Music History 1900 – present

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Music History 1900 – present Powered By Docstoc
					 Arts History
1900 – present

      20thCentury Classical
      Modern Day Music
20th Century Classical Music
20th Century Classical Music:

   Impressionism- French style of
    atmospheric music of the late
    nineteenth century
   Expressionism- musical style that
    subjectively explored deep inner feelings
   Tone row- a series of notes comprising the 12 pitches of
    the chromatic scale; invented by Arnold Schoenberg
   Aleatory music- music in which composers deliberately
    leave parts of the composition and performance
    undetermined and at the discretion of performers
   Synthesizer- an electronic device, usually with a
    keyboard, capable of producing sounds in almost any
    range, tone quality, and volume
20th Century Classical Music:

   Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
     – He was born in a suburb of Paris, France
       and it was his aunt who first noticed how
       musical he was. She got him started taking piano lessons.
     – When he was only ten, Debussy started studying at the very strict
       Paris Conservatory.
     – As a child, Debussy was fascinated by visual art, and as he grew
       up, he loved the new style called "Impressionism." Instead of
       painting realistic, lifelike paintings with hard outlines,
       Impressionists used thousands of dots, or many different shades
       of color to create the "impression" of what they wanted to depict.
       Debussy took that idea and applied it to music, creating
       Impressionism in music.
Clair de Lune
by Debussy

   Meaning “Moonlight”, Clair
    de Lune is Debussy’s most
    well-known piano work.
20th Century Classical Music:

   Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)
     –   Born in St. Petersburg, which was the capital of Russia
          at the time. His father was a famous opera singer, so
         as a kid, Igor got to hang out at the opera house,
         where he met all the famous musicians of the day.
     –   Igor began taking piano lessons at age 9. When he grew up, he started studying
         law. One of his fellow law students was the son of composer Nikolai Rimsky-
         Korsakov, who agreed to give Stravinsky composition lessons. Law fell by the
         wayside completely after Stravinsky had a big success with The Firebird.
     –   Stravinsky went on to write more ballets. One of those was The Rite of Spring,
         about a pagan ritual in ancient Russia. The opening night audience found the
         music and choreography so shocking that there was actually a riot in the theater!
     –   Stravinsky moved around a lot. In Europe, he lived in France and Switzerland;
         during World War II, he came to the United States, where he lived in both
         California and New York. Stravinsky’s music moved around, too -- he never really
         picked one style. He wrote Russian-sounding music, music that looked back to
         previous centuries, modern music, opera, and religious music -- including a
         symphony with psalms in it.
The Firebird
by Stravinsky

   With life, death and rebirth as its theme, it
    represents nature as a Sprite who is summoned
    by a lone Elk. When the beauty of springtime is
    destroyed by the fury of the Firebird, who lives
    within an active volcano, it is up to the Elk and
    Sprite to once again reawaken what lies beneath
    the ashes of the ravaged forest.
20th Century Classical Music:

   George Gershwin (1898-1937)
    –   Born in Brooklyn, New York. He taught himself to play the piano
        at a friend's house by following how the keys moved on a player
        piano. When the Gershwins finally got their own piano, George
        surprised everyone by sitting down and playing the songs he had
        learned by himself.
    –   George liked to compose both classical and popular music, and
        found a unique way to combine the two. He composed his most
        famous work, Rhapsody in Blue, in 1924, where he proved that
        jazz held a legitimate place in the concert hall.
    –   Gershwin also wrote the opera Porgy and Bess. He is considered
        one of the greatest American composers.
Rhapsody in Blue
by Gershwin

   Gershwin composed Rhapsody in Blue in only three
    weeks. It is still one of the most popular of all 20th-
    century musical compositions, and proved that jazz
    had a legitimate place in the concert hall alongside
    traditional classical music.
20th Century Classical Music:

   John Cage (1912-1992)
     – Among the most famous of 20th century
       composers. While his earliest compositions
       were written in a traditional style, he quickly
       moved on to create unique kinds of works. One of his first inventions was
       the “prepared piano," which is an instrument modified so that it can
       produce new, percussive sounds.
    20th Century Classical Music:

