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					Enhanced Transmission System Data Acquisition and Control

                  MTU Senior Design Team 6
                        2007-2008
                       Revised: 4/25/08



                 Sponsor:   ITC Holdings
                 Advisor:   Bruce Mork
                 Members:   Chris Panici
                            Erik Winsand
                            Jonathan Shauger
                            Pierre Beckwone
                            Wade Ausloos
Executive Summary
This Senior Design Project was supported by International Transmission Company (ITC). The
project, enhanced transmission system data acquisition and control, began in September 2007
and was completed April 2008. The alert capabilities of the SEL-2030 and SEL-2032 are
insufficient for the increasing demands being placed on engineers to locate and clear faults in a
timely manner. The SEL-3351 will replace the SEL-2030 and SEL-2032 computing platforms
that are currently used in ITC‘s substations. With the computing platforms becoming more
capable the SEL-3351 will greatly improve ITC‘s alarm notification by reducing the amount of
time to locate a fault and increase control by using a one-line control diagram at the substation to
control relays electronically. The relays used in this project are microprocessor based and
acquire information from current and voltage transformers. These relays take that information
and create outputs that are digital and analog based on the internal settings. These data points
can be brought into software programs for further manipulations. The original proposal from
ITC can be seen in Appendix M.

Before the new SEL-3351 can be integrated into the current substations it must be tested and
approved according to ITC‘s specifications. If the SEL-3351 meets or exceeds expectations for
reliability, usability, and simplicity, ITC can replace the current SEL-2030s and SEL-2032s in
their substations.

Based on ITC‘s recommendations the SEL-3351 will be used to: collect data and e-mail
engineers when faults occur, verify that downstream relays are time synchronized, create a one-
line control diagram, track access to the system in a log book, create seven day historical power
charts, and create an annunciator and alarm screen. These are the basic requirements that ITC
needs the SEL-3351 to perform. Most of these objectives will be implemented by using two
software programs, Substation Explorer and SubstationSERVER.NET, the seven day charts and
log book will be created with a third party script.

The SEL-3351 has met all of the requirements put forth by ITC. Testing shows that the SEL-
3351 needs to have most applications that come with Windows XP removed to make space on
the hard drive. The tracking of access with this version of Substation Explorer will not be
possible due to the fact that Substation Explorer does not currently track log-on and log-off
within the software. The tracking of access delivered by the team will track the software
manipulations made in the Substation software by the operator. All other objectives have been
implemented, tested, and work with the desired results.

The enclosed report is written for an engineer with basic power electronic and relaying
knowledge. This report is not an all encompassing training tool for power electronics.




                                                                                                    2
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY............................................................................................................................................................. 2
INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6
PROBLEM DEFINITION ............................................................................................................................................................. 6
DESIGN OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................................................................ 6
DESIGN APPROACH ................................................................................................................................................................. 8
PROJECT MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................................................... 9
    PROJECT SCHEDULING ........................................................................................................................................................................ 9
    BUDGET .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS ................................................................................................................................. 9
    SEL-2032 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
       Data Collection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 11
       Alarm Notifications .............................................................................................................................................................. 11
       Communication .................................................................................................................................................................... 11
       One-Line Control................................................................................................................................................................... 11
       Time Synchronization ........................................................................................................................................................... 12
       Security ................................................................................................................................................................................. 12
       Operating System ................................................................................................................................................................. 12
    GENERAL ELECTRIC D400 ................................................................................................................................................................. 12
       Data Collection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 13
       Alarm Notifications .............................................................................................................................................................. 13
       Communication .................................................................................................................................................................... 13
       One-Line Control................................................................................................................................................................... 14
       Time Synchronization ........................................................................................................................................................... 14
       Security ................................................................................................................................................................................. 14
       Operating System ................................................................................................................................................................. 14
    SEL-3351 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 14
       Data Collection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 15
       Alarm Notifications .............................................................................................................................................................. 15
       Communication .................................................................................................................................................................... 16
       One-Line Control................................................................................................................................................................... 16
       Time Synchronization ........................................................................................................................................................... 16
       Security ................................................................................................................................................................................. 16
       Operating System ................................................................................................................................................................. 17
    CONCLUSION OF ALTERNATE DESIGNS.................................................................................................................................................. 17
DESIGN NARRATIVE ................................................................................................................................................................17
    SUBSTATIONSERVER.NET ............................................................................................................................................................... 17
       Adding Device ....................................................................................................................................................................... 18
       Adding Data Points to a Master Protocol ............................................................................................................................. 18
       Adding Data Point to a Slave Protocol .................................................................................................................................. 20
       Time Synchronization ........................................................................................................................................................... 20
       Event Reporting .................................................................................................................................................................... 22
    SUBSTATION EXPLORER .................................................................................................................................................................... 25
       Adding a Device .................................................................................................................................................................... 26
       One-Line Control................................................................................................................................................................... 31
       Control .................................................................................................................................................................................. 37
       Historical Charts/Trends ....................................................................................................................................................... 40
       Alarms .................................................................................................................................................................................. 45
       Email Notification ................................................................................................................................................................. 48
    OTHER APPLICATIONS USED .............................................................................................................................................................. 50


                                                                                                                                                                                                    3
Table of Contents (Cont.)
         Tracking of Access ................................................................................................................................................................ 50
         Access and Action Tracking via Log Parser 2.2 and Third Party Script .................................................................................. 52
         7-Day Chart Design............................................................................................................................................................... 57
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS ..................................................................................................................................................58
    TRACKING OF ACCESS ....................................................................................................................................................................... 58
    7-DAY CHART ................................................................................................................................................................................ 59
    APPLICABLE STANDARDS ................................................................................................................................................................... 59
    CONTROL ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 60
RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON RESULTS ..............................................................................................................................61
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK .............................................................................................................................62
    TRACKING OF ACCESS ....................................................................................................................................................................... 62
        New Substation Explorer Version ......................................................................................................................................... 62
    7-DAY CHART ................................................................................................................................................................................ 62
    FILE LOG ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 63
    USING RELAYS OTHER THAN SEL ......................................................................................................................................................... 65
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................................................................66
RESOURCES NEEDED...............................................................................................................................................................67
    REFERENCE MATERIAL ..................................................................................................................................................................... 67
    STANDARDS ................................................................................................................................................................................... 67
APPENDIX A BASIC FUNCTIONALITY FLOW CHARTS ................................................................................................................72
APPENDIX B PROJECT SCHEDULE ............................................................................................................................................73
APPENDIX C PROJECT BUDGET................................................................................................................................................74
APPENDIX D EVALUATION OF DESIGNS...................................................................................................................................76
APPENDIX E COMMUNICATION BETWEEN SERVER AND EXPLORER ........................................................................................77
APPENDIX F SERVER DATA COLLECTION FLOW CHART ............................................................................................................78
APPENDIX G ALARM STATES ...................................................................................................................................................79
APPENDIX H1 SOURCE CODE FOR FILE MERGER SCRIPT ..........................................................................................................80
APPENDIX H2 FUNCTIONALITY OF FILE MERGER SCRIPT..........................................................................................................87
APPENDIX H3 SAMPLE OUTPUT OF LOG PARSER 2.2 APPLICATION PARSE ..............................................................................89
APPENDIX H4 SAMPLE OUTPUT OF LOG PARSER 2.2 SECURITY PARSE ....................................................................................91
APPENDIX H5 SAMPLE OUTPUT OF THIRD PARTY PYTHON MERGER SCRIPT ...........................................................................92
APPENDIX H6 SAMPLE OUTPUT OF FAIL SAFE METHOD ..........................................................................................................94
APPENDIX J EXPLORER DEVICE IMPORT WIZARD STEPS ..........................................................................................................95
APPENDIX K SOURCE CODE FOR 7-DAY CHART EMBEDDED EXCEL MACRO ..............................................................................96
APPENDIX L RELAY DATA POINTS USED ................................................................................................................................101
APPENDIX M INITIAL PROJECT PROPOSAL.............................................................................................................................105
APPENDIX N NERC CIP REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................107
APPENDIX O CONTROL FROM TOUCH SCREEN TO BREAKER ..................................................................................................110




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                                     5
Introduction
ITC is looking for a system to upgrade their existing substation automated data acquisition and
control methods. Current methods of data acquisition are limited and the control technology
needs to be upgraded. A solution must be implemented to resolve several shortcomings of the
current equipment. The end result of this project will be a reliable and feasible solution for ITC
to implement in their substations.

Problem Definition
As the sponsor ITC would like a better method of acquiring data from their substations. The
design will integrate substation control and annunciation with the data collection. Currently a
SEL-2030 collects data from various intelligent electronic devices (IEDs). The SEL-2030 lacks
advanced control and data acquisition abilities. Three designs need to be developed and the best
design will be chosen through professional methods. Once a design solution has been selected a
technique to implement the design will be produced. The computing platform (Figure 1) chosen
will be integrated into the system above the relays.




                                                     Computing
                                                     Platform




                          Figure 1: Basic Flow Chart of Implementation

Design Objectives
In order to enhance the data acquisition ITC has defined seven objectives for project success.
The design objectives are as follows:

      Collect fault data from several devices, save the data, and send e-mail notifications
       triggered by events
      Data transfer configurations: digital, analog, files, etc.
      Verify that downstream devices are time synchronized and notify if they are not
      Test and customize one-line control diagrams
      Create a logbook to track users that log onto the system
      Create historical charts of important data (7-day chart on Watts/Wars on a line)
      Create a screen layout for alarm and status annunciation, and diagnostic verification

The most important aspect of the project is to automate the acquisition and redistribution of
meaningful data. This new communication device will serve as the knowledge hub for the
substation. Data that is acquired will be useful for ITC to fully understand the status of the


                                                                                                     6
substation and in turn will improve system operations and analysis. Acquisition of data can be
done in various ways, but a solution that simply integrates into the existing system is desired.

With many new regulations being implemented, one of the chief concerns in the industry is being
able to properly log data in a chronological manner. Therefore the final solution must interface
with a wide range of devices and detect if they are time synchronized. The device itself as well
as downstream devices all need to be time synchronized. If time synchronization is lost an alarm
needs to be raised. Time stamping is important in determining the time of an event in order to
isolate the event‘s location.

Additional data analysis is needed once the data has been collected from the IED to track short
term conditions using both 7-day and 18 hour trending charts. The historical charts will show
the prolonged status of the substation, and serve as a visual guide to the system health.

The device will need to be accessed by operators on site to see collected data. Authorized
personnel will access the device through a secure log-on window. Log-on activity will be
tracked in a log book that contains the user name, and time of log-on. Event logs will be used to
determine when changes were made to the system configuration. Security of the system is
important so that the data on the system is not compromised or manipulated by outside sources
trying to disrupt the operations of the substation. With cyber security being an issue for any
corporation, control and tracking of changes to substations is essential for the overall security of
the substation system. This is addressed in many regulations currently being worked on by
NERC. In the event a failure occurs, these files may be useful in deciphering the reason.

The device must have the capability to create one-line control schematics. This will allow the
operator to easily manipulate the substation. The schematic is a simple way of looking at the
electronic control devices of the substation. Creation of the one-line control schematic must be
as trouble free as possible, and preferably easy to troubleshoot.

An easy to understand touch screen should be implemented to display alerts, historical charts,
and one-line control. Verification of alerts as well as one-line control should be allowed through
the touch screen. This touch screen will be used by operators and other authorized personnel to
view substation status and to make adjustments if necessary.

A standard that maybe necessary for long-term success of the project is the IEC-61850 standard,
the international standard for substation automation systems. This standard controls the way
information is used by devices inside the substation. The standards robustness allows for future
devices to be added as long as additions to the rule sets of the protocol are made.




                                                                                                   7
Design Approach
In developing a solution for ITC, there were several constraints that were taken into
consideration:

      The end result should be easily implemented into an existing substation.
      The device will need to use DNP 3.0 protocol
      SubstationSERVER.NET will be used as a software package to gather data
      Substation Explorer will be used as a software package to manipulate the data
      A standard RTU (remote terminal unit) will not be sufficient
      E-mail alerts will be sufficient for event notification to engineers
      The device will replace the SEL-2030
      The device will not communicate with all relays unless it has software upgrades

The end results should be easily implemented into an existing substation. To make the device
easier to implement it should use the DNP 3.0 communication protocol which in-turn would
make the device a secure and reliable part of the system. Substation Explorer and
SubstationSERVER.NET will be the software packages used to implement most of the design
criteria. This proprietary software already incorporates all necessary tools needed. The final
product should fulfill all agreed upon requirements including: time synchronization, fault data
collection and storage, email notification, historical charts, one-line control, touch screen alerts,
and alarm recognitions.

In order to accomplish the tasks given, four initial parameters were made for the project to be
plausible.

