Under federal law (IDEA), an orthopedic
impairment means a severe bodily
impairment that adversely affects a
child's educational performance. An
orthopedic impairment involves the
skeletal system-bones, joints, limbs, and
The term includes impairments due to
the effects of congenital anomaly (e.g.,
clubfoot, absence of some member,
rheumatoid Arthritis, etc.), impairments
due to the effects of disease (e.g.,
muscular dystrophy, bone tuberculosis,
etc.), and impairments from other
causes (e.g., cerebral palsy,
amputations, and fractures or burns that
Draw a line going to the correct answer.
Picture # 1 Rheumatoid Arthritis
Picture # 2 Severe Burn
Picture # 3 Amputee
Picture # 4 Leg Injury
Picture # 5 Club Foot
__F___ Orthopedic Impairments include- Scoliosis, Cerebral Palsy, ADHD, and Muscular
__T___ Students with Orthopedic Impairment receive IEPs.
__T___ People can develop or be born with Orthopedic Impairments.
__F___ Students with Orthopedic Impairments always have poor social skills
__F___ a student in a wheel chair doesn’t need any modifications in PE.
__T___ a student with an amputated leg can participate in sitting volleyball.
How many did you get correct?
- Club Foot
- Muscular Dystrophy
Clubfoot describes a range of foot abnormalities usually
present at birth in which a persons foot is twisted out of shape.
The term "clubfoot" refers to the way the foot is positioned, like
the head of a golf club. Clubfoot is a common birth defect.
The cause of clubfoot isn't known, But scientists do know that
clubfoot isn't caused by the position of the fetus in the uterus.
Treatment begins soon after birth since a babies bones are so
flexible. Treatment methods include:
- Stretching and casting. This entails manipulating the foot into a correct position
and casting it to maintain that position. Repositioning and recasting occurs every
week for several weeks. After the shape of the foot is realigned, it's maintained
through stretching exercises, special shoes or splinting at night for up to two years.
- Surgery. Some severe cases of clubfoot may require surgery. An orthopedic
surgeon can lengthen tendons to help ease the foot into a more appropriate
position. After surgery, the child needs to wear a brace for a year or so to prevent
recurrence of the deformities.
Even with treatment, the defect may not be totally correctable, but
treatment usually improves the appearance and function of the foot.
Psychomotor- Walking on the side of their feet.
This may also cause their calf muscle not grow
Cognitive- Many children that have clubfoot often
go through many surgeries at a very young age.
This could cause them to often miss school and be
Affective- The child may worry about their body
image as they get older.
These are severe cases of club foot. Your future students may have mild to severe
cases of club foot if they have not been corrected.
• refers to a group of genetic, hereditary muscle diseases that weaken the
muscles that move the human body. There are nine MD diseases,
Duchenne is the most common.
• These conditions are inherited, and the different muscular dystrophies
follow various inheritance patterns. The best-known type, Duchenne
Musculary Distrophy (DMD), is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern,
meaning that the mutated gene that causes the disorder is located on
the X chromosome, one of the two sex chromosomes and is thus
• There is no known cure for muscular dystrophy, therefore there is no
specific treatment. Inactivity can worsen the disease. Physical Therapy,
occupational therapy, speech therapy and orthopedic instruments (e.g.,
wheel chairs, standing frames) may be helpful
• Progressive Muscular Wasting (weakness), Poor Balance, Frequent Falls,
Walking Difficulty, Calf Pain, Limited Range of Movement, Muscle
Contractures, Respiratory Difficulty, Drooping Eyelids, Scoliosis, Inability to
Psychomotor- The onset of MD will begin with a
child who may start to stumble, have difficulty going
up stairs and begin to walk on his toes. As time goes
on they might lose the ability to walk. A child may
need to use a wheel chair or leg braces.
Cognitive- Children with DMD don’t really show signs
of poor cognitive skills.
Affective- The child may also worry about their body
image as they get older. And begin to become very
angry towards other and self because his/her
condition may be getting worse
• Injuries can include broken or fractured bones, sever
burns, sprained joints, and pulled muscles. Anything that is
short term and keep a student for performing normal
• Causes can vary from falls, sports accidents, play ground
accidents, or any other accidental injury that causes a
person to be impaired for some time.
• Depending on the injury treatment varies. For a broken leg, a
cast would be put on for a period of time, then taken off and the
person might have some type of therapy.
› Depending on the injury will lose the ability of using that
› Usually there is no cognitive effect but if a child has some
brain damage they could experience memory loss.
› Some student might now like feeling of being left out.
Here are the various injuries you may come across in your school.
1. Grab a pen and paper
2. Using only your non-dominant hand,
write down a few differences between
the three sub categories we discussed.
Just in case you forgot they are……
Short term injuries
Scenario #1- A student has severe club
foot, she wants to participate in a game
of kick ball. What would you do?
Scenario #2- A student has very little leg
strength due to his MD, he is not in a
wheel chair, but uses a walker. How will
you keep him active?
Scenario #3- A student has a broken arm
and your teaching a basketball unit.
How will you include him?
Scenario#1- We would give the student some type of striking
tool like a hockey stick. This way the student can hold it in
their hands and still strike the ball coming at them.
Scenario #2- to keep this student active we would have him
do stretching and strength training.
Scenario #3- We would teach the child the proper way to
shoot but only using one hand. The child will be able to play
almost normal with one hand. The only real modification we
would make would be to make the defense more relaxed
when playing that particular student.
Special seating arrangements may need to be mad to
develop useful posture and movements
› Can include special chairs, desks,
Activities are focused on development of the students
gross and fine motor skills
Having suitable augmentative communication and
other assistive devices
› Augmentative communication is communicating without
Awareness of the affects the medical condition might
have on the student.
› Example is if the student gets tired easily
If your student is in a wheelchair sit at eye level if the
conversation is going to be a long one.
Always ask before you give assistance.
(2007). Retrieved 03 2009, from Human Illnesses :
FWD Media Inc. (2009). Retrieved 03 2009, from Brain Pop: Duchenne Muscular
Heller, D. K. (2001). Bureau for Students with physical and health impairments. Retrieved
03 2009, from In servicing School Personnel on Orthopedic Impairments :
Mayo Clinic. (2008, Nov 6). Retrieved 03 2009, from Children's Health:
Muscular Dystrophy Association. (2007, 07). Retrieved 03 2009, from Diseases:
National Association of Parents with Children in Special Education. (2007). Retrieved 03
2009, from Exceptional Children and Disability information: Orthopedic Impairment:
Project Ideal. (2008). Retrieved 03 2009, from Orthopedic Impairments:
Winnick, J. P. (2005). Adapted Physical Education and Sport. In J. P. Winnick, Adapted
Physical Education and Sport. Human Kinetics.