    John Cage (1912-1992)
      – He wanted music to escape from any sort of control and, in some cases, to express
        the idea of zero thought. He therefore created purposeless music based on the
        throw of some dice, a star chart, or some other such random device so that his
        personal preferences were not part of the compositional process. He called this
        method indeterminacy. One such work, Imaginary Landscape No. 4, includes 12
        radio sets, each of which is tuned to a different station. Every performance is
        therefore unique.
      – 4’33”, one of Cage’s most famous pieces, is “performed” by a pianist who sits
        unmoving in front of a keyboard for four minutes and 33 seconds. The members of
        the audience are expected during this time to listen to the sounds that occur around
      – Cage wanted to break down the barriers between art and living, to make audiences
        aware that they are surrounded by sounds and that everything they do is actually
Aleatory Project
   Aleatory means "pertaining to
    luck", and derives from the
    Latin word alea, the rolling of
    dice. Aleatoric,
    indeterminate, or chance art
    is that which exploits the
    principle of randomness.
20th Century Classical Music:

   Aaron Copland (1900-1990)
     –   He was one of the most famous American composers of all
         time. Copland was born in Brooklyn, New York.
     –   With a thorough background of academic musical training
         behind him, Copland began composing in quite technically
         advanced styles, influenced by such European contemporaries
         as Igor Stravinsky and Arnold Schoenberg. He then turned to
         his own land for inspirations: to pioneering life in the
         Appalachian Mountains and the Wild West, to jazz, and the
         music of African-Americans. He successfully combined these influential sources with his own
         highly professional skills to produce music that was beautifully polished but that clearly
         resonated with an American voice. Copland’s music is as vast and magnificent as the land
         that inspired it.
     –   Copland wrote music with a very “American" sound. Some of his most famous pieces are his
         ballets - Billy the Kid, Rodeo, and Appalachian Spring. Billy the Kid and Rodeo are about the
         Wild West. Copland also wrote music for movies - Of Mice and Men and Our Town, among
     –   One of Copland's best known compositions is Fanfare for the Common Man. Copland wrote it
         after the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra asked several composers to write fanfares during
         World War II. Copland’s music has become a great part of American history.
Agnes De Mille
    The grande dame of American dance, Agnes de Mille (1905-1993) was born in New
     York City. Her father was a playwright who went to work in Hollywood, and it was
     there that she took her first ballet lessons from Theodore Koslov. She attended
     UCLA, received a degree in English, then resumed her dance studies in New York,
     where she made her solo debut in 1928.
    Rodeo, the Americana classic she choreographed in 1942, was one of de Mille’s most
     successful works.

“The truest expression of people is in its dances and
its music. Bodies never lie.”
- Agnes de Mille
by Aaron Copland; choreographed by Agnes de Mille

   Copland wrote Rodeo for Agnes de Mille.
   The ballet is about a cowgirl who is neglected and lonely, and who usually dresses in
    cowboy pants and shirt. She is attending a Saturday night dance and is watching the
    couple s dancing, but nobody wants to dance with her. Her friend, the Champion
    Roper, takes pity on her and shows her a few steps. Then she sees the Head
    Wrangler, who she is infatuated with, dancing with the Head Rancher’s daughter. The
    cowgirl then runs away sobbing while everybody else continues to dance. When the
    cowgirl returns, the dancers all stop and look at her in surprise. They see her wearing
    a dress for the first time, and she also has a bow in her hair. Suddenly, everybody
    believes her to be some kind of Cinderella of the West. The Head Wrangler notices
    her beauty and becomes very interested; however, so does the Champion Roper.
    Both men try to win her fancy. In the end she settles on the Roper – the only one who
    has ever shown her any attention.
Pantomime Gestures
   Pantomime is silent communication by means of gestures and facial expressions.

Can you guess which gesture is being acted out?

   You want what?
   That’s really exciting!
   Quiet! They’ll hear us!
   Come over here right now!
   I have no idea what you’re talking about!
   What in the world is that?
   Stop! You’re making me sick!
   I have no interest in your side of the story.
   When I say now, I mean now!
Billy the Kid
by Aaron Copland; choreographed by Eugene Loring

   In legend, Billy the Kid has been described as a vicious
    and ruthless killer, an outlaw who died at the age of
    twenty-one, not before raising havoc in the New
    Mexico Territory. It was said he took the lives of twenty-one men,
    one for each year of his life, the first one when he was just twelve
    years old. He was a rebel without a cause who killed without
    reason, other than to see his victims kick. These and many more
    accusations of callous acts are examples of the myth of Bill the Kid.
    In real form, the Kid was not the cold-blooded killer he has been
    portrayed as, but a young man who lived in a violent dog-eat-dog
    world, where knowing how to use a gun was a difference between
    life and death.
   The ballet is most famous for its incorporation of many cowboy
    tunes and American folk songs.
Billy the Kid
by Aaron Copland; choreographed by Eugene Loring