   1. A standard RTU would not be sufficient to fill the project specifications. An RTU is a
      generic term for a centralized hub used for relay control. A more robust unit than a
      general RTU is needed to complete the design objectives for this project.
   2. The use of e-mail alerts will be an acceptable way of alarm notification, and text
      messaging will not be needed. The computing system chosen is the SEL-3351 because it
      has all the necessary capabilities to fulfill ITC‘s needs. The SEL-3351 can not be used as
      a simple port switch in the design.
   3. It must replace the SEL-2030 in the network hierarchy (Appendix A, Figure 1). It is
      desired that the SEL-3351 be used to directly get event reports from downstream devices.
      An event report is a report issued by a microprocessor based relay when a fault occurs.
      This event report has all the necessary information to analyze a fault. This eliminates the
      need for a SCADA system to be connected to the downstream devices and then it only
      has to communicate with the SEL-3351 simplifying the total system (Appendix A, Figure
      2). It is assumed that this project will not be responsible for having the SEL-3351
      capable of communicating with all relays out of the box.
   4. The SEL-3351 is upgradeable and with the right software it can communicate with all
      relays.




                                                                                                        8
Project Management
One of the most important aspects of a successful project is quality project management. Due to
this fact many different techniques were employed to manage the group members and the project
tasks. The first step toward this was to assign the roles of project manager, assistant project
manager, and recorder. This helps to pass out tasks to the appropriate person(s). The team‘s
next step was to assign general project management tasks evenly throughout the group. Tasks
including: budgeting, logging hours worked, project scheduling, and recording meeting minutes
were assigned to specific team members. This helps to keep each member engaged in an activity
every week. Two items that will be included in the scope of this report are project scheduling
(Appendix B) and the budget (Appendix C).

Project Scheduling
Project scheduling has been done using Microsoft Project. The schedule was created to guide the
team through all the major tasks and deliverables during the project. Tasks, no matter how large,
were scheduled, and project updates were given to the advisor and sponsor. Microsoft Project
allows for the linking of tasks which helped the project maintain a constant schedule.

Many of the smaller project scheduling items have only been discussed via e-mail. Among those
are independent team meetings, scheduling for SEL training, and planning group work times.
All of these e-mails have been archived for future use if necessary to provide a data trail to
decisions made pertaining to scheduling of the project.

The most effective way to keep the group on task and on schedule has been done through
constant communication amongst the team members. Communication helps keep everyone on
the same page and alerts others when someone is in need of help with a task. Through the use of
a base schedule in Microsoft Project and team communication, the team has been able to stay on
pace for all deliverables and completion deadlines.

Budget
The budget for the project was proposed to Michigan Tech and ITC after initial estimates of
spending were determined. The total sum of the expenses came to $1,632.00, with the majority
of the expense used on a visit to ITC for training on Substation Explorer and
SunbstationSERVER.NET software packages. Once the trip was over and the expenses
accumulated the budget ended up lower then estimated.

Evaluation of Alternative Designs
To achieve the best solution for ITC three design solutions were compared and contrasted based
on specific design criteria. The three designs were:

      SEL-3351
      SEL-2032
      GE D400




                                                                                                 9
All of these devices are specialized in automated substation data collection. After using the Pugh
Evaluation method (Appendix D) for engineering comparisons, the SEL-3351 was determined as
the best solution. The requirements and weighting factors used are in Table 1.

Customer Requirements                                           Importance Weighting Factor       (1-3-5 scale)

Data collection and notification of events                                            5
Data transfer configurations                                                          5
Verify networked IEDs are time synchronized and notify if not                         3
Customized one-line control                                                           3
System access tracking                                                                3
Historical chart data organization                                                    1
Screen layout for alarms and status annunciation                                      3
DNP 3.0 protocol capability                                                           5
Cost                                                                                  1
Flexibility (how upgradeable)                                                         3
Reliability (stability of system)                                                     5
Ease of integrating into the substation                                               5
Speed of data acquisition                                                             1
How user friendly the system is                                                       3
                       Table 1: Pugh Matrix Requirements and Weighting Factors

The weighting factors were chosen on a 1-3-5 scale where 1 is given to a requirement that is a
non-essential part of the project, 5 is given to an essential requirement of the project, and 3 falls
between the two. A general summary of the overall comparison will follow.

SEL-2032




                                   Figure 2: Back Panel of the SEL-20321

      The first design solution was the SEL-2032 (Figure 2) which is a successor to the SEL-2030;
      the device currently used by ITC. During the evaluation process the SEL-2032 showed
      various limitations in communication and overall robustness. The SEL-2032 does not have
      the ability to create one-line control diagrams, or produce e-mail notifications. The SEL-
      2032 reduces process burden by parsing data from external IEDs into essential information
      stored in proper formats (Figure 3).



1
    Figure 2 from SEL-2032 manual (Reference Material #2).

                                                                                                    10
                                 Figure 3: System Integration of the SEL-20322

Data Collection
      There are a total of 16 device input/output ports that feed into separate hardware protocol
      cards. The SEL-2032 is designed to meet tough IEEE, as well as IEC standards to
      operate in a variety of substation conditions. The software on the SEL-2032 is the
      standard software package called SEL-5020. The software offers customizable
      input/output data locations for each I/O port.

Alarm Notifications
      Alarm statuses are set for each port on a bit level. No communication can be routed
      through Ethernet unless SEL-2701 is added to the device. Alarm notifications are strictly
      for a device failure on a given port. Configuration of an alarm by analyzing incoming
      data is not available on the SEL-2032.

Communication
     Remote access into the SEL-2032 is only available with SEL-2701 Ethernet processor;
     which is not included in the standard package. With the SEL-2701 the capabilities of the
     system become greater, including the ability to execute a variety of remote
     communication protocols including: telnet, FTP, DNP 3.0, LAN/WAN, and IEC
     61850/UCA2. There is also the option of using the SEL-2890 Ethernet transceiver which
     allows terminal access over an Ethernet network to serial devices. These protocols speed
     up file downloads and HMI updates. The SEL-2032 has no email notification ability,
     which is an issue for ITC‘s alarm notification to their offsite personnel.

One-Line Control
      The SEL-2032 also lacks the ability to create one-line control diagrams.


2
    Figure 3 from SEL-2032 manual (Reference Material #2).

                                                                                               11
Time Synchronization
      The SEL-2032 offers time synchronization of data collection by using an IRIG-B time
      coded input via a co-axial connection. Time synchronization is offered to all 16 serial
      connections and to any device that has the ability to decode the incoming IRIG-B signal.
      For devices in which an IRIG decoder or connection is not available, the SEL-2032 can
      periodically send time/date messages to keep the IED‘s internal clock synchronized. In
      the event that the SEL-2032 experiences a loss of input power, an internal battery will
      maintain power to the internal clock until the rest of the system is reenergized. The
      internal clock offers an accuracy of one minute per year with total system power, without
      being updated by a GPS signal.

Security
       The SEL-2032 provides a multilevel security system; level 1 allows a user to inspect the
       data and setting conditions, level 2 offers the same options as level 1 and also allows the
       user to modify the internal settings of the SEL-2032.

Operating System
      The SEL-2032 has its own factory operation system and uses SEL-5020 software as its
      operating system.

General Electric D400




                                Figure 4: GE D400 Substation Data Manager3

      The next design solution is the GE D400 (Figure 4). It shares all the same communication
      abilities of the SEL-3351, but does not need an upgrade to be IEC-61850 compliant. The
      D400 fails on some key points including: proprietary software, difficulty of use, and data
      organization. These shortcomings make the GE D400 a poor candidate for ITC‘s solution. It
      is integrated into the substation as shown in Figure 5.




3
    Figure 4 from D400 data sheet (Reference Material #8).

                                                                                                 12
                                Figure 5: System Integration of the GE D4004

Data Collection
      The D400 polls metering, status, event, and fault report data from IEDs. It summarizes
      the data and makes it available through a web browser, a host connection, or a local
      keyboard/video/mouse port. Pass-through connections are available for access of digital
      fault recording records, event files, and historical log files, as well as the ability to upload
      archived data for trending and analysis by accessing the IED directly. The D400 comes
      with standard legacy protocol support.

Alarm Notifications
      The D400 functions as a substation HMI/Annunciator with built in tools for building
      custom annunciator screens.

Communication
     The protocols supported are: Modbus Serial and TCP/IP, DNP3.0 Serial and
     UDP/TCP/IP, IEC-870-101/104/103, Spabus, Incom, GE Modem, BECO 2200, April,
     ASCII, SEL Fast Meter, SEL ASCII, IEC 61850 *Q2 2006, DHCP, Telnet, NTP,
     HTTPS, SFTP, SSH, SSL, and CHAP. The D400 also has the ability to do event
     notifications through e-mail or to a pager. The D400 communicates with downstream
     devices through serial RS-232, RS-485, glass fiber, plastic fiber, or through Ethernet
     10/100Base-T, 10Base-FL, and 100Base-SX.


4
    Figure 5 from D400 data sheet (Reference Material #8).

                                                                                                   13
One-Line Control
      The D400 functions as a substation HMI/Annunciator with built in tools for building
      custom one-line control diagrams.

Time Synchronization
      The D400 will accept time synchronization signals from SNTP/NTP servers, IRIG-B (un-
      modulated/modulated), and SCADA protocols. It can also distribute the time signal
      through a built-in NTP Server, IRIG-B distribution interface, SCADA protocols, or
      through the RS-232 ports directly (SEL compatibility). The D400 will accept the time
      signal through TTL (Un-modulated), BNC Connector (Modulated), or Fiber Optic
      connections. The CPU will do the time synchronization for internal database time
      stamping. The D400 can drive an IRIG-B TTL signal for up to 16 downstream IEDs.
      The signal is propagated to all 16 RS-232 ports for devices such as SEL® relays, or it is
      propagated to the distribution module.

Security
       The D400 has user configurable security levels/access. The operating system uses SSH
       to allow for secure access for the system. The D400 allows pass-through connections to
       any substation IED (relay, meter, RTU, or other devices). These connections can be
       secured using built-in Transport Layer Security (TLS), or Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).

Operating System
      The D400 has its own operating system that does not allow for third-party software to be
      installed on it.

SEL-3351




                                     Figure 6: Back Panel of SEL-33515

      The final design solution, the SEL-3351 (Figure 6), is far more robust than the SEL-2032 and
      the SEL-2030. The SEL-3351 has all necessary communication abilities, and can be
      upgraded to be IEC-61850 compliant. The SEL-3351 meets all of ITC‘s requirements
      including: email notifications, historical charts, and one-line control. It is also Windows
      based so it comes with the ability to log events and create user accounts. The Windows
      operating system also allows for easier use as well as trivial software upgrades. It can be

5
    Figure 6 from SEL-3351 manual (Reference Material #3).

                                                                                               14
      integrated into the system above the SEL-2030/32, or replace the SEL-2030/32 all together
      (Figure 7). For this project the SEL-3351 was connected to the relays directly with serial
      cables. A port expander was not used in this project. It is feasible to use the SEL-2032 as an
      intermediate communication device, but control options are lost because the SEL-3351 is
      then just processing the data and not issuing commands. Using a Rugged COM does not
      affect the operations of the SEL-3351 in this report. The only change is that there will be
      multiple relays on each serial COM port in SubstationSERVER.NET.




                                     Figure 7: Integration of the SEL-33516

Data Collection
      The SEL-3351 provides 16 input/output ports for use with external devices. Each port
      has a corresponding RXD/TXD LED that serves as a quick visual reference to the
      communication status. The SEL-3351 meets both the IEEE C37.90 and IEC 60255
      standards for relay protection. With the addition of the Subnet Suite software the SEL-
      3351 is capable of formatting incoming data into .csv and .txt files. Once these files have
      been obtained they can easily be manipulated due to inherent Windows formatting. The
      files can be made into FTP files and uploaded onto a network server if the SEL-3351 is
      networked. Outgoing data can be easily converted from DNP3 to any SCADA legacy
      format before being transmitted to the SCADA master. This outgoing data can also be
      sent to multiple master data users e.g. SCADA, EMS, Power Quality, etc. Data can also
      be compiled into any type of historical chart, which can be viewed remotely.

Alarm Notifications
      Substation Explorer handles all alarm information and notification. Alarms can
      correspond to relay faults after the relay data point has been associated with an alarm
      point, and can also be triggered from a loss of communication between the SEL-3351 and
      an IED. Alarm points can be configured to require acknowledgment on faults and/or
      enable resets upon acknowledgement. Alarms can correspond to pre-defined visual alerts

6
    Figure 7 from SEL-3351 manual (Reference Material #3).

                                                                                                  15
       in Substation Explorer‘s color coding system. The SEL-3351 is also the only candidate
       to have the capability of detecting if a downstream device has lost IRIG-B time
       synchronization through Flex Parsing with the SEL Fast Messaging protocol. The SEL-
       3351 can also Flex Parse itself to throw an alarm if it has lost time synchronization.

