that's why I was interested in grafting onto P.caerulia - the only reliable rootstock. I have a better chance of keeping our relatively mild frosts off the scion, though as you say, I'm hoping the mountain species can stand the odd degree. I've been resisting the temptation to grow P.edulis because it's available in the shops and I'm so short of space (especially overwintering) that I have to be brutal sometimes - every species that comes in the door pushes another into the cold.... Thanks and regards Roy mailto:roy.dynan@talk21.com ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Passifloras Date: Thu, 16 Aug 2001 11:41:31 -0700 From: "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> Hi Roy, A follow-up to your questions on passifloras. Another RFNO reader who grows P. x-exoniensis in Berkeley said that this cross sets fruit with hand pollination from another Tacsonia and that the fruit is like P. mollissima. If that sounds good, then give it a try. As far as grafting onto P. caerulea, go ahead and try it if you do intend to protect the new scion growth. It may survive that way. Cutting the P. mollissima back to 6 feet for the winter should be

no big deal for the plant. I think the problem is when you cut back more severely and don't leave any active leaf nodes for new growth. I'm sure you are aware of the growth habit of P. incarnata, it dies back each Fall and resprouts in the Spring. Another thing I have noticed with my P. incarnata in the ground, it doesn't come back in exactly the same spot the following year. So by containing the plant in a pot you may be limiting the new root growth where the new shoots arise. No, cold should not be much of an issue for you, so I'd advise putting your incarnata plants in the ground. Hope this helps. Good luck, Bob Holzinger mailto:bholzing@amgen.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Passifloras and blueberries Mon, 20 Aug 2001 13:07:33 -0700 "Holzinger, Bob" <bholzing@amgen.com> "Kelly" <k.cecil@worldnet.att.net>

Hi Kelly, Leo sent me your question on growing passifloras and blueberries near Bakersfield. First let me say that I would always encourage anyone to try something different. With that said, I would not encourage someone to try blueberries in Bakersfield. It just too hot and dry! And if you do still want to try, I would definitely leave them in pots. The soil needs to be very acidic, which can be better controlled in a pot. As for the passifloras, I don't know if you are just interested in fruit, or if the flowers are important also. Again, the heat and dryness will make it a challenge. Also, if it gets below freezing in the winter where you are, then that's something to deal with. I would recommend only self fruitful, warm growers. That means P. edulis and P. 'Frederick'. Not much of a choice, but they could survive and produce fruit for you. Good luck, Bob Holzinger mailto:bholzing@amgen.com

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Subject: Calendar For Tropical Fruit Ripening - Exists? Date: Tue, 21 Aug 2001 19:08:07 -0400 From: "Lisa Pettineo" <foodgroupie@pop.prodigy.net> Dear Leo, I was wondering if you knew of a calander of availability of tropicals? What I am looking for is, a reference that would tell me when things are in season, when they are just finishing up and, so on. Do you know of anything like this? It could be in poster form, calander form, book..... Thank you, Lisa Pettineo mailto:foodgroupie@pop.prodigy.net

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Subject: Introduction Of Cherimoya To Russia Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2001 11:27:38 +0000 From: "Luke O'Sullivan" <uczwldo@ucl.ac.uk> Dear Sir, I am a historian at University College London editing the correspondence of the English utilitarian philosopher and law reformer Jeremy Bentham, who had a keen amateur interest in botany (his nephew George Bentham became one of the most eminent C19th English botanists). In a letter to a Russian friend, Admiral Nikolai Mordvinov, dated 16 August 1824, Bentham writes that he is going to send the Emperor Alexander's head gardener some seeds: "I have found four seeds, which I send by Mr Fleury, of the American Cherimoya, a fruit from Peru, said by several, who have eat of it lately, to be the most delicious known. I showed Mr Fleury a plant I have just reared from two seeds of the same parcel: but as to the fruit, there can be little, if any, hopes of our ever seeing it raised in England. Even Petersburg would be better suited, on account of the heat of the summer and the comparative clearness of the sky at all times." Have you any idea when or if Cherimoya was introduced to Russia? Could it possibly have been by these seeds from Bentham? Can you recommend any worthwhile sources, printed or electronic, which might hold some clues? I am grateful for any help, Yours sincerely,

Dr. Luke O'Sullivan

mailto:uczwldo@ucl.ac.uk

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Subject: Re: Introduction Of Cherimoya To Russia Date: Fri, 24 Aug 2001 18:01:38 +0400 From: "Alex" <alexkl@newmail.ru> Hi Leo, I'm fine here, thanks. Regulary receiving and reading VERY interesting newsletters from some guy named Leo ;-) I don't know if I can help Dr. O'Sullivan. It's always something new from our history. There were a wonderful gardens in precommunist Russia. But all those facts were erased from the memory and from being. Only now people can understand everything wasn't so bad before 1917. Cherimoya isn't introduced in Russia. The climate is too cold for it. I know attempts of introducing avocado have place at Caucasus part of the Black Sea region. I read in some book the trees didn't fruit so abundant as in milder climates and sometimes were damaged with frost. I don't know where exactly that attempts were done. More likely it had place in Georgia, which was a part of the country that time. As I know cherimoya is a bit more sensitive to frost than avocado and know no facts of attempts to introduce it. The southern part of Russian Black Sea cost is something like northern border of citrus growing area in USA in climates. They can grow there feijoa, mandarins. But you see the ground don't freeze in winter there and if to have just a plastic protection with very little heating to keep the temperature about +5C it's very likely that cherimoya survive and will grow normally. I know some people dig the ground in a depth of freezing, build the greenhouse over this hole and plant citruses just in ground and they say they have very good trees and a lot of fruits, so why not to plant cherimoya that way. I think it's just a first time right now when it's possible to find cherimoya fruit in supermarkets in some big city. So result of that attempts will be known only in about 5 years when cherimoya can fruit first. If to talk about amount of sun, there are a lot of it here in Siberia and the summer is hot, but the winter is very cold here's the problem. I read some papaya species can begin to fruit in 4 month in Indonesia where the climate is hot. Course it's not Indonesia here, but I tryed to plant carica monoica just like tomatoes (first pair of months indoor), so it began to flower in 4 months! Then it set a pair of fruits. I only don't know if there will be enough of time for they ripe. But it's not a problem - I can plant it from cutting and a bit early, maybe to cut out all

the flowers except a pair for they grow faster, may be to use some protection for make the season a little longer in winter and in autumn. But it may grow - it's a fact! It would be interesting to try babaco. Regards Alex mailto:alexkl@newmail.ru

Sorry if my English is not pretty good. ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

Re: Introduction Of Cherimoya To Russia Tue, 28 Aug 2001 16:41:24 "Sergei Moiseev" <moisserg@hotmail.com> "Luke O'Sullivan" uczwldo@ucl.ac.uk

Dear Dr. O'Sullivan, Leo asked me to help you with tracing the origins of cherimoya in Russia. The tentative role of J. Bentham in its introduction here is an interesting news for me ( my cherimoya was grown from seeds of a fruit purchased abroad). Please, give me some time, I will do some research and contact my colleagues in St. Petersburg who might know something about that. I will write to you as soon as I find out anything. Sergei Moiseev mailto:moisserg@hotmail.com Lecturer Department of Humanities and Socioeconomic Sciences Novosibirsk State Academy of Architecture and Arts Russia tel. (7-3832) 23-08-53 -----------------------------------------------Subject: Edibility Of The Elephant Apple - And Bats Avoid Pepper Juice Date: Thu, 23 Aug 2001 20:23:28 -0400 From: "Juan A. Rivero" <jarivero@caribe.net> Hola Leo: I have a tree of the elephant apple (Dillenia indica) that produces enomous fruits almost continuously. I have heard that Indians eat this fuit but it is covered with very hard bracts and I don't have an idea of how such a hard fruit can be eaten. Any suggestions or recipes? Incidentally, several of your subscribers have asked about the protection of fruits (especially the sapodilla) from bats. A friend of mine uses hot pepper (the hotter the better), in the

proportion of two tablespoons per gallon of water, pulverized on the fruit. He claims that the method is highly succesful. Best wishes Juan mailto:jarivero@caribe.net ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Re: Genus Inga Date: Fri, 24 Aug 2001 06:30:57 -0700 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: "Juan A. Rivero" <jarivero@caribe.net> Hi Juan, You may have noticed in Cornucopia II that seven or eight different listings of Inga are there (page 152), but nothing much is said about the foliage. Inga: edulis, feuillei, laurina, micheliana, paterno, preussii, and spectabilis "Juan A. Rivero" wrote: | Hola Leo: | | I am interested in contacting somebody who is knowledgeable on the | genus Inga (Ice cream beans). . There are two species that have almost | identical pods ( about 1 1/2 foot long, thick, heavy), but completely | different foliage. One of them is said to be Inga paterno, but which | of them? And what is the other? | | Best Juan -----------------------------------------------Subject: Where To Buy Cornucopia? Date: Mon, 27 Aug 2001 20:29:47 -0400 From: "Juan A. Rivero" <jarivero@caribe.net> Hi Leo:

Thanks for your note about Ingas. I do not have Cornucopia. Is it on line?. If not where can I gert it? Best wishes Juan mailto:jarivero@caribe.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Re: Juan Asks, "Where Can I Get Cornucopia?" Tue, 28 Aug 2001 15:34:49 -0700 Stephen Facciola <Kzyl-Uruk@worldnet.att.net>

Thank you for your interest in 'Cornucopia II: A Source Book of Edible Plants'. This book can be purchased from the below address for $40.00 plus shipping and handling ($5.00 within the U.S., $11.00 overseas surface mail - for air mail enquire). Sincerely, Stephen mailto:Kzyl-Uruk@worldnet.att.net

Kampong Publications 1870 Sunrise Dr. Vista, CA 92084 U.S.A. -----------------------------------------------Subject: Sweet varieties wax jambu are now available Date: Sat, 25 Aug 2001 13:29:29 EDT From: CHINO228@aol.com Leo: Your recent issue of Rare Fruit News indicated growing interest in wax jambu and a desire to locate a reliable source for good varieties. Here are a few suggestions worth considering. The Sinark was the first wax jambu introduced to the public by Bill Whitman, Past President of the Rare Fruit Council Int'l, Miami. Since then, a few other unnamed cultivars, mostly red in color were later brought in by other collectors. For the past two years, new and sweeter 'named' cultivars have since become available in a wide range of colors - from bone-white to dark red and all shades in between, some of which I have in my collection from Thailand,

Malaysia and Indonesia. The present problem seems to be that many Florida nurseries are apparently not aware of these sweeter varieties and so unfortunately or unknowingly are still shipping the earlier milder tasting varieties stateside and to some California nurseries. It would therefore be advantageous if subscribers first check with their nurseries if sweeter 'named' cultivarss are available before making a decision. Since most Asians living in California are already familiar with this fruit, the sweeter varieties would certainly be another potential fruit to the entrepreneur for the hugh Asian market. It's unusual bell shape, crispy texture and it's wide color spectrum lends itself as the perfect ingredient to compliment the 'ultimate' fruit salad and finding it's own niche among the many other fruits in the food industry. In Asia, wax jambu is also a very popular and delicious sidewalk snack sold in bite size pieces on bamboo skewers. Let's hope California will learn from Florida's dilemma, see the obvious advantages of making the switch to the sweeter varieties by selling 'named' cultivars to minimize the present confusing situation of selling wax jambu as wax jambu and their only way of identification is by the fruit color which can oftentimes prove to be a disadvantage. By offering 'named' cultivars as is presently being done with apples, plums and peaches, it is not only a step in the right direction but it will, in the years to come, avoid any further confusion when, for example, you will be able to get three 'named' cultivarss of sweet 'red', four 'named' cultivars of sweet 'green' and two 'named' cultivarss of sweet 'white' wax jambu. The mango industry is a good example that have suffered from this grave oversight by not ensuring that supermarkets sell mangoes by named cultivars. They found out only too late that it wasn't profitable to compete with the imported mangoes by selling mangoes as mangoes. I'll be more than happy to assist subscribers regarding sweeter varieties from Florida. Maurice Kong Phone (305) 554-1333 mailto:chino228@aol.com

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Subject: Papaya Seeds Wanted Date: Sat, 25 Aug 2001 23:22:45 -0400 From: Jacob Alifraghis <plumeria14@juno.com> Hi Leo

Do you know of any mail order or websites that sell several varieties of papaya seeds? Also i know of fruitlovers.com but they have a minimum order of $70 and do you know of a site which sells papaya seeds without a minimum order? Thank you! Jacob Alifraghis mailto:plumeria14@juno.com

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Subject: Moving Sale - Few Potted Fruit Trees - Garden Grove, CA Date: Thu, 23 Aug 2001 16:53:04 -0700 From: "Karen Janssen" <ilea.wj@gte.net> Leo I don't have a lot of potted fruit trees. I'm taking most of the smaller potted plants but I have a Lucuma I got at the Green Scene last spring (before we decided to move) and I'd be willing to sell that. I think I paid $25 for it. Dunno if that is a rip off or not. It appears to be doing well in its one gallon pot in my orchid house. There is also a bay which needs serious root pruning and a move to an in-ground location. It's root bound in a barrel and the barrel is falling apart. And a Curly Willow also in a barrel. The only other tree is a Rose Apple about 8 foot tall in a pot. I have a second smaller one and will take the smaller one with me. I'm in Garden Grove, CA right near where the 22 and 405 split. Karen Janssen Southern California mailto:ilea.wj@gte.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: Fwd by: From: Plants (maybe seeds?) & Books Wanted In Japan Thu, 30 Aug 2001 08:14:07 -0700 "Lon J. Rombough" <lonrom@hevanet.com> "Gifu Seed Co., Ltd." <gifuseed@roy.hi-ho.ne.jp>

Dear Sirs, We introduce ourselves first. Our company is a Japanese wholesaler of perennials, ornamental tree and bulbs and also a plant importer. We will appreciate it if you can let us know your availability &

price for the following variety's seeds. [Must mean plants? -Leo] variety name Jamaican Red Banana Jakfruit Spanish Lime(Melicoccus bijugatus) Panachee Fig Nam-Wa Banana Pawpaw(Asimina triloba) Genova Red IIama Breadfruit Chinese Che(Cudrania tricuspidata) Chocolate Persimmon amount 250 - 500 250 - 500 250 - 500 250 - 500 250 - 500 250 - 500 250 - 500 250 - 500 250 - 500 250 - 500 plants plants plants plants plants plants plants plants plants plants

Required time : Please tell us the earliest time you can offer them. Please tell us the deatail of plants size,condition such as height, pot size, the number of leaves & We appreciate it the approximate years/ months from we plant them to the plant bear fruits We are looking for some books which tell us many Native plants ( unusual to other places) of your country as well. The books must contain many color photos. Could you suggest some? Our company, GIFU SEED belongs to the bellow associations. Japan nurserymen's association Japan Seed Trade Association Japanese Horticultural Trade Association The Japan Branch of the Royal Horticultural Society International Plant Propagator's society We are looking forward to hearing from you soon. Best Regards Toshio Mekata Gifu Seed Co., Ltd. TEL +81 582 315 777 mailto:gifuseed@roy.hi-ho.ne.jp FAX +81 582 322 881

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Hi, I found your site in a search for recipies for White Sapotes. I White Sapote Recipies? Thu, 30 Aug 2001 17:58:04 -0700 frisk <frisk@frisk.net>

have an extremely prolific tree at the corner of my backyard. I make shakes out of them each morning, but I would really appreciate if you have info on freezing them, or any recipies for them. Very Appreciative, Judy Frisk mailto:judy@frisk.net

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Date: From: To:

Longan and Potassium Chlorate -cont Fri, 24 Aug 2001 22:56:41 +0700 "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> "Ralph Schmidt" <rschmidt@telocity.com>

Foilar Application In the beginning, foilar application was touted as a viable alternative to soil application. However, later test results were not as successful as the primary ones. As a result, foilar application is not longer used. In my opinion, there should have more experiments conducted. The experiments which were conducted were not varied enough and lacked imagination. Here is the opportunity for some amateur researchers. The strong points and weak points of foilar applications are as follows: First, the strong points: Foilar spray uses very little chemical; the flowering is not overly profuse; flowering occurs once once, not repeatedly, as in soil application; flowering is induced at the point of spray only. Here are the weak points. The overall succes rate does not seem to be high. The sprayer has to take the usual precautions. The sprayed leaves tend to lose its gloss and become dull, in some case, they get burnt, leaves can even fall off. The recommended method of foilar application is as follows: spray normally a solution 0f 40 grams of potassium chlorate in 20 liters of water; should it rain 1-2 days after the spraying, spray again. The conditions are that the plant should be healthy and the foilage should be about 40-60 days old. Now comes the interresting, imaginative part. Dr. Chung Ruey Yen of Taiwan, who is the first person to discover the use of potassium chlorate, tells me to use a 2% solution. He says this will practically guarantee good flowering under most conditions. When I protest that the leaves will surely fall off as this is a very concentrated solution, he says that it doesn't matter, the tree

will flush again and flower while the new flush is still quite young. I haven't tried this yet. Why don't you try this experiment? By the way, more than one internationally-respected horticulturists, including Dr. Amos Blumenfeld, have told me that Dr. Yen is pretty good. Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

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Subject: Re: Caution - Use Chlorate with Care Date: Fri, 24 Aug 2001 23:09:33 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Leo A. Martin" <leo1010@attglobal.net> Dr. Leo Martin writes | I've also seen mention of chlorate use in this discussion. Be careful | with this, too! Chlorates are highly oxidative and damage skin and | other tissues the way strong acids or alkalis would. When ingested | they cause methemoglobinemia, a condition in which hemoglobin (the red | oxygen-carrying pigment in blood) cannot carry oxygen and the organism | may suffocate. Chlorates may also cause kidney failure. | | For further reading, see Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. | | Leo -- Leo A. Martin, MD Diplomate, American Board of Anesthesiology | Phoenix, Arizona, USA Sainarong writes I could not agree more with Dr. Martin's caution. Research is being done in Thailand on the effect of potassium chlorate. Firstly, the researchers cannot find any trace of potassium chlorate or close derivatives thereof in the longan fruits. Secondly, research on its effect on the farmers are still being conducted. Preliminary results does suggest that those workers who are careless may have an abnormality in their blood cell. I am writing very generally, because I am not familiar in this field. I

would be very grateful if Dr. Martin can provide me with detailed technical information so that I can pass them on to the concerned, qualified researcher. Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

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Subject: Progress Report On Longans Date: Fri, 24 Aug 2001 11:39:45 -0700 Between: Clement Teng and Sainarong Siripen Rasananda Clement: Variety Heaw - about 2 meters with only about 200 Longan fruits (still on the tree ) with PH (7.5-8) problem. Problems arise when I use chicken manure. I just applied sulphur 2 weeks ago. Sainarong: Alkaline soil is much harder to correct than acidic soil. The soil scientists recommend application of manures, sulfate-based fertilizers or very mild acids. All kinds of manures are supposed to bring the Ph level to neutral; it is interesting that you find that chicken manure is alkaline, I have not actually tested the Ph of any manures myself. Sulfate-based fertilizers are more expensive than the normal fertilizers, but they are definitely mildly acidic. Most soil scientists advised against the application of acids, however mild: they say that it is very easy to add too much or non-uniformly, which will make the matter worse. As for myself, I add sulfur, mixed with water, carefully, frequently, uniformly and in very low concentration (sulfur is converted into sulfuric acid). A friend of mine told me to try the cheaper, but quite strong, hydrochloric acid; I have not tried it yet. Alkalinity takes a lot of time to correct. Clement: BeiKiew- Double the size ( 1 meter) since planted last year. Kohala- Planted the same time as Biekiew but only grown by 1.5 times. Sainarong: I have just returned from a trip to the major longan-producing areas of China. The weather there is subtropical, and very hot in

the harvest season. The rainfall is plentiful, over 1500 mm. per year.The soil is not fertile - red soil,but the water-holding capability is excellent, not too much, not too little. Longan roots can easily penetrate the soil. All these, to me, are most interesting. It suggests that longans do not need a lot of nutrients in the soil, but require heavy rainfall, humid weather and sort of sandy-loam soil. This helps to confirm my suspicion, which still remains suspicion. Clement Teng in Perth, Australia and Sainarong Siripen Rasananda

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: FW: Virus Warning From: Ron Castle [mailto:roncastle@earthlink.net] Sent: Sunday, August 12, 2001 10:08 AM From my very good friend and ace travel agent, Annie, in CT. DO NOT OPEN "NEW PICTURES OF FAMILY" It is a virus that will erase your whole "C" drive. It will come to you in the form of a E-mail from a familiar person. I repeat a friend sent it to me, but called & warned me before I opened it. He was not so lucky and now he can't even start his computer! Forward this to everyone in your address book. I would rather receive this 25 times than not at all. Also: Intel announced that a new and very destructive virus was discovered recently. If you receive an email called "FAMILY PICTURES," do not open it. Delete it right away! This virus removes all dynamic link libraries (.dll files) from your computer. Your computer will not be able to boot up. Ron mailto:roncastle@earthlink.net ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Gleanings From The Internet On Pitahaya From: dan kinnard <dkinnard@exo.com> Date: Fri, 17 Aug 2001 05:54:18 -0700 <snip>

CRFG - North San Diego County Chapter FRUIT NEWS 8 August 2001 <snip> Gleanings from the internet on Pitahaya, O'ol, kovanao, pitayas, etc. <snip> Some of the following has been created based upon information found on the internet, some has been translated from another language, some quoted, and some just blatantly copied. As with most "common" names, there seems to be a bit of confusion when one tries to connect one common name (pitahaya) with a scientific name. Part of the confusion comes from the fact that the common name was used to refer to different species in different areas. About the only thing in common among the scientific names is that they are all some sort of Cereus cactus as opposed to the fun-loving cactus. "This is one of the most beautiful and widespread members of the family Cactaceae, with one common name for its fruit, strawberry pear, and another for the plant, night-blooming cereus. Hylocereus undatus Britt. & Rose (syn. Cereus undatus Haw.), has been often misnamed H. triangularis, a binomial restricted today to a very similar cactus, H. triangularis Britt. & Rose (syns. Cereus t riangularis Haw.; Cactus triangularis L.), endemic in Jamaica." "The Spanish terms pitaya, pitajaya, pitahaya, are applied to the strawberry pear in Latin America, in common with the edible fruits of several other species of cacti; but pitahaya roja and pitahaya blanca are applied specifically to H. undatus in Mexico; pitahaya de card—n in Guatemala." Pitahaya and pitaya are words from the Ta’no language of the Greater Antilles which mean "scaly fruit". These terms have added much confusion as both terms are used indistinctly for several species of cactus and their fruits. In addition to this, there are several phonetic variations such as: pitaaya, pitajaya, "junco tapat’o", "pitahaya orejona","pitahaya reina de la noche", "tasa-jo", the Mayan "wob", "sac wob" (pitahaya blanca or white pitahaya) and "chac wob" (pitahaya roja or red pitahaya) and other variations from the original Ta’no, Maya, and Spanish languages. A "standard" form of referral to the plant is that Pitahaya are generally Hylocereus and pitaya are plants that look like big candelabras, with small fruit generally covered with spines and generally belong to the Stenocereus and Pachycereus genera. To add to the confusion, another site lists: English Name: Organpipe Cactus Spanish Name: Pitahaya Dulce O'odham Name: Cucuvis Comcaac Name: O'ol Yoeme Name: kovanao