   The opening movement is titled "The Open Prairie". Copland utilizes harmonies based on fifths to
    give a sense of emptiness and loneliness with the main theme raising and falling above. This leads
    into the second movement, "Street in a Frontier Town," where Copland manages to visualize in
    music a town with cowboys sauntering around, some on horseback, some with lassos. The opening
    theme is played on the piccolo (tin whistle if a stage performance) and is based on the cowboy tune
    "Great Granddad." A Mexican theme enters which indicates a Mexican woman dancing a Jarabo.
    Copland achieved this Mexican feel with the use of rhythm, using the song "Come Wrangle yer
    Bronco" against a time signature of 5/8.
   A fight between two drunks that is hinted at in the trombones by the tune "Git along Little Doggies"
    interrupts all of this. In the ensuing chaos two shots ring out killing the twelve-year-old Billy’s mother.
    Billy, enraged, grabs a cowhand’s knife and kills his mother’s murderer. Thus, the young outlaw's life
   As "Street in a Frontier Town" comes to an end, Copland uses the tune of "Goodbye Old Paint" that
    has already been hinted at earlier in the movement.
   After dying away to nothing, the "Celebration Dance" shows how Copland could also show humor in
    his work by having the jaunty and quite spiky dance melody in the upper instrumentation written in C
    while the accompanying bass line supports this a semi-tone higher in C#.
   Rich descending chords in the strings depict Billy’s death, with occasional accompaniment by upper
    winds. The suite then ends where it began, on the "Open Prairie," but this time, to help with the
    feeling of finality, Copland uses the whole orchestra with the brass playing big chords of leaping
    fifths. This is all strong motivation to lead us to the conclusion that Copland wanted the audiences'
    loyalties to lie with the now dead outlaw.
American Folk Songs

What are folk songs?
  –   Songs handed down from generation to generation.

Can you name any American folk songs?
  –   Home on the Range
  –   Yankee Doodle
  –   I’ve Been Working on the Railroad
  –   Do Your Ears Hang Low?
  –   Michael Row the Boat Ashore
  –   My Bonnie
  –   Polly Wolly Doodle
Martha Graham

   Martha Graham
    (1894-1991) was an
    American dancer and
    regarded as one of
    the foremost pioneers
    of modern dance, whose influence on dance can be
    compared to the influence Stravinsky had on music,
    Picasso had on the visual arts and Frank Lloyd Wright
    had on architecture.
   Graham invented a new language of movement, and
    used it to reveal the passion, the rage and the ecstasy
    common to human experience. She danced and
    choreographed for over seventy years.
Isamu Noguchi

                   Isamu Noguchi (1904-1988) was a
                    prominent Japanese American
                    artist and landscape architect
                    whose artistic career spanned six
                    decades, from the 1920s onward.
                    Known for his sculpture and public
                    works, Noguchi also designed
                    stage sets for various Martha
                    Graham productions, and several
                    mass-produced lamps and
                    furniture pieces, some of which are
                    still manufactured and sold.
Appalachian Spring
by Aaron Copland; choreographed by Martha Graham

    The story told is a spring
     celebration of the American
     pioneers of the 1800s after
     building a new Pennsylvania
     farmhouse. Among the central
     characters are a newlywed
     couple, a neighbor, a revivalist
     preacher and his followers.

   Jazz originated
    around New
    Orleans back into
    the second half of the nineteenth century or
   Spirituals and the blues strongly influenced
    the early development of jazz. Bands used
    classical instruments, but in unique ways.

   Jazz- a musical form distinguished by its reliance on
    improvisation and its rhythmic urgency
   Polyrhythmic- juxtaposing two or more different rhythms
   Scat singing- a form of vocal improvisation on nonsense
    syllables (such as doo-wah, doo-wee)
   Swing- the special rhythmic character that jazz
    musicians add to the music
   Bebop- a complex and sophisticated type of improvised
   Fusion- combination of jazz and rock
   Blues- a genre of African American music that often
    expresses frustration, sadness, or longing

   Louis Armstrong- jazz
    trumpet player; vocally, he
    complemented his
    instrumental improvisations
    with scat singing
Louis Armstrong

   Benny Goodman- clarinetist
    who played the classics as well
    as jazz; nicknamed the “King of
   Duke Ellington (1899-1974) –
    one of America’s most
    prominent big band innovators;
    most original and prolific
    American composers