Communication
     The SEL-3351 has a multitude of communication capabilities including: DNP3 Serial and
     LAN, IEC 60870-5-101,103,104 compliant, Modbus RTU and TCP, ASCII event file
     collection, SEL Fast Message/Operate, SEL Fast Meter/Operate, GE universal relay. The
     SEL-3351 can also be compliant with the IEC 61850 standard with the addition of SISCO
     AX-S4 MMS software. The AX-S4 MMS software is a Windows based program that
     allows the SEL-3351 to be IEC 61850 compatible. Communication can be done via
     10/100BaseT Ethernet or 100BaseFX fiber optic at speeds of 300bps doubling up to
     115200bps. Communication is in compliance with EIA/TIA-562 standards. Notification
     is easily done through Substation Explorer with full email capabilities.

One-Line Control
      The difficulty of a one-line control is completely taken care of by Substation Explorer
      and can be configured in real time. The ability to edit the one-line control in real time
      eliminates the need to shut down the SEL-3351. Control of devices through the one-line
      control can be done via a touch screen monitor at the substation.

Time Synchronization
      The SEL-3351 accepts both modulated and demodulated IRIG-B signals. It then updates
      its internal clock and can time synchronize each downstream device. If the SEL-3351
      looses time synchronization it has an internal clock with a battery backup. The SEL-
      3351 can also detect if downstream devices have lost time synchronization. Data can be
      time stamped during events with the time from the IRIG-B signal. If the IRIG-B signal is
      lost the SEL-3351‘s internal clock time will be used for time stamping incoming data.

Security
       The SEL-3351 has multiple security levels including both standard Windows security as
       well as Substation Explorer security; which also has multiple security levels. Windows
       standard security includes: five password log history, maximum password age of 180
       days, minimum password length of 8 characters, enabled password complexity and
       account access lockout. The password age can be set to unlimited. Substation Explorer
       has three levels of security including SSI Administrators, SSI Operators, and SSI User.
       Substation Explorer makes use of predefined Windows account settings and adds user
       groups to the Windows Account Manager including SSI Administrators, SSI Operators,
       and SSI Users. Administrators have full access to viewing real time data, issue SCADA
       control, device properties, and alarm acknowledgements. Operators have similar access
       to Administrators with the exception of device modification. Users can only view real
       time data and acknowledge alarms. Event logs are automatically enabled on the SEL-
       3351 and the log activity of each user can be tracked.



                                                                                             16
Operating System
      A Windows operating system makes the SEL-3351 the most user friendly candidate due
      to widespread use. This makes training of the SEL-3351 easier then the SEL-2032 or GE
      D400. Updates and downloads are trivial through Windows.

Conclusion of Alternate Designs
     The outcome of the device comparison resulted in the SEL-3351 being chosen for this
     project. The above comparison can be summarized in the Pugh matrix as Appendix D.
     The SEL-2032 failed in many aspects including: no email notification, no one-line
     control, no standard Ethernet, and the inability to create historical charts. The GE D400
     was very similar to the SEL-3351; its biggest disadvantage was a GE proprietary
     operating system which is not compatible with third party software. The SEL-3351
     handles all deficiencies of the GE D400 and SEL-2032 and is very user friendly due to its
     Windows operating system.

Design Narrative
A large aspect of this project is working with software packages to gather and manipulate data
from downstream devices. The project uses two software packages that are available for the
SEL-3351. The two programs that will be used are SubstationSERVER.NET and Substation
Explorer. SubstationSERVER.NET will collect the data from downstream devices through SEL
Fast Message master protocol. A master protocol is a protocol that sends requests for
information and receives that information back. It also can send control.
SubstationSERVER.NET will then transfer specific data points into a DNP 3.0 slave protocol. A
slave protocol stores data to be received by another master protocol. Then Substation Explorer
through a master DNP 3 protocol will get the data points out of SubstationSERVER.NET to
further manipulate the data (Appendix E).

SubstationSERVER.NET
SubstationSERVER.NET will collect data through SEL Fast Message master protocol and store
the data to either the system hard drive, or send the data to Substation Explorer to be manipulated
further (Appendix F). Initially, a communication port needs to be added. Once the COM port is
added there are several options for adding a device in the operations window (Figure 8).




                                                                                                17
Adding Device




                Figure 8: SubstationSERVER.NET Screen Shot of Adding Devices

Adding Data Points to a Master Protocol
      The import wizards allow the user to import configuration files from the hard drive, the
      internet, SEL-5020 software, or an online relay. The imported file can be built by the
      user using a template file in MS Excel. This was not done for this project because the
      template files need to be unique to each relay in each substation.

       The user can add a relay or generic device, and add their own data points to that device
       without using an imported configuration file from MS Excel; which was done with this
       project. The team used the Online Relay Wizard to import all the relay data points. The
       relay data points that were imported are in Appendix L. The user needs to have the relay
       connected to the 3351 through the same physical communications port on the 3351 as
       specified by the ―port number‖ for this wizard to work. The ―Communications Settings‖
       in SubstationSERVER.NET need to match the settings on the relay port for the ―Online
       Wizard‖ to connect properly to the relay. Once the settings are correct click on the
       ―Online Relay Wizard‖ hypertext in the ―Operations window‖ and the ―Relay Online
       Auto-configuration‖ dialog box will appear (Figure 9). Click on ―Connect‖ and the data
       points will be imported into the software (Figure 10). If a Rugged Com is used then
       multiple relays will be added to the same COM port. For Example if the Rugged Com

                                                                                                 18
has 16 relays connected to COM1 on the SEL-3351 then there will be 16 relays added to
the Com port in SubstationSERVER.NET.




                   Figure 9: Online Relay Wizard dialog box




        Figure 10: SubstationSERVER.NET Screen Shot of Data Points


                                                                                   19
        Adding Data Point to a Slave Protocol
              For this project the team used the ―Import Device Wizard‖ to import the data points from
              the relays that are being monitored with SubstationSERVER.NET. To do this the data
              points that will be brought into Substation Explorer must be dragged and dropped into a
              device in the DNP 3.0 Slave Protocol with a network connection. Each slave device will
              need to have its own slave address (Figure 11). The analog data points that are collected
              with SEL Fast Message will be stored as floating points and when they are dragged and
              dropped into a DNP3 Slave Protocol they by default become 16 bit analog integers. The
              data points will need to be set in the point setting under ―Variation‖ to the desired format.
              If the analog data point is greater than 16 bits it will need to be changed to 32 bits in
              order to scale it properly in Substation Explorer. Analog voltages and powers were
              changed to 32 bit integers.




DNP3 slave
device and                                               Slave
network                                                  Address
protocols




                              Figure 11: Slave Devices in SubstationSERVER.NET

        Time Synchronization
              If a relay has a time synchronization digital point word bit (i.e. TIRIG) already available
              then that data point should be brought into Substation Explorer and tied to an alarm.

               Time synchronization checks for relays that don‘t have a digital point word bit for IRIG-
               B will be accomplished by doing a Flex Parse poll in the SEL Fast Message master

                                                                                                        20
protocol. The poll will force the relay to synchronize with an external IRIG-B signal by
sending the command IRI/r or IRIG/r depending on the relay (Figure 12). This command
will return either a string that says ―IRIG-B DATA ERROR‖ or a time stamp. The
decode equation (‗IRIG-B‘, S5, BU) will search for the string ‗IRIG-B‘ and if ‗IRIG-B‘
is found it will return the string ‗DATA‘ and turn the letter ‗D‘ of ‗DATA‘ into the
analog number 32 and store it in an analog data point. If the string ‗IRIG-B‘ is not found
then the analog data point will be set to zero. The analog point will be imported into the
calculator application and a digital point will be set to TRUE if the analog point is greater
than zero and FALSE if the analog point is zero (Figure 13). The digital data point will
then be connected to an alarm in Substation Explorer that will trigger if the error message
is returned by the relay. A message indicating that a time synchronization was in
progress was not encountered during this project. If the relay is giving an ―IRIG-B TIME
SYNC IN PROGRESS‖ command then this setup will not work. For a solution to this
see the ―Recommendations Based on Results‖ section.




               Figure 12: Flex Parse Poll for Time Synchronization




                                                                                          21
                                 Figure 13: Calculator Group for IRIG-B

       If serial cables are connected from the relay directly to the SEL-3351, the serial cable
       cannot give an IRIG-B signal to the relay or this setup will not work. There are two ways
       to have the serial cable not give the relay an IRIG-B signal. Either the cable or the relay
       serial port must have pins 4 and 6 disconnected. If pins 4 and 6 are connected then the
       relay will get the IRIG signal through the serial port, and the flex parse poll in Figure 12
       will only work when the SEL-3351 loses its IRIG-B signal, not when the relay loses its
       IRIG-B signal. If the relay is being time synchronized through an outside source the Flex
       Parse poll will be successful as long as the SEL-3351 can directly send commands to the
       relay. There is an option to use the BNC IRIG OUT connection on the SEL-3351 to
       synchronize a downstream device, but was not tested. This will again only give an IRIG
       error when the SEL-3351 loses its time synchronization and not when the downstream
       device loses its time synchronization.

Event Reporting
       Event reports are easily collected with Substation Explorer under the ―Event File
       Collection‖ folder. The event report is simply copied off the relay. If you pull the same
       event off the relay that has been pulled previously then the operator will see no change in
       the directory. If the event reports are different then the files in the directory will have
       different names and not overwrite each other. This gives the SEL-3351 overwrite
       privileges as long as the file is a duplicate. A communication port must be added under
       the ―SEL ASCII protocol‖ with the corresponding COM port of the relay you wish to
       collect the event report from. Then a relay is created under the new COM port where
       further ―Event Collection‖ options can be accessed (Figure 14).




                                                                                                22
                 Figure 14: Event File collection main properties

There are several commands that can be used to collect the event reports. The base
command is ―EVE‖ which only pulls the most recent event report off the relay. For
situations where more than one event report is needed then more than one file collection
relay must be added to the COM port. The command in the second and third relay in the
COM port will be ―EVE 2‖ and ―EVE 3‖ in order to collect the second and third most
recent event reports. The protocol is already an ASCII protocol and can be used to
collect other ASCII event files off of non SEL relays. There are also several options that
can be selected to determine when the event reports are collected. By default the event
reports are collected based on time which is fully customizable. Another option is to
collect the event report based on a data point‘s value. The time option must be set to zero
if ―Event Collection‖ is only based on a data point‘s value. This is done in Figure 14 by
creating a Digital Input Master point in the calculator folder and setting it equal to the
data point you want to initiate the event collection. Then you can select a trigger type for
the specific state of the data point under the ―Expression‖ panel. Finally you must select
―Start Event Collection‖ under the ―Action Settings‖ panel (Figure 15).




                                                                                         23
                   Figure 15: Event Report Calculator Settings

Once the method for trigger event collection for a specific relay has been set, a path to
save the files can be set. The path can be either local or on a mapped network drive. If a
network drive is to be used the file path must be a direct address (i.e. \\Computer
Name\subfolder...\folder name). The name of each file can be customized under the
―Relay Settings‖ panel. In order to have the Event Reports saved onto a network hard
drive the Windows service ―SubstationSERVER.NET-SEL ASCII File Collection‖ must
be modified (Figure 16). Under the properties of this service the ―Log On‖ information
must be changed to a specific account (Figure 17). A limitation of Windows Services is
that it cannot log onto a domain from a local account. This is a built in networking
limitation of Windows Services. Therefore the remote folder must reside on a local
computer/server on which the user of the SEL3351 has the exact same account.




                                                                                        24
                                Figure 16: Windows Service List




                                  Figure 17: Service Properties

Substation Explorer
Substation Explorer will be used to create one-line control diagrams, trending charts, alarms, and
e-mails to notify the proper personnel of an alarm. If you are an administrator you can change
out of full screen mode by pressing F11. To change user accounts in Substation Explorer press
Shift+F1 and a logon dialog box will appear. Protocols are added in the Master Protocols folder
and a serial port or IP connection is added to the created protocol. The next step is to add a
device to the serial port or IP connection.

Startup Manager
       Explorer has the built in ability to modify how it starts up with the use of the ―Startup
       Manager‖ under the tools menu (Figure 18). To make Explorer automatically run when a
       user logs onto Windows check the ―Run on Start‖ checkbox. Different viewing options
       can be selected under ―View Panes‖. Under ―File Options‖ a specific configuration file


                                                                                               25
       can be selected to be run on startup. Also a default access level can be chosen of either
       Read-Only or Operator.




                                  Figure 18: Startup Manager

Adding a Device
      A Master DNP3 protocol is created in Substation Explorer with an IP connection with the
      same settings as the ―Network Connection‖ in SubstationSERVER.NET. Next the
      ―Import Device Wizard‖ is selected and a six step process is used to import the slave
      device from SubstationSERVER.NET (Appendix J).

       Once the device is added a configuration dialog box will appear. There are several tabs
       that will be used to configure the device. The ―General‖ tab allows the user to name the
       device as well as see a pie chart of the failed transactions in blue and the successful
       transactions in purple (Figure 19). All the devices used in this project were imported
       from a slave device in SubstationSERVER.NET through an IP connection in Substation
       Explorer using the import function.