Scientific Name: Stenocereus thurber The ripe strawberry pear is much appreciated, especially if chilled and cut in half so that the flesh can be eaten with a spoon. The juice is enjoyed as a cool drink. A sirup made of the whole fruit is used to color pastries and candy. The unopened flowerbud can be cooked and eaten as a vegetable. A slender multi-armed cactus [pitahaya dulce], with arms appearing near the base of the main trunk. Its tangerine-sized fruits blush when ripe and lose their spines. Their taste is watermelon-like, with a bit more seeds, pectin and juice. The sap of the stems of H. undatus has been utilized as a vermifuge but it is said to be caustic and hazardous. The air-dried, powdered stems contain B-sitosterol. The fruits of the pitahaya [dulce] were eaten by those groups who had access to them, either through collection or trade. The early Spanish missionaries considered the fruit "juicy, delicate, and very tasty...worthy of the table of the greatest monarchs". Eaten fresh or dried, the fruits are one of the great delicacies of the Sonoran Desert. <snip> The fruit of a Central American Cactus, the pitahaya has a deep, pink, dense flesh and a mild, sweet flavor. It is high in carbohydrates and a rich source of Vitamin C. >From another site: <snip> TECHNICAL PRODUCTION ASPECTS Mean annual temperature: 18 - 25/C Annual rainfall: 800 - 2000 mm Altitude: 700 - 1900 meters above sea level Soils: franc or franc-sandy texture, friable structure, permeable to facilitate good drainage and aeration of soil. Production Areas Areas with the above-indicated characteristics will undoubtedly be good for this crop. Another site (in Spanish) informs us: In addition to being consumed fresh, the pitahaya is utilized in the production of juices, drinks and cocktails. A delicious drink may be made from one lb. pitahaya juice, the juice of two lemons and sugar to taste. The juice of the pitahaya mixed with white rum produces an exotic cocktail called a "Panther

Piss". Eight ounces of pitahaya juice daily furnishes approximately 8% of the daily requirement for iron. Another site in Nicaragua tells us that frozen pitahaya pulp is available commercially in five gallon containers (about 40 lbs.) and maintains the color, flavor and odor of the fresh fruit. Some Pitahaya links for those who are wired those who aren't wired and wish to be might check out the recipe section this month. Each link has a title and brief description. Effects of Heat Treating Nicaraguan Pitahaya Fruit, with Corn Syrup at Various Time Intervals Cooking time and percent sweetener affect the color of frozen Pitahaya fruit. Different products require unique preparation methods. The method and duration of heating affects the color of a product. Since this Nicaraguan fruit (in frozen pulp form) does not have much of a taste, other uses are being experimented. http://www.sica.gov.ec/ingles/agro%20oportunidades/docs/business_op /pitahaya/pitahaya.html Pitahaya y Trigo <snip> http://www.infoaserca.gob.mx/claridades/portada.asp?numero=82 PRICKLY PEAR, TAXO AND PITAHAYA The Ecuadorian offer ... These exotic fruits are highly demanded in the United States, Germany, France, the UK, the Netherlands and Japan. Several areas in the coastal region and the highlands are being cultivated with these crops. http://www.corpei.org/ingles/oferta/tunataxo/ Stenocereus gummosus Sour Pitaya, Pitaya Agria, Pitahaya Early Spanish explorers and sailors ate the fruit to prevent scurvy. The fruit of Pitaya Agria is even sweeter than the fruit of Pitaya Dulce (Stenocereus thurberi). Branches of this cactus were crushed and thrown into the water to stun fish thereby increasing the catch. The large white flowers are pollinated by hawk moths whose proboscis can navigate the very long flower tubes.

Other members of this genus in Baja California are S. thurberi (Organ Pipe Cactus, Pitaya Dulce), and Stenocereus eruca (Creeping Devil, Chirinola) http://www.oceanoasis.org/fieldguide/sten-gum.html Pitahaya <snip> http://www.foodlexx.de/Lextextobst/Pitahaya.html Pitahayas Restaurant - Cabo del Sol http://www.loscabosguide.com/dining/pitahaya.htm Hylocereus - species, origins, and uses http://www.ciat.cgiar.org/ipgri/fruits_fr om_americas/frutales/species%20Hylocereus.htm Pitahaya. Queen-of-the-Night. Vine Pear. This cactus grows as a vine... Photo by Doug Wechsler http://www.agpix.com/view_caption.php?image_id=515&photog=1 DRAGON FRUIT, BUAH KAKTUS EKSOTIK <snip> http://www.indomedia.com/intisari/2000/juli/flona7.htm Strawberry Pear Hylocereus undatus Britt. & Rose Cereus undatus Haw. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/strawberry_pear_ars.html

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> NAFEX List See: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/nafex <<<<<<

None this time

>>> Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU> <<<

Subject: Re: Fruit Trees - Seedlings Come True? Date: Thu, 23 Aug 2001 00:08:04 -0400 From: "Anne Gillen" <amgillen@ucdavis-alumni.com> To: <newcrops@purdue.edu> In citrus seed can be produced either sexually, via fertilization of an egg cell(1n), or by nucellar polyembryony in which a nucellar cell (a type of 2n cell found in ovule) becomes the embryo (2n) without fusion with the pollen cell. The nucellar embryo is an exact clone of the mother. Another mechanism to make seedlings that are essentially clones of the mother plant exists and is very common in cereals. Many plants that are self pollinated can be 'selfed' for many generations so that over time you can obtain a plant that has two copies (each copy is an allele) of the exact same gene for all the different genes in the plant, ie the individual is homozygous at all loci. THen all offspring from this individual will be the same (unless there is some outcrossing. (Recall that you have two sets of genes, one from mom and one from dad). The fact that peach seedlings are more 'true to type' than other fruits is because they are less diverse (genetically speaking) than other fruit. The number of original parents of US peaches is rather limited. Peaches are mostly (70-90%) self-pollinated, but they can't take more than 7 or 8 generations of selfing (Which takes a long time to do!) so the cultivars that you buy in the store are not homozygous at all loci. However wheat and rice tolerate selfing very well and usually a cultivar is a 'pure line' where all individuals are genetically the same and the offspring are therefor identical. Regards, Anne mailto:amgillen@ucdavis-alumni.com

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Subject: Thai Green Mango From: Brett Badger <to_two_utes@yahoo.com> Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Date: Fri, 17 Aug 2001 23:41:20 -0700 (PDT) Hello, Does anyone have any idea what type of mango it is that is sold in some southern california Asian markets as "Thai Green"? This mango is typically sold for $3/mango and is a very dark green. Thanks, Brett Badger mailto:to_two_utes@yahoo.com

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From: Mark Turner Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Date: Sunday, August 19, 2001 11:22 PM Subject: Re: Thai Green Mango The variety of green mango we sell in Brisbane, Australia is called Nam Doc Mai Subject: Re: Thai Green Mango Date: Mon, 20 Aug 2001 21:07:52 -0400 From: "Steve Tewes" <rfruit@netzero.net> Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com I find that Nam Doc Mai is excellent eaten when ripe but the Pin sen mung has a much better flavor actually excellent when eaten green. Steve mailto:rfruit@netzero.net ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Re: Pond apples Date: Tue, 21 Aug 2001 12:12:29 +0000 From: Console IIci <tfnews@gate.net> Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

Jeffrey, Pond apples (AKA Alligator apple), Annona glabra, can be fairly good to eat. The trick is knowing when to eat them. It seems that they must be well and thoroughly ripe, at least a couple of days past what looks like ripe. I eat mine when they are falling apart ripe, a time when most N. Americans would turn their noses up and proclaim "over ripe". Local Indians and Everglades travelers have handed down the following observation: Pick your alligator apples when you start your walk across the Everglades, after 3 or 4 days walking they taste pretty good. <grin> The tree also can make an interesting, attractive specimen and I have also seen them as bonsai. I've picked some fruit and cleaned the seed but as they were somewhat green I am not positive they are viable. If they test out I'll also offer them to the group. Best of growing, Bob SW Florida <snip> Jeffrey wrote: > > I wonder if anyone knows of a use for pond apples besides a rootstock for > other annonas? -----------------------------------------------mailto:tfnews@gate.net

Subject: RE: Pond apples Date: Tue, 21 Aug 2001 21:27:25 -0400 From: "Erica Lynne" <ericalynne@earthlink.net> Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com I've found a large pond apple with quite decent-tasting fruit at the Conservancy of Southwest Florida nature preserve in Naples, FL. The fruit size was good (about the size of a large apple), and the flesh was astringent and sweet/tart. I liked it a lot, but I've been eating a lot of the more astringent and tart fruits lately, so my preferences in flavor are probably getting skewed to the strong side. The taste does not resemble anything like various cultivated annonas (custard apple, sugar apple) I have sampled.

Erica Lynne Naples, FL zone 10 mailto:ericalynne@earthlink.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: Dragon fruit Date: Mon, 27 Aug 2001 09:37:28 +0400 From: Christian Lavigne <lavigne@cirad.fr> Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com I am looking for informations on giving light by night to pitahaya (= dragon fruit = Hylocereus undatus), in order to induce off season flowering. I heard that it's quite common in Vietnam. Does anybody know what kind of bulbs I can use, how many times during the night, how long ? Best regards Chris mailto:lavigne@cirad.fr

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Subject: New Clues: How Herbicides, Soil, And Subsoil Interact Date: Thu, 16 Aug 2001 06:20:09 -0400 From: "ARS News Service" <isjd@ars-grin.gov> Jennifer Arnold, (301) 504-1624, jaarnold@ars.usda.gov <snip> Predicting how herbicides move in soil requires accurate estimates of how these chemicals bind to soils and geologic materials--vital information that's often lacking for materials below the soil's surface. Now, Agricultural Research Service microbiologist Thomas B. Moorman at the National Soil Tilth Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, working with researchers at Florida International UniversityMiami and Iowa State University-Ames, has measured how one important herbicide, atrazine, binds to and lets go of particles in different soil types. Unlike previous research, this project measured atrazine's binding deep into Iowa soil.

Atrazine is an organic compound, widely used as a herbicide for control of broadleaf and grassy weeds. During the 1980s, atrazine was estimated to be the most widely used herbicide in the United States. Today, because of its low cost, it is still applied to millions of acres of U.S. croplands, especially corn and sorghum fields. The scientists used a variety of simulation models to predict the risk of this herbicide's movement into groundwater. For accurate prediction, these models integrated information about rainfall, waterflow, soil types and atrazine use. The team found that the soils were low in organic carbon. But they retained more herbicide than would have been predicted, based on past research. The researchers also found that certain glacial till materials--geologic sediment of sand, silt and clay in the saturated zone beneath the groundwater surface--were able to retain atrazine quite strongly, greatly limiting its leaching. This geologic sediment was deposited as glaciers retreated from Iowa about 15,000 years ago. The researchers believe this knowledge should increase scientists' and farmers' ability to predict herbicide contamination of groundwater and aid in developing practices that protect water resources from contamination. This will help producers manage herbicides more carefully and assure better water quality for the general public. ARS is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's chief scientific research agency. The ARS National Soil Tilth Laboratory is on the web at www.nstl.gov. <snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: Parasitic Wasps Could Curb Mealybug Date: Fri, 17 Aug 2001 06:51:06 -0400 From: "ARS News Service" <isjd@ars-grin.gov> <snip> In an ongoing search for a biological control for papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus), researchers have singled out two parasitoid wasps for the job. The researchers are entomologist Michael Schauff at the Agricultural Research Service and John Noyes, a colleague at The Natural History Museum, London, England, The papaya mealybug is believed to be native to Mexico and Central America and has the potential to attack a variety of agricultural crops, including papaya, citrus, cotton and avocado, in addition to preying on ornamentals, such as the hibiscus. The papaya mealybug was recently introduced into the United States, with the

greatest concentrations of the insect being in Florida, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Mealybug damage could cause economic losses in the tens of millions of dollars if left to spread in the United States. The two candidate wasps, newly discovered species in the genera Pseudleptomastix and Acerophagus, were collected during field research in Texcoco, Mexico, in 2000. These tiny wasps are almost invisible--with one species just about one millimeter long--and look like the average stinging wasp. Dubbed the "mealybug destroyers," the tiny females sting the mealybugs and lay an egg inside each one. When the eggs hatch, the larvae eat the internal organs, killing their hosts. ARS scientists, in conjunction with USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) scientists who have reared and released the wasps in the Caribbean, are now seeing a tremendous impact. They are confident a parasite-release operation can be an effective tool in the war against papaya mealybugs. Already, APHIS found that the release of the parasitic wasps brought a 98 percent reduction in mealybugs near the research sites. In some areas, scientists are even having trouble finding enough to work on. And the wasps pose no threat to people, plants or any insects other than the papaya mealybug. ARS is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's chief scientific research agency. Entomologist Schauff is based in Beltsville, Md., with ARS' Systematic Entomology Laboratory (www.sel.barc.usda.gov). <snip> ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Specialty Bean Tissues No Treat for Nematodes Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2001 09:34:44 -0400 From: "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov> To: "ARS News List" <ars-news@ars-grin.gov> <snip> Jack beans, sun hemp and coffee senna aren't your typical, garden-variety beans. But these little-known legumes may soon find favor among southern farmers and gardeners. Greenhouse studies by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and University of Georgia scientists in Griffin, Ga., show that mixing dried bean plant material into the soil reduces root-knot nematode numbers there. In the South, this roundworm species attacks peanuts, soybeans, corn, cotton, tobacco and other crops, causing yield

losses and control costs of $53 million annually. Farmers strike back with chemicals, crop rotation and resistant cultivars. But new weapons are always needed. Discing bean material from a cover crop of the legume prior to planting a high-value crop like cotton may offer farmers greater flexibility in how they control the pest, notes ARS agronomist Brad Morris. In tests, mixing dried bean material into potting in a 67- to 89-percent reduction in the number of on the roots of test tomato plants versus control Scientists attribute this nematicidal activity to substances produced in the legumes' leaves, stems soils resulted nematode galls plants. natural and seeds.

Of 18 legume species tested, Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) earned the highest marks, according to Morris, with ARS' Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin. There, he regenerates and distributes seed from a "special-purposes" legume collection. It includes 64 genera, or genetic groups, representing hundreds of semitropical legume species collected from around the world. Most have multiple uses, from controlling weeds and erosion to providing drug companies with pharmaceutical compounds. Jack bean, a shrublike plant adapted to southern climates, flowers in July through August. Though normally grown as a cover crop, the bean plant's seeds can be eaten if properly boiled. In addition to concanvalin-A, a lectin protein with many biochemical properties, Jack bean also is a source of the enzyme urease. Pharmaceutical companies extract both concanvalin-A and urease from the plant for use in diagnostic tests. ARS is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's chief scientific research agency. <snip>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000109A.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - September 15, 2001 - AKA RFN200109B.txt Notes In Passing - Leo The California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc, is holding its annual convention, the Festival of Fruit, at the University of Arizona Student Memorial in Tempe, Arizona, on October 12, 13, 14. Held outside of the State of California for the first time in its history, the event is being hosted by the Arizona chapter under the banner, Brava la Guava. Using the theme, "Doing It In The

Desert," an array of experienced, practiced speakers will explore the cultivation of warm climate and other rare fruit species in an arid environment using basic cultural practices and techniques that are, in general, applicable to many climates. The keynote speaker, Bruce Livingston whose professional name is Santol, is a widely known educator in Florida. He has traveled extensively and introduced many new species and cultivars from many parts of the world. The Festival Web site with details and an application form may be accessed on the Internet at http://www.crfg.org/fof/index.html (Registration at http://www.crfg.org/fof/info/Reg.pdf ) Contact Dick Gross at 623-939-4570 or by email rkgross3@home.com for further details. [Much of information at webpage is copied in the Announcements section, below. Leo] Longan-Research <longan-research@yahoogroups.com> is a new email news group. So far, the mail seems to be directed to or from Dr. Sainarong Rasananda, so I occasionally take mail from there to place in Dr. Sainarong Rasananda's mail bag. I hope that's ok. Hazards Of Cutting Bamboo - I have been cut twice by the thin outer layer of bamboo bark, while harvesting poles. Yesterday, I had to have stitches. That layer of bark is thin but tough. With a machete, I cut one small cane almost in two, leaving only a quarter-inch wide fiber strip. Instead of cutting it, I tried to pull it apart (no gloves donned, of course) and got a nasty cut on my left hand little finger. It's a lesson I hope I learn better than I did the last time - several years ago - when the same thing happened, although no sutures were required that time.

>>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber, Texas-What Can I Grow Here? "Renee Votta" <WhiteShemn@axs4u.net> Sapote Shake Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: Judy <frisk@frisk.net> Re: What Is The White List Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com>

Minimum order for seeds "Oscar Jaitt" <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> To: plumeria14@juno.com Tell Me About The Male/Female Flowers On Solo Papaya William Boyd <theboyds@mediaone.net> RE: Family Pictures Virus (It's A Hoax!) "Bill Burson" <powaybill@home.com> Seed Source(s) Sought-Black Sapote, White Sapote, .... "Jeff Goodchild" <jeff@auroville.org.in> Re: Seed Source(s) Sought-Black Sapote, White Sapote, .... Leo Manuel To: Jeff Goodchild <jeff@auroville.org.in> White Sapote Recipes "Robert R. Chambers" <robertchambers@sprintmail.com> To: <frisk@frisk.net> RE: Green mango Varieties "Bally, Ian" <BallyI@prose.dpi.qld.gov.au> Self-pollinating hylocereus "Joe Galea" <joegalea@shadow.net.mt> Mystery fruit... Help! "Geoffrey Ingalls" <rebelone@media1.com> Re: Mystery fruit... Help! Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: Geoffrey <geod@rentgear.com> Papaya seeds Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> To: Jacob <plumeria14@juno.com> Purchase Of Seeds/Plants On 'Net - Where? "Denise Edwards" <deniseedwards@lycos.com> Pepper As Natural Insect Repellent; ÀWhat Works For Leaf Miner?

Ed <Link2itc@aol.com> CC: sainaron@loxinfo.co.th Sapodilla, Pitahaya, and Wax Jambu Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Re: longan cultivars in Fujian Province, China "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Laurence Wayne Dixon" <tibbydixon@bigpond.com> Re: Longan in China. "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Longan and Potassium Chlorate - continued "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Ralph Schmidt" <rschmidt@telocity.com> Re: longan cultivars in Fujian Province, China "Dr. Amos Blumenfeld 03-9683397 VH" <vhamos@agri.gov.il> Reply-To: Longan-Research <longanresearch@yahoogroups.com> Fw: Hot Pepper as Insect Repellant "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Edward (Dr.) Lin" <Link2itc@aol.com>

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

CRFG Fruit Festival Information: http://www.crfg.org/fof/index.html The Exotic Fruits Of Malaysia http://agrolink.moa.my/comoditi/fruits.html "Scott D. Russell" <srussell@OU.EDU> Fwd By: "Lon J. Rombough" <lonrom@hevanet.com> Providing Homes for Mason Bees http://pollinator.com/mason_homes.htm

ScottÕs Bee and Wasp House Page http://ucs.orst.edu/~holubs/bee/beehome.htm Solitary bee houses, Orchard mason bee houses, Passaloecus, solitary wasp, aphid control, Bumble bee houses, free plans, free designs, free information, Butterfly house

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers)

<<<<

None, this time

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<<

None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<<

Minimum Temperature Requirements for various trees, info request please Maxwell Gilbert <maxfruit@yahoo.com> Reply-To: newcrops@purdue.edu Re: Minimum Temperature Requirements for various trees, info request Sven Merten <scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net> To: Maxwell Gilbert <maxfruit@yahoo.com>

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<

Green mango Varieties "Bally, Ian" <BallyI@prose.dpi.qld.gov.au> Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Thai Green Mango Ian Bally Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

Re: Pollinators "W C" <wpc728@hotmail.com> Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Tiny Berry Tops Tomatoes in Lycopene "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Subscriber, Texas-What Can I Grow Here? Date: Sat, 8 Sep 2001 17:50:27 -0700 From: "Renee Votta" <WhiteShemn@axs4u.net> I just found your web site and would like to subscribe to your newsletter. My name is Renee Votta. I live in New Braunfels, Texas, just north of San Antonio. We have about 3 freezes a year, and it has gotten down to 18 degrees here once in the last 5 years that my husband and I have lived here. There were 2 plums, a peach and an apricot tree here when we got here, but due to a 3 year drought we have lost all but 1 plum. We also have 2 loquats. One has very sweet fruit and the other tree has kind of sour fruit. I have just planted some thornless blakcberries that are suppose to do good here. We have wild grapes growing, but they are too sour to eat out of hand. There are also wild black raspberries, but they too are sour. Don't know if it's the alkaline soil or what, but I have tried some wild grapes from another part of town and they were fairly sweet. I am interested in growing bananas, oranges, limes, etc,. Just about anything that will grow here with a little protection. We are about 5 degrees colder here in NB than San Antonio, plus our yard faces the north wind and does not have any wind breaks, so it gets colder here than there. But not too bad. The loquats have done very good, even during that cold night. I use to live in Illinois, so this tropical fruit is very interesting! I've seen bananas and oranges growing here, and want my own. I'm looking forward to receiving your newsletter.

Renee Votta

mailto:WhiteShemn@axs4u.net

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Date: From: To:

Sapote Shake Fri, 31 Aug 2001 14:11:35 -0700 (PDT) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Judy <frisk@frisk.net>

Judy... My favorite way of using White Sapote is to peel it and remove the seeds and then squash it in a freezer bag. (and freezing it.) It makes the best milkshake just by adding milk and maybe choclate syrup or fruit jam for more flavor. Put it in a blender and enjoy! Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: What Is The White List Date: Fri, 31 Aug 2001 14:30:28 -0700 (PDT) From: Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Leo... See p 18 of the Set/Oct 2000 Fruit Gardener. The info I received said the cut-off date is Sept 21, 2001. All plants and seeds imported must have a phytosanitary certificate, except for a few plants from Canada. Terrible news. Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Minimum order for seeds

Date: From: To:

Fri, 31 Aug 2001 22:49:37 -1000 "Oscar Jaitt" <fruitlovers@hotmail.com> plumeria14@juno.com Hello, just wanted to point out an error that you made about the minimum purchase for seeds from my company. The minimum purchase for seeds is only $10, not $70 as you stated. The minimum plant purchase is $70. Thank you, Oscar Jaitt, mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com Fruit Lover's Nursery, http://www.fruitlovers.com ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Tell Me About The Male/Female Flowers On Solo Papaya From: William Boyd <theboyds@mediaone.net> Date: Sat, 1 Sep 2001 06:45:55-0400 I've lucked out with my discarded papaya seeds. After 6 years unsuccessfully trying to get a fruit, switching from an unnamed variety to "Solo" to "Waimanolo" again and again, I'd given up and decided to rid myself of the seed, scattering it in my most productive vegetable-growing bed. I gave no thought to their germinating 'til early May, when, glancing down, I spot 2 papaya seedlings. Spaced about 4 inches apart, I know that neither would do well, so I transplant 1 to a pot (at first, it appeared to thrive, but my disturbing the roots quickly sapped its vigor) and begin to fertilize the other. The bed was destined to be fallow over the summer, so the papaya (I'm fairly certain a "Solo") had plenty of root room. By early August, it was 5 feet tall and putting out buds. Now, it's well over 6 feet, with several large, opened flowers displayed along the "trunk." I'm, of course, hoping for fruit. What can you tell me about the location of the female and male flowers on the "Solo?" For example, are they together within what would appear to be the same flower? Or, Are they separate and located at a distance? Additionally, which flowers, if separate, appear first? Thanks, Bill mailto:theboyds@mediaone.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: RE: Family Pictures Virus (It's A Hoax!)

