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Project Report for Cell Phone Controlled Home Automation

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					    Chapter 10

   Mobile Commerce
and Pervasive Computing
          Nextbus:
  A Superb Customer Service
• The Problem
  – San Francisco buses have difficulty
    keeping up with the posted schedule,
    especially during rush hours
  – The scheduled times become meaningless




                                         5
            Nextbus (cont.)
• The Solution
  – San Francisco implemented a system
    called NextBus (nextbus.com)
  – The system tracks public transportation
    buses in real time
  – NextBus calculates the estimated arrival
    time of the bus to each bus stop on the
    route


                                               6
           Nextbus (cont.)
– Arrival times are displayed in real time on:
  • Internet-enabled wireless device
  • The Internet and on a public screen at each bus
    stop
– GPS satellites let the NextBus information
  center know where a bus is located
  making it possible to calculate arrival
  times



                                                      7
Nextbus (cont.)




                  8
            Nextbus (cont.)
• The Results
  – Worries about missing the bus are
    diminished
  – A bus company can also use the system to
    improve scheduling, arrange for extra
    buses when needed, and make its
    operations more efficient



                                           9
              Nextbus (cont.)
• What we can learn…
  – location-based e-commerce, a major part of
    mobile commerce
  – EC services are provided to customers wherever
    they are located
  – exemplifies pervasive computing—services are
    seamlessly blended into the environment without
    the user being aware of the technology behind the
    scenes



                                                   10
         Mobile Commerce
• Mobile commerce (m-commerce,
  m-business): e-commerce carried out
  anywhere and anytime using wireless
  computing technologies
• Mobile commerce is a natural extension of
  e-business



                                          11
   Mobile Commerce Generations
• 1G: The first generation of wireless technology
  – used analog communication
  – designed for voice communication(mobile phones
• 2G: The second generation of digital wireless
  technology
  – Capable of providing voice/data/fax transfers, albeit at
    low data rates
  – SMS was introduced in 1994 and became a popular
    tool associated with GSM (Global System for Mobile
    communications)

                                                          12
           Mobile Commerce
           Generations (cont.)
• 2.5G: Interim wireless technology that has
  greater bandwidth
  – GPRS (general packet radio service)
  – Uses packet switching, which offers high data
    transfer rates compared to the circuit
    switching of GSM




                                                13
           Mobile Commerce
           Generations (cont.)
• 3G: The third generation of digital wireless
  technology
  – High data transfer rates (2 mbs)
  – supports rich media such as video and
    graphics




                                             14
           Mobile Commerce
           Generations (cont.)
• 4G: The next generation of wireless
  technology
  – Very high data transfer rates (20 Mbps)
  – Expected to be available by 2010




                                              15
         Mobile Commerce
         Generations (cont.)
• Personal digital assistant (PDA): A
  handheld wireless computer




                                        16
     Mobile Commerce (cont.)
• Short Message Service (SMS):
  Technology that allows for sending of
  short text messages on some cell
  phones
• Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS): An
  extension of SMS capable of simple
  animation, tiny pictures, and short tunes


                                              17
     Mobile Commerce (cont.)
• Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS):
  The next generation of wireless
  messaging; will be able to deliver rich
  media
• Smartphone: Internet-enabled cell phones
  that can support mobile applications



                                         18
  Framework of Mobile Computing
  Technologies for Virtual Teams
                                              Communication Technology




                                                            Audio Communication




                                                      Video Conferencing Synchronous Chat




                                              Project Management

                                                                                    E-mail




                                                                                  Personal Information
                                                                                      Management
                                          Group Support
                                            Systems




                       Spreadsheet Analysis                            Data Warehouses                   Internet Search
                               Tools               OLAP                                                      Engines




Decision Support Technology                                                                                            Information Access Technology


                                                                                                                                                       19
The Domain of Mobile Commerce
                          Ef f ective Proximity is Not   Ef f ective Proximity is
                                    Important                   Important                                 Domain of
                Urgency                                                                                Mobile Computing