                                                                                                   26
              Figure 19: Substation Explorer Device “General” Tab

The ―Polls‖ tab allows the user to decide what polls are taking place (per communication
port) and how often to poll a device. The user clicks on the poll button based on which
poll type the user wants to have for the device (Figure 20). For example choices include,
―Integrity Poll‖ and ―Event Poll‖.




                                                                                       27
                Figure 20: Substation Explorer Device “Polls” Tab

The ―Device Configuration‖ tab allows the user to change the functionality of the device
to respond to internal indications. It also allows the user to force specific poll events
(Figure 21). A class 1,2,3 poll is an event poll that will occur when there is an event
happens. A class 0 poll is a status poll that will give the current values of data points at
the time of the poll request.




                                                                                          28
       Figure 21: Substation Explorer Device “Device Configuration” Tab

The ―Timeout Configuration‖ tab allows the user to set timeout delays so the SEL-3351
knows when to send a retransmission. The DNP 3.0 Technical Committee recommends
that Data Link confirmations are not used; meaning when the IED gets the data, no
confirmation is sent to the SEL-3351. The restart delay does a complete polling restart
after the designated time, only if there is a continuous communication failure (Figure 22).




                                                                                        29
       Figure 22: Substation Explorer Device “Timeout Configuration” Tab

Once the device is added to scale the 32 bit data points that were added from
SubstationSERVER.NET the properties of the data point will need to be accessed and the
desired scale factor must be used. Once the data point has been scaled, make sure to add
the proper engineering unit to the data point so that the operator can see the units. For
example, if the voltages are scaled from volts to kilovolts the operator will see kV after
the scaled value (Figure 23). In the properties of the analog point, the max raw value
must be higher than the 32 bit number that is coming from SubstationSERVER.NET and
the max scaled value will need to be the correct order of magnitude smaller than the raw
value to scale the integer down properly (Figure 23). The reason that the values need to
be scaled in Explorer and not in SubstationSERVER.NET is because if the values are
scaled in SubstationSERVER.NET, when they are brought into Explorer they are
rounded to the nearest whole number. When a value is scaled from volts to kilovolts
once it gets into Explorer, it takes a 500 volt increase before the value changes by one
unit in Substation Explorer. This tolerance is unacceptable and the full values need to be
brought into Substation Explorer, not scaled values. There is a small loss in performance
because a 32 bit integer uses two information packets where as a 16 bit integer only uses
one packet. This means it takes twice as long to send the 32 bit integer, but it is not going
to slow the system down that much and it is necessary in order to get more accurate
values in Substation Explorer.



                                                                                          30
                                                Raw        Scaled




                        Figure 23: Substation Explorer Screen Shot of Scaling

One-Line Control
      For Substation Explorer to create one-line diagrams, power objects need to be added to
      the ―Power Objects Folder‖. In the ―Folder View‖ workspace, right click and select
      ―New‖. A list of power objects will be displayed and the user will choose the object they
      want to add to the one-line diagram (Figure 24).




                                                                                             31
              Figure 24: Substation Explorer List of Power Objects


Once the Power Objects needed in the single-line are created, they can be added to the
actual diagram. A new single-line needs to be created in the ―Single Lines Folder‖, and
then the power objects can be dragged from the ―Power Objects Folder‖ to the single-line
diagram, in the ―Single Lines Folder‖ (Figure 25).




                                                                                      32
Figure 25: Substation Explorer Power Objects to be dragged into the “Single Line”

Once the power objects are in the single-line, they can be viewed when the single-line is
selected and the window is in Visual Mode.

In the Visual Mode of the single-line diagrams, there are other objects that can be added.
These objects are all static objects, not having any inputs or outputs tied to them (Figure
26). For example, a static object would be the following: Simple text with no hyperlink
attached, lines, pictures, capacitors, T-joints, transformers...etc. Non static object would
include anything that can be clicked on to see the properties and attributes of that object.




                                                                                          33
           Figure 26: Substation Explorer “Single Line” Static Objects

After adding the Power Objects, these objects can be added to tie static objects, such as
lines and transformers, to the functional parts of the diagram, e.g. breakers and switches.
There is no way to connect the end of one line to the exact start of another, like using
AutoCAD. The best method is to fit the lines between devices to overlap slightly, so the
appearance of a solid connection is given (Figure 27).




                                                                                         34
         Figure 27: One-line Diagram Drawing Lines between Tie Points

One difficulty is distinguishing a bus from a line. This can easily be done by creating a
line object to represent a bus, and then change the thickness of the line object in the
properties menu. Using this method a single-line can be built in Substation Explorer
(Figure 28).




                                                                                            35
                     Figure 28: Completed One-line Diagram

The next step is tying inputs and outputs to the power objects in the single-line diagram.
There are two similar ways to tie the inputs and outputs with the proper objects. The first
method is selecting the properties of the objects in the ―Power System Objects‖ folder.
Here the objects can have data points attached to them by dragging the desired points into
the correct positions in the ―Target(s)‖ tab (Figure 29). Opening the ―Properties‖ tab and
then using the folders to select the proper input is an easy way to add the inputs and
outputs.




                                                                                        36
                         Figure 29: Substation Explorer “Target(s)” Tab

       The second method is very useful to keep track of devices and input and outputs based on
       their location in the single-line, versus using their ID names or numbers alone. Opening
       the properties of each device while in the one-line visual view, and then using the folders
       tab to move to device inputs and outputs is an easy way to coordinate objects using the
       one-line and any relaying diagram.

Control
       When points are imported from SubstationSERVER.NET they can be added as trip and
       close inputs, to correspond with the pulses sent from SubstationSERVER.NET to the
       actual device. If these are not set correctly, a control command can‘t be send from
       Substation Explorer to SubstationSERVER.NET and then to the device.

       The command sent from the one-line to the relay for control has to go through many
       protocol changes. Each protocol has to be checked and configured to interpret a
       command in the following way: a pulse on, pulse off, latch on, or a latch off. The system
       has to have the ability to interpret a command differently along each step and the control
       of a device can be very dynamic. The main factor in determining the setup and control is
       dependent on the device being controlled. As an example, the use of a pulse versus a
       latch command is dependent on how the relay logic is programmed. Typically, a pulse
       command will be used to ‗pulse‘ the output contacts of the relay to either open or close,
       sending a signal to the device doing the controlling.



                                                                                               37
In this project a SEL-351S was used as a breaker control relay. The serial port that the
SEL-351S is connected to in SubstationSERVER.NET must be configured to accept
Direct Operate Commands. This can be done in the port settings. Also for a relay to
respond to an open or close command, those relay bits must be programmed into the trip
and close logic equations.

Working backwards, start by configuring the server slave protocol to have the correct
pulse. Click the digital output, e.g. Breaker 1. On the properties menu on the right, there
is a section for point settings. Here is where pulse and latch options can be set. The first
option is Latch ON/NUL, Pulse ON/Close or Pulse ON/NUL. If there were a pulse on
command sent through the DNP3.0 protocol from explorer, the command sent to the
relay could be either nothing, Close Command (for a SEL-351S the CC bit is set to 1), or
an Open/Trip command (for a SEL-351S the OC bit is set to 1). The same options apply
for the second Latch OFF/NUL or Pulse ON/Trip menu. How the relay responds to the
OC and CC bits is dependent on its logical equation settings. For the SEL-351S the
factory setting for a breaker trip is TR = 51P1T + 50P1 + OC (Figure 30).




                   Figure 30: Point Settings for Slave Protocol Control



                                                                                          38
The next step is setting the proper pulse setting in Substation Explorer to correspond to
the one in SubstationSERVER.NET. An important note, while the points are imported
into Substation Explorer the digital outputs should be imported as trip and close outputs
corresponding to the same point address in SubstationSERVER.NET (reference
Appendix J). In the properties menu for the breaker digital output, the Function Code,
Control Code, and Trip/Close setting need to be set. As an example, for a
SubstationSEREVER.NET option of Latch ON/NUL, Pulse ON/Close or Pulse ON/NUL
to close a breaker, an Substation Explorer digital output would have a Function code set
to 05 Direct Operate, Control Code to 01 Pulse On and Trip/Close to 01 Close (Figure
31).




                      Figure 31: Explorer Control Properties Menu




                                                                                       39
       With that, the dragging and dropping of digital outputs into power objects and eventually
       into the one-line will give the proper control. Ideally, the control of objects would come
       from one-line menu looking like the figure below, although control can also be done in
       the master protocol of Substation Explorer and SubstationSERVER.NET (Figure 32).




        Figure 32: Left – Slave Protocol Control Menu - Right – One-Line Control Menu



Historical Charts/Trends
       Operators do value the availability of historical charts on their screens. In the case of
       power substations, such charts usually provide information on the conditions of lines,
       buses, breakers, transformers and other types of equipments over a defined period of
       time. For the scope of this project, the charts will provide voltage, current, power (real
       and reactive), and Frequency values from the relays monitoring the system. The 18 hour
       charts will use different data points from the SEL-587Z, 551C, 351S, 321, and 311L
       relays, and display their instantaneous values. The 7-Day Historical Charts will be a
       compiled version of the 18 hour charts.

       The trending charts will be accessible in Substation Explorer under the ―Trends‖ folder
       displaying the graphs in a visual mode. Once the chart is added the user can name the
       chart and set the minimum (-32767) and maximum (32767) value that the chart will
       show. The domain can be changed to better view the data, and has a maximum length of
       18 hours (Figure 33). The update period for files that will not be logged (currents and
       voltages) will be short at one to two seconds and the trends that will be logged (power
       trends) will collect a data point every 60 seconds.


                                                                                               40
          Figure 33: Substation Explorer Trending Chart “General” Tab

The ―Logging‖ tab allows the user to configure the file size of the data file before a new
file is started (Figure 34). The trending chart data is stored in a .csv file on the system
hard drive. The files can not be exported to a network server. The file is stored in the
directory below:

       C:\Program Files\Substation Explorer\Trend Name

The ―Trend Name‖ is the name given to the chart in the General Tab. To start the data
being stored in the .csv file the Enable Logging check box must be checked. Data can be
collected from any device that can be polled by the SEL-3351, i.e. has a protocol that the
SEL-3351 supports.




                                                                                          41
          Figure 34: Substation Explorer Trending Chart “Logging” Tab

Given the fact that each relay has been assigned a specific role in this protection system,
different charts will be found for each relay. The SEL-321, 311L and 351S relays for
example will be associated with displays of power, voltage, and current trends; whereas
the SEL-551C and 587Z will show values of currents and/or voltages to operators.
Figure 35 shows the content of the Trends Folder. It consists of 14 charts in total. Due to
the limited number of colors (8) that can be used in a single trend window, all powers
have been gathered into two groups: Power Trends 1 and 2.




                                                                                        42
                      Figure 35: Trends Folder in Explorer

Figure 36 for example, illustrates the 8 elements that can be found on Power Trends 2.




                                                                                         43
               Figure 36: Components of the Power Trend 2 group


All other trends will show shortcuts to the data points used to make the trends in List
mode. An illustration of this is made in Figure 37 a), b) and c).




                         a) Example of Current trend content



                                                                                          44
                                 b) Example of Voltage trend content




                          c) Example of Power and Frequency trend content

                              Figure 37: Illustration of Trends content

         When data points are put into the trending charts there is no way to configure their
         appearance on the graph. To ensure some consistency between the different graphs, the
         different components of a trending chart will have to be added in the same order. Also,
         due to the limitations mentioned earlier, the use of smaller groups of historical charts
         (max of 8) is advisable for two reasons: one reason is to avoid repetitions in colors and
         symbols in the same chart, and the other is to allow clarity of charts with fewer elements
         to display on a specific chart.

Alarms
         Substation Explorer will also handle all of the alarm notification and visually show the
         alarm conditions. There are four colors that an alarm will display: green, dark green, red,
         and dark red. The color is based on the status and acknowledgement state of the alarm.
         An alarm will be created by dragging the desired data point out of the device in the
         ―Master Protocol‖ folder and dropping it into the ―Alarms‖ folder. Once the data point is
         added to the ―Alarms‖ folder double click on the data point to configure the alarm
         (Figure 38).




                                                                                                  45
               Figure 38: Substation Explorer Alarm “General” Tab

In the ―General‖ tab the user can set which state will trigger the alarm. In the Trigger
drop down menu set the alarm to trigger in either a True or False state for digital points
and set the alarm boundaries for analog points. The Alarm State shows what state the
alarm is in, either normal or alarm state. The Acknowledge Alarm button is clicked by
the user to acknowledge the alarm when it has triggered. The ―Style‖ tab allows the user
to select the alarm type: 4-State Latching, 3-State Latching, or 3-State Following (for
color diagrams see Appendix G) as well as set the alarm to turn on and off outputs based
on the alarm status (Figure 39).