Date: Sat, 1 Sep 2001 21:21:18 -0700 From: "Bill Burson" <powaybill@home.com> Virus Hoax http://www.symantec.com/avcenter/hoax.html Family Pictures Reported on: February 14, 2001 Last Updated on: February 28, 2001 at 06:12:28 PM PST <snip> ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Seed Source(s) Sought-Black Sapote, White Sapote, .... Date: Mon, 03 Sep 2001 18:06:48 +0530 From: "Jeff Goodchild" <jeff@auroville.org.in> Hello Leo, I enjoy reading your newsletters. Here in South India I already have sour sop, bullock heart and custard apple (squamosa), sapote (chikoo), green skinned oranges (satacoudi), kamala, limes, grapefruits, pomelo, cumquart, sweet, sour passionfruit, mangos, amlas, cherry (Peruvian) guava, various normal guavas, cheese fruit, tamarind and jakfruit. I am in the process of trying to get Australian atemoyas and a selection of different passionfruit going from seed. I would like to get some different tropical fruit trees to those that I already have. In particular I would like to make some small orchards of black persimmon and white sapote which I have seen grow well here. Other fruits that I am interested in are abiu, caimito, lucuma and jaboticaba. Can you give me some email addresses of seed banks or seed exchanges where I might get seeds from. Most convenient would be the West coast of USA, South America, Australia, or Europe as I can arrange for people to bring the seeds when they visit here. Thanks, Jeff Goodchild mailto:jeff@auroville.org.in

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Seed Source(s) Sought-Black Sapote, White Sapote, .... Date: Mon, 03 Sep 2001 06:28:59 -0700

From: Leo Manuel To: Jeff Goodchild <jeff@auroville.org.in> Hi Jeff, I will put your letter in the newsletter for reader imput, but Oscar Jaitt in Hawaii is one possibility: "Jaitt, Oscar" mailto:fruitlovers@hotmail.com I would want to be sure consumers will buy black sapote before going heavily into that fruit. As a novelty it will sell, but for regular consumption, I'm not so sure. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: White Sapote Recipes Tue, 4 Sep 2001 00:23:59 -0700 "Robert R. Chambers" <robertchambers@sprintmail.com> <frisk@frisk.net>

Clytia and I are kind of tied up at the moment, but the 1992 Fruit Gardener issues featured white sapote that year and Clytia remembers there being some recipes in those. We will dig them out in due course. Actually considering the potential of white sapotes there are very few recipies and a big need for people to develop more. Most white sapotes can be pureed easily when ripe and keep for several years in a freezer. They have a high sugar content, probably have some emulsifiers in them, and a reasonably subtle taste. They are also quite nutritious -- something like a banana. So you would think that the puree could be used to advantage in all sorts of baked goods, desserts, drinks, and the like. Clytia mixes sapote puree with old fashioned bitter grapefruit segments to get an excellent breakfast fruit. The field is stalled at the moment waiting for recipes to be developed. The commercial puree company will not sell the puree unless the chefs ask for it, and the chefs won't bother unless there are some recipes that interest them. While the taste of many sapotes is very good, it can be drowned out easily by other tastes. We put about 1% of our very sour pitanga in the sapote puree and got a very sweet concoction that mostly reflected the pitanga taste. Bob Chambers mailto:robertchambers@sprintmail.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Leo I am not sure why your trees are reluctant to bear fruit it could be a range of problems from poor flowering through to harvest. Fruit splitting is a common problem in some of the green eating fruit it can be caused by a couple of reasons. Firstly if the splitting is happening early the fruit is half grown it is usually because the fruit are do not contain a fertilised seed (nubbins). nubbins are usually a result of poor pollination due to low temperatures. Splitting of fruit at a later stage of maturity closer to full maturity is common in several of the green eating types from Thailand. The splitting is usually caused by an increase in turgor due to rain or irrigation. the best way to combat this problem is to keep your soil water content as even as possible, do not over water and do not allow the soil to dry out between irrigations. The Thai green eating variety FALAN is renown for splitting just prior to harvest. Falan in English means thunder, they gave it this name because it splits after thunder storms. Regards Ian S. E. Bally mailto:ballyi@dpi.qld.gov.au Horticulturist Queensland Horticulture Institute Mareeba, Q, 4880 -----Original Message----| From: Leo Manuel [SMTP:leom@rarefruit.com] | Sent: Monday, 3 September 2001 22:29 | To: Bally, Ian | Subject: Problems With Pim Sane Mun and Nam Doc Mai/San Diego | | | Hi Ian, | | I have Pim Sane Mun and Nam Doc Mai in San Diego, California. Pim | Sane Mun is reluctant to bear and when it does, the fruit splits | badly. The tree is young and perhaps this will change as the tree | | | | matures. Nam Doc Mai is older, bears more, but it too tends to split. The only water the trees get during the time they are carrying fruit comes from irrigation. Is it possible that I need to reduce the watering frequency and duration from some point in RE: Problems With Pim Sane Mun and Nam Doc Mai/San Diego Wed, 5 Sep 2001 09:08:30 +1000 "Bally, Ian" <BallyI@prose.dpi.qld.gov.au> "Leo Manuel" <leom@rarefruit.com>

| | | | | |

the season onwards, until the fruit is picked, to keep the splitting from occuring? Horticordially, Leo Manuel ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Self-pollinating hylocereus Date: Wed, 5 Sep 2001 11:07:14 +0200 From: "Joe Galea" <joegalea@shadow.net.mt> Dear Sir, As a member of the CRFG I have been fascinated reading about Pitahaya or Dragon fruit as it is known in Vietnam in an article by Edgar Valdivia. I have also come to know that Hylocerus ocamponis and another type of Hylocereus undatus currently cultivated in Vietnam are self-pollinating as regards to fruit set. I would be very grateful if you send me information of specific nurseries or individuals from where I could possibly obtain these cuttings. I have also just planted few cuttings of Hylocereus undatus which I have obtained from various locations in Malta (island in the central Mediterrean). Adjacent to these I intend to plant the cuttings hopefully to be obtained from abroad together with few seedlings of the climbing cactus Selenicereus megalanthus. This has been done to facilitate cross-pollination between the various mentioned cacti. Thank you for your interest and let me know beforehand of any due payment. Yours truly, Joe mailto:joegalea@shadow.net.mt MALTA EUROPE

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Mystery fruit... Help! Date: Wed, 5 Sep 2001 16:30:50 -0400 From: "Geoffrey Ingalls" <rebelone@media1.com> Hello, My name is Geoffrey Ingalls and I live in Plantation, Florida, a

suburb of Ft. Lauderdale. I just purchased my home and I have a marvelous mango tree that gave us dozens of large, sweet fruit this past spring. It's an old tree that seems to be a bit famous in the neighborhood as I had a whole slew of folks come and ask if they could pick some, and I told them to help themselves. But I'm writing about my other fruit tree, which is a mystery to me that I hope you can clear up. It's a citrus for sure, standing about 8' tall, and about the same around with nice large leaves and bearing fruit. The question is WHAT ARE THEY? They're dark, green - like limes (which I thought they were at first), but they're the size of oranges, about 3.5" across. They're ripe, and they're very sweet. The meat isn't orange and it's not really green, but kind of in the middle. Any ideas? Friends who have tasted the juice that I squeezed from them can't agree what they are. Everyone loves the juice - it's sweet as can be, really refreshing but the color is almost that of lemonade! Help! Thank you. Geoffrey S. Ingalls mailto:rebelone@media1.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Mystery fruit... Help! Wed, 05 Sep 2001 14:00:41 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Geoffrey <geod@rentgear.com>

Hi Geoffrey, I'll put your letter in the next newsletter and forward any replies to you. When you say sweet, do you mean just not sour? There are sweet limes and sweet lemons which have no flavor except sweet, and some of it tastes to me as if it were lemonade diluted with 'way too much water. Bland is how I'd describe the taste. Anyway, we'll see what the experts say. Take care, Leo ------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To:

Papaya seeds Thu, 6 Sep 2001 14:45:23 -0700 (PDT) Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Jacob <plumeria14@juno.com>

Jacob... The Seed Bank of the Califoria Rare Fruit Growers has papaya seeds. If you are not a member, go to www.crfg.org. You will love their web page and their publication, The Fruit Gardener. Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Purchase Of Seeds/Plants On 'Net - Where? Date: Fri, 07 Sep 2001 14:58:19 -0700 From: "Denise Edwards" <deniseedwards@lycos.com> Is there any web site where I can visit and purchase fruit trees on line? I am particularly interested in many fruits that are more commonly found in Australia, but any fruit which would grow in a temperate climate would be welcome Denise Edwards mailto:deniseedwards@lycos.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Pepper As Natural Insect Repellent; ÀWhat Works For Leaf Miner? Date: Sun, 9 Sep 2001 19:21:58 EDT From: Ed <Link2itc@aol.com> CC: sainaron@loxinfo.co.th Hello Leo, I read with great interest in the 200109A RFN, a letter (reproduced below) describing the use of hot pepper spray to keep animal pests away from fruits. Since both pepper (the tabletop variety) and red pepper are natural insect repellents, are you or your readership aware of similar use of hot pepper spray for keeping ants from farming aphids and scales? In other words, if one were to spray fruit trees with the hot pepper spray, would the tree surface be a more hostile environment for common insect pests? Also, I would like to know if anyone has an effective protocol for

controlling the citrus leaf miner. Many thanks, and best regards, Ed mailto:Link2itc@aol.com

---Original Message--| Subject: ... Bats Avoid Pepper Juice | Date: Thu, 23 Aug 2001 20:23:28 -0400 | From: "Juan A. Rivero" <jarivero@caribe.net> <snip> | | | | | | | | | Incidentally, several of your subscribers have asked about the protection of fruits (especially the sapodilla) from bats. A friend of mine uses hot pepper (the hotter the better), in the proportion of two tablespoons per gallon of water, pulverized on the fruit. He claims that the method is highly succesful. Best wishes Juan mailto:jarivero@caribe.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: Sapodilla, Pitahaya, and Wax Jambu Date: Thu, 13 Sep 2001 12:22:55 -0700 From: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Leo, Good news. The Sapodilla (Alano) I got from Roger Meyer is doing awesome. As I said, it is in FULL sun, gets Miracle Gro, and has small river rock mulch. It has many new leaves, and has one flower at a 2ft height. I am hoping the flower will fruit, but it definitely looks good for fruit next year. Roger had several varieties for sale, and had his own in the ground with flowers. My mouth waters with anticipation. The Pitahaya is also doing well. I planted a Hylocereus Undatus from George Emerich in May, and at 1ft it is also forming a flower already. I obtained a Polyhrizhus from Roger Meyer as a friend for the undatus, but that is not in the ground yet and not flowering. The cacti are in filtered sun all day, but get full sun from 4PM on. I think the dirt at my place is real fertile. I am told is used to be a river bed. (in City of Orange) The wax Jambu has also materialized. I got one from Ben Porier that grafted onto Rose Apple. It is supposed to be sweet. I had it in filtered sun for 2weeks, but this week it has been in full sun and looking good with new growth already. I am trying to get it acclimated to put in the ground.The spot is against a 6ft block

wall, that gets sun from 1PM to dark. As usual I am composting the site with grass, and other green leftovers from Kitchen. I have had sucess with fall plantings. The Fwang Tung Carambola is FOR SURE self fertile. I obtained a nice tree from Roger Meyer in Novemeber and planted in full sun that month. It has reflected heat from the house, but overhead watering helps it cool off on the hot days. There are many many flowers with at least 20 small fruits developing. All this is very exciting, and thanks for an outlet to brag, boast, and trade stories with others. Question: I have a Manilla Mangoe flowering and small fruit beginning. It developed powder mildew with the cool and foggy weather the last couple of weeks. I use Safer Fungicide (sulfur spray) on Grapes, Can I use it on Mangoes. I apoligize about the length, but I need to get my mind off the war. Todd Abel mailto:tabel@statek.com Orange, CA 92867

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Date: From: To:

Re: longan cultivars in Fujian Province, China Sat, 1 Sep 2001 23:32:32 +0700 "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> "Laurence Wayne Dixon" <tibbydixon@bigpond.com>

I was told that they have a big pomology station in Fugian that has about 140 different cultivars of longan. I did not have the time to visit but will hopefully get back there to check it out. Prempree says that the Chinese claim to have over 400 longan cultivars. From what I see most of the cultivars are in Fujian. I seems to me that longans have been grown in almost every household in some parts of Fujian for hundreds of years, and the trees were generally grown from seeds. As a result, you get all kinds of longans, small leaves, large leaves, tiny fruits, very large fruits, large seeds, not-so-large seeds (I did not see any small seeds, but no douby there are some), a lot of aril, a small amount of aril, dark skin, almost yellow skin, sweet, bland, watery, crisp,, you name it, they probably exist in Fujian! Surprisingly, I did not find any Fujian longan to my liking. One of my

colleagues likes Wulong Ling, the other is non-committal. There was one, just one mind you, tree grown from seed in front of a peasant house on the roadside which has large fruits, juicy flesh and fairly sweet; there was also another tree there which looks the same but has different quality fruits. One of my colleagues (the same one) likes the former, the other (again the same one) did not think highly of it, neither did I, but the fruit were HUGE! After a while, I gave up asking the names of the various cultivars, because nobody knows! everybody just calls them long yian. The retail price varies from 4 to 11 yuans per kilo, depending..... To my way of thinking, the proliferation of the cultivars is detrimental to the marketing effort. To perform well outside Fujian, they must reduce the cultivars to just a few, but I cannot see that coming. I also do not see evidence of much effort on the part of the Fujian agricultual extension officers. Have Fun! Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

PS I was there right in the middle of the longan harvest, in the middle of August. -----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Longan in China. Date: Sat, 8 Sep 2001 12:19:15 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> On my last trip to China I visited some large longan orchards one of these in Chengzhen had 20000 trees in full production they were mostly a cultivar called Chu Liang have you heard of this cultivar they were very good fruit. I also visited a orchard of 80000 longans but they were not in production I tasted Chuliang in Guangzi and Guangdong provinces. I picked Chuliang straight from an orchard, I tasted Chuliang given to me as a present, I tasted Chuliang in a wholesale market in Guangzhou. So I am fairly familiar with Chuliang. It is similar, as far as I can see, to the Thai E-Daw, in size, appearance, thickness of skin, crispness, un-watery-ness, amount of flesh, colour of flesh, small seed size, leaves. The major difference is the aroma - a positive one - which is unique to Chuliang. The other difference is the colour of the skin - E-Daw is lighter and more pleasing to the eye; however, this can

be due to the location and the method of cultivation rather than the cultivar difference. Which is better? Quite frankly, I would say 'Beauty is in the eye of the beholder', so to speak. The agricultural officer in Guangzi tell me that fruit-setting is a problem. This may be due to the weather, I don't really know. Have Fun! Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th -----------------------------------------------Subject: Longan and Potassium Chlorate - continued Date: Sat, 8 Sep 2001 13:06:05 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Ralph Schmidt" <rschmidt@telocity.com> Let's see what other factors affect the successful application od potassium chlorate. Rain Humidity Leaf Clouds Age Sun Soil Type Cultivar Temperature

As I have said before, these are empirical facts only, that is, these are what have been observed, but no provable explanation s have yet been given. Dr. Chung Ruey Yen of Taiwan pooh-poohed most of these factors. He says that the key is to get the chemical absorbed into the roots, it is as simple as that. What is my opinion? I think it makes a lot of sense, and I am working toward achieving that aim. Which leads me to another different subject - my current pet topic. I often been asked what fertilisers to use and how much should be applied. The key I feel is how much fertilisers can I get into the tree, which may, in many cases, not have a close relationship to the amount of fertilisers applied. Think about it...carefully. Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: longan cultivars in Fujian Province, China

Date: Sun, 2 Sep 2001 12:24:31 +0300 (IDT) From: "Dr. Amos Blumenfeld 03-9683397 VH" <vhamos@agri.gov.il> Reply-To: Longan-Research <longan-research@yahoogroups.com> Dear Sainarong, It was very interesting to read your short report about your visit to China to see longan. In a place where trees are grown from seeds (this is not the situation in commercial orchards in China) one expects to find huge variability: lot of inferior plants, but few excellent ones could be found there.The good types could change the industry. Fortunately, the Chinese in their home gardens do not practice top grafting for replacement of cultivars with better ones. Hence the variability is kept for many years. If someone wants to use this plant material for selection purposes, a survey should be made with the cooperation of the local people who I think should benefit from the results, and therefore will have initiative to help in the selection procedure. There are many ways to do selection. One for example is, to have a local competition among the farmers for the fruit which suites the selection goals, and the selection criteria. The owner of the selected fruit could get money or recognition or anything else to thank him. We have some experience in selection of fruit trees according to market requirements. I consider taste as most important in fresh longan. Generally Thai and Vietnamese cvs are very tasty, better than the Taiwanese which are probably similar to the Chinese cvs in Mainland China. Very important for our consumers, who eat fresh longan, is seed size. Small seeds, (only13% of the fruit weight) gave feeling of big seed to most of our people. Very strange! I was told that there are seedless longan trees in China, I have not seen them, nor heard about their other fruit characteristics. Last year during the first Litchi and longan symposium, I obtained a book (in Chinese) where a picture of longan with aborted seeds like is shown. I think that finding a good, seedless longan could make a breakthrough in marketing of the fresh fruit. This of coarse is not important where the dry aril is consumed. For this purpose other selection criteria should be applied. I wonder if the Chinese are not doing longan selection. It could be that you have not met with the people who do the job. They are located at universities or the Academy of Agricultural Science of each Province. By the way, how have you communicated with the people, English? With best regards, Amos Blumenfeld mailto:vhamos@agri.gov.il

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Fw: Hot Pepper as Insect Repellant Fri, 14 Sep 2001 20:50:38 +0700 "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> "Edward (Dr.) Lin" <Link2itc@aol.com>

This e-mail, from Dr. Francis Zee, Curator of a horticulture genetic bank in Hawaii, is in response to Ed Lin's question on hot pepper. Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

----- Original Message ----| | From: Francis Zee <hilofz@ars-grin.gov> | | Dear Sainarong: | | I have no experience with pepper spray, may be dangerous, can cause | damage to eye and respiration if not done carefully. | | Francis

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Brava la Guava! The Arizona Chapter of the CRFG invites you to the 2001 Festival of Fruit at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, Friday October 12 to Sunday, October 14, 2001. Expect fun, fellowship and good food while you learn more about growing your favorite fruit. Easy access from Interstate 10: Exit 40th Street and turn south. Turn east (left) on East Broadway Road. The Extension is on the right. Saturday seminars, plants sales, and Sunday tours: Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. Easy access from Interstate 10: Exit University Drive. Go east to Mill Avenue.

All Friday events at the University of Arizona Maricopa County Cooperative Extension, 4341 E. Broadway Road, Phoenix, Arizona. 5:00 PM to Dusk -- Tour the Interpretive Trail Demonstration Gardens. See the Arizona Rare Fruit Growers' subtropical garden; a complete herb collection; a superb heritage rose garden; a healing garden; native plants; a children's garden; a bulb collection; and, a compost display. 6:00 PM -- Evening welcome reception, Palo Verde room. A chance to relax, enjoy refreshments, meet new people, and renew old acquaintances. 6:30 PM -- Annual CRFG Board meeting, Palo Verde room. All CRFG members are welcome to attend. Saturday, October 13th: All Saturday events are at the Arizona State University Student Memorial Union, Tempe, Arizona. 8 AM -- Registration: Memorial Union Lobby. Plant sales area open 8:00 AM to 5:50 PM. Saturday 9:30 AM -- General Assembly. Welcoming remarks by Steve Flowers, President of the Arizona chapter of CRFG and Vice President of CRFG. Bob Vieth, Chair of CRFG Development Fund. 9:45 AM -- Keynote Speech. "Santol": New Fruiting Plants From the Tropics. Santol is the professional name of Bruce Livingston. He is a renowned authority on tropical and subtropical fruit, teaching and collecting new species from the warm climates around the world. 10:45 AM -- Three sessions: A. Guavas and their Culture Randy Permpoon Owner, Sri Siam Tropicals, specializing in guavas of all kinds. B. Soil and Worm Castings Kathy Chamberlain Owner, Desert Wormcastings; C. Dates and their Culture Richard Harris Special Collection Curator and Educational Program Coordinator of the Arboretum at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona. NOON -- Box lunch, $8.00. Rare plant auction. 1:30 PM -- Four sessions: A. Mangos and their Culture Sharleen Mauritz Inland Empire CRFG Chapter Chair. She is a Master Gardener and mentors children at Citrus State Park. She will bring videos of the mango groves of the Salton Sea, California, area.

B. Propagation of Tropical Fruits Cindy Odgers. C. Affordable Greenhouse Construction Doug Jones AZCRFG Member. Doug has experience covering large swaths of the Earth with 2 x 4s and plastic inexpensively and sturdily. D. Coping with the Desert Dean Mikesell Master Agronomist for Blackstone Agriculture. Dean will speak on improving desert soils, reducing nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide use, and will demonstrate soil testing methods. 3:00 PM -- Three sessions: A. Citrus Culture James Truman and Dean Bacon University of Arizona. B. Jujubes and their Culture Zab Zabezensky. C. Desert Banana Culture. 4:30 - 5:50 PM Conversations with Santol Expert tables 5:50 PM -- Plant sales close. 6:00 PM -- Banquet. Arizona Barbeque, $22; Vegetarian Italian, $18. Sunday, October 14th: Tours Guided AZCRFG Member's Garden Tour Option: 8:30 AM -- Meet at ASU Grady Gammage Auditorium parking lot. Bus and carpool. 9:00 AM -- First stop. Dr. Al Falkenstein home garden. An impressive collection including mangos, mangosteen, mamey sapote, chocolate, star fruit, longan, passion vines and others. 10:30 AM -- Second stop. Phil Gardner's fantastic banana and papaya plantation, inside a bamboo forest. NOON-- Final stop. Steve Flower's Tropica Mango Nursery, the only sub-tropical fruit nursery in the Southwest. 1:30 PM -- Board to return to ASU. Self-Guided Tour Options: Friday, Saturday, or Sunday, self-guided walking tours of of the Arboretum at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, director Richard Harris, Special Collection Curator and Educational Program Coordinator, who is speaking on the program. For advance information phone (480) 965-8467. Desert Botanical Garden. 1201 North Galvin Parkway, Phoenix, in Papago Park, about 3 miles northwest from ASU. Wide selection of arid plants, trees. (480) 941-1217.