   What a Wonderful World by Louis Armstrong
    –   Blues

   Sing, Swing, Sing by Benny Goodman
    –   Swing

   It Don’t Mean a Thing by Duke Ellington
    –   Scat Singing
Modern Day Music

   We start to see the emergence of many new artists as the
    20th century progresses. Musicians combine music styles
    to create a new sound.
   Modern technology helps the music world take
    off, exploring every possibility imaginable.
   Music has become a major part of television.
    The launch of MTV in 1981 aimed towards
    adolescents and young adults. Since then,
    we have VH1, BET, MTV2, CMT, and others.
   Music has become so much more than an art form or
    cultural experience. It is an industry that has grown to be
    based off modern day trends, looks and fame other than
    Modern Day Music:

   R&B – aka rhythm and blues; popular music genre
    combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences –
    first performed by African American artists; term
    first coined in the 1940s; contemporary R&B
    (1980s) combines elements of soul, funk, pop, and
     –   R&B: Sam Cooke, James Brown, Rolling Stones
     –   Contemporary R&B: Luther Vandross, Whitney
         Houston, Mary J. Blige, Alicia Keys, R. Kelly
   Hip-Hop – also known as rap music; a style of
    music which came into existence in the United
    States during the mid-1970s; consists of two main
    components: rapping and DJing.
     –   Eminem, 2 Pac, Jay Z
Modern Day Music:

   Pop - the term indicates specific stylistic traits such as an emotional
    singing style, lyrics about love or sex, danceable beat, clear melodies,
    simple harmonies and repetitive structure so that people can catch on
    and join in; pop music often includes elements of rock, hip hop,
    reggae, dance, R&B, soul, and sometimes country, making it a
    flexible category; started in the 1950s.

     –   1950s: Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, Elvis Presley
     –   1960s: Beatles, The Beach Boys, Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles
     –   1970s: ABBA, BeeGees, Elton John, Earth Wind and Fire, Queen
     –   1980s: Madonna, Tina Turner, Janet Jackson, The Police
     –   1990s: Mariah Carey, Celine Deon, Backstreet Boys, Brittany Spears
     –   2000s: Usher, Beyonce, Gwen Stefani, Justin Timberlake, Nelly Furtado
Modern Day Music:

   Country - a blend of popular musical forms originally
    found in the Southern United States. It has roots in
    traditional folk music, Celtic music, blues, gospel music,
    hokum, and old-time music and evolved rapidly in the
    1920s.The term country music began to be used in the
    1940s when the earlier term hillbilly music was deemed
    to be degrading, and the term was widely embraced in
    the 1970s, while country and western has declined in use
    since that time.
    –   Garth Brooks, Willie Nelson, George Strait, Hank Williams, Sara
        Evans, Brad Paisley, Faith Hill
Modern Day Music:

   Rock - a form of popular music with a prominent vocal melody
    accompanied by guitar and drums. Rock music usually has a strong
    back beat. Rock music has its roots in 1950s-era rock and roll. In the
    late 1960s, rock music was blended with folk music to create folk
    rock, and with jazz, to create jazz-rock fusion. In the 1970s, rock
    incorporated influences from soul, funk, and Latin music. In the
    1970s, rock developed a number of subgenres, such as soft rock,
    blues rock, heavy metal-style rock, progressive rock, punk rock.
    Rock subgenres from the 1980s included hard rock and alternative
    rock. In the 1990s, rock subgenres included grunge-style rock,
    Britpop, and Indie rock.
     –   Elvis Presley, Pink Floyd, Grateful Dead, Metallica, The Killers, Taking
         Back Sunday, Fall Out Boy
Modern Day Music:
Favorite Artist

   Write a paragraph describing YOUR
    favorite modern day artist/group. Include
    the following:
    –   Name of artist
    –   Genre/Style of music
    –   A song/piece they sing/play that made them
    –   Interesting fact about them
Modern Day Music:
Past, Present, Future

   There are thousands of modern day artists out there
    today. Music has come so far from the Middle Ages to
    now. Starting with a thousand years of the same type
    music, to 150 years of the same music, to the 1900’s
    where every decade brought a new sound, to now where
    almost every year music is changing. Where do you
    think music will go in the next 100 years?
    –   Paragraph 1:   What you think the importance of music today
                       is and why it sounds the way it does.
    –   Paragraph 2:   What you think music will sound like 100 years
                       from now.
    –   Paragraph 3:   What role you think music will play in people’s
                       lives 100 years from now.
    –   Paragraph 4:   Will music change for better or for worse?
                       Explain your answer.