                                                                                        46
                Figure 39: Substation Explorer Alarm “Style” Tab

There are several special alarms that were made for this project. To get alarms for
specific fault types a calculator group was created for each relay and digital fault points
were brought into the calculation group. There are three digital points for most relays
that are TRUE if there is a fault on line A, B, or C. To get more specific alarms these
data points are anded together to be able to distinguish between just a phase A fault and
an A-B line fault (figure 40). To make these equations work properly the anded data
points must equal 1. To accomplish this an invert needs to be performed on the data
points that need to be FALSE by putting an exclamation point in front of the data point.
For example for a phase A fault the calculation (Fault A && !Fault B && !Fault C) will
result in the equation being (1 && !0 && !0) = 1 making the DigitalInputMaster0 equal
TRUE only if phase A is TRUE. To get the A-B line fault the calculation (Fault A &&
Fault B && !Fault C) will result in the equation being (1 && 1 && !0) = 1 making the
DigitalInputMaster3 equal TRUE only if phase A and phase B are TRUE. This process
is used to create a different DigitalInputMaster point for faults on single phases, on two
lines, and on all three lines. These points are then imported into Substation Explorer and
tied to alarms. The digital input points used for this type of fault notification are
instantaneous over current data points. Most relays don‘t calculate individual fault points
for time over current faults per phase. Using the digital instantaneous over current points
is the only way that an alarm can be made to distinguish which phase a fault occurred on.




                                                                                        47
                           Figure 40: Calculation Group for SEL-351S Faults

       Any relay that has relay word bits can have these word bits brought into the calculator
       and put in a logic statement to have a digital input master point be true when a fault
       occurs. That digital input master point can be tied to an alarm in Substation Explorer.
       Digital points are the only data types that can be used to detect faults because an analog
       value in SubstationSERVER.NET will never see a fault current. This is because the relay
       will trip out the breaker faster than the SEL-3351 polls the analog value.

Email Notification
       The email server can be easily set up through Substation Explorer to send out emails to
       various addresses with custom messages. In order to create emails within the email
       server the appropriate alarms must be created that correspond to the desired fault. Once
       this is complete alarms can just be dragged into the email server and configured. The
       proper mail server needs to be set by changing the email server folder labeled
       ―Properties‖. Under the ―Server‖ tab the appropriate mail server can be set. Emails can
       be setup either on an individual basis or by highlighting multiple emails and changing the
       Properties. Under the Message tab both the ―To‖ and ―From‖ addresses can be set as
       well as a custom message. Two things to remember are that the ―From‖ address must be
       a part of the specified email server and the message field only accepts static text (Figures
       41-43).




                                                                                                48
Figure 41: Email Server Properties




   Figure 42: Email Properties




                                     49
                    Figure 43: Example of message sent by Email Server

Other Applications Used

Tracking of Access
   Fail Safe Method:

      The Fail Safe Method simply tracks the log-on and log-off of the user on the SEL-3351.
      It will track the user name, date, and time of the log-on and log-off. This can be useful in
      comparing log-on/log-off times with the Windows Application Event Manager because
      the SEL-3351 is designed to audit application events. A more technical design was later
      created and is described in the section labeled ―Access and Action Tracking via Log
      Parser 2.2 and Third Party Script‖.

      Both software packages SubstationServer.NET and Substation Explorer use Windows-
      based user accounts for log-on and log-off of the software. The packages also use
      Windows Event Viewer to track changes to configuration settings of the software and
      equipment connected to the SEL-3351. Two scripts will serve as a means for collecting
      the user name, log-on/logo-ff times as well as what application events happened during
      their log-on session. The script was set up within Windows by setting a Group Policy in
      the Computer Manager as seen in Figure 44.




                                                                                               50
                       Figure 44: Log_Tracking Group Policy

There are two scripts in the policy one for log-on and one for log-off. To link these
scripts to the actual batch files they are double clicked and the directory to the script file
is entered in the ―Script Name‖ field. The scripts can only be altered by someone that has
administration privileges. The locations of the scripts can be changed, but must have a
legitimate location for the policy to work correctly. If the output file is not in the file
location specified in the script, it will not append the information.




The batch file above is the script file written into the SEL-3351. The script file itself is
located in the C:\WINDOWS\system32\GroupPolicy\User\Scripts\Logon directory of the
SEL-3351. The output file is stored in the directory described in the final line of the
script; which is a semicolon delimited .csv file. The file location can be changed to any
drive that is mapped on the SEL-3351. Both the log-on and log-off script append to the
same .csv file which tracks both log-on and log-off times in the same file.

The script itself has the potential to be expanded upon to add more information about the
user. The log-off script is similar to the log-on batch file in the fact that it gives the same
information. The log-off batch file is identical to the logon batch file; however, it labels
the event ―Logoff‖ instead of ―Logon‖ as shown above. The log-off script is discussed in
the section immediately following. All scripts and output files can be located in
Appendix H6.




                                                                                            51
                                    Figure 45: Fail Safe Output

       Figure 45 shows the output file of the Fail Safe Method that was put on the SEL-3351.
       As seen in the figure, the information is displayed in a clear format that is not encrypted.
       The names in the text of the file are the user names of the people logging on and off. The
       file was stored in a .csv extension so that it could be easily imported into Excel using a
       semicolon as the delimiter.

Access and Action Tracking via Log Parser 2.2 and Third Party Script

   General Functionality:

       Log Parser 2.2 is a freely distributed utility by Microsoft that will parse the Windows
       Event Log files, which is executed from the command prompt. With this ability a batch
       file can be setup on both log-on and log-off that will call the Log Parser and give it the
       input. The input format can be directly entered in the batch file, or a source file can be
       created in SQL language. If a source file is created, it still needs to be referenced in the
       batch file for the Log Parser to execute the desired commands specified in the source file.

       On execution, the Log Parser will parse a user specified file in Windows Event Log, and
       the file that is being parsed has different filtration parameters to get only the data desired
       to the user. For example, the Log Parser can parse the Application Event file and filter
       events based on event IDs.

       The output of the Log Parser can be in an Access query, or in CSV file format, and the
       location of the output file can be specified by the user. This means the file can be stored
       on any drive accessible by the command prompt (i.e. mapped network drive).


                                                                                                   52
SEL-3351 Implementation:

   During log-on the Log Parser 2.2 will parse the events in the Security Event file, and on
   log-off it will parse the events in the Application event file. There will be two output
   files from the log parser, the Security and the Application file. Also, on log-off the main
   script will call a third party script in the language of Python. The inputs to the third party
   script are the outputs of the Log Parser. The third party script will take the two files and
   merge them. It sorts the events based on the timestamp of each event. The third party
   script was created by the team in-house, and the source code can be located in Appendix
   H1.




                            Figure 46: Main Script for Log-on

   Figure 46 is the main script for the log-on batch file which runs every time a user logs on.
   As seen above, the fail safe method is called first and then the Security Events in the
   Windows Event Manager is parsed. The fail safe was left in the script to use as a
   comparison to the final event report.

   When it parses the Security Log file it filters out events based on event ID, the event
   category, event type, and certain strings that would not be useful to this type of security
   report. The location of the log-on event file can be seen in the main script above. If the
   file is not in that directory, it will be created automatically.




                                                                                              53
                            Figure 47: Main Script for Log-off

   Figure 47 is the main script of the log-off batch file. As seen above, the fail safe method
   is called the same way as the log-on script. The Log Parser command in the log-off script
   parses the Application Events in the Windows Event Manager.

   Figure 47 shows the command only parses the Application events with a source name
   containing the string ―sub‖ or ―MsiInstaller‖. This means only the events that happened
   with Substation software or Windows Installer will be recorded in the application event
   file.

   The location of the log-off event file can be seen in the main script above. If the file is
   not in that directory, it will be created automatically.

Third Party Script: File Merger




                Figure 48: Tracking of Access High Level Functionality

   As seen in Figure 48, the File Merger will take the two output files of the Log Parser and
   merge them together based on time. The input files to the File Merger must be in the

                                                                                                 54
   directories listed in Figure 46 and Figure 47 and have the exact same names as the ones
   above otherwise the merge will be unsuccessful. The third party script is totally
   dependent on the Log Parser commands working successfully. The source code for the
   script can be located in Appendix H1 and the functionality can be found in two flow
   charts located in Appendix H2. There is a referenced flowchart named ―Flowchart 2‖ that
   shows logic in detail on how the script determines how to order the final events. By
   looking at the source code one can see how dependent on file names and directories the
   script is.

   The output of the File Merger can be found in the following location on the SEL-3351:

          C:\WINDOWS\system32\GroupPolicy\User\Log files\Full Log Report

   The directory will contain log reports for each day that the SEL-3351 has been on and has
   had someone log onto it.

   The third party merger script was compiled using a free Python utility called py2exe and
   is available for download at www.py2exe.org, as well as procedures on how to compile a
   Python script. Once the script compiles it will create a ―dist‖ directory in the location of
   the script. This directory is what was saved on the SEL-3351 and what is called by the
   batch file displayed in Figure 47.

Pushing Data to Network Drive:

   It is possible to push all the output data to a mapped network drive including the Full Log
   Report out of the File Merger script. The directories simply need to be changed in all
   locations of the scripts.

Known Problems:

   Current Substation Explorer

      The logon/logoff scripts that are implemented on the SEL-3351 are assuming that the
      user is logging in and out of Windows. The current version of Substation Explorer
      cannot be run in the background of Windows as a service, meaning to receive event
      reports the user has to be logged into Windows and Substation Explorer must be
      running. This is a problem for the current Tracking of Access because it is only
      possible to parse the information from the Windows event logs exclusively on logon
      or logoff because the Windows Security event log documents logon/logoff events at
      that time.

      Windows will have to be automatically logged in at startup as a default user name and
      the operators will have a unique logon into Substation Explorer software. However,
      the current version of Substation Explorer does not track the login/logoff in the
      application manager. Tracking of access directly from the Windows application log
      is currently not possible on the current version of Substation Explorer.

                                                                                             55
   Workaround

      To work around the problem a Windows task was set up to run the logoff.bat script
      once every day at 12:00 A.M. This will display who logged in at initial startup and
      what application events occurred exclusively during the Windows session. It does
      not show what user logged into Substation Explorer. However, the time of the all
      Substation software application events are shown. To make sure that all the security
      logs are tracked as well, the logon.bat script will run two minutes before the logoff
      script is ran; two minutes between runs gives the scripts ample time to fully complete.

      To get full tracking of access desired a new version of Substation Explorer will have
      to be distributed. Please see Tracking of Access in the section labeled Future Work to
      get a design concept for Tracking of Access once this Substation Explorer problem is
      fixed.

      The workaround for this method of tracking of access results in the ―Fail Safe‖
      method to give false information about the logon and logoff times of the users. The
      ―Fail Safe‖ simply prints out information when the command line is written. When
      the logon/logoff batch files are run, the fail safe still logs the information but the
      logon and logoff times of the user are void.

Final Output:

   All sample output files of the Log Parser and File Merger can be seen in the Results
   Section of this report.

Auto Log On to Windows:

   In order to have the SEL3351 automatically log into Windows after power loss the
   following script must be run. The ―DefaultUserName‖ and DefaultPassword‖ may need
   to be modified on different systems (Figure 49).




                                 Figure 49: Auto Log on Script




                                                                                           56
7-Day Chart Design
   The 7-Day Chart was created for each relay by having a separate Excel workbook for each
   relay in the system. The workbook location can be found in the same location as the 18-hour
   data files for each relay. A sample directory is shown below with the bold part of the
   location being the exact location of all 18-hour charts:

           C:\Program Files\Substation Explorer\Power Trends 2\Power_7DayChart.xls

   Each relay workbook has an embedded startup macro that does the following actions:

      1.  Loops through the 18-hour chart directory and looks at the file name of each csv file
         in the directory. If the timestamp on the file is greater than 7-days from the current
         date, it will not import the file into the excel workbook.
      2. Reduces the data from a sampling rate of 60 seconds to 10 minutes.
      3. Automatically graphs the data on a separate sheet for easy viewing.

   All commented macro code can be seen in Appendix K, and the results of the macro can be
   seen in the Results section of this report.

   Figure 50 is a flowchart that shows the basic functionality of the Excel macro to automate the
   7-Day chart.




                             Figure 50: Flowchart for 7-Day chart



                                                                                              57
Results and Conclusions
Tracking of Access
   As seen in the result documents in general, it is possible to track the application events, filter
   them, track on which Windows user account they happened in, and record this information
   all in the same document. It is also possible to construct a third party script to do processing
   of the document(s) and reorient them into a more readable format.

   There are six text documents in Appendix H that show the results of all the tracking of access
   on the SEL-3351. The first file in Appendix H3 is a sample document showing the output of
   the Log Parser 2.2 which parsed the Application Log. The application parse that is in the
   Appendix H3 is not the full run of this instance. To see the full document please reference the
   electronic copy on the Project CD. Sample output of the Security Parse can be seen in
   Appendix H4, and sample output of the Third Party Merger script can be seen in Appendix
   H5.

   Appendix H6 shows the initial ―fail safe‖ method of tracking of access. The document gives
   an example of what kind of information can be logged in this kind of method of tracking;
   however, parsing the Windows Security log is more reliable.