Phoenix Zoo. Just south of the Desert Botanical Garden (see above) in Papago Park. Collection of tropical plants and animals, featuring South America's only bear species, the Spectacled Bear in the Colombian Forest of Uco exhibit. (602) 273-1341. The University of Arizona's Boyce Thompson Arboretum. Collection of trees and plants from around the world. About 1 hour east of Phoenix via Route 60, just west of Superior, Arizona. (520) 689-5248. Sedona, Arizona. World famous for natural red rock wonders, shopping, and Slide Rock. the world's first waterslide! Two hours north of Phoenix on Interstate 17. For further information click here. Registration 1. Print the registration form; [If you have trouble getting a copy of the registration form, let me (mailto:leom@rarefruit.com) know and I'll attach a copy of the graphic to an email.) You won't have trouble if you have web access.] 2. Fill it out and calculate payment; 3. Mail it with a check payable to AZCRFG to: Jim Crosson 638 North Valencia Place Chandler AZ 85226 Hotels When making your reservations, say that you are attending the California Rare Fruit Growers Festival of Fruit 2001 "Brava La Guava" National Convention. Some hotels are offering reduced rates. All prices quoted are in US dollars and subject to change. Tempe Mission Palms Hotel (Deluxe) 60 E 5th Street, Tempe, Arizona; easy walking distance to ASU Memorial Union. Contact: Todd Wurtz Phone: (480) 317-1536. No price given. Mission Palms Web site. Holiday Inn (Moderate) 915 E. Apache Blvd, Tempe, Arizona; easy walking distance to ASU Memorial Union. Contact: Bonnie Hannon Phone: (480) 968-3451 Convention rate $97.00 per night. Twin Palms Hotel (Moderate) Mill Avenue & Apache Boulevard, Tempe, Arizona; closest hotel to ASU Memorial Union. Contact: Julie Silva Phone: (480) 967-9431 No price given. Twin Palms Web site TraveLodge (Economy) 1005 E Apache Blvd, Tempe, Arizona; easy walking distance to ASU Memorial Union. Contact: Richard Holz Phone: (800) 578-7878 Convention rate $49.00 per night. Travelodge corporate Web site. Comfort Inn (Economy) 1031 East Apache Boulevard, Tempe, Arizona Contact: Kelli Burton Phone: (480) 966-7202 No price given.

Super 8 Hotel Tempe (Economy) 1020 East Apache Boulevard, Tempe, Arizona Contact: Deborah Nelson Phone: 480-967-8891 Convention rate $40.00 per night. Super 8 corporate Web site -----------------------------------------------From: Subject: Date: Fwd By: "Scott D. Russell" <srussell@OU.EDU> The Exotic Fruits Of Malaysia Thu, Sep 6, 2001, 8:04 PM "Lon J. Rombough" <lonrom@hevanet.com>

http://agrolink.moa.my/comoditi/fruits.html The Exotic Fruits Of Malaysia The featured exotic fruits Of Malaysia include: Starfruit, Durian, Papaya, Guava, Rambutan, Banana, Mango, Ciku, Jackfruit, Pineapple, Watermelon, Mangosteen, Pomelo, Lansium and Loose Peel Citrus. For each fruit, detailed information is presented on growing the plant, its requirements, yield, uses, pests and useful tips. More information is available on plant quarantines, the Slim River Starfruit Project, the Packing and Coolroom Complex Chui Chak, Perak, Malaysia, area of fruits orchard in West Malaysia (1985 - 1994 ) and Fruits Technology. Remarkably complete and illustrated. Research by Mrs. Pathmavathy d/o Chellathurai, prepared by Agrolink Task Force, Malaysia. (***1/2) -SR <snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: Providing Homes for Mason Bees Date: Mon, 10 Sep 2001 06:31:44 -0700 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> http://pollinator.com/mason_homes.htm Providing Homes for Mason Bees Images Copyright 2001, David L. Green <snip> Mason bees are solitary but gregarious. Each female builds her own nest, but they like to nest in the same area with others. Here are two returning to nests they have found in the cracks between

tongue and groove boards that have shrunk over the years. These bees become active in the spring, when fruit trees bloom, and they finish their life cycle in early summer. This makes them good fruit pollinators, but not for later veggies. You can see the bright yellow pollen on the belly of the upper bee. In our backyard there is a dead tree. Enough has been removed to make it safe from falling on a building or vehicle, but the remainder was left. It serves as a home and feed source for woodpeckers (and also helps to keep them from going after good wood). If you look carefully you can see three nest holes, and other places where the woodpeckers have fed. We are also going to provide some housing for our local mason bees. (Of course, there's a chance they could become woodpecker food, but that's the way nature is.) They cannot drill holes as do carpenter bees, so they must find existing holes, such as hollow reeds, spaces under shingles, cracks in buildings, etc. We could drill holes in blocks of wood for them, or we could bundle straws or stems of some wood with soft piths, such as elderberries. Some folks make holes in adobe blocks, or drill into morter joints with a masonry bit, in places where it won't hurt a building of value. Using this dead tree is an easier choice for the moment. The ideal drill size for mason bees has been found to be 5/16 inch. Other sizes can be tried and may interest other species of bees or potter wasps, which are also beneficial. A standard drill bit is not adequate, because the hole needs to be at least 6 inches deep. I could only find a 12 inch drill, though I would have preferred an intermediate length. We should have made these when frut first began to bloom in February. It is late now, but mason bees are still active here in South Carolina, so we are hopeful they will be used. Early April is a good time for the northern part of the USA. Drill slightly upward so that water cannot run into the nest and drown the baby bees. The holes must be drilled at least six inches deep to achieve the proper ratio of males to females in the next generation. After the hole is completely drilled, run the bit back thru to clean out all shavings. Clusters or groups of holes are made within an inch or two of each other, so the bees can have neighbors nearby when they are working. We will continue to report on this page, if the holes become occupied. <snip> ------------------------------------------------

Subject: ScottÕs Bee and Wasp House Page -Solitary bee houses, Orchard mason bee houses, Passaloecus, solitary wasp, aphid control, Bumble bee houses, free plans, free designs, free information, Butterfly house http://ucs.orst.edu/~holubs/bee/beehome.htm ScottÕs Bee and Wasp House Page <snip> Solitary Bees Solitary bees, like the orchard mason bee (Osmia), can be very good pollinators for early spring plants and fruit trees.Ê It is very easy to make an abundance of housing for these loner bees and it is fun to watch them move in.Ê The bees look very similar to common flies, so donÕt get the two mixed up! <snip> Solitary Bee House Construction Take any old piece of non-treated wood (firewood, scraps of lumber) and drill as many 5/16Ó holes in it as deep as you can.Ê The holes are what the bees make their nests in.Ê Each individual hole is a nest for an individual bee.Ê ThatÕs what makes them solitary even though the holes are all together in one block.Ê They will make more females if the holes are 6Ó to 10Ó deep, so you might want to invest in a long drill bit.Ê You can make deep holes with a short bit, but youÕll have to drill several boards separately and attach them together, which can be difficult.Ê Put the nest blocks up by February and the bees will usually be done building by early June.Ê Leave them alone until at least October so the larvae inside can remain undisturbed.Ê Then you can take them down if you want to move them to your orchard or wherever, but I just leave them up where they are. Put the houses up facing south to southeast to let a little morning sun on the houses. <snip> There seemed to be a lot of solitary bees around my house, because they filled up many of the holes by the end of the season.Ê They seem to like smoother holes so take your time and make nice holes.Ê It is hard to see but some of the holes are filled with bee mud.Ê They are even nesting in holes that I drilled in my woodpile.Ê Free bee house designs, solitary bee, pollinator, pollination, spring, orchard mason bee, Aphid-eating solitary wasps, Passaloecus, cavity, wood, wooden, Yellow jacket remedy, Bumble

bee house, hive, drill, designs, plans, help native animals, Free bee house designs, solitary bee Other Solitary Bees and Wasps Aphid-eating solitary wasps (Passaloecus spp.) seem to like 1/8Ó to 3/16Ó hole drilled in wood.Ê IÕm not sure how deep they prefer but I think deeper (4+ inches) is better.Ê These tiny (1/4 to 1/2Ó long) wasps can pack a lot of aphids in their nest, so they may end your aphid problems if you build up a population of them (no guarantees though). They come out in mid-July and stay around until late fall. They use pine sap in their nests so near a pine tree would be great, but they seem to nest away from pine trees too.Ê When they first move in they make a sticky pine sap ring around the opening of the hole (she is holding a ball of sap in the picture to the left), so youÕll know theyÕve been there.Ê It is fun to watch them bring in little aphids to their hole.Ê IÕve seen them gathering nectar from dill flowers so planting some dill might help them along. (See other plants that attract beneficial insects at my Beneficial Insect and Butterfly Page). I got most of this solitary wasp information from a book I found at the OSU library: OÕNeill, K.M. 2001. Solitary Wasps: behavior and history. Comstock Publishing Assoc. Ithaca. ISBN: 0-8014-3721-0 Onion bees (Heriades carinata) are another kind of solitary bee I have in my garden.Ê They too are tiny but a little bigger than the aphid-eaters.Ê They are late summer pollinators.Ê Apparently they like 1/8Ó to 3/16Ó diameter holes because they moved in quickly to a house I made for the aphid eating wasps.Ê Brian Griffin at Knox Cellars helped me identify these bees.Ê They are able to hover in one place pretty well.Ê You may notice pollen accumulating under their nest block.Ê It seems to fall off them when they land.ÊÊ Many other types of cavity dwelling insects like other hole sizes.Ê There are quite a variety of bee and wasp species that use cavities so try a range of diameters and depths and let me know what works.Ê <snip> Bumblebee houses Bumblebees are good pollinators too.Ê <snip> Bumblebees normally nest in abandoned rodent holes or anywhere there is a grapefruit size cavity with a small opening.Ê I wouldnÕt count on passively enticing them into a house, as that hasnÕt been very successful.Ê You can catch a queen flying around in the early spring and put her in a constructed house to show her where it is (more info).Ê I have not yet built a bumblebee house, but the following links show several variations of Bumblebee Nest Box Plans: Plan 1, Plan 2, Plan 3.Ê Bumblebees are very docile and rarely sting unless handled.Ê <snip>

A note on getting rid of Yellow Jackets (or perhaps not): Yellow Jackets and Hornets actually kill many harmful insects so I wouldnÕt kill them unless you have to (e.g. you are allergic or they are nesting somewhere that poses a threat to people or pets), just give them a wide berth.Ê If you must destroy a nest in the ground, donÕt reach for the insecticide right away.Ê Make a note of where the nest is in the daylight.Ê After it is dark and cool later at night, try pouring a large pot of boiling hot water (Careful!) down their hole.Ê You can boil the water inside the house, but it might be safer to use the camping stove to boil it closer to the hole (but not too close) so you donÕt have to carry the hot pot so far.Ê I was amazed at the simplicity and efficacy of this method when I first heard of it and tried it.Ê It kills the nest and doesnÕt contaminate the area.Ê If you tried the hot water trick a couple times and it didnÕt work then go to the insecticide (but I doubt youÕll have to).Ê IÕm not sure this would work or be safe to do on an above ground nest, so insecticide might be best there.Ê As always be careful not to get yourself stung!Ê If you are at all uncomfortable or if you live in an area where there are Africanized honeybees (None of these in the Pacific Northwest), call a professional.Ê USE THIS ADVICE AT YOUR OWN RISK!

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> NAFEX List See: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/nafex <<<<<<

None this time

>>> Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU> <<<

Subject: Minimum Temperature Requirements for various trees, info request

please Date: Thu, 6 Sep 2001 05:38:16 -0700 (PDT) From: Maxwell Gilbert <maxfruit@yahoo.com> Reply-To: newcrops@purdue.edu Dear All, We'd like to know the minimum temperature at which we can grow the following trees and expect some fruit. We would also like to know the minimum temperature that they can withstand. Any help with this information search would be appreciated. List: Dragon Fruit Guava Pomegranite Noni Jackfruit Tamarillo Warm regards, Maxwell Gilbert mailto:maxfruit@yahoo.com Starapple Starfruit Miracle Fruit

-----------------------------------------------Subject: request Date: From: To: ReplyTo: Re: Minimum Temperature Requirements for various trees, info Thu, 06 Sep 2001 07:21:09 -0700 Sven Merten <scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net> Maxwell Gilbert <maxfruit@yahoo.com> newcrops@purdue.edu

Dear Max, From http://www.crfg.org/pubs/fl/A.html All temperatures are in F.

Dragon Fruit: harm: ? Kill: <20, but I know they will be damaged by temps in the high 20s I don't know of any that will survive 20 degrees. Guava: Pomegranate: Starapple: Star fruit: Noni: Jack fruit: Harm: 32 Kill: 26 Harm: ? Kill: 26 Harm: 5 Kill: 0 Harm: 31 Kill: 27 Harm: 30 Kill: 26

Tamarillo: Miracle Fruit:

Harm: ? Kill: 28 Harm: 31 Kill: 26

The size of the tree has a lot to do with how much cold they will take. The smaller they are the more protection they will need. Most of them seem pretty similar in the list above, but I keep my miracle fruit and star-apple in the greenhouse because they seem more tender than the others. Jack fruit stays outside, but they don't like the winters. My dragon fruit are under shade cloth which give them some protection, but they made it through about 29 degrees F this winter with only minimal damage, while the jack fruit (small plants) were damaged. Guava, star fruit and tamarillo survive our winters without a problem. It is not just the minimum temperature, but the duration of that temperature that you must consider. Regards, Sven mailto:scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net

>>> [rarefruit] List - http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rarefruit <<<

Subject: Thai Green Mango Date: Mon, 3 Sep 2001 09:07:25 +1000 From: "Bally, Ian" <BallyI@prose.dpi.qld.gov.au> Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Green Mango Varieties In Australia we have a small green eating mango market supplying mainly to the Asian comminutes of our major cities. Several varieties are sold for green eating. The Thai variety Nam Doc Mai has been sold as a green eating fruit in Australia, mainly because their has not been many other green varieties available in the past. In Thailand Nam Doc Mai is considered a ripe eating variety and almost never eaten green. The most popular green eating variety in Thailand, and now in Australia, is Keow Savoey which has a sweet nutty flavour. Larger quantities of this variety are now being grown in Australia. However it is a poor and irregular bearer. Other green eating mango varieties are Xoai Tuong (Viet Nam) and from Thailand Falan, Rad, Nan Klang Wan and Pim Sane Mun. For further information on the green eating mango please visit the

web page http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/horticulture/5332.html Ian S. E. Bally mailto:ballyi@dpi.qld.gov.au Horticulturist Queensland Horticulture Institute <snip> -----------------------------------------------Date: Sun, 09 Sep 2001 14:31:50 From: "W C" <wpc728@hotmail.com> Subject: Re: Pollinators Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Hi Ron, Sorry that I am two years late in replying, but I am curious if you are supposed to drill the holes all the way through the wood, or merely halfway or so? Warren Condon mailto:wpc728@hotmail.com Miami, Florida

----Original Message Follows---| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 4 | X 4, and drill it full of 1/4" holes, then hang it in | your orchard or garden. | The native bees use the holes as nests. on a string From: Ron <wodwerking@earthlink.net> Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Subject: [rarefruit] Pollinators Date: Wed, 25 Aug 1999 10:22:52 -0700 Honey bees are well known for their value as pollinators for most blossoming crops. Of course they have the delicios by product of their hard work, the honey. However they are not the most efficient pollinating bees. Honeybees are old world immigrants. Bees native to the Americas are much more efficient as pollinators. In one article about native bees that appeared in ORGANIC GARDENING, it stated that 3 (of a certain specie of) native bees could pollinate a fruit tree in the time that hundreds of honeybees would do it and do a more complete job of it. It also stated that if you want to attract native bees to your yard for pollination, to take a block of wood, such as a 6" long

| Ron

mailto:wodwerking@earthlink.net

Mesa, AZ

-----------------------------------------------Date: Sun, 9 Sep 2001 09:09:00 -0700 From: Ron Millet <wodwerking@juno.com> Subject: Re: Pollinators Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Warren No problem Warren Just drill the holes the depth of a standard 1/4" drill bit inserted in the drill. The bees lay the female eggs in the bottom of the hole, and pack its food on top, closing off the hole with wax or rolled leaves, depending on the specie. The young then literally eat their way to freedom Ron mailto:wodwerking@earthlink.net -----------------------------------------------Date: Sun, 9 Sep 2001 15:01:13 -0700 (PDT) From: Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> Subject: Re: Pollinators Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Warren... The holes should be 5/16 th of inch and not drilled all the way through. There was two good articles on native bees in CRFG's Fruit Gardener magazine about 2 years ago -- has a lot of great info. Eunice Messner mailto:eunicemessner@yahoo.com

-----------------------------------------------Date: Sun, 9 Sep 2001 21:02:47 EDT From: pollinator@aol.com Subject: Re: Pollinators Reply-To: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com There's notes on homes for mason bees at:

http://pollinator.com/mason_homes.htm and plenty of other resources at: http://pollinator.com/alt_pollinators.htm For pollinator information, always look first in The Pollination Home Page. You'll get the truth. Beware of hype. Mason bees can be better than honeybees in some situations, poorer in others. When someone claims they are "hundreds of times more efficient," it's time to put on the boots. Each pollinator has strengths and weaknesses. Dave Green mailto:pollinator@aol.com SC USA The Pollination Home Page: http://pollinator.com

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Subject: Tiny Berry Tops Tomatoes in Lycopene Date: Thu, 13 Sep 2001 09:35:49 -0400 From: "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov> <snip> Tiny, red berries from an obscure shrub pack more lycopene than tomatoes. The berries from autumn olive could become an alternative source of this important nutrient, if two Agricultural Research Service scientists have their way. ARS horticulturist Ingrid Fordham learned that the brilliant-red berries were edible and turned them into delectable jams. She noticed that the red pigment settled to the bottom of her juicer and wondered if it might be one of the carotenoids, especially lycopene, the pigment that colors tomatoes red. ARS nutritionist Beverly Clevidence offered to analyze the berries. The analysis showed that, ounce for ounce, the typical autumn olive berry is up to 17 times higher in lycopene than the typical raw tomato. Lycopene has generated widespread interest as a possible deterrent to heart disease and cancers of the prostate, cervix and gastrointestinal tract, according to Clevidence, who heads ARS' Phytonutrients Laboratory in Beltsville, Md. Eighty to 90 percent of the U.S. intake of this health-enhancing nutrient comes from tomatoes and tomato products.

Autumn olive, Elaeagnus umbellata, is a multistem shrub covered with silvery green leaves and a profusion of red berries in late September and October, according to Fordham, who is with ARS' Fruit Laboratory in Beltsville. It has become a popular erosion-control shrub along highways because it thrives in poor soil. A few nurseries sell cultivated varieties of autumn olive as a food source to attract wildlife. But there are few reports of people eating the sweet-tart, pea-size berries. Fordham collected berries from five cultivated varieties and six naturalized plants for analysis in Clevidence's lab. The berries contained the same carotenoids as tomato--lycopene, beta carotene and lutein. The big difference was in the lycopene levels. They ranged from 15 to 54 milligrams per 100 grams, compared to an average 3 mg/100 g for fresh tomatoes, 10 mg/100 g for canned tomatoes, and 30 mg/100 g for tomato paste. An article on autumn olive appears in the September issue of Agricultural Research magazine online at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/sep01/berry0901.htm <snip> [Leo's Note: I am interested in this information. I found that growing Autumn Olive, Elaeagnus umbellata, is strongly discouraged in some parts of the country, as birds scatter the seeds, causing rampant spread, likened to a weed.]

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000109B.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - October 1, 2001 - AKA RFN200110A.txt Interested in reading past issues of RFNO? Those published in previous years can be accessed at the homepage for Rare Fruit News Online http://www.rarefruit.com RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO in in in in in 2000: 1999: 1998: 1997: 1996: http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN2000AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1999AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1998AllYr.Txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1997AllYr.Txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1996AllYr.Txt

For another place to see back issues of the newsletter, visit the online group, "OldRFN"

OldRFN is at

http://www.visto.com/j.html?g=16812838.WDY3NjdX

Notes In Passing - Leo Fruit Festival In Tempe, Arizona - See "Announcements" For Details.

>>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber, Florida, Growing Longans! Burkesnursery@aol.com New Subscriber, Beirut, Lebanon, Grows Familiar Fruit "Fahd Khalifeh" <fahdkhalifeh@hotmail.com> New Subscriber, Hawaii, Wants Jaboticaba Recipies "Emi/Ken Holton" <emiken@ilhawaii.net>

>> Readers Write <<

Mango seedlings Michelle Field <field.21@osu.edu> Re: Mango seedlings Leo Manuel To: Michelle Field <field.21@osu.edu> Planting Pitahaya Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> To: Leo Manuel Re: Planting Pitahaya Leo Manuel To: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Re: Planting Pitahaya - Saying More Leo Manuel To: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> RE: Planting Pitahaya Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> To: Leo Manuel

Re: Planting Pitahaya Leo Manuel To: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> RE: Planting Pitahaya Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com>

To: Leo Manuel

Re: Planting Pitahaya Leo Manuel To: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Dwarf Ambarella "Juan A. Rivero" <jarivero@caribe.net>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Soil Application of Potassium Chlorate "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "Ralph Schmidt" <rschmidt@telocity.com> Re: Longans and Potassium Chlorate "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> To: "rebecca" <marcmagro@ledanet.com.au> Re: cultivar name "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Viet Nam Longan Information "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th>

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

Festival of Fruit 2001 Oct 12-14 "Leo A. Martin" <leo1010@attglobal.net> EDIS Homepage (FL Cooperative Extension Publications) Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/

Software Systems - Tropical Fruits CD-ROM http://it.ifas.ufl.edu/software/tropicalfruits-cd.html EDIS - Available Products http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/products/products.html

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time

<<<<

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<< None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<< None, this time

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<

Passion Fruit Jelly mariposafamily@hotmail.com ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Re: Passion Fruit Jelly Ron Hay <ronhay@pacbell.net> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm. None, this time

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

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Subject: New Subscriber, Florida, Growing Longans! Date: Sat, 15 Sep 2001 11:11:31 EDT From: Burkesnursery@aol.com I would like to subscribe to the rarefruit newsletter. My name is Clifford Burke, I live in Homestead Florida and my email address is Burkesnursery@aol.com. At the present I have 15 different varieties of tropical fruit, soon to be 27, one or two trees of each, back yard types for my enjoyment and experimentation. In the main grove I have longans, by the end of this year we will top out at 225 trees (longan). Thank you very much, Clifford Burke mailto:Burkesnursery@aol.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Beirut, Lebanon, Grows Familiar Fruit Date: Mon, 24 Sep 2001 15:06:47 +0300 From: "Fahd Khalifeh" <fahdkhalifeh@hotmail.com> My name is Fahd Khalifeh. I live in Beirut, Lebanon Fruit trees I am now growing are Cherimoa, guava and avocados. Best regards Fahd Khalifeh mailto:fahdkhalifeh@hotmail.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber, Hawaii, Wants Jaboticaba Recipies Date: Sat, 29 Sep 2001 13:09:01 -1000 From: "Emi/Ken Holton" <emiken@ilhawaii.net>

Aloha From the Big Island of Hawaii :-) My real name is Ken Holton We live about 6 miles north of Kailua-Kona, Hawaii Elevation approx 1,200ft. Rainfall (leeward side) about 20 inches annual. Soil is volcanic with some top-soil and medium fill with mulch. We are growing Mango(4 different varieties), Star-fruit and Jaboticaba. I am wondering if anybody out there has some Jaboticaba recipes for jam or wine or other foods to prepare with? Ken mailto:emiken@ilhawaii.net

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Tropical Fruit Pictures Wanted Date: Mon, 17 Sep 2001 17:03:30 -0400 From: "Juan A. Rivero" <jarivero@caribe.net> Fellow tropical fruit lovers: Dr. Bryan Brunner and I are writing a book on the exotic and rare fruit trees growing in Puerto Rico. The book will have color photographs of all fruits and, when possible, the flowers and foliage. Because some of the exotic trees on the Island are still too young, because hurricane George "pruned" many of them or just because we have missed the fruiting season, we have not been able to obtain photographas of a number of species. If you have first class photographs of any of the trees mentioned in the list and are willing to share them with us, we would be most happy to acknowledge your contribution, both under the photograph ind in the book's Introduction. The photograph will be returned at once. PULASAN , AKEE, MARANG, EMBLIC, CHUPA-CHUPA, OLOSAPO, CHAMPADAK (fruit only), EUGENIA SMARANGENSE, EUGENA UVALHA, CHINESE JUJUBE, BAKURI (PLATONIA), BAKUPARI (R. Macraphylla)), MYRCIARIA JABOTICABA (not cauliflora), , MENINJAU (GNETUM), NAN-NAM , COTOPERIZ, SUNSAPOTE, IMBU, RUKAM (FLACOURTIA RUKAM) BOROJOA PATINOI, BUNCHOSIA ARMENIACA, BROSIMUM ALICASTRUM, THEOBROMA GRANDIFLORUM AND BICOLOR, MIMUSOPS ELENGI LECYTHIS OLLARIA, ELLIPTICA AND ZABUCAJO, COLOCARPUS VIRIDE (GREEN SAPOTE, LUCMO, BRAZIL NUT, MYRISTICA FRAGANS, HARPEPHYLLUM CAFFRUM, ANY BACCAUREAS AND BOUEAS. Others may come up as we proceed

Our addresses are as follows: Dr. Juan A. Rivero, Distinguished Profesor UPR Biology Department, University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 Dr. Bryan Brunner, Head Department of Horticulture University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 Many thanks for any possible help. Juan A. Rivero mailto:jarivero@caribe.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Mango Trees - How To Ship & Grow In Ohio? Date: Fri, 21 Sep 2001 21:00:49 -0400 From: Keith <field.21@osu.edu> LeoI saw your request for Mango seedlings at nurseryman.com's message board. I can't help you - I have 3 mango -but living in Ohio, and having plants grown from seeds of storebought Mango, you probably wouldn't be impressed. I had one (died last December) which was 5 years old and only made it to 3 feet tall <sigh>. Anyway, the reason I am writing is because my folks (who live in Florida) grew 2 new Mango seedlings in 5-gal pots and want to ship them to me as a gift (2 years old, and they are already 6 feet tall). Any ideas on how I can ship them (USPS, UPS, whatever) and have them survive the trip? any suggestions would be greatly appreciated. Thanks, Keith mailto:field.21@osu.edu -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Mango Trees - How To Ship & Grow In Ohio? Fri, 21 Sep 2001 20:39:17 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Keith <field.21@osu.edu>

Hi Keith, You will need a greenhouse in order to have your mango trees thrive, with good quality light, once you get them to Ohio. 5-gallon pots are heavy, and I think I'd investigate removing most

of the soil, by soaking in water. If it's possible to remove all of it without damaging the roots, I think it would useful. Then replace the soil with slightly damp peat moss and wrap the roots in a heavy plastic bag. Then I'd put another heavy plastic bag around the part above the roots, and tie each tightly. This will make the plant much easier to handle, and also cheaper to ship. Then, when you get them, replace the peat moss with a light-weight soil mix, which will probably contain perlite, and plant in a pot large enough to contain it for a few years. I'm attaching a text article on growing rare fruit in pots. you have trouble reading it, I'll send it another way. If

You may have other newsletter readers with better suggestions, as I will send your letter out on October 1. It should be easy to ship in a relatively small package. If they can be shipped before cold weather, it will be good, as they may have cold damage enroute. Take care, Leo Enclosure: UnderCover Crops - Mobile Tropical Fruit Orchards By Ray Bayer Tropical Fruit World (March/April 1990 22-24; May/June 1990 58-59; September/October 1990 130; Nov/Dec 1990 163; Jan/Feb 1991 29; Let me inspire you to discover a new kind of gardening pleasure. My excitement is over the container growing of tropical fruit plants, something I have now been doing for more than 13 years. Each year proving more pleasurable than the last. For the temperate climate gardener containerizing is the only method available for growing tropical fruit trees. I live in southwest Pennsylvania, and as I write this article we're in the midst of a winter snow squall with a wind chill of around 9¡F. My tropical fruit trees are completely unaware of this miserable phenomenon known as an Arctic cold front and are busily blooming and setting fruit. After a summer outdoors, and before the first freeze, I simply pick up my potted plants and plop them in a greenhouse under fluorescent lights, where they spend their winter in the Tropic of Pennsylvania. The ability of these plants to adapt to their artificial environment and continual restrictive growing is tremendous. As I write, my plants are setting such varied fruits

as jaboticaba, passionfruit, citrus, cherimoyas, feijoas and more. Enthusiasm over this method of tropical fruit culture need not be confined to northern gardeners. South Florida growers and others in sub-tropical and mild winter areas should be exposed to the joy of containerized growing. It opens up an entirely new area to the rare fruit hobbyist. Fruit trees can be moved from one area of the yard to another to take advantage of sun or shade. Inspection of root systems can be done as needed by simply tapping the tree out of the pot. Landscapes can be achieved by sinking the potted trees into various locations, and later moving them if a different garden scheme is desired. Exact watering and fertilization schedules are easier because confined root systems and nutrient deficiencies are taken care of more quickly. One of the most exciting aspects of this type of gardening is that, thanks to the portability of the plant, very tropical fruit trees, such as the South Asian mangosteen and rambutan, can be grown with little worry of frost or cold damage. In Florida this advantage, of course applies to any cold sensitive species. When the temperature threatens to plummet simply pick up the pot and set it in a protected area, whether a Florida room or a garage. Most trees will thrive for years in five to ten gallon pots without any special care. As most tropicals fruit on new growth, I usually top prune mine yearly to stimulate new fruiting growth, sometimes taking up to a third of the growth off. This drastic one-third reduction is done (if at all) every fourth or fifth year, and is sometimes accompanied by root pruning, also a one-third reduction. This is done by knocking the tree out of the pot and reducing the root system on all four sides and bottom by using a key hole saw or similar tool. The tree is then put back in the pot and fresh potting medium is packed around it, along with slow release fertilizer if desired. It is then set in a semi-shaded location in the yard (or greenhouse) until new growth is evident and the flowering/fruiting cycle will be revitalized. This is only done to trees that are stressed due to extreme root crowding and exhibit root bound symptoms by producing small or no fruit crops, small leaves and little new growth. Of course this stage of stunted growth is rarely ever reached, although newly purchased plants may be in need of an immediate root cut. Fibrous roots appearing on the top of the soil is the sign that it is now time to prune or repot. Pot grown fruit trees usually have a completely fibrous root system, being devoid of a tap root, so this method of keeping the tree within bounds is not at all detrimental. Think of it as having your hair styled; a little off the top and sides always makes your hair grow better and look fuller. So it is with containerized fruit trees. Every spring I like to replace the top three or four inches of soil with fresh medium. This gives the plant a growing boost and aids in better fruit production. My fruit trees are grown in a homemade potting mix of two-parts garden loam or packaged potting soil, one-part perlite, one-part vermiculite and a half-part peat. I also use a commercial soilless mix consisting of sphagnum or

peat moss, vermiculite, perlite and dolomite lime for a pH buffer in which the trees seem to do as well as or better than in the soil mixture, though it needs to be enhanced more often with fertilizer. It should be noted that the reason I add lime to my soil mix is that fertilizing containerized trees often tends to lower the pH to the point where the nutrients are bound up in the soil making them unavailable to the plant; adding a small amount of dolomite lime simply keeps the pH in the neutral range. Of course, some fruit trees enjoy being on the acidic side of the pH tables as long as nutrients are available to them. Jaboticabas do well in a pure peat, perlite, vermiculite mixture. I usually use diluted amounts of fertilizer with every watering and full strength dosages twice monthly or more depending on rainfall. Due to the fact that the trees are raised in containers, nutrient leaching can be a problem in areas or seasons of heavy rain. I've found that Peter's 20-20-20 fertilizer mixture to be as close to ideal as any. I also supplement many of my trees with triple super phosphate every four to six weeks during the growing season along with a foliar feeding of potassium nitrate. Spraying is done in early morning and evening when the leaves are most receptive to this type of feeding. Once or twice a season I also spray on trace elements to round out their diet. Chlorosis of certain containerized trees can be a problem, but prudent applications of nitrogen corrects this problem as does iron. Passifloras, for instance, are susceptible to chlorotic new growth and require more nitrogen than either citrus or peach trees. Care must be taken whenever iron or nitrogen is sprayed on new growth to avoid burning. I have made the "more is better" mistake in foliar feeding before and it is not a pleasant sight to watch vigorous healthy new growth turn black almost overnight, shrivel up and flake away. Healthy deep green growth inevitably always appears but it sets back flower and fruit production considerably. Following the manufacturer's dosage is the key to successful chemical feeding. Personally, I use water soluble fertilizer, as I feel I have much more control over plant feeding with this method. Other growers might prefer the longer lasting pellet-type feed. There are various long lasting pellet fertilizers available that provide up to three months of constant feeding. Osmocote 14-14-14 is one such product. Many opt for completely organic feed such as bone meal, blood meal and green sand, but the percentage of nutrients are so low that I don't think a heavy feeding tree would benefit satisfactorily from them. The one organic I do use is fish, especially those from the briny depths of the sea. The trace elements and nitrogen these critters can supply to a potted fruit tree is tremendous, and it's a long lasting supply too. A few cubes of finny flesh will last a northern growing season and then some. Watering is, of course critical to all plants but especially to a

potted fruit tree. During the summer a healthy, fruiting containerized tree drinks gallons of water. I've often had to water mine every other day. Growers in sub-tropical areas such as Florida who are used to growing in the ground may be watering more than they're accustomed to. This can be remedied somewhat by mulching the top of the pot with dried grass clippings, unmilled sphagnum moss or pre-packaged mulch. During the summer most fruit trees are holding a crop and dry soil can turn this year's pot crop into this year's pot drop: those delicious lychees may be this past year's history with only one soil drying. One of the best methods of preventing evaporation is by sinking the pot in the ground and mulching the top. Also, use plastic pots. Burying the containers gives added wind protection to the trees. It's frustrating to find a fruit laden tree toppled over and half of its' crop knocked off. Even by sinking the pot one third of its height into the ground will prevent this type of frustration. There are many reliable nurseries and growers in the U.S. who will ship tropical fruit trees. When visiting a nursery that has a plant I am looking for, I provide them with a suitable box with return postage and have them ship the plant to me. The tree is simply knocked out of the pot and bare rooted with the roots wrapped in damp newspaper and a trash bag to prevent leakage. Many nurseries will spray the plants with evaporation retardants to prevent water loss. The tree usually needs to be pruned back, sometimes severely, and is then placed in the box surrounded by newspaper to prevent too much movement in transit. It usually takes three days to reach me from Florida. In this short period of time the tree suffers very little damage, if any, and upon arrival is immediately potted up and placed in a protected location for a few days. Once acclimation is over it is placed in full sun and within a couple of weeks begins to push out new growth. I have been shipping plants for many years this way and I have never lost one due to shipping damage or shock. I usually request priority mail shipment through the U.S. postal service because they deliver six days out of the week unlike United Parcel Service which ships only five. My trees don't really feel their first spring breeze until mid-April when they are set outside. This is a critical time for the plants, being the beginning of their summer reacclimation period. They have been wintered over either in a greenhouse (which happens to be plastic with light intensity much less than glass) and under fluorescent lights. If they are exposed to sunlight immediately, even the weak spring sum, the leaves will be charred almost at once. I set them in a shaded location for a few days, then to an area of dappled sunlight and eventually to full sun. This entire process may take from two to three weeks depending on how the trees are reacting. If I notice bleached areas on the leaves, then they have been exposed to the sun too quickly and will be placed in a semishaded area a while longer. This acclimation period is not lost growing time because the trees are actively sending out new growth. It's simply a period of "hardening up" the leaves to the summer sun. The last years'

growth is rarely affected to the extent of the current seasons growth; it usually stays green with no signs of scorching. The nights during mid-April to mid-May can drop more than 40 degrees which means a 70¡F day can be followed by a 30¡F night. This is a period of overwork for me because there is a likely chance the trees will have to be sheltered in the garage from a cold night. It doesn't happen nightly and rarely in May so the only early-season backaches I suffer are in the last weeks of April. After this initial yearly acclimating period, my trees grow as well as the same trees in Florida. The portability of my fruit orchard allows me to grow quite a number of different tropical fruit trees, and to see them flowering and fruiting in Pennsylvania is a definite sight to behold. Next to a black oak may be a blooming carambola or beside a sugar maple a jaboticaba crop will be ready to harvest. Crawling skyward beside a clematis is a passionvine while my red cattleya guava is ripening next to a dwarfing cherry. My summer yard is a pleasing combination of temperate and tropical. This infusion of tropical fruit trees among the standard zone varieties adds a measure of curiosity and appeal to all who see them. When viewing a Passiflora alata (Fragrant Granadilla) in full bloom for the first time a neighbor was absolutely convinced that the flowers were plastic because, as she stated," a flower just doesn't look like that." The incredible complexity of the passionflower certainly lends itself to be called the ultimate in flora beauty just as containerizing is the pinnacle of tropical fruit culture, at least for the temperate zone gardener. I have found one of the finest trees suitable for potted fruit culture to be the jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora). Flowering and fruiting occur throughout the year but it's during winter, spring and early summer that the trees become absolutely mobbed with delicious, 1" deep purple fruit. This small, bushy Brazilian tree develops a luxuriant deep green canopy that literally shields the branches and trunk from the sun. I've found that if the tree is kept from branching too much and kept somewhat open by judicial pruning a larger crop will be produced. The jaboticaba grows beautifully here in Pennsylvania and looks a bit like a large branchy privet. This is a plant that responds well to a supplemental diet of triple superphosphate, potassium nitrate as a foliar feed and constant water. It grows well in a soilless mix (available commercially) or simply pure peat with perlite and vermiculite added and a top mulch of rich humus. The real delights in growing this small tree are the fruit, which it so eagerly produces and tree's style of flowering and fruiting. The jaboticaba is cauliflorus, which means the flowers and fruit are borne directly on the trunk and larger branches. It is a pleasantly shocking revelation to the uninitiated to see a bumper

crop of fruit for the first time covering the branches in purple clusters from the trunk to the uppermost canopy. They're even more amazed when told that it takes only 20 to 30 days for the fruit to mature and that up to eight crops a year can be harvested, making this tree an almost perpetual bearer. The final treat comes when they bite into a ripe fruit. The flavor is deliciously sweet with just the right amount of subacidity and plenty of Jaboticaba tree and fruit juice encased in a chewy outer skin. The result is invariably, "mmmmm.... that was delicious! How about another one?" This is a fruit that the novice fruit-taster likes immediately. An added incentive to growing the jaboticaba is that it is practically pest free. The only drawback is that it is primarily grown from seed and takes from seven to fifteen years to start bearing. I also grow Myciaria glomerata, which produces fuzzy yellow fruit of smaller size than the jaboticaba. The fruit is composed practically entirely of a single seed surrounded by a small amount of pleasantly sweet pulp. I am also growing M. vexator and M. jaboticaba but they are seedlings and still quite small. In my opinion, the jaboticaba is a prime candidate for commercial exploitation due to its overall taste appeal. My evidence for this is that during cropping, people I haven't seen for weeks will stroll into my yard, casually look around and walk away with jaboticaba breath. The passionvine (Passiflora spp.) is another fruiting plant that is well suited to container culture. I have over fifty different species and grow them not only for the fruit but also for their stunning flowers. I grow all of them around galvanized hoops pushed into the pots and wrap the rambling shoots around them. I have unraveled vines up to 15' in length from the hoops when trimming them back for their winter rest. Passiflora not only rewards the grower with delicious fruit but also with one of the most delicate and complex flowers in the plant kingdom. With over 400 species known (mostly native to the American tropics) I grow only a small fraction of what could be container grown. I'm constantly adding to my collection and grow them with fruiting almost as an afterthought! This is how much reverence I place in the flower. Passifloras are vines and they definitely like to ramble, so I raise most of them in 13" to 15" pots to keep their root systems happy. As mentioned earlier, these plants go chlorotic rather quickly and are also heavy feeders. They require more nitrogen than citrus and also iron supplements during the growing season. I feed them nitrogen and iron monthly during the summer, or whenever I notice the new growth turning chlorotic. As with all of my other fruit trees, I use diluted fertilizer almost every time I water.

There are many fruiting passionvines that the tropical fruit gardener can grow but two species should definitely be mandatory. These are the purple granadilla (Passiflora edulis) and the giant granadilla (Passiflora quadrangularis). There are many others that produce fruit as good or possibly better, but due to difficulties such as pollination they have been omitted. The purple granadilla is an extremely easy plant to fruit in a container and during the growing season is loaded with fruit. The flowers of this species will usually pollinate themselves, although I usually cross pollinate with other clones for maximum fruit set and size. It is not unusual for clones of P. edulis to produce nearly tennis ball sized fruit. The purple and white flower opens in the morning and usually closes in the evening, pollinating itself in the process. The result is usually noticeable in three to five days with the swelling of the fruit. Maturation is fairly rapid in my geographic area, taking from three to four months. Fruits that are evident in April are edible by July or August. Fruits of the purple granadilla are, as the name implies, dark I purple and fall from the vine when I ripe. The shell of this passionfruit is hard, so the fall doesn't bruise it. A gentle tug will also dislodge ripe fruit. I Once off the plant I usually let it ripen another two to three days until wrinkled and enhanced by a delightful ambrosial aroma. The fruit is I then halved and the pulp is scooped out and eaten, seeds included. Delicious! There is nothing quite like a juicy, fully ripened passionfruit to conjure up tropical visions of verdant lowland rainforests, raucous early morning fruit markets and the soothing lull of evening trade winds. The fruit of the giant granadilla also coats the palate with the same delectable tropical flavor but on a much larger scale. The fruit can be as large as a football and weigh up to six pounds! Unlike the leaves of P. edulis, which are deeply three lobed with serrated edges, the giant granadilla's leaves are oval, unlobed and up to eight inches long, with ten to twelve pronounced lateral veins running through them. The flowers are also larger-up to three inches in diameter - and pendulous; they hang downward instead of being held upright. There are actually two forms of P. quadrangularis, one with eight inch long fruit and one producing twelve inch long melon size meals! There is some self-compatibility in both forms, although some growers recommend cross-pollination with the larger form. Hand pollination will assure a good fruit set. The outer shell is not hard like the purple granadilla but somewhat soft and bruisable. When ripe the color turns to yellow-green with some clones exhibiting a slight pinkish blush at one end. Cut lengthwise the fruit opens to a mass of pulp covered seeds nestled in a cavity surrounded by a thick white melon-like rind. The rind can be eaten much the same way a melon is eaten, but it is not as aromatic. The pulp again is the main attraction and it's eaten straight from the shell along with the large soft seeds. It's very juicy, pleasantly sub-acid and aromatic. The green, immature fruits of this species can also be boiled and eaten as a vegetable, and in Jamaica the tuberous roots are said to be used as a substitute for yams. Quite a versatile plant!