   A limitation of the current Explorer software is that tracking of access is not electronically
   possible. Due to this fact the only way to secure the HMI will be to set the display to read-
   only after an inactive timeout period. This requires operators to log back on to Explorer to
   make any acknowledgements. This can be set in the ―Change Access Level Timeout‖ under
   the ―Tools‖ menu in Explorer. The time should be set closer to one minute.




                                                                                                   58
7-Day Chart
   The result of a sample 7-Day historical chart is shown below.




                           Figure 51: Sample 7-Day Historical Chart

       As seen in Figure 51, the results are from a sample data point collection taken from the
       351S relay in the lab. In the interest of time, the data was not run for a complete 7-Days
       but the sample graph is adequate to prove that a 7-day chart is possible in the presence of
       the encoded macro on the SEL-3351.

Applicable Standards
      NERC CIP 005-1 is defining an ‗Electronic Security Perimeter‘ as ―the logical border
      surrounding a network to which Critical Cyber Assets are connected and for which access
      is controlled.‖ Using that definition, the login access to the SEL-3351 is part of the
      Electronic Security Perimeter. From there, the most important requirement pertaining to
      our project is that in R1.5. The Cyber Asset on the SEL-3351 is
      SubstationSERVER.NET.

       NERC CIP 003-5 is mainly a responsibility beyond the scope of this project; however it
       is important to specify that there are different levels of access through the SEL-3351.
       These three are Administrator, Operators, and Users. These will need to specified in ITC
       access control documentation under R5.2.



                                                                                                59
       NERC CIP 003-6 pertains to updating or replacing software. It‘s recommended that ITC
       should establish and document a process for the implementation of the SEL-3351 in
       substations, and that many of the procedures and issues addressed in this report be
       included in any documentation.

       NERC CIP 005-3 pertains to tracking of access. Our method for monitoring and logging
       of access is described under the section titled ―Other Applications Used‖. The scripts
       created combine log-on and log-off as well as setting changes. These scripts are of the
       .csv format, which is easily readable with WordPad or Excel. It is opinion of the team
       that this should be sufficient enough of documentation of controls implemented to log
       and monitor access.

       The discussed NERC CIP standards can be found in Appendix N.

Control
      Control of the SEL-351S from the one-line was done to simulate breaker control. An
      oscilloscope was connected in series with a voltage source to the output contacts of the
      relay. A command was then sent from the one-line to operate the breaker. When the
      command reaches the breaker, the contacts in the relay close, allowing the oscilloscope to
      see a voltage (Figure 52). This voltage proves that the one-line controlled the breaker
      contacts in the relay. A full explanation of the communications from the touch screen to
      the relay contacts is in Appendix O. The total operation from the touch screen to actually
      getting to the relay took approximately 4.5 seconds.




                       Figure 52: Oscilloscope Connected to Relay Contacts




                                                                                             60
Recommendations Based on Results
Once the SEL-3351 is configured Windows will be logged into under a general user name. The
explorer software will automatically run in full screen mode so that operators must log into
Substation Explorer to make any acknowledgements. Once the operator is done they will be able
to just leave the HMI running. After the timeout period expires the software will go back into
read-only mode. The next operator that will use the HMI will have to log back into Explorer
using Shift+F1 and type in their specific username and password. This will allow Substation
Explorer to continue running and send e-mails at all times. If Windows is logged off of then
Substation Explorer will close and e-mails will no longer be sent. All other configuration
changes have been referenced in the Design Narrative.

The one-line in Substation Explorer is used as the main hub for the HMI. All of the trending
charts are hyperlinked into the one-line next to their corresponding real time values. The seven
day charts will also be linked to the one-line diagram. Once in the excel file, Substation
Explorer is temporarily not in full screen mode and the user can minimize the programs and have
access to any computer functions. To prevent this, the registry will have to be changed to make
all items on the desktop invisible. The alarms page and the one-line diagram will need to be in
the Explorer Bar in order to get back to the one-line from the trending charts; as well as from the
alarms page.

For time synchronization there will need to be a change done with the decode equation to
account for the ―IRIG-B TIME SYNC IN PROGRESS‖ message. The decode equation will
need to be changed to (‗DATA‘, S6, BU). Then in the calculator function the expression will
need to be changed from greater than 32 to greater than the analog value for the letter ‗E‘. This
will allow for the ―IRIG-B TIME SYNC IN PROGRESS‖ string to be returned without causing
an alarm to go off when the relay is in progress of time synchronizing.

To check time synchronization with a relay that uses only ASCII to communicate is going to be
complicated. There is no easy solution that can be integrated with SubstationSERVER.NET.
The command forcing the relay to synchronize with IRIG-B will need to be issued to the relay,
and the response decoded and analyzed outside the Substation software. This will have to be
done by a third party script. Once the expression is decoded it will need to be compared with the
loss of IRIG string that is unique to that relay when it loses IRIG, and an alert made if the
returned string matches the loss of IRIG string.




                                                                                                61
Recommendations for future work
Tracking of Access

New Substation Explorer Version
      When the new version of Substation Explorer (SubEx 2.0) comes out, it may place a
      logon event in the Windows Application log. The following items can be designed to
      fully track access if a Windows Application event is made for the log-on and log-off of
      Substation Explorer:

   Log Parser:

       Log Parser 2.2 is a powerful Windows utility that allows for accurate and easy filtering
       with Windows Event Manager. With the logon event from Substation Explorer being
       inserted into the Windows Application Log, the log parser can be utilized to parse the
       application log only. Having the Log Parser only parse the Application Log instead of
       both Application and Security logs minimizes the space that the output files consume.
       The Windows Security log has no relevance due to the fact that the Windows account for
       all operators will be the same (the automatic default account). This eliminates the need
       for a third party script that merges the output of the Security and Application log
       parses. The third party script can then be utilized as a format converter to get the data in
       an appropriate format.

   Third Party Script:

       A third party script or application can be designed to make the output of the Application
       log parse more legible. Recommended designs for this could be a Python script that
       would turn the output file into a XML tree with the logon events being the highest events
       in the tree; the application events being the sub events that occurred within the Substation
       Explorer logon session. The script could also add labels to each log-on and application
       event.

       The script directory dependencies can be removed by making a setup file that asks the
       user for an installation directory as well as the directory of the Application file being
       parsed. The directories then can be stored in a Windows registry, and the application can
       get those directories by referencing that location in the Windows registry.

       A step further for the third party script could also be run, at will, by the administrator by
       designing a Graphical User Interface. The interface could have a ―run‖ button that the
       administrator can click on and get immediate results that can be printed or saved to
       another location.

7-Day Chart
      The macro that runs behind the 7-Day chart is not as robust as it could be. There are
      attributes of the csv files that are hard coded in the macro that could be soft coded in the
      future. The macro looks for a certain number of columns in the csv files, which could be

                                                                                                   62
       changed to support a variable number of columns for future use in a substation with a
       different hardware configuration.

       The design of the macro was to extend the 18-hour chart to a seven day historical chart of
       data for certain points being monitored on each relay. Excel has a fixed amount of points
       that it is able to graph, and a sampling rate of 1 data point every minute could approach
       this limit. The amount of hard drive space was also a factor in the design of the macro.
       The sampling rate reduction was to take 1 point every ten entries in the 18-hour chart.

       In the future, instead of taking 1 value every 10 entries in the 18-hour charts, it could take
       in the average values of the ten points, which would give a more accurate representation
       about the levels through the seven day time period. It would factor in any rapid spikes in
       the power graphs. The engineer could see these spikes on an averaged 7-Day chart, and
       then go back to the 18-hour chart for more detail. With the current macro being used, a
       spike could be missed if it occurred for a short period of time.

       There are some date processing issues in the embedded macro. Excel has a very strict
       way of processing dates. To process a date string such as ―2008:04:13:16:30:25‖ and
       having Excel graph it correctly is possible, but beyond the scope of the project. Many
       other formats were attempted in testing, but were unsuccessful. This is a good objective
       for future work.

       Another issue involves making sure the data is taken in the right order when the macro
       imports the data from the csv files. For future work, a bubble sort function can be
       implemented in the macro to be certain that the data is in the right order by sorting the
       18-hour filenames using the timestamp; however, coding a bubble sorter is beyond the
       scope of this project.

File Log
       A great future addition to this project will be to utilize the file log function in
       SubstationSERVER.NET. The addition of using file logs will require using SEL-5040,
       and the file log will replace the seven day charts currently used. A file log will be created
       for the real and reactive power and will then be viewed with SEL-5040. The file log will
       be saved on a network drive which will conserve hard-drive space on the SEL-3351. One
       power trend chart in Substation Explorer collects 3.85kBs per hour. This file will
       consume 2GBs in 60 years. For 20 files to consume 2GBs it will only take 3 years. The
       data points can be logged using the Data Logger in Enterprise Applications. The user
       creates a File Log in the Data Logger, and then drags and drops the data point(s) that
       need(s) to be recorded into the File Log (Figure 53). The drag and drop properties of this
       program make it very user friendly and the operator does not need to have any technical
       programming knowledge to use the software. The file log can monitor any data point that
       exists in the relay or any data point calculated in the calculator function in Logic
       Applications. If the user wants to have a log of the power factor they will be able to
       create a power factor data point in the calculator by using functions and existing data
       points and then dragging that calculated power factor point into the Data Logger‘s
       created File Log.

                                                                                                   63
    Figure 53: SubstationSERVER.NET Dragging and Dropping Data Points

Once the data point is in the File Log the raw data from that point will be stored in a .csv
file on the system hard drive at C:\FileLogs (Figure 54). This .csv file can be retrieved
by anyone that has administrator access to the SEL-3351. The file can also be exported
and stored on a network server to make it more available for analysis. Another feature of
the File Log is that once it has data stored in it the user can open the .csv file with SEL-
5040 and view the waveform of the data.




                                                                                          64
              Figure 54: SubstationSERVER.NET Screen Shot of Data Log Files

       There are several settings for the File Logs that the user can change. The data files can
       be stored as five different formats including: Text file (comma-delimited), Text file
       (interval comma-delimited), ClearView OPC, TrafficWerks, or Standard Automation.
       The maximum File Log size can be set to unlimited by inputting a zero into the Max log
       size box or a size can be set by inputting the number of kilobytes.

Using relays other than SEL
      This project only used SEL relays. Any other relay brands can be used as long as it has
      one of the following communication protocols: DNP3, Modbus, SEL Fast Message, SES-
      92, and System Statistics. The setup for relays other than the SEL relays used in the
      software packages is exactly the same as the Design Narrative outlines, except there is a
      different master protocol used. The issue with not using the SEL Fast Message protocol
      is that there is no Flexible Parsing available. The design for the time synchronization
      alarm needs to use Flexible Parsing. This will need to be redesigned if another protocol
      other than SEL Fast Message is used.




                                                                                               65
Acknowledgments
The team would like to thank the following people for all their collaboration and time dedicated
to the achievements of this project:

Corporate Sponsors, Liaisons
      - Sara Huggard, ITC Engineer, Relay Design
      - Gordie Halt, ITC Engineer, Relay Performance
      - Kevin Thompson, ITC Associate Engineer, Relay Performance
      - Jillian Lawson, ITC Engineer, SCADA
      - Pedro Melendez, ITC Senior Engineer, Relay Design and Performance
      - Neil Doshi, ITC Engineer, Substation Design
      - Nick Caro, ITC Associate Engineer, Relay Design
      - Jon Jipping, ITC Vice President and Chief Operations Officer


Donations and Technical Support
      - Jon Larson, Field Application Engineer, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories
      - Roger Baldevia, Integration Application Engineer, Schweitzer Engineering
          Laboratories

       -   Thomas Man, System Engineer, Subnet Solutions Inc.
       -   Kelly Sheldon, Systems Specialist, Subnet Solutions Inc.
       -   Hilary Donaldson, Customer Service Representative, Subnet Solutions Inc.


Michigan Technological University
      - Dr. Bruce Mork, Team Advisor




                                                                                               66
Resources Needed
Reference Material

   1. (2007). SEL-2030 Communications Processor Instruction Manual. Pullman, WA:
      Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

   2. (2007). SEL-2032 Communications Processor Instruction Manual. Pullman, WA:
      Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

   3. (2007). SEL-3351 System Computing Platform Instruction Manual. Pullman, WA:
      Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

   4. (2007). SEL-2030 Communications Processor Data Sheet. Pullman, WA: Schweitzer
      Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

   5. (2007). SEL-2032 Communications Processor Data Sheet. Pullman, WA: Schweitzer
      Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

   6. (2006). SEL-3351 System Computing Platform Data Sheet. Pullman, WA: Schweitzer
      Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

   7. Substation Communication and Practice, Daniel E. Nordell

   8. (2007). D400* Substation Data Manager. GE Energy

   9. Carmichael Jamie & Ashvin Sologar (2004). Substation Suite™ Quick Start Application
      Guide For Substation Suite™ on Windows® 2000/XP Professional, SUBNET Solutions
      Inc.

   10. (2006). Substation Explorer Version – 1.5.5 Release Notes, SUBNET       Solutions Inc.