Most passifloras will begin to produce within a year to sixteen months when being grown from seed, and almost immediately when grown from cuttings. I have found that unrooted cuttings sent through the mail survive their journey nicely when dampened and sent in zip lock bags. I have received cuttings by this method from as far away as Honduras and have had them root within three weeks. There are many other passionvines that produce delicious fruit, but due to a number of problems with pollination, climatic requirements, poor flower production and other difficulties, these have been omitted. A few of the "best of the difficult" are P. ligularis (sweet granadilla), P. laurifolia (yellow granadilla), P. maliformis (sweet calabash) and P. antioquiensis (banana passionfruit). Cherimoya of Pennsylvania Mark Twain knew much about much and when biting into a particular fruit described it as 'Deliciousness itself! He was raving about the cherimoya (Annona cherimola) and the taste description still applies. I grow two varieties: 'Booth' and 'Pierce', and I couldn't agree more. Both flower freely for me but the 'Booth' is the only variety old enough to let a crop set. The cherimoya originated in the mountains of Ecuador and Peru, and since its' introduction into the gardening community many named cultivars have been produced. Mine are both grafted and grown in 18" pots. The cherimoya is a knobby looking fruit. The skin is smooth, light green and from lumpy to almost scale-like in appearance. My 'Booth' is more on the lumpy side. Cherimoyas may weigh up to a few pounds, with the fruit shape ranging from heart-shaped to oval. But no matter what shape or size, the true test of a fruit of legendary stature is decided by the palate and the cherimoya lives up to expectations. People are at first taken aback by the appearance of the fruit hanging from their thick stems on my tree and I have even been asked if it was a new avocado-pear hybrid! The cherimoya goes through a short deciduous period and the flowering takes place during this defoliated stage which adds even more to the peculiarity of the tree. The leaf drop is due to the formation of buds (flower and/or vegetative) beneath the petiole juncture. They first appear as small knobby protuberances encased in a fuzzy brown sheath. As they grow this sheath splits and the new growth presents itself along with the flowers. The flowers are fairly unattractive but produced in abundance. They are about l" long, greenish-yellow in color and very fleshy, exuding a wonderfully fruity fragrance. Once you detect this aroma the one major problem of the is at hand: hand-pollination. The flower is perfect, containing both stigmas and stamens (male and female reproductive organs) but herein lies the problem. The male is not ready when the female is - a botanical reversal of 'not to night, I have a headache' syndrome. She is usually ready the day before he is. That is, the pistils are receptive from 12 to 24 hours before the pollen is shed. There is a simple, though time consuming, remedy for this situation. Collect pollen from a male flower (the petals will be wide open) and place it in an empty

35mm film canister or a similar container. Next, find the receptive female. She'll be easy to spot because her petals will only be partially opened. Spread the three thick petals carefully with one hand and with a pollen laden paint brush (which has been dipped in the canister) gently stroke back and forth across the receptive pistils. Voila! a baby cherimoya will be born! There really can be no mistake in choosing the correct flower because they are either closed tightly, partially opened or completely spread apart. The success rate using this method is very high. Once fruit set is complete, maturation takes from five to ten months. During this time the tree will have adorned itself with new foliage and have become a very attractive member of the container orchard. The leaves are large, from 8" to 10" long, medium green on top with the brownish green underside exhibiting a velvety texture. Here in Pennsylvania, my cherimoyas shed their leaves in November-December, with flower buds evidenced towards the end of December. Actual pollination and fruit set doesn't take place until mid-February. My 'Booth' is a very precocious bloomer, producing at least some flowers throughout the summer and fall. It's very easy to get carried away with pollination so I selectively pollinate to be assured of four or five good sized fruit as opposed to a dozen smaller ones. The fruit is mature when a yellowish cast appears on the skin. It is now that they should be clipped, not picked off the tree. If they are pulled off, the core may remain attached to the stem. I usually let mine ripen from three to five days off the tree at room temperature. Once a ripe fruit is in your possession, have a pen and paper handy, because once one is eaten, you definitely have something to write home about! Cut it lengthwise and spoon out the white custard-like flesh. Get ready for an oral explosion as it melts in your mouth, releasing a juicy blend of tropical flavors - subacid and delicate, with taste tones of banana, papaya and pineapple is one way to describe it. As was so aptly stated by one Dr. Seemann more than 70 years ago, "Many people feel that the taste of the cherimoya surpasses every other fruit. That it is the masterpiece of nature." That fellow certainly knew what he was talking about. The best way to grow cherimoyas is to purchase one or more of the many grafted varieties available, which include 'White', 'Ott', 'Honeyhart' and 'Bays'. They can also be grown from seed and come into bearing after four years, but probably will not be true to type. Like the feijoa, a cherimoya requires a certain amount of chilling to flower, estimated at between 50 to 100 hours at 35¡F to 45¡F*. *[Editor's note: in southern Florida the cherimoya set flowers several times a year. Anything that causes defoliation sets the stage for a fresh batch of flowers. Though cold weather is certainly effective in this regard, so is dry-wet cycle, fertilizer shock, manual leaf stripping and pruning - Har Maheem]. Again, the warmer sections of the nation lose out but in this case a few substitute annonas can be grown. One is the sugar apple or

sweetsop (Annona squamosa) which is a dependable bearer in the south Florida climate. The fruit is much knobbier and smaller than the cherimoya but the flesh exhibits a similar taste quality. The soursop or guanabana (Annona muricata) is another cherimoya relative and is the most tropical of the annonas. The fruit is the largest of the family, being 6" to 9" long, and is covered with soft fleshy spines. The flesh is juicy and more sub-acid in flavor and some people claim that the aftertaste is reminiscent of mango. The atemoya is a hybrid between the sugar apple and cherimoya and is the perfect marriage. Traits of both are blended together perfectly-the sweetsop's tolerance of humid, warm climates and the cherimoya's exquisite taste. The atemoya was hybridized between 1908 and 1910 in Miami, and continues to be the most reliable producer for that subtropical climate. Carambola: Star of Pennsylvania By Ray Bayer The star fruit or carambola (Averrhoa carambola) can be the centerpiece of any tropical fruit orchard, not only for its crisp sweet taste, but also because of the unusual structure of the fruit. The carambola has 4 to 6 prominently raised ribs traveling the length of the fruit and when cut horizontally, voila, a star is born! The cut fruit looks distinctly starlike, the number of ribs determining the number of points on the star. If the shape of the fruit isn't unusual enough, its coloration and skin texture add even more to the fruit's pleasing strangeness. The mature fruit is a beautiful bright yellow, and due to a heavy coating of natural wax, the skin shines as though it's been painted with enamel lacquer. For all of its uniqueness and exotic eye appeal though, the carambola is a pleasure to grow in a container and very easy to bring into fruiting. I grow two varieties, the 'Arkin' and 'Fwang Tung, and both provide me with stellar fruiting performances every year. My trees are grown in 17" pots and the soil is kept on the acidic side. I use ammonia sulfate on the carambolas several times during the growing season (as I do with several other trees) and they simply revel in this treatment. Beginning in late winter, flowers appear in seemingly constant flushes. They appear as inflorescences from the leaf axils (where the leaf attaches to the tree) on young growth or where the leaves have fallen away on old growth. The small flowers are beautifully lilac, pleasantly fragrant and perfect, although, again, I assist pollination with my ever-present brush. Fruit maturation takes from 3 to 5 months depending on the weather and the time of the season in which the tree is holding fruit. The carambola is such an exuberant producer that I have had two foot high airlayers holding six fruit. Vegetatively propagated plants are the only reliable method of growing this tree because fruit taste ranges from sour to very sweet, with the fruit produced by seedlings almost guaranteed to be poor. Another interesting point about the star fruit is that the compound leaves have the ability to fold back at night only to open again in the morning. When I first started growing the trees I was unaware of this trait. It was in the evening on the day after they arrived

from Florida that I first noticed the folded leaves and it was right after I had fertilized them. Of course I immediately thought I had done them in. However, the morning brought with it not only unfurled leaves but the awareness that this ability was just another distinctive characteristic of the carambola. The one minor problem in growing this tree that could eventually become very bothersome is that the trees attracts spider mites. I'm sure for Florida growers this problem is nonexistent but to greenhouse gardeners it could easily get out of control. This problem only becomes evident in the winter when the trees are quartered to the hothouse and is quickly remedied by soapy water or other means, usually chemical. Other than this one inconvenience, the carambola is certainly one of my top picks for its ease of culture and abundance of fruit it produces so regularly. Psidium of Pennsylvania For the grower who can't be bothered with such tedious tasks as hand pollination or laying awake at night worrying about whether his beloved flowers are going to be male or female, the tropical guava (Psidium guajava) is the tree to grow. This small Central American tree is not overly concerned with the care it receives and is very tolerant of a neglectful owner. This is not to say that it can be thrown in a closet and be expected to produce fruit, but it is quite flexible in its growing requirements. I have raised a number of different varieties over the years and all have borne fruit without the slightest hesitation. At present, I am growing the 'Supreme', 'Redland', 'Beaumont', and 'Mexican Cream' varieties. All perform beautifully in 13 in. to 15 in. pots with a minimum of care. The guava is a fast grower and to keep it in bounds I prune it heavily (every other year drastically) immediately after the fruit has ripened, which for me happens to be in late fall to early winter. I usually take off nearly all of the current season's new growth, clipping it as close as possible to a dormant leaf bud. Due to the fact that the leaves are produced opposite one another, this single cut institutes a double response from the plant in that it produces two new growing shoots. This "two for one" effect is very beneficial to the plant and grower because flowers are produced on new growth and the trimming also revitalizes the plant, resulting in larger fruit. The new growth will appear as day length increases, which for me is mid-January. The flowers, which are produced along with the new growth, open up in May and are completely self-pollinating, although cross-pollination will produce more fruit. You can smell a flowering guava from a distance, the pleasing scent blanketing the growing area, inviting bees and other buzzing creatures to grab a free tropical meal. During this period of accelerated growth, I ply my trees with heavy doses of fertilized water which they

imbibe gratefully, the extra dosage helping the nurturing of the plants' fruit. After flowering is completed, mature fruit delivery takes from four to six months. Growth slows considerably during this period, the plants' abundant energy now being funneled into the development of its fruit. It is during this holding stage that I lightly prune the trees, snipping back the more vigorous non-fruiting shoots or simply cutting off undesired branches. Watering during this time is very critical to the maturing guavas (as it is with all developing fruit) and prolonged dryness can lead to dry pulpless fruit. Four to six months is a too long a time to wait for fruit to ripen into worthless, dried out shells. My guavas ripen from September to November, with a slight color change in the yellow skin indicating maturation. Ripe fruit is also soft to the touch. Taste varies considerably among my varieties, ranging from the deliciously sweet dessert type ('Supreme') to the acidic processing type ('Beaumont'). Seediness also varies from extreme to minimal, with some fruit varieties being practically seed free. Flesh is either reddish or white in all varieties. Guavas are an excellent source of vitamin C and A, both higher in the red fleshed variety. For you health-conscious growers out there, this is the fruit for you! It has a remarkable number of uses ranging from medicinal (the leaves when chewed alleviate toothaches) to recreational (a fine wine can be made from the fermented fruit). When the leaves are boiled and the resulting broth drunk, diarrhea can be remedied; and as a mouthwash it helps cure swollen gums. These folk remedies are used in third world countries where the availability of Bayer aspirin or Pepto-Bismol is non-existent. In some cultures I'm sure that the tropical guava is quite an indispensable plant, one that's usefulness far exceeds simply a ripe fruit. The red cattley or strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) is another one of those ego-boosting subtropicals that makes the transition from temperate gardening to tropical fruit container gardening so successful. I state 'ego-boosting' because this plant is assured of producing fruit for the novice. It's the perfect crossover fruit to choose for the grower who would like to begin a tropical container orchard. The red cattley has always been one of my favorites and like the tropical guava doesn't require an abundance of care. I grow two red cattleys and one yellow or lemon cattley, this yellow variety bearing much larger fruit. The red strawberry guava is usually grown from seed because it produces true by this method. There's no noticeable variation in fruit quality from the parent tree. I have found that the only variation in seedling plants is in size and production, and not fruit taste. Two seedlings I have grown in particular have turned out to be exceptional producers, one in the extra large fruit it produces and the other in the quantity it bears. These cattleys both came from the same parent tree but from different fruit. Seedling trees

can start bearing within two years and within twelve months when grown from cutting. This is a very attractive plant to grow, the glossy deep green leaves beautifully offsetting the red fruit. The flowers are abundantly produced on new growth which begins to appear in late winter. They begin to open in late March and my trees continue to flush throughout the summer. The flowers appear almost as small white, sweetly scented powder puffs, enhanced by the backdrop of deep green. They are completely self pollinating (although I use my trusty watercolor brush as I do on all my trees). The ripe fruit is ready for picking 90 days later. The small green guavas grow up to an inch and begin to blush red towards maturation, eventually turning a deep crimson and soft when fully ripe. These soft red fruits are deliciously sub-acid in flavor, with a slight hint of strawberry to entice the palate. The fruit has many hard seeds embedded in the pulp but I either grind them up when eating the fruit or simply swallow them whole. After harvest, my cattleys receive a light pruning to promote fruiting shoots and also to reshape the plant. My plants have a habit of producing both upright and horizontal branches and to keep the shape pleasing, I snip off and reshape, many times bending and tying horizontal branches vertically to produce the desired form I want to attain. The yellow or lemon cattley produces much larger yellow fruit, being definitely sweeter with absolutely no hint of sub-acidity. It's a good fruit, but to my taste buds some acidity must be present in a fruit to be truly savory. It also grows in a more open habit, being not as vigorous as the red cattley. -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Planting Pitahaya Mon, 24 Sep 2001 11:38:14 -0700 Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Leo <leom@rarefruit.com>

Leo, I recall that you said you are growing several Pitahaya's. I have the undatus and polyhrizus, and recently received cuttings from a Vietnaimese coworker. The recent cactus looks similar, except slightly flatter and less triangular. The coworker has told me that it gives yellowish flowers, with purple fruit that taste like Kiwi (definitely self-fertile). The cutting is originally from Vietnam. I have these three climbing cacti and I am wondering: what is the minimum spacing? How big of a trellis should I build? Is 6 hrs full sun Ok? Should I back fill the soil with organics? Raised soil for drainage? Any general advice is appreciated. By the way the Safer fungicide is working quite nicely on the

Mangoe for the powder mildew on the fruiting spurs. Todd Abel mailto:tabel@statek.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Planting Pitahaya Mon, 24 Sep 2001 12:48:12 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com>

Hi Todd, Your new Vietnamese cultivar sounds great. Could you describe the new one any more than you have? What do you mean by "slightly flatter" or "less triangular?" Are the sides less sharply indented than the others? If you could see a cross section at a wider part, would it be like a Y? I've seen a few that were only slightly curved inward on each of the three sides, and a few that were actually curved outwards. Some varieties sunburn unless given a little filtered shade at the peak period of the sun light intensity. They are sometimes grown at the base of trees into which they climb. I've seen them trellised in several ways. One is to plant them along a chain link fence. The weight will crush one, however, if not pruned frequently. It depends on what space you have. I am putting mine in pots (10 to 15 gallon) and placing them from two to four or five feet apart. This way I can remove or re-arrange them later, when I see what the needs (mine and theirs) are. Paul Thomson, who was the first person to get into them in San Diego, who I know, has posts in the ground about ever six feet, with a vertical cross-piece about four feet from the ground and maybe three feet long. (Visualize a cross, implanted in the ground, with about five feet of height. The cross-piece is about one foot from the top, and he has galvanized wire, three lengths. One near the top of the cross, connecting to the next one at the top, etc.; Two near the outer ends of each cross- piece, each connecting to a point on the next post in the same location. Todd, I could tell you much more easily if I could see you. If you will be in San Diego anytime soon, I hope you will stop by. Paul Thomson would be the first to say that there are lots of ways

of trellising them. One Vietnamese man I know puts a wooden trellis at each plant, only about four feet high, and expects the plants to go up to the top of it and drape back down almost to the ground. They can be damaged by freezing, but I don't think that will be a problem. I would like to know more about that new cutting you have. Does he say whether it requires pollen from a different kind of pitaya? I would expect that it will. I will publish your letter in the newsletter and see what others will have to say. Thanks for the Safer fungicide information. Sincerely, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Planting Pitahaya - Saying More Mon, 24 Sep 2001 13:46:46 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com>

Hi Todd, I didn't respond to the drainage and soil question. They do need excellent drainage, and that is another reason why it may be easier to manage in pots than in the ground. However, they are often planted in the ground. Keep in mind that they don't need much water, being in the family of cactus. I would reduce the amount of water in the cooler winter months. I've seen them rot in the ground, and have thought that it was from an excess of water, or lack of sufficient drainage. I wouldn't fertilize in cool weather, much or at all. I've read that chicken manure is often used. Fish emulsion would probably be good. I have a friend who manipulates the blooming time of her pitayas by withholding water for a week or so, then fertilizing with a bloom-promoting fertilizer (High P in N-P-K but low N) This probably would only work in the summer months. The minimum spacing question is hard to answer. I've seen

pictures of fields of them in Vietnam, with an individual trellis for each plant, planted so close that there seems to be very little space to walk between plants. I can't tell how tall each trellis is, but they used a tripod of bamboo poles to support each one. The plant goes to the top of it and droops down to the ground. Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: RE: Planting Pitahaya Mon, 24 Sep 2001 13:47:05 -0700 Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Leo <leom@rarefruit.com>

He has only one type of climbing cactus in his yard, and yet it yields fruit. He did say the ants get on the flowers like crazy, and then leave when the fruit forms. The cross section is more like a Y (flatter) , then the near perfect triangle or T of the undatus, and polyhrizus, and yes it does not indent as much as the undatus. He said they are in full sun, but he waters them "Like the Banana". Incidently, I also have a Banana from this guy that made its way from Vietnam (somehow). I am going to buy a digital camera in the near future, so these discussion may have more meaning. Todd mailto:tabel@statek.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Planting Pitahaya Mon, 24 Sep 2001 14:13:29 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com>

Hi Todd, Have you rooted pitaya before? I probably have more success with bottom heat and an almost dry mixture of sand and perlite, the proportions of which don't seem to matter. Paul Thomson believes it may be faster to get them to root if you cut the base up just a bit above the node, in the fleshy part. He would recommend that you let it air dry for a few days before rooting, but in this very- nearly dry mix I use, I don't think that it matters, although it wouldn't hurt.

On the other hand, and at the other extreme, there are some varieties of Hylocereus that will will root in water. I can't tell you which, but if I had something important, I'd not do it that way. Some will definitely rot in a damp potting mix before rooting. There may be some way to treat the cactus or the mix to minimize the rotting. It's really frustrating when the rotting one is the one you most want to root. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: RE: Planting Pitahaya Mon, 24 Sep 2001 14:51:56 -0700 Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Leo Manuel

(From your picture) it seems like they have one stem all the way up to the top. Mine have mutliple stems and very close to the ground. Am I suppose to cut all stems off and only let one stem grow? Todd mailto:tabel@statek.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Planting Pitahaya Mon, 24 Sep 2001 15:33:01 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com>

Hi Todd, If I understand your question: Paul Thomson recently said at a CRFG local meeting that he recommends cutting all small side shoots off up to the height you want them to branch. I came home and did a lot of pruning. Consequently, I have lots of rooted cuttings. It's easier to get them to grow upright, rather than twisted and curled, if I put a stake in each pot and tie them to it. I have one plant with two fruit forming. It's one I got from Paul Thomson, 'Rixford' and is a hybrid of H. undatus and another Hylocereus. It has to be cross pollinated. There were three

blooms, but the first one I pollinated with pollen that apparently was too old. A friend had given it to me several weeks before I needed it. The other two were pollinated by fresh pollen. Take care, Leo -----------------------------------------------Subject: Dwarf Ambarella Information Sought Date: Fri, 28 Sep 2001 20:30:42 -0400 From: "Juan A. Rivero" <jarivero@caribe.net> Hi, Leo: I am trying to trace the origin of the dwarf ambarella (jobo enano). It is real dwarf, the fruit is smaller and less meaty than the common ambarella, but of similar flavor, and it produces fruit abundantly all throughout the year (contrary to the common form). Does anybody know if it is a different species, a mutation or anything else. Where did it originate. Mine was acquired in Florida. In the last issue I inquired abot two different species of Inga (Ice cream beans) with 20 inch heavy pods which are new to Puerto Rico. I finally identified the species: Inga spectabilis (undoubtedly the best of them all), and Inga jinicuil. Best wishes Juan mailto:jarivero@caribe.net

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Date: From: To:

Soil Application of Potassium Chlorate Sat, 15 Sep 2001 14:02:26 +0700 "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> "Ralph Schmidt" <rschmidt@telocity.com>

All said and done, the general recommendation for a soil application is 5-8 grams per square meter of the canopy. However, it must be stressed that the effectiveness depends on

many factors. In many cases, this is found to be insufficient. In some cases, the application of a much larger amount of potassium chlorate proves unsuccessful. A lot of works remains to be done. This should be a challenge to some of the amateur enthusiasts, not to mention the pros.. Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Longans and Potassium Chlorate Sat, 15 Sep 2001 14:18:53 +0700 "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Marc <marcmagro@ledanet.com.au>

----- Original Message ----From: Marc I am a Longan, Lychee and Mango grower on the Atherton Tablelands in North Queensland Australia. I also have a couple of questions for you on Potassium Chlorate. Why do you have to clear away all of the sticks leaves etc. from under the tree? Can you use Potassium Chlorate while there is already some fruit on the tree? Dear Marc, May I assume that you have read my series of articles on the subject in Leo's RFNO? My answer has the basis in those articles. The crux of the matter is that you have got to get the potassium chlorate absorbed by the roots. If a lot of leaves is left lying on the ground, the chemical may not find its way to the working roots. Yes, you can apply the stuff while there is some fruits on the trees but I would not advise you to do so, unless the amount of fruit is scanty. Fruit development requires a lot of nutrients, so does the flowering effort; both activities will be competing for the same scarce resource. Moreover, the tree, in the middle of the fruit development process, may not be in blushing health - like a pregnat woman. Another factor which must be borne in mind is the possibility that potassium chlorate may, just may mind you, temporarily damage the roots. All said and done, I would like to emphasize that my answers are

based on empirical observations and hypotheses; no one knows how the stuff works yet. Peace and Understanding! Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: cultivar name Date: Sat, 15 Sep 2001 13:57:08 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> ----- Original Message ----From: Jonathan H. Crane <jhcr@mail.ifas.ufl.edu> | Dear Sainarong: Thanks you for the information - this describes the tree | very well. I am interested in learning about Xuong com Vang. | | Thanks. | | JH Crane Dear Jonathan and Leo, I have an interesting book on Vietnamese longans which contains details on Xuong com Vang. The only problem is that it is in Vietnamese! I am still trying to find someone to translate it for me! Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

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Subject: Viet Nam Longan Information Date: Fri, 21 Sep 2001 10:23:43 +0700 From: "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> Thanks to Leo Manuel and his Vietnamese friend, the information on the Vietnamese tropical longan, Xuong com Vang, has been translated into English. Here it is: Xuong Com Vang ("Yellow flesh boat"):

"Boat" longan was chosen to keep from many decades, this longan named "boat" because its fruit has a boat shape. This variety originated from Ba Ria-Vung Tau more than 40 years ago (this is the coastal area about 100 km from Saigon). It was grown at Mr. Phan van Tri's orchard. This longan is grown in these provinces: Ba Ria, Vung Tau, Tien-Giang, Vinh-Long. All fruits are equally large in a bunch, about 16-25g/fruit. The edible parts (flesh?) are about 60-70%, Brix: 21-24%, thick flesh, yellow, less watery but sweet. The flesh is very crispy, sweet and fragrant. Mostly used for eating fresh. Additional notes from Sainarong: The weight comes out to 40-62 fruits per kg. or 18-28 fruits per lb; the fruit is very large. I also understand that Xuong... has won the prize for the best South Vietnamese longan for three years running. It is very easy to grow and flower easily in tropical condition. My Thai friends find the taste quite pleasant if taken in small dose, meaning that if you eat a lot you may grow less fond of it. The Xuong...., grown in Thailand, do not bear large crops, a lot of the fruit drops before they mature. The number of Xuong... trees in Thailand is steadily increasing. However, the 'experts' do not consider it to have high commercial potential. Leo's friend has also translated the description of 'Tieu La Bau', which is the third or fourth most popular tropical longan in south Vietnam. Here it is: Tieu La Bau: Origin: Grown from seed before 1975 at the orchard of Mr. Phan van Thuan in Ben Tre province (Mekong Delta area). This variety is in developing in these provinces: Ben Tre, Tien Giang, Vinh Long. Very vigorous growth, high fruit yield, up to 90 kg/tree/year (4-5 year-old tree). Average weight/fruit is 9-14 g (smaller than Xuong Com Vang). Fruit is green when young and turn to "cow-skin yellow" when ripe. Flesh is 5-6 mm thick, 60-70% edible parts. Very sweet with Brix 23-26%. Mostly used for eating fresh. Peace, Good Will and Understanding Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Festival of Fruit 2001 Oct 12-14 Date: Sat, 29 Sep 2001 16:37:50 -0400 From: "Leo A. Martin" <leo1010@attglobal.net> October 12-13, 2001, CRFG Inc. Festival of Fruit 2001 Brava la Guava The California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc., Festival of Fruit 2001, Brava la Guava, generously sponsored by The Arboretum at Arizona State University (ASU), is just two weekends away. Already we have over 100 registrants. Come join the Arizona chapter of the CRFG in the first Festival of Fruit outside California! You can register at the conference, or, better, by mailing in the registration form available at the Brava la Guava! Web site, http://crfg.org/fof/index.html . There are maps in PDF format available on the Web page showing all locations. Friday, October 12, from 5 pm to dusk, we meet at the Maricopa County Agricultural Extension for tours of the Phoenix, AZ-CRFG Demonstration Gardens as well as demonstration gardens kept by other clubs. Friday, October 12, at 6 pm, a welcoming reception with hors d'ouvres and light beverages will be presented, featuring fruit from our gardens and home-made goodies. Friday, October 12, at 6:30 pm, the CRFG, Inc., Board Meeting will be held. All CRFG members are invited. Afterward, there are many good restaurants close to the hotels and meeting space. ---------Saturday, October 13, at 8 am, registration opens in the ASU Memorial Student Union. Our meeting space has been provided by The Aroboretum at ASU http://www.fm.asu.edu/arboretum.htm . Saturday, October 13, 8 am to 5:50 pm, plant sales are open. Saturday, October 13, at 9:30 am, we meet in General Assembly for welcoming remarks from: - Steve Flowers, president of AZ-CRFG and vice president of CRFG, Inc.; - Bob Vieth, Chair of CRFG, Inc., Development Fund;

- Emory Walton, Fruit Shoot 2001; and then our Keynote Speaker, "Santol", Bruce Livingston, who will speak on "New Fruiting Plants from the Tropics." ---------Saturday, October 13, at 10:45 am, attendees will have to choose between hearing: - Guava Culture by Randy Permpoon of Sri Siam Tropicals, specializing in guavas of all kinds; http://www.califmall.com/GuavaIndex.html ; - Date Culture by Richard Harris, Special Collections Curator and Educational Program Coordinator of the Arboretum at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona; - Worm Castings by Kathy Chamberlain, owner of Desert Wormcastings. ---------Saturday, October 13, at noon, we will convene together for box lunch and a Rare Plant Auction. ---------Saturday, October 13, at 1:30 pm, attendees will have to choose between hearing: - Mango Culture by Sharleen Mauritz, Inland Empire CRFG Chapter Chair; - Propagation of Tropical Fruits by Cindy Odgers, Program Coordinator for Agribusiness and Urban Horticulture in the Department of Technology, Mesa Community College, Mesa, Arizona; - Affordable Greenhouse Construction by Doug Jones of the Phoenix, Arizona chapter, CRFG; - Coping with Dry Climates: Improving Soils, Reducing Fertilizer and Pesticide Use by Dean Mikesell, Master Agronomist and Vice President for Research and Development, Blackstone Agriculture http://www.blackstoneag.com/main.htm . ---------Saturday, October 13, at 3 pm, attendees will have to choose between hearing: - Citrus Culture by James Truman, Farm Manager at the Citrus

Agricultural Center, Waddell, Arizona; - Growing Jujubes by Dr. Zab Zanensky, owner, JuJuBas International; - Banana Culture by Doug Richardson, former owner, Seaside Gardens, Santa Barbara, now operating California Bananas. ---------Saturday, October 13, at 4:30 pm, will be: - Conversations with "Santol"; - Informal workshops; - Expert tables. Plant sales will close at 5:50 pm. ---------Saturday, October 13, at 6 pm, dinner will be served. Choices include a vegetarian option. ---------Sunday, October 14, is Tour Day. - Guided Tour of Member's Gardens meets at 8:30 am at ASU Grady Gammage Auditorium parking lot. Space on the bus and vans is available first-come, first-served, and carpooling may be necessary. Three stops: Dr. Al Falkenstein home garden. An impressive collection that includes mangos, mangosteen, mamey sapote, chocolate, star fruit, longan, passion vines and others. Phil Gardner home garden. Fantastic banana and papaya groves within a bamboo forest. Tropica Mango Nursery, the only sub-tropical fruit nursery in the Southwest. Owned by Steve Flowers, President, Phoenix, Arizona chapter of CRFG, and CRFG Vice President. - Self-tour of ASU Arboretum. The Arboretum is a flourishing oasis of plants from around the world. From tall, stately palms and rugged Himalayan pines to rare fruit trees and cacti, a visit here is a colorful, multifaceted journey through the world of plants. The Arboretum is home to over 300 species from diverse geographic regions as well as the Sonoran Desert, in which ASU is situated. It contains one of the best collections of date palms and conifers in the desert Southwest, and a growing collection of native southwestern plants.

Other attractions in Arizona include the Desert Botanical Garden, 5 minutes from ASU; the Phoenix Zoo, next door to the Desert Botanical Garden; the Boyce-Thompson Arboretum, 1 hour east of ASU on Arizona 60; Sedona, famous for red rock canyons, a 4-season climate, and wonderful hiking, 1 1/2 hours north of Phoenix just off Interstate 17; and the Grand Canyon, 4 1/2 hours north of Phoenix via Interstate 17 to Flagstaff. Leo -- Leo A. Martin Phoenix, Arizona, USA -----------------------------------------------Subject: EDIS Homepage Date: Tue, 18 Sep 2001 09:49:23 -0700 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: undisclosed-recipients:; http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ EDIS is the Florida Cooperative Extension publications resource -----------------------------------------------Subject: Software Systems - Tropical Fruits CD-ROM Date: Tue, 18 Sep 2001 09:51:08 -0700 http://it.ifas.ufl.edu/software/tropicalfruits-cd.html Providing Computer-based Knowledge and Tools to the Florida Community Software Systems University of Florida Tropical Fruits CD-ROM Designed for commercial growers, homeowners and county extension agents, Tropical Fruits is an interactive, multimedia, diagnostic expert system. Contains the TFRUIT*Xpert diagnostic system and more than 60 extension fruit crop disorder publications, as well as pest and disease management guides. Helps identify disorders of avocado, carambola, lychee, papaya, mango and "Tahiti" lime. Full-screen color images are available for many symptoms and may help in confirming the unknown problem. The user can browse the tropical fruit crop disorder database by common or scientific name

for quick access to information about specific disorders. All summary and extension documents can be printed. Available for Windows 3.1 or Windows 95. <snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: EDIS - Available Products Date: Tue, 18 Sep 2001 09:52:07 -0700 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> To: undisclosed-recipients:; http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/products/products.html Available Products For Sale Publications A listing of For Sale publications including books, videos and CD-ROMs can be found in the IFAS Communication Services' IFAS/Extension Bookstore. CD-ROMs from UF/IFAS Information Technologies The Florida Cooperative Extension Service develops and produces a wide variety of CD-ROMs, ranging from the award-winning FAIRS series of discs to more specialized discs such as the HydricSoils Disc and Schooyard Ecosystems. Our most current CD-ROM is the Irrigation Tool Box, a collection of software and publications related to irrigation management and design as well as a small number of tools for agricultural drainage system analysis. Other current CD-ROMs are Tropical Fruits, The Florida Citrus Disc, and the Florida Plant Selector. A full listing of the CD-ROMs we produce can be found on our Software Page. Agricultural Applications Software A large number of computer programs pertaining to agricultural applications have been developed by our faculty and are available on our Software Page. Subject matter includes the following topics: Aquaculture, Beef, Citrus, Dairy, Finance, Forestry, Goats, Irrigation, Ornamental Crops, Pesticides, Soil, Pigs, and Water Management. Links to other related software can also be found on this page. Printing individual documents People are encouraged to use the PDF files provided on the EDIS Cost: $35

Web Site or the EDIS Online Catalog to print individual copies of documents. IFAS County Extension Offices, research centers, and departments can order publications in bulk. Instructions below. UF/IFAS Extension Publications On-Line Ordering System IFAS County Extension Offices, research centers, and departments can use the EDIS system to order publications. The publications will be printed through the Docutech in Gainesville, and distributed to the appropriate unit. You must be an authorized IFAS unit to order publications. Each unit has an assigned user name, password, and account. There should be a person in each unit authorized to order publications through the EDIS system. The cost of each order is charged to the unit's account. There is a minimum order of 20 copies per publication. To order a publication, simply submit an on-line printout request form. <snip>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

None this time

>>>>>> NAFEX List See: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/nafex <<<<<<

None this time

>>> Discussion list for New Crops <NEWCROPS@VM.CC.PURDUE.EDU> <<<

None this time

>>> [rarefruit] List - http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rarefruit <<<

Subject: Date: From: ReplyTo:

Passion Fruit Jelly Thu, 20 Sep 2001 15:54:40 -0000 mariposafamily@hotmail.com rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

Does anyone have a recipe for passion fruit jelly or jam? I have already checked the rare fruit recipe list and the web with no luck. I did find one recipe but it was confusing and included the shell of the fruit which I found to be odd. My passion fruit vine Passiflora Edulis var Frederick is producing a lot of fruit and I need to find a use for it. I already made the syrup from the recipe posted on this list and it was very delicious. Thanks. mailto:mariposafamily@hotmail.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: ReplyTo: Re: Passion Fruit Jelly Thu, 20 Sep 2001 13:00:03 -0700 Ron Hay <ronhay@pacbell.net> rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

Hi there, I have Patrick Worley's Passionfruit Cookbook, in which are about a half dozen or so recipes. Among those recipes are ones for both passionfruit lime jelly and passionfruit pepper jelly. Here is one basic recipe, found on p. 16, for Purple Passion Jelly: 3 1/4 c. sugar 3/4 c. water 1/2 bottle liquid pectin 3/4 c. passion fruit juice Skins from the passion fruit. Place sugar and water in a large saucepan. Add skins Place over high heat, bring to a full, rolling boil, and boil hard one minute, stirring constantly. Mix well.

Remove from heat and carefully remove the skins. Immediately stir in the liquid pectin. Add passion fruit juice. Mix well. Pour quickly into glasses. Cover at once with 1/8 inch hot paraffin. Enjoy! Ron Hay mailto:ronhay@pacbell.net

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars<news@arsgrin.gov> << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

None this time.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>End of RFN2000110A.txt<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Rare Fruit News Online - October 15, 2001 - AKA RFN200110B.txt Interested in reading past issues of RFNO? Those published in previous years can be accessed at the homepage for Rare Fruit News Online http://www.rarefruit.com RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO RFNO in in in in in 2000: 1999: 1998: 1997: 1996: http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN2000AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1999AllYr.txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1998AllYr.Txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1997AllYr.Txt http://www.rarefruit.com/RFN1996AllYr.Txt

For another place to see back issues of the newsletter, visit the online group, "OldRFN" OldRFN is at http://www.visto.com/j.html?g=16812838.WDY3NjdX

Notes In Passing - Leo How To Donate Food To New York And DC At No Cost To You Sent by a personal friend. I checked it out and it is legitimate.

People in New York and DC are going to be having to hit foodbanks hard. There will be a need in NY for the food. Below is an easy way to help.... Campbell's is donating a can of soup to area foodbanks just by clicking on a football helmet at their website, so let's see which team gets the most support and help some hungry people, too! It's quick, easy, and can be done once a day. Here is a hyperlink to directly connect you to their website. Just click on this web address: http://www.chunky.com/click_for_cans.asp then click on your favorite team's helmet and Campbell has donated a can of soup. Arizona CRFG Fruit Festival October 13th - I Couldn't Go I really wanted to attend the Arizona event, to meet some of you for the first time, and touch base with others of you. However my wife was (is) out of town and, for a variety of reasons, it was important that I stay around home. Do write and tell about it, for those of us who didn't go.

>>>> New Subscribers <<<<

New Subscriber, New York: "I'm growing a tamarind forest" "Pat Cullinan, jr." <pcullinan@mindspring.com> New Subscriber: Fruit Tree Growing In South Africa Lee Naidoo <Lee.Naidoo@rct.co.za> New Subscriber, Lebanon, Wants Rare Fruit Seed Source "Hassan Anaissi" <hanaissi@hotmail.com>

>> Readers Write <<

Passionfruit Recipies Gail Newcomb <ecoworks@nzero.co.nz> mariposafamily@hotmail.com Maca Seeds "Renee Votta" <WhiteShemn@axs4u.net> Re: Passionfruit "Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> ecoworks@nzero.co.nz

Dwarf ambarella Maurice <CHINO228@aol.com> Do You Know About The Pepino Fruit "Debbie Schmidt" <centralevents@optusnet.com.au> Pepino dulce - Per CRFG Debbie Schmidt <centralevents@optusnet.com.au> Cassia Grandis - Fruit tree? "Edward & Althia Musgrave" <eamusg@quixnet.net> Re: Cassia Grandis - Fruit tree? Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Edward & Althia Musgrave <eamusg@quixnet.net> Dwarf Ambarella Maurice <chino228@aol.com> Cherimoya Information Questions "fahed khalifeh" <fahdkhalifeh@hotmail.com> Re: Cherimoya Questions "George F. Emerich" <gemerich@tfb.com> Re: Self-pollinating hylocereus Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Joe Galea <joegalea@shadow.net.mt> Re: Self-pollinating hylocereus Sven Merten <scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net> joegalea@shadow.net.mt Makopa (Syzygium samarangense) Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Pitahaya "Larry Dodson" <dodsonlarry@msn.com> White Sapote

Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Re: White Sapote Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> RE: White Sapote Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Re: Questions About White Sapote "Robert R. Chambers" <robertchambers@sprintmail.com> Growing Cherries In North San Diego County "Ben Pierce" <benrpierce@worldnet.att.net> Tropical Fruit Trips with Santol "Santol" <santol@tropfruit.com>

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Re: Longan in South Africa "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> "George" <mitech@iafrica.com>, "Barry Heather Nicholls" <bowenia@bigpond.com>

>>>> Announcements and / or Web Sites To Consider <<<<

Mango Cultivars (of the World) Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com>

>>>> Zingiber List (Bananas, Gingers) None, this time

<<<<

>>>> NAFEX List <nafex@cet.com> <<<<

None, this time

>>>> From NEWCROPS List mailto:newcrops@purdue.edu <<<< None, this time

>>>> From "rarefruit list" - rarefruit@yahoogroups.com <<<<

Re: Lychee varieties Christian LAVIGNE <lavigne@cirad.fr> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Re: Papaya first aid Greg Woolley <gregw@amitar.com.au> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Re: Papaya first aid Greg Woolley <gregw@amitar.com.au> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Re: Papaya first aid Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Re: Papaya first aid Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Re: Papaya first aid tabbydan@yahoo.com ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Low Chill Apples, Peaches, Plums, Persimmons And Pears Oscar <fruitlovers@eudoramail.com> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Mamey

Erin Leff <edldvm@bellsouth.net> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Re: Mamey "Robert Walton" <waltonrp@bellsouth.net> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com RE: Mamey Sapote & Misc. "Diane Jensen" <lightworksnursery@home.com> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Re: Monstera fruit "Diane Jensen" <lightworksnursery@home.com> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Re: water (un)treatment Greg Woolley <gregw@amitar.com.au> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Re: Water (Un)Treatment tabbydan@yahoo.com ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Fruit Fly Larvae In Onion & Citrus, etc. samnpe@aol.com ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Re: Fruit Fly Larvae In Onion & Citrus, etc. "Diane Jensen" <lightworksnursery@home.com> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com 3 Avocado Questions And 1 Mango Question Elizabeth Monacelli <violin@sprintmail.com> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Re: 3 Avocado Questions And 1 Mango Question Eunice Messner <eunicemessner@yahoo.com> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com Re: 3 Avocado Questions And 1 Mango Question "Robert Walton" <waltonrp@bellsouth.net> ReplyTo: rarefruit@yahoogroups.com

>> Agricultural Research Service (ARS) mailto:ars>news@arsgrin.gov << http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/thelatest.htm.

Keeping Nutrients in Manure "ARS News Service" <isnv@ars-grin.gov>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

New Subscribers

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: New Subscriber, New York: "I'm growing a tamarind forest" Date: Mon, 01 Oct 2001 00:21:37 -0400 From: "Pat Cullinan, jr." <pcullinan@mindspring.com> Hi Leo and Betty, I live in Brooklyn, New York, and so far, I'm growing a tamarind forest, bonsai-style. I will be plunging into cherimoya and Medemia argun, the Nubian Desert Palm (available from www.seedrack.com). Best regards, Pat Cullinan, Jr. mailto:pcullinan@usa.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: New Subscriber: Fruit Tree Growing In South Africa Date: Fri, 5 Oct 2001 15:34:00 +0200 From: Lee Naidoo <Lee.Naidoo@rct.co.za> Hi, I'm Lee Naidoo and live in a sub-tropical area. Trees grown are lychee, mango and banana. I am interested in other rare fruit with commercial potential, and other information in regards to lychee cultivars and availability of seed of rare fruit. Any information or assistance will be appreciated. Regards Lee Naidoo mailto:Lee.Naidoo@rct.co.za

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: Hi Leo My name is Hassan Anaissi I live in Lebanon I am now growing are passion fruit, persimmon, pomgrande, Indian & Chinese zyzyphus, and some fig and olive trees Some I want to grow are: black sapote, green sapote and acerola Questions to be answered by newsletter readers: where I can get some seeds for mentioned plants Thanks, best regards Hassan mailto:hanaissi@hotmail.com New Subscriber, Lebanon, Wants Rare Fruit Seed Source Sat, 06 Oct 2001 19:51:00 +0200 "Hassan Anaissi" <hanaissi@hotmail.com>

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Readers Write<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Date: From: To:

Passionfruit Recipies Mon, 01 Oct 2001 09:07:08 +1200 Gail Newcomb <ecoworks@nzero.co.nz> mariposafamily@hotmail.com

Passionfruit grows very well in New Zealand and in a cookbook by Gillian Painter called "A Fruit Cookbook" there are 31 recipes using passionfruit. I would gladly write out any that are wanted as they range from drinks, preserves, cookies and cake and deserts. Passionfuit Butter Grated rind of 1 lemon Strained juice of 2 lemons Pulp of 6 passionfruit 1 cup sugar 2 eggs 50 grams butter Combine all ingredients in the top of a double boiler and heat over simmering water, stirring until thick. Bottle and seal and use as a spread or filling.

Passionfruit Jam 24 passionfruit 3/4 litre water sugar Scoop passionfruit pulp into basin. Put skins in a pan with water, adding more if necessary. Bring to boil and simmer until skins are tender then strain on to pulp in basin. Measure this then return to pan and bring to boil. Add 1 cup of sugar to every cup of combined pulp and liquid, stir to dissolve sugar and boil until mixture jells, about 10 minutes, Bottle and seal when cold Passionfruit and Grapefruit Marmalade Add passionfuit pulp to grapefruit in proportion of 1 to 1 and make marmalade as usual Passionfuit and Lemon Spread 50 grams butter 1 cup sugar 3/4 cup boiling water 2 tablespoons cornflour 1-2 tablespoons cold water juice and rind of 2 lemons 2 egg yolks 2 passionfruit. Combine first 3 ingredients in a saucepan and stir to dissolve sugar and melt butter. Blend cornflour andcold water to a paste and stir in with strained lemon juice and grated rind. Bring to boil and simmer 5 minutes, stirring. Remove from heat and add beaten egg yolks and passionfruit pulp. Stir well and bottle. The mixture thickens when cold. Use as a spread or filling. Preserved Passionfruit 1 cup sugar to every cup passionfruit pulp. Bring to boil stirring and boil at leas 2 minutes before pouring into hot jars and sealing. Less sugar may be used. Hope this helps. Gail Newcomb mailto:ecoworks@nzero.co.nz Web Page http://www.nzero.co.nz/ecowo/ -----------------------------------------------Subject: Maca Seeds Date: Sun, 30 Sep 2001 14:26:21 -0700 From: "Renee Votta" <WhiteShemn@axs4u.net> Hi Leo. I'm Renee Votta and I have been enjoying my issues of the newsletter. Some kind people even wrote me to tell me about what

grows for them in the same type climate that I live in. appreciate everyone's help.

I really

Now, maybe you or someone can help me. I have a friend who is interested in experimenting with maca seeds. Though he doesn't live in an alpine climate, he wants to try them anyway. I have searched the sites I've found on maca and haven't come across any seeds for sale, only the dried powdered root. As the plant is propagated by seeds, it's the seeds he's after. Any suggestions? Thanks and samala Renee mailto:WhiteShemn@axs4u.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Passionfruit Sun, 30 Sep 2001 22:02:29 +0000 "Ben Pierce" <mariposafamily@hotmail.com> ecoworks@nzero.co.nz

Thank you for these recipes. Leo, The recipe you published in your newsletter needs to be corrected. I made the recipe and it didnt gel. I later found out that the amount of sugar should be 3 1/4 cups not 3/4 cups as listed. (The corrected recipe follows:) Here is one basic recipe, for Purple Passion Jelly: 3 1/4 c. sugar 3/4 c. water 1/2 bottle liquid pectin 3/4 c. passion fruit juice Skins from the passion fruit. Place sugar and water in a large saucepan. Add skins Place over high heat, bring to a full, rolling boil, and boil hard one minute, stirring constantly. Remove from heat and carefully remove the skins. Immediately stir in the liquid pectin. Add passion fruit juice. Mix well. Pour quickly into glasses. Cover at once with 1/8 inch hot paraffin. [From Patrick Worley's Passionfruit Cookbook] Mix well.