   11. (2006).Remote Terminal Unit RTU560 for Energy System Operation , Mannheim,
      Germany, ABB AG Power Technology Systems

   12. Modbus and DNP3 Communication Protocols, Raleigh, NC, Triangle MicroWorks,
      Inc. Raleigh, North

Standards

   1. IEC 60068-2-1 Environmental testing – Part 2-1: Tests – Test A: Cold. 6.0. IEC, 2007.

   2. IEC 60068-2-30 Environmental testing – Part 2-30: Tests – Test Db: Damp heat, cyclic
      (12 + 12 h cycle). 3.0. IEC, 2005.


                                                                                              67
3. IEC 60255-11 1979 Electrical relays - Part 11: Interruptions to and alternating component
   (ripple) in d.c. auxiliary energizing quantity of measuring relays. 1.0. IEC, 1979.

4. IEC 60255-22-1 Measuring relays and protection equipment – Part 22-1: Electrical
   disturbance tests – 1 MHz burst immunity tests. 3.0. IEC, 2007

5. IEC 60255-22-3 Measuring relays and protection equipment – Part 22-3: Electrical
   disturbance tests – Radiated electromagnetic field immunity. 3.0. IEC, 2007.

6. IEC 60255-22-5 s - Part 22-5: Electrical disturbance tests for measuring relays and
   protection equipment - Surge immunity test. 1.0. IEC, 2002.

7. IEC 60255-25 Electrical Relay - Part 25: Electromagnetic emission tests for measuring
   relays and protection equipment. 1.0. IEC, 2000

8. IEC 61000-3-2 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 3-2: Limits – Limits for
   harmonic current emissions (equipment input current ≤16 A per phase). 3.0. IEC, 2005.

9. IEC 61000-4-2 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-2: Testing and
   measurement techniques – Electrostatic discharge immunity test. 1.2. IEC, 2001.

10. IEC 61000-4-4 Testing and measurement techniques – Electrical fast transient/burst
    immunity test. 2.0. IEC, 2004

11. IEC 61000-4-6 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-6: Testing and
    measurement techniques – Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced by radio-
    frequency fields. 2.2. IEC, 2006

12. IEC 61000-4-9 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-9: Testing and
    measurement techniques Pulse magnetic field immunity test. 1.1. IEC, 2001

13. IEC 60068-2-2 Part 2-2: Tests – Test B: Dry heat. 5.0. IEC, 2007.

14. IEC 60255-5 2000 Electrical relays –Part 5: Insulation coordination for measuring relays
    and protection equipment – Requirements and tests. 2.0. IEC, 2000

15. IEC 60255-21-1 Electrical relays Part 21: Vibration, shock, bump and seismic test on
    measuring relays and protection equipment Section One – Vibration tests (sinusoidal).
    1.0. IEC, 1988

16. IEC 60255-21-3 Electrical relays — Part 21: Vibration, shock, bump and seismic tests on
    measuring relays and protection equipment — Section 3: Seismic tests. 1.0. IEC, 1993

17. IEC 60255-22-2 Electrical relays – Part 22: Electrical disturbance tests for measuring.
    2.0. IEC, 1996



                                                                                              68
18. IEC 60255-22-4 Electrical relays - Part 22-4: Electrical disturbance tests for measuring
    relays and protection equipment –Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test. 2.0. IEC,
    2002

19. IEC 60255-22-6 Electrical relays – Part 22-6: Electrical disturbance tests for measuring
    relays and protection equipment – and protection equipment – Immunity to conducted
    disturbances induced by radio frequency fields. 1.0. IEC, 2001

20. IEC IEC 60825-1 Safety of laser products – Part 1: Equipment classification and
    requirements. 2.0. IEC, 2007

21. IEC 61000-3-3 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 3-3: Limits – Limitation of
    voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in public low-voltage supply systems,
    for equipment with rated current ≤16 A per phase and not subject to conditional
    connection. 1.2. IEC, 2002

22. IEC 61000-4-3 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-3: Testing and
    measurement techniques – Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity
    test. 3.0. IEC, 2006

23. IEC 61000-4-5 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-5: Testing and
    measurement techniques – Surge immunity test. 2.0. IEC, 2005

24. IEC 61000-4-8 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-8: Testing and
    measurement techniques – Power frequency magnetic field immunity test. 1.1. IEC, 2001

25. IEC 61000-4-11 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-11: Testing and
    measurement techniques – Voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage variations
    immunity tests. 2.0. IEC, 2004.

26. IEEE C37.90-1989 IEEE Standard for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with
    Electric Power Apparatus. New York, NY: IEEE, 1989

27. IEEE Std 1613™-2003 IEEE Standard Environmental and Testing Requirements for
    Communications Networking Devices in Electric Power Substations. New York, NY:
    IEEE, 2003

28. IEEE Std C37.90.3-2001 IEEE Standard Electrostatic Discharge Tests for Protective
    Relays. New York, NY: IEEE, 2001

29. IEEE Std C37.90.1™-2002 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests
    for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus. New York,
    NY: IEEE, 2002

30. IEEE Std C37.90.2-1995 IEEE Standard for Withstand Capability of Relay Systems to
    Radiated Electromagnetic Interference from Transceivers. New York, NY: IEEE, 1995

                                                                                                69
31. Standard CIP-001-1 — Sabotage Reporting. NERC, 2006
    The purpose of this standard is about essentially reporting to the appropriate systems, any
    disturbances or unusual occurrences which are suspected or found to have been caused by
    sabotage.

32. Standard CIP–002–1 — Cyber Security — Critical Cyber Asset Identification. NERC,
    2006
    Through the application of a risk-based assessment, this standard which is related to the
    security of Cyber Assets which helps with the identification and documentation of any
    Critical Cyber Assets associated with the Critical Assets ensuring the reliability of the
    Bulk Electric Systems‘ operation.

33. Standard CIP–003–1 — Cyber Security — Security Management Controls. NERC, 2006
    This standard defines some requirements and measures associated with the establishment
    of security management controls for the protection of the Critical Cyber Assets by the
    Responsible Entities.

34. Standard CIP–004–1 — Cyber Security — Personnel and Training. NERC, 2006
    This standard aims at providing an appropriate level of personnel risk assessment,
    training and risk awareness to any personnel given cyber or unescorted physical access
    authorization to Critical Cyber Assets. These personnel in consideration will also include
    contractors and service vendors.


35. Standard CIP–005–1 — Cyber Security — Electronic Security Perimeter(s). NERC, 2006
    As part of the Cyber Security standards, the CIP–005–1 standard deals with the
    identification and protection of the Electronic Security Perimeter(s) within which all
    Critical Cyber Assets are, together with all access points on the perimeter.

36. Standard CIP-006-1 — Cyber Security — Physical Security. NERC, 2006
    The purpose of this standard is to implement a physical security program for the
    protection of all Critical Cyber Assets.

37. Standard CIP–007–1 — Cyber Security — Systems Security Management. NERC, 2006
    The standard specifies the requirements and measures for the Responsible Entities to
    define methods, processes and procedures needed for the security of those systems. The
    systems dealt with can be Critical Cyber Assets and non-critical Cyber Assets within the
    Electronic Security Perimeter(s).

38. Standard CIP–008–1 — Cyber Security — Incident Reporting and Response Planning.
    NERC, 2006
    Cyber Security Incidents related to Critical Cyber Assets may occur. Standard CIP –008–
    1 basically ensures that those incidents get identified, classified, responded to and
    reported the appropriate way.



                                                                                            70
39. Standard CIP–009–1 — Cyber Security — Recovery Plans for Critical Cyber Assets.
    NERC, 2006
    Systems recovery plans for Critical Cyber Assets need to be in place and follow
    established business continuity and disaster recovery techniques and practices. NERC
    standard CIP–009–1 the existence, application, testing and review of those plans.




                                                                                           71
Appendix A Basic Functionality Flow Charts




                Figure 1: The SEL-3351 Configured in the Required Hierarchy




      Main SCADA System          DNP 3.0 Protocol

                                                                SEL 3351 Computing Platform




                                                                                              SEL Fast
                                                                                              Messaging
                                                                                              Protocols
                              DNP 3.0 Protocol




     IED or Relay             IED or Relay                        IED or Relay                      IED or Relay




                                             DNP 3.0 Protocol

     Figure 2: SEL-3351 Communicating Event Reports to SCADA Master System


                                                                                                                   72
Appendix B Project Schedule




                  Project Critical Design Schedule




                                                     73
Appendix C Project Budget
Budget Proposal and Budget Breakdown




                                       74
75
Appendix D Evaluation of Designs
                                              Importance
                                               Weighting
                                                Factor
Customer Requirements                        (1-3-5 scale)   SEL-2030   SEL-3351   GE D400   SEL-2032
Data collection and notification of events         5             5          9         9          5
Data transfer configurations                       5             5          9         9          5
Verify networked IEDs are time
synchronized and notify if not                    3             5          9          9         5
Customized one-line control                       3             5          9          9         5
System access tracking                            3             5          9          5         5
Historical chart data organization                1             1          9          5         1
Screen layout for alarms and status
annunciation                                      3             5          9          5         5
DNP 3.0 protocol capability                       5             5          5          5         5
Cost                                              1             1          1          1         1
Flexibility (how upgradeable)                     3             5          9          5         5
Reliability (stability of system)                 5             5          9          5         5
Ease of integrating into the substation           5             5          9          9         5
Speed of data acquisition                         1             5          9          9         5
How user friendly the system is                   3             5          9          1         5

Totals                                                          62        114         86        62
9. Weighted Totals                                             222        386        302       222

                     Concept Comparison for “Evaluation of Alternative Designs”




                                                                                               76
Appendix E Communication between SERVER and Explorer

 SubstationSERVER.NET                                          Alarms                   Trending Charts




                                                                        Substation Explorer               Local HMI


    Master Protocol                        Slave Protocol
        SEL Fast Message




                                                                         Master Protocol




            Relay



                           Communication between SubstationSERVER.NET and Substation Explorer




                                                                                                                      77
Appendix F SERVER Data Collection Flow Chart




            SubstationSERVER.NET Data Collection Flow Chart




                                                              78
Appendix G Alarm States
                                     4-State Latching


                                                             DI Raised
               Normal, Ack                                                   Alarm, UnAck




                 User Acknowledged




                                                                                    User Acknowledged
                                                DI Lowered       DI Raised




                                                    DI Lowered


              Normal, UnAck                                                   Alarm, Ack




                                     3-State Latching


                                                             DI Raised
               Normal, Ack                                                   Alarm, UnAck




                                                                                    User Acknowledged
                                                User Reset and DI Low




                                                                              Alarm, Ack




                               3-State Following
                                                             DI Raised

               Normal, Ack                                                   Alarm, UnAck

                                                            DI Lowered
                                                                                    User Acknowledged




                                                        DI Lowered




                                                                              Alarm, Ack




                                                                                                        79
Appendix H1 Source Code for File Merger Script




                                                 80
81
82
83
84
85
86
Appendix H2 Functionality of File Merger Script




                                                  87
88
Appendix H3 Sample Output of Log Parser 2.2 Application
Parse




                                                          89
90
Appendix H4 Sample Output of Log Parser 2.2 Security Parse




                                                        91
Appendix H5 Sample Output of Third Party Python Merger
Script




                                                         92
93
Appendix H6 Sample Output of Fail Safe Method




                                                94
Appendix J Explorer Device Import Wizard Steps
Although the process is six steps it really is only four steps. Make sure that each slave device
has its own slave address and that in step 6 you check the box to create two digital outputs for
each imported digital output.