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Dwarf ambarella Date: Mon, 1 Oct 2001 12:03:32 EDT From: Maurice <CHINO228@aol.com> Hi Leo: In response to Juan Rivero enquiry regarding dwarf ambarella being a different specie, a mutation or anything else, this is what I know to the best of my knowledge. The botanist have since renamed the dwarf ambarella " Evia dulcis"... why, I really don't know. As to where it originated, that I also unable to determine although I have heard it originated in Sri Lanka as well as in Thailand. Apparently, this dwarf specie has been around for quite some time so your guess is as good as mine. What I do know is that I have never seen or heard about this variety before, so on one of my many trips to South East Asia with Chris Rollins, I found this plant laden with fruits of all stages of development growing among a few prized plants when at a Chinese orchid nursery in Malaysia. Since I already knew this fruit before as it was one of my favorite childhood fruits, I was interested in purchasing a number of plants which he was relunctly to sell. The ambarella is relatively unknown to most Americans so it was not surprising that they did not pay any interest or had any desire to order any plants. I guess I can say I'm resposible in introducing the dwarf specie to the US. I can say for sure I have been responsible in introducing this specie to Jamaica, Grand Cayman, Barbados, Haiti, Trinidad, Guyana, Surinam and several latin countries. The larger specie of Ambarella ( Spondias cytheria ) also known as June Plum in Jamaica, Manzana de Oro in Cuba, Golden apple in Trinidad was welcomed in many caribbean countries as it generated more income to many growers with it's extended season in spite of it's smaller size. In Jamaica, this fruit is eaten mature green as well as ripe. It is stewed to make a sweet dessert. I recently tasted a Ambarella jam which was quite delicious and I can recall trying a glass of delicious ambarella juice on a recent trip to Jamaica. Maurice mailto:CHINO228@aol.com

------------------------------------------------

Subject: Do You Know About The Pepino Fruit Date: Tue, 2 Oct 2001 09:18:54 +1000 From: "Debbie Schmidt" <centralevents@optusnet.com.au> Good Morning My mother phoned me this morning. She has purchased a Papino (or pipino, or pepino) plant and believes it is a type of fruit. She wondered if I could find something on the internet about this and I came across your website. My mother lives in Victoria, Australia in a place on the coast called Portarlington which would be on the south eastern coast. I would appreciate it very much if you had any information regarding this plant or letting me know even if you have heard of it. She believes it is a type of melon. Thank you in anticipation of your reply. Debbie Schmidt mailto:centralevents@optusnet.com.au

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Pepino dulce - Per CRFG Mon, 01 Oct 2001 17:00:40-0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Debbie Schmidt <centralevents@optusnet.com.au>

http://crfg.org/pubs/ff/pepino.html === PEPINO DULCE Solanum muricatum Ait. Solanaceae Common Names: Pepino Dulce, Pepino, Melon Pear, Melon Shrub, Pear Mellon <snip> Origin: The pepino dulce is native to the temperate Andean regions of Colombia, Peru and Chile. The plant is not known in the wild, and the details of it origin are not known. The fruit is grown commercially in New Zealand, Chile and Western Australia. The

pepino dulce was being grown in San Diego before 1889 and was listed by Francisco Franceschi of Santa Barbara in 1897. Improved cultivars were imported into California from New Zealand and elsewhere in more recent times. Adaptation: The pepino dulce is a fairly hardy plant that grows at altitudes ranging from near sea level to 10,000 ft. in its native regions. However it does best in a warm, relatively frost-free climate. The plant will survive a low temperature of 27 to 28¡ F if the freeze is not prolonged, but may loose many of its leaves. It can be grown in many parts of central and southern California, although it does best in locations away from the coast and is not well suited for hot, interior gardens. Pepino dulce has been grown and has fruited in the milder areas of northern California (Sunset Climate Zones 16 and 17). The plant is small enough to be grown satisfactorily in a container. DESCRIPTION Growth Habit: Pepino dulce is a small, unarmed, herbaceous plant or bush with a woody base and fibrous roots. Growth is erect or ascending to about 3 feet high and several feet across. It is similar in these respects to a small tomato vine, and like the tomato may need staking or other support. Foliage: The bright green leaves are sparsely covered with very small hairs. In appearance the pepino dulce is much like a potato plant, but the leaves may take many forms--simple and entire, lobed, or divided into leaflets. Flowers: The small flowers are blue, violet-purple or white marked with purple, and are similar in form to unopened potato flowers. The pepino dulce is deemed to be parthenocarpic but a much heavier crop results from self-pollination or cross-pollination. The plants will not set fruit until the night temperatures are above 65¡ F. Fruit: The fruit also show considerable diversity in size and shape. In the areas of its origin there are small oblong types with many seeds, while others are pear or heart-shaped with few or many seeds. Still others are round, slightly larger than a baseball and completely seedless. The colors also vary--completely purple, solid green or green with purple stripes, or cream colored with or without purple stripes. The fruit of cultivars grown in this country are usually round to egg-shaped, about 2 to 4 inches long, with some growing up to 6 inches. The skin is typically yellow or purplish green, often with numerous darker streaks or stripes. The flesh is greenish to white and yellowish-orange. Better quality fruit is moderately sweet, refreshing and juicy with a taste and aroma similar to a combination of cantaloupe and honeydew melon. In poor varieties there can be an unpleasant "soapy" aftertaste. The fruit matures 30 to 80 days after pollination.

CULTURE Location: The plant likes a sunny or semi-shaded, frost-free location, sheltered from strong winds. It does well planted next to a south-facing wall or in a patio. Soil: The pepino dulce does best in a fertile (but not too fertile), free draining, neutral soil ( pH of 6.5-7.5). It is not as tolerant of salinity as the tomato. Mulching will help suppress weed growth. Irrigation: The pepino dulce is quite sensitive to moisture stress as their root systems spread out and are quite shallow. Irrigation techniques are thus crucial for the health of the plants as well as for pollination, fruit set and quality of the fruit crop. Some growers feel that overhead sprinkling may even favor increased pollination. Microjets appear to deliver moisture better than trickle irrigation. Fertilization: The plants should be fertilized in a manner similar to a tomato plant, mixing in some well-rotted manure to the plant site several weeks in advance and supplementing with a 5-10-10 NPK granular fertilizer as needed. Soils that are too rich produce vigorous vegetative growth which can lead to reduced fruit set and quality, plus an increase in pest problems. Pruning: Pruning of the pepino dulce is not needed unless the plant is being trained to a trellis. In this case treat it as one would a tomato vine. Opening the the fruits to light increases the purple striping and improves the general appearance. Frost Protection: In areas where frost may be a problem, providing the plant with some overhead protection or planting them next to a wall or a building may be sufficient protection. Individual plants are small enough to be fairly easily covered during cold snaps by placing plastic sheeting, etc. over a frame around them. Plastic row covers will also provide some frost protection for larger plantings. Potted specimens can be moved to a frost-secure area. Propagation: The pepino dulce can be grown from seeds, but is usually propagated vegetatively from cuttings. Three to five inch stem cuttings are taken leaving 4 or 5 leaves at the upper end. Treatment with rooting hormones will help increase uniformity in rooting and development of heavier root systems. The cuttings are then placed in a fast-draining medium and placed under mist or otherwise protected from excessive water loss. Bottom heat also is helpful. With the right conditions most of the cuttings quickly root and are ready for potting up in individual containers. Rooted cuttings set out after the danger of frost (February to April) should be large enough to start blooming shortly after planting. The fruit will then have time to grow and ripen during the warm summer months. When planted out, a spacing of about 2 to 3 ft. between bushes is recommended.

Pests and Diseases: The plant is affected by many of the diseases and pests that afflict tomatoes and other solanaceous plants, including bacterial spot, anthracnose, and blights caused by Alternaria spp. and Phytophthora spp. The various pests include spider mite, cut worm, hornworm, leaf miner, flea beetle, Colorado potato beetle and others. Fruit fly is a serious pest where they are a problem. Greenhouse grown plants are particularly prone to attack by spider mites, white flies and aphids Harvest: Individual fruits should not be picked until they are completely mature to assure the highest flavor and sugar content. Different cultivars vary, but the ground color of many mature fruits is somewhat yellow to light orange. Ripe fruit also bruises easily and requires careful handling. Such fruit should store well for 3 to 4 weeks at around 38¡ F under relatively high humidity. Fruit destined for distant markets would need to be picked earlier just before full ripeness. As it turns out this happens to be a good time to pick the fruit. Studies have shown that fruit in the middle degree of ripeness has the best performance in cold storage. Over-ripe fruit suffers most from physiological problems such as internal breakdown, discoloration and dehydration. If harvested too early, insufficient ripening and development of flavor and sweetness can result. The pepino dulce is commonly chilled and eaten fresh much like a cantaloupe or other melon. Commercial Potential: The pepino dulce is a successful commercial crop in several countries such as New Zealand and Chile, and there appears to be no reason it can't find a niche in this country in Farmer's Market sales and elsewhere. The fruit is strikingly attractive and its storage capability and shelf life permit great flexibility in marketing. For good market acceptance it is important to select cultivars with the sweetest and most flavorful fruit. Additional breeding and selection is also needed to further enhance these qualities. CULTIVARS <snip> -----------------------------------------------Subject: Cassia Grandis - Fruit tree? Date: Wed, 3 Oct 2001 14:21:24 -0400 From: "Edward & Althia Musgrave" <eamusg@quixnet.net> I have a seed I am growing it is called Cassia Grandis It is supposed to be a fruit tree. Does anyone know its common name and what is the fruit like? Ed in Mango Fl mailto:eamusg@quixnet.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Cassia Grandis - Fruit tree? Wed, 03 Oct 2001 12:18:57 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Edward & Althia Musgrave <eamusg@quixnet.net>

I used Google.com to search for Cassia Grandis and came with a lot of leads. Here's one: Rainbow Shower, Cassia grandis, is an ornamental tree with spreading branches. It has elegantly-placed leaved, slim and long, pink when young. Lavender buds open into rich coral flowers amassed in thick clusters. A gorgeous houseplant that should be kept pruned down. This ornamental tree is winter hardy in the tropical zones of 10 11, but is easily grown in containers indoors in northern climate zones if offered adequate light and warmth. The specimen shown above was photographed in the province of Guanacaste, Costa Rica, in June of 1999. -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Dwarf Ambarella Wed, 03 Oct 2001 18:43:23 -0400 "Juan A. Rivero" <jarivero@caribe.net> Maurice <chino228@aol.com>

Hola Maurice: Many thanks for your note answering my inquiry about the Dwarf Ambarella. Knowing that you were the importer into the US is a most welcome information. Yet, I am still in doubt about whether it is a separate species, a mutation of the regular Spondias dulcis (ex cytherea) or a cultivar (unlikely). I looked up in the International Plant Name Index Quarry and no plant has been registered under the name Evia... Besides, it doesn't seem right that a tree that, except for its dwarfism, is so similar to Spondias dulcis be separated in a different genus (Evia) while others that are much more different, like S. tuberosa, S. mombin, S. purpurea and S. pinnata are kept in the same genus Spondias. Do you know the name of the botanist who suggested the name Evia? Warm regards Juan mailto:jarivero@caribe.net

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Cherimoya Information Questions Date: Thu, 04 Oct 2001 10:08:45 +0200 From: "Fahed Khalifeh" <fahdkhalifeh@hotmail.com> Dear Leo, Please send me information regarding the following points: * The name of the cherimoya varieties. * The characteristics of these varieties: production yield, pollunation, fruit size, date of maturity, resistance for cold weather and etc. Thanks in advance for your cooperation, Best Regards Fahd Khalifeh mailto:fahdkhalifeh@hotmail.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Cherimoya Questions Date: Thu, 04 Oct 2001 10:25:02 -0700 From: "George F. Emerich" <gemerich@tfb.com> Leo: I would be ecstatic if such information actually existed. Even if it did exist for a given location, it probably wouldn't apply in most other places. There is a collection of about 30 US registered cultivars at South Coast that isn't characterized to the extent that he wants. As a matter of fact the CCA (Calif. Cherimoya Association) is considering funding a student or students from CalPoly or UCR to attempt the characterization. Of course that would only be applicable to inland Orange County but it would be a start. Incidentally, there are many other collections around the world, the largest probably being the one in Spain which has around 250 accessions. As I understand it only a few of them are fully characterized. George mailto:gemerich@tfb.com

------------------------------------------------

Subject: Date: From: To: Hi Joe,

Re: Self-pollinating hylocereus Sat, 06 Oct 2001 06:31:03 -0700 Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Joe Galea <joegalea@shadow.net.mt>

I am sorry that I don't have any information to send to you, and apparently, none of the readers of the newsletter was helpful, either. I have sent your letter to one person who might be helpful. "Merten (CA), Sven" <scoutdog@pacbell.net> He has quite an extensive collection of various pitayas. Did you try to contact Mr. Vildivia? You might try the following web pages for information and/or leads: http://coburg.nt.gov.au/dpif/pubcat/agnotes/778.htm http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~bunkenba/cacti.html Alex Bunkenburg mailto:bunkenba@dcs.gla.ac.uk http://www.cactus-mall.com/index.html A search for 'pitaya' on Google gives lots of possibilities: http://www.google.com/search?q=pitaya I am sorry to not have been more helpful. Good luck, Leo mailto:leom@rarefruit.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Date: From: To: Re: Self-pollinating hylocereus Mon, 08 Oct 2001 07:11:46 -0700 Sven Merten <scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net> joegalea@shadow.net.mt

Dear Joe, I don't know of anyone who sells cuttings of the self-fertile varieties. http://www.fruit.co.il/Catalog/EPlant39.html sells some, but they aren't self fertile. Also Rainbow

Gardens(rbgdns@aol.com) in San Diego sells them mail order, but again not self-fertile and they only grow them for the flower, so who knows what the fruit will be like. I need to apply for one more permit (3 total) before I will be able ship/sell cuttings abroad, but even then I won't have any self fertile clones available for a few years as these are still smaller plants and the ones I will be planting myself in the orchard. If you are interested I could trade or sell you some seeds from the self fertile varieties this year. The Selenicereus megalanthus will more than likely not, at least not very effectively, pollinate the Hylocereus species. You would be much better off getting a different Hylocereus species like H. polyrhizus. Rainbow Gardens sells this as well as several other species. I can only find their book shop online, so I'm not sure if they still ship cuttings, you will have to contact them. I hope this helped a little. Best regards, Sven mailto:scoutdog@postoffice.pacbell.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: Makopa (Syzygium samarangense) Date: Sat, 06 Oct 2001 16:34:17 -0700 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> Hi, I recently gave fruit from my Rose Apple to a man from the Phillipines. He took it home to his wife, who thought it was delicious, and reminded her of a local fruit, "Makopa." I looked up one source on the internet and found the following: Makopa (Syzygium samarangense) (Java Apple) Member of the Myrtaceae family. Among its various vernacular names are samarang rose apple, djamboe semarang (Indonesia); jambu ayer rhio (Malaya); pini jambu (Ceylon); jumrool, jamrul, or amrool (India); chom pu kao, or chom pu kio (Thailand); makopa (Philippines); The tree is indigenous from Malaya to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands where there are wild trees in the coasta l forests. It was introduced into the Philippines in prehistoric times and is widely grown throughout those islands Are you familiar with Makopa? that of the Rose Apple? How would you compare the taste to

Yours, Leo mailto:leom@rarefruit.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Pitahaya Date: Sat, 6 Oct 2001 20:55:15 -0700 From: "Larry Dodson" <dodsonlarry@msn.com> Thanks for the interesting discussion on pitahayas. Four years ago I ate my first pitahahya in Vietnam. I brought seed back and now have a number of plants, none of which have blossomed. Last year in Guatemala I bought three nice size pitahaya cuttings in Peten for 5 quetzales (less than a dollar). The fruit was not in season, but I was told that the fruit is large with red flesh. I also collected a couple of cuttings from the jungle next to the hotel where we stayed near Tikal. There the pitahayas cling to trees grow high up into the branches. The fruit varies in size and color. Maybe my plants will start producing soon. Larry Dodson mailto:dodsonlarry@msn.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: White Sapote Date: Mon, 8 Oct 2001 09:40:46 -0700 From: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Leo, Thanks for all the info lately! What a service, I can't believe its free! I have a Suebelle White Sapote in the ground (in full sun). It has been growing quite well all summer and is about 8ft tall. I bought it from Tropical Fruit Nursery, and it is SEEDLING. I was told by them, and others, the Suebelle is fairly true from seed and could be easily kept under 20ft. Are these statements true? By the way some info for the new guys (and gals), Exotica Nursery has a tasting table for customers. It is awesome, filled with many different fruits (the white sapote is excellent). Although I new of all the fruits they had, I could not help myself from stuffing my face with tree ripened goodies as my wife kept telling me to stop eating. Todd Abel mailto:tabel@statek.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: White Sapote Date: Mon, 08 Oct 2001 11:24:22 -0700 To: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Hi Todd, Sometimes the information here is just what you need. I am surprised that the 'Suebelle' would be only a seedling of 'Suebelle.' I would probably graft at least some of it to one or more other varieties. 'McDill' is worth growing, as are some others. The time to graft seems to be in March, for maximum success, as I recall. The tree will probably attempt to grow much taller than 20 feet, but with continuous pruning, you should be able to keep it down. I expect that seedlings will grow more vigorously than grafted ones. Thanks for writing! Sincerely, Leo mailto:leom@rarefruit.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: RE: White Sapote Date: Mon, 8 Oct 2001 12:11:08 -0700 From: Todd Abel <tabel@statek.com> Leo, Will the fruit be good? Should I replace with a grafted one? I have no problems about replacing trees. I have had several nurseries tell me they carry Suebelle seedlings and that it would be true, maybe they just wanted a sale. The literatue all says that seedlings will be inferior, and also that Suebelle is a medium to small tree. Todd mailto:tabel@statek.com

-----------------------------------------------Subject: Re: Questions About White Sapote Date: Wed, 10 Oct 2001 21:27:32 -0700 From: "Robert R. Chambers" <robertchambers@sprintmail.com> Hi Leo Yes, white sapote seeds do not come true, although some come closer than others, and the suebelle seedlings I can remember seemed to have a degree of resemblence to their mother -- a cousin relationship perhaps. This is more than most sapotes. As far as keeping white sapote trees from growing too tall, the key factor is root depth. If the tree is not allowed to put its tap root down very far it does not grow very tall. I have a row of 5 sapotes -- same graft, similar background seedling rootstocks. The tree on the top of the hill which I could not dig more than 6 inches down without striking rock is about 5 feet high. As the row progresses down the hill to deeper soils the height of the tree increases. I also have in mind a sapote that was cut off probably about half way up when it was perhaps 30 feet high. The tree seems to have accepted that limitation and does not try to grow back up again. That said, I should hasten to point out that sapote trees are highly individualistic and what one of them does may not be what another one in the same circumstances will do. Hope we see you at Phoenix. Cheers Bob mailto:robertchambers@sprintmail.com -----------------------------------------------Subject: Growing Cherries In North San Diego County Date: Sat, 13 Oct 2001 09:27:48 -0700 From: "Ben Pierce" <benrpierce@worldnet.att.net> Hello Leo, A few newsletters back you published an email from a gentleman who had gotten his cherry tree in Carlsbad to produce some cherries. Do you still have his email? I would like to try planting a cherry tree out here in San Marcos to see what I get. I know that they

require a lot of chill hours but we do get a lot of those in the area where I live. We are below Emerald Heights so get a lot of cold air moving down into the valley. I have also heard of people getting cherries on their trees out in Bonsall and Vista. If any of the list members have had luck growing cherries in San Diego county I would love to hear from them about which varieties have done well for them. Thanks Ben mailto:benrpierce@worldnet.att.net -----------------------------------------------Subject: Tropical Fruit Trips with Santol Date: Wed, 10 Oct 2001 12:25:56 -0400 From: "Santol" <santol@tropfruit.com> Hello Leo, I'm hoping you will be able to help me publicize this. Are you going to be in Phoenix for this Saturday's presentation? If yes, please make sure we meet each other. I hope to see you there, and I thank you in advance if you can help me publicize the tropical fruit trips. Here's the letter I am sending our to my correspondents list: ___________________________________________________________________ I am pleased to announce the Fall set of TROPICAL FRUIT TRIPS WITH SANTOL. For those of you who traveled with us last spring, some of the destinations are the same. This is with good reason. Fruits that ripen in the fall are not available in the spring, so we go a second time. I also have brand new destinations for these trips, and maybe a few surprises too. I hope you will join us. Feel free to contact me if you have any questions. call me, the number is: (954) 964-9718 See you there! For details, just click the link below: http://www.tropfruit.com/troptrip.html mailto:santol@tropfruit.com If you wish to

>>>> Mailbag of Sainarong Rasananda mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th <<<<

Subject: Date: From: To:

Re: Longan in South Africa Sat, 6 Oct 2001 15:29:22 +0700 "Sainarong Siripen Rasananda" <sainaron@loxinfo.co.th> "George" <mitech@iafrica.com>, "Barry Heather Nicholls" <bowenia@bigpond.com>

Dear Barry, Jack is a litchi grower in South Africa. He is taking a go at growing longan - I should imagine that the cultivar is Kohala. As South Africa is in the southern hemisphere and as he is growing Kohala, I would imagine that your Australian experience would be more pertinent to him than mine. I would appreciate your comments on his questions and my answer see below. Enjoy Yourselves! Sainarong mailto:sainaron@loxinfo.co.th

[Note from Sainarong: Barry Nicholls of Australia grows longans and litchis and has travelled literally all over the world to take a look at these plants.

Jack Jack:

mailto:mitech@iafrica.com Wrote:

Well last year they produced some fruit. I was very suprised at the taste. Sainarong: |My Caucasian friends tell me that longan tends to grow on you. |People need to taste it three or four times before they begin to |like it. Barry: ||Yes!, the taste does seem to be an aquired one, ||we also find that Caucasian males like the taste a lot more than ||females. Jack: I do not know when the fruit is ready to pick? Sainarong:

|During the last month, if the tree receives plenty of water, the |fruit size will increase tremendously in a short time. The |skin/peel turns brownish and becomes smooth. The seed turns |black. | |Actually I still know very little about this fruit Barry: ||Kohala when allowed to become too large looses its taste, best ||time about 2 to 3 cm in size. Best way is to taste fruit ||frequently. Jack: They flower at about the same time as our litchi's (mid aug to sept) Sainarong: |Mine flower a month or so after litchi. Jack: After the blossoms drop I see no fruit set, Sainarong: |Fruit set should occur almost right away, but the fruit is about |pea-size within about 15 days of fruit set. Jack: But about mid-December I noticed fruit about 5mm in diameter on some trees, the litchi's have already been harvested by this time, by the end of January they had grown to about 15 - 20 mm. Is it normal for fruit to take this long? Sainarong: |Longan takes longer than litchi to mature, probably due to its |high sugar content. I would say it takes five to six months from |fruit set to mature. Barry: ||Longans, like Lychees ---- first flowering -- male followed by ||female and hermaphrodite and finally male again. You can see the ||fruit in the female & hermphrodite flower. Jack: I only picked the fruit when they were slightly soft to the touch. I read in a letter from rfno that they like lots of waterSainarong: |Well, they are correct, the more the better, I also add manure to |my trees that is all they get. Barry: ||With the Thai varities, but the Chineese varieties ||take a shorter time, this would be caused by the earlier flowering ||and relevant heat units.

Barry Jack:

mailto:bowenia@bigpond.com

I will let you know what happens this season Jack mailto:mitech@iafrica.com

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Announcements And Web Pages To Consider<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

Subject: Mango CULTIVARS (of the World) Date: Fri, 05 Oct 2001 17:41:53 -0700 From: Leo Manuel <leom@rarefruit.com> http://www.rajans.com/cultivars.htm

MANGO CULTIVARS <snip> CUL