                                                                                                   95
Appendix K Source Code For 7-Day chart embedded Excel
Macro




                                                        96
97
98
99
100
Appendix L Relay Data Points Used
SEL-587Z
Name         Description                                        Application in Substation Software
87A1         A-phase first high-impedence element pickup        Used to create fault points in SERVER
87A2         A-phase second high-impedence element pickup       Used for control points
87B1         B-phase first high-impedence element pickup        Used to create fault points in SERVER
87B2         B-phase second high-impedence element pickup       Used for control in One-line
87C1         C-phase first high-impedence element pickup        Used to create fault points in SERVER
87C2         C-phase second high-impedence element pickup       Used for control in One-line
TRIP2        Trip 2 logic output for function category 87       Used for control in One-line
IA           Current Phase A                                    Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IA_Angle     Current Angle Phase A                              Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IB           Current Phase B                                    Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IB_Angle     Current Angle Phase B                              Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IC           Current Phase C                                    Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IC_Angle     Current Angle Phase C                              Point tied to One-line and Trending charts

SEL-351S
Point Name     Description                             Application in Substation Software
50A1           1 if IA > 50P1P and 0 if IA < 50P1P     Used to create fault points in SERVER
50B1           2 if IB > 50P1P and 0 if IB < 50P1P     Used to create fault points in SERVER
50C1           3 if IC > 50P1P and 0 if IC < 50P1P     Used to create fault points in SERVER
               Circuit breaker status goes to 1 when
52A            circuit breaker is closed               Used to Create event file collection
TRIP                                                   Used for control in One-line
IA             Current Phase A                         Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IA_Angle       Current Angle Phase A                   Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IB             Current Phase B                         Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IB_Angle       Current Angle Phase B                   Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IC             Current Phase C                         Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IC_Angle       Current Angle Phase C                   Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VA             Voltage Phase A                         Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VA_Angle       Voltage Angle Phase A                   Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VB             Voltage Phase B                         Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VB_Angle       Voltage Angle Phase B                   Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VC             Voltage Phase C                         Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VC_Angle       Voltage Angle Phase C                   Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VS                                                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VS_Angle                                               Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
FREQ           Frequency                               Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
FREQ_Angle                                             Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
PA             Real Power Phase A                      Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
QA             Reactive Power Phase A                  Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
PB             Real Power Phase B                      Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
QB             Reactive Power Phase B                  Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
PC             Real Power Phase C                      Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
QC             Reactive Power Phase C                  Point tied to One-line and Trending charts

                                                                                                    101
P            Real Power                              Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
Q            Reactive Power                          Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
             SELogic equation SV1 has caused a
SV1          trip                                    Point tied to Alarms
             SELogic equation SV2 has caused a
SV2          trip                                    Point tied to Alarms
             SELogic equation SV3 has caused a
SV3          trip                                    Point tied to Alarms
             SELogic equation SV4 has caused a
SV4          trip                                    Point tied to Alarms
             A-Phase breaker contact wear
BCWA         reached 100% wear level                 Point tied to Alarms
             B-Phase breaker contact wear
BCWB         reached 100% wear level                 Point tied to Alarms
             C-Phase breaker contact wear
BCWC         reached 100% wear level                 Point tied to Alarms
             Either A, B, or C breaker contact
BCW          wear reached 100% wear level            Point tied to Alarms

             Possible points for future work

SEL-551C
             Single-phase instantaneous
50A          overcurrent element picked up               Used to create fault points in SERVER
             Single-phase instantaneous
50B          overcurrent element picked up               Used to create fault points in SERVER
             Single-phase instantaneous
50C          overcurrent element picked up               Used to create fault points in SERVER
             Asserts 1/8 cycle for Open Command
OC           execution                                   Used for contorl in One-line
             Asserts 1/8 cycle for Close Command
CC           execution                                   Used for contorl in One-line
CF           Close Failure logic output asserted         Used for contorl in One-line
Trip         Trip logic output asserted                  Used for contorl in One-line
Close        Close logic output asserted                 Used for contorl in One-line
IA           Current Phase A                             Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IA_Angle     Current Angle Phase A                       Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IB           Current Phase B                             Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IB_Angle     Current Angle Phase B                       Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IC           Current Phase C                             Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IC_Angle     Current Angle Phase C                       Point tied to One-line and Trending charts

SEL-311L
Point Name   Description                                   Application in Substation Software
52A          Circuit breaker status                        Used to Create event file collection
CLOSE        Close logic output asserted                   Used for contorl in One-line
             Trip logic output asserted Output contact
TRIP         assignment                                    Used for contorl in One-line
FTABC        ABC fault type declaration                    Point tied to Alarms
FTAG         AG fault type declaration                     Point tied to Alarms
FTBG         BG fault type declaration                     Point tied to Alarms

                                                                                                      102
FTCG         CG fault type declaration                 Point tied to Alarms
FTAB         AB fault type declaration                 Point tied to Alarms
FTBC         BC fault type declaration                 Point tied to Alarms
FTCA         CA fault type declaration                 Point tied to Alarms
IA_Angle     Current Angle Phase A                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IB           Current Phase B                           Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IB_Angle     Current Angle Phase B                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IC           Current Phase C                           Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IC_Angle     Current Angle Phase C                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VA           Voltage Phase A                           Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VA_Angle     Voltage Angle Phase A                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VB           Voltage Phase B                           Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VB_Angle     Voltage Angle Phase B                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VC           Voltage Phase C                           Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VC_Angle     Voltage Angle Phase C                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VS                                                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VS_Angle                                               Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
FREQ         Frequency                                 Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
FREQ_Angle                                             Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
PA           Real Power Phase A                        Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
QA           Reactive Power Phase A                    Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
PB           Real Power Phase B                        Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
QB           Reactive Power Phase B                    Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
PC           Real Power Phase C                        Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
QC           Reactive Power Phase C                    Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
P            Real Power                                Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
Q            Reactive Power                            Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
                                                       Point tied to One-line and Trending charts

SEL-321
Point Name   Description                               Application in Substation Software
A            Phase A instantaneous Over Current Trip   Used to create fault points in SERVER
B            Phase B instantaneous Over Current Trip   Used to create fault points in SERVER
C            Phase C instantaneous Over Current Trip   Used to create fault points in SERVER
IA           Current Phase A                           Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IA_Angle     Current Angle Phase A                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IB           Current Phase B                           Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IB_Angle     Current Angle Phase B                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IC           Current Phase C                           Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
IC_Angle     Current Angle Phase C                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VA           Voltage Phase A                           Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VA_Angle     Voltage Angle Phase A                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VB           Voltage Phase B                           Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VB_Angle     Voltage Angle Phase B                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VC           Voltage Phase C                           Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VC_Angle     Voltage Angle Phase C                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VS                                                     Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
VS_Angle                                               Point tied to One-line and Trending charts


                                                                                               103
FREQ          Frequency                               Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
FREQ_Angle                                            Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
PA            Real Power Phase A                      Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
QA            Reactive Power Phase A                  Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
PB            Real Power Phase B                      Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
QB            Reactive Power Phase B                  Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
PC            Real Power Phase C                      Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
QC            Reactive Power Phase C                  Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
P             Real Power                              Point tied to One-line and Trending charts
Q             Reactive Power                          Point tied to One-line and Trending charts

Points created in SubstationSERVER.NET
                                                                         Application in Substation
Relay        Point Name          Description                             Software
             Loss of IRIG 351S   Goes to logic 1 when IRIG-B lost        Tied to an Alarm
             Phase A Fault       Goes to logic 1 when Phase A Fault      Tied to an Alarm
             Phase B Fault       Goes to logic 1 when Phase B Fault      Tied to an Alarm
             Phase C Fault       Goes to logic 1 when Phase C Fault      Tied to an Alarm
             A-B Line Fault      Goes to logic 1 when A-B Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm
             B-C Line Fault      Goes to logic 1 when B-C Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm
             C-A Line Fault      Goes to logic 1 when C-A Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm
SEL-351S     ABC Line Fault      Goes to logic 1 when ABC Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm

             Loss of IRIG 551C   Goes to logic 1 when IRIG-B lost        Tied to an Alarm
             Fault Phase A       Goes to logic 1 when Phase A Fault      Tied to an Alarm
             Fault Phase B       Goes to logic 1 when Phase B Fault      Tied to an Alarm
             Fault Phase C       Goes to logic 1 when Phase C Fault      Tied to an Alarm
             Fault A-B           Goes to logic 1 when A-B Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm
             Fault B-C           Goes to logic 1 when B-C Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm
             Fault C-A           Goes to logic 1 when C-A Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm
SEL-551C     Fault ABC           Goes to logic 1 when ABC Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm

             Loss of IRIG 321    Goes to logic 1 when IRIG-B lost        Tied to an Alarm
             Phase A Fault       Goes to logic 1 when Phase A Fault      Tied to an Alarm
             Phase B Fault       Goes to logic 1 when Phase B Fault      Tied to an Alarm
             Phase C Fault       Goes to logic 1 when Phase C Fault      Tied to an Alarm
             A-B Line Fault      Goes to logic 1 when A-B Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm
             B-C Line Fault      Goes to logic 1 when B-C Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm
             C-A Line Fault      Goes to logic 1 when C-A Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm
SEL-321      ABC Line Fault      Goes to logic 1 when ABC Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm

             Phase A Fault       Goes to logic 1 when Phase A Fault      Tied to an Alarm
             Phase B Fault       Goes to logic 1 when Phase B Fault      Tied to an Alarm
             Phase C Fault       Goes to logic 1 when Phase C Fault      Tied to an Alarm
             Fault A-B           Goes to logic 1 when A-B Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm
             Fault B-C           Goes to logic 1 when B-C Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm
             Fault C-A           Goes to logic 1 when C-A Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm
SEL-587Z     Fault ABC           Goes to logic 1 when ABC Line Fault     Tied to an Alarm




                                                                                               104
Appendix M Initial Project Proposal




                                      105
106
Appendix N NERC CIP Requirements
    NERC CIP Standards on Cyber Security

    The Responsible Entity shall comply with the following requirements of Standard CIP-
    005:

    R1. Electronic Security Perimeter — The Responsible Entity shall ensure that every
    Critical Cyber Asset resides within an Electronic Security Perimeter. The Responsible
    Entity shall identify and document the Electronic Security Perimeter(s) and all access
    points to the perimeter(s).
            R1.1. Access points to the Electronic Security Perimeter(s) shall include any
            externally connected communication end point (for example, dial-up modems)
            terminating at any device within the Electronic Security Perimeter(s).
            R1.2. For a dial-up accessible Critical Cyber Asset that uses a non-routable
            protocol, the Responsible Entity shall define an Electronic Security Perimeter for
            that single access point at the dial-up device.
            R1.3. Communication links connecting discrete Electronic Security Perimeters
            shall not be considered part of the Electronic Security Perimeter. However, end
            points of these communication links within the Electronic Security Perimeter(s)
            shall be considered access points to the Electronic Security Perimeter(s).
            R1.4. Any non-critical Cyber Asset within a defined Electronic Security
            Perimeter shall be identified and protected pursuant to the requirements of
            Standard CIP-005.
            R1.5. Cyber Assets used in the access control and monitoring of the Electronic
            Security Perimeter(s) shall be afforded the protective measures as a specified in
            Standard CIP- 003, Standard CIP-004 Requirement R3, Standard CIP-005
            Requirements R2 and R3, Standard CIP-006 Requirements R2 and R3, Standard
            CIP-007, Requirements R1 and R3 through R9, Standard CIP-008, and Standard
            CIP-009.
            R1.6. The Responsible Entity shall maintain documentation of Electronic Security
            Perimeter(s), all interconnected Critical and non-critical Cyber Assets within the
            Electronic Security Perimeter(s), all electronic access points to the Electronic
            Security Perimeter(s) and the Cyber Assets deployed for the access control and
            monitoring of these access points.

    NERC CIP 003 R5

    Requirement
    R5. Access Control — The Responsible Entity shall document and implement a program
    for managing access to protected Critical Cyber Asset information.
           R5.1. The Responsible Entity shall maintain a list of designated personnel who
           are responsible for authorizing logical or physical access to protected information.
                   R5.1.1. Personnel shall be identified by name, title, business phone and
                   the information for which they are responsible for authorizing access.
                   R5.1.2. The list of personnel responsible for authorizing access to
                   protected information shall be verified at least annually.

                                                                                           107
       R5.2. The Responsible Entity shall review at least annually the access privileges
       to protected information to confirm that access privileges are correct and that they
       correspond with the Responsible Entity‘s needs and appropriate personnel roles
       and responsibilities.
       R5.3. The Responsible Entity shall assess and document at least annually the
       processes for controlling access privileges to protected information.

Measures
To be compliant each Responsible Entity must follow measures to demonstrate
compliance with these requirements. The follow are the measure and how our project
will provide a valid means of proving compliance:

M5. The access control documentation as specified in Requirement R5.

NERC CIP 003 R6

Requirement
R6. Change Control and Configuration Management — The Responsible Entity shall
establish and document a process of change control and configuration management for
adding, modifying, replacing, or removing Critical Cyber Asset hardware or software,
and implement supporting configuration management activities to identify, control and
document all entity or vendor related changes to hardware and software components of
Critical Cyber Assets pursuant to the change control process.

Measures
To be compliant each Responsible Entity must follow measures to demonstrate
compliance with these requirements. The follow are the measure and how our project
will provide a valid means of proving compliance:


M6. The Responsible Entity‘s change control and configuration management
documentation as specified in Requirement R6.

NERC CIP 005 R3

Requirement
R3. Monitoring Electronic Access — The Responsible Entity shall implement and
document an electronic or manual process(es) for monitoring and logging access at
access points to the Electronic Security Perimeter(s) twenty-four hours a day, seven days
a week.
       R3.1. For dial-up accessible Critical Cyber Assets that use non-routable protocols,
       the Responsible Entity shall implement and document monitoring process(es) at
       each access point to the dial-up device, where technically feasible.
       R3.2. Where technically feasible, the security monitoring process(es) shall detect
       and alert for attempts at or actual unauthorized accesses. These alerts shall
       provide for appropriate notification to designated response personnel. Where

                                                                                       108
       alerting is not technically feasible, the Responsible Entity shall review or
       otherwise assess access logs for attempts at or actual unauthorized accesses at
       least every ninety calendar days.

Measures
To be compliant each Responsible Entity must follow measures to demonstrate
compliance with these requirements. The follow are the measure and how our project
will provide a valid means of proving compliance:

M3. Documentation of controls implemented to log and monitor access to the Electronic
Security Perimeter(s) as specified in Requirement R3.




                                                                                         109
Appendix O Control from Touch Screen to Breaker




                                                  110

				
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