                                                                                                    Utility
 High Urgency




                                                                                     High Utility
 Low Urgency


                                                                             Low Utility

                                                                                                                          Proximity




                                                                                                                                      20
    Mobile Commerce (cont.)
Twelve applications of m-commerce
• Mobile financial     • Proactive service
  applications (B2C,     management
  B2B)                   (B2C, B2B)
• Mobile advertising   • Product locating
  (B2C)                  and shopping
• Mobile inventory       (B2C, B2B)
  management           • Wireless
  (B2C, B2B)             reengineering
                         (B2C, B2B)
                                             21
    Mobile Commerce (cont.)
Twelve applications of m-commerce
• Mobile auction or   • Mobile distance
  reverse auction       education (B2C)
  (B2C)               • Wireless data
• Mobile                center (B2C, B2B)
  entertainment       • Mobile
  services (B2C)        music/music-on-
• Mobile office         demand (B2C)
  (B2C)


                                            22
           Mobile Commerce:
         Attributes and Benefits
• Specific attributes of m-commerce
  – Mobility
  – Broad reach
• Benefits of value-added attributes
  –   Ubiquity
  –   Convenience
  –   Instant connectivity
  –   Personalization
  –   Localization of products and services

                                              23
Mobile Commerce:
 Characteristics




                   24
     Mobile Commerce (cont.)
• Drivers of m-commerce
  – Widespread availability of devices
  – Lower prices for handheld devices
  – No need for a PC
  – The handset culture
  – Vendors’ push
  – Improvement of bandwidth


                                         25
     Mobile Commerce (cont.)
• M-commerce value chain
  – Transport
  – Enabling services
  – Transaction support
  – Presentation services
  – Personalization support
  – User applications
  – Content aggregators


                               26
Mobile Computing Infrastructure
                  (cont.)
• Wireless LAN (WLAN): LAN without the
  cables; used to transmit and receive data
  over the airwaves
• Wireless access point: An antenna
  connecting a mobile device (laptop or
  PDA) to a wired LAN



                                              37
Mobile Computing Infrastructure
                   (cont.)
• 802.11b: Standard, developed by the
  IEEE, on which most of today’s WLANs
  run; WLANs employing this standard have
  communication speeds of 11 mbps
• Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi): Another name for
  the 802.11b standard on which most
  WLANs run


                                            38
Mobile Computing Infrastructure
                   (cont.)
• SIM-based authentication
  – usually implemented as a smart card
    containing an authentication key along
    with other vital information about the
    subscriber
  – PIN number protects the cell phone
    against illegal use if it happens to be
    stolen or lost


                                              40
Mobile Computing Infrastructure




                              42
 Mobile Financial Applications (cont.)
• Micropayments: Electronic payments for
  small-purchase amounts (generally less
  than $10)
  – Wide-ranging applications, such as
    making payments to parking garages,
    restaurants, grocery stores, and public
    utilities
  – Success depends on the costs of the
    transactions


                                              47
Mobile Financial Applications (cont.)
• M-wallet (mobile wallet): A wireless wallet
  that enables cardholders to make
  purchases with a single click from their
  wireless device




                                                48
Mobile Financial Applications:
        Bill Payments




                            49
   Mobile Financial Applications:
       Bill Payments (cont.)
• Bill payments
    A number of companies are now providing
    their customers with the option of paying
    their bills directly from a cell phone




                                            50
     Mobile Advertising (cont.)
• Targeted advertising
  – Knowing the current location of mobile
    users (using GPS) and their preferences or
    surfing habits, marketers can send user-
    specific advertising messages




                                             52
   Mobile Advertising (cont.)
– Advertisements can also be location
  sensitive, informing a user about various
  ongoing special sales in shops, malls, and
  restaurants close to where a potential
  buyer is
– SMS messages or short paging messages
  can be used to deliver these ads to cell
  phones and pagers, respectively


                                           53
Mobile Advertising and Content
        Providing (cont.)
• Mobile portal: A customer interaction
  channel that aggregates content and
  services for mobile users




                                          55
     Mobile Intrabusiness
      and Applications

• Support for mobile employees
   Mobile employees need the same
   corporate data available to employees
   working inside the company’s offices




                                       56
         Mobile Intrabusiness
        and Applications (cont.)
• Wearable devices: Mobile wireless
  computing devices for employees who
  work on buildings and other difficult-to-
  climb places




                                              57
        Mobile Intrabusiness
       and Applications (cont.)
• Examples of wearable devices
  – Cameras
  – Screen
  – Keyboard
  – Touch-panel display




                                  58
         Mobile B2B and
     Supply Chain Applications
• Mobile computing solutions enable
  organizations to:
  – Respond faster to supply chain
    disruptions
  – Proactive adjustment of plans or shifting
    resources related to critical supply chain
    events as they occur



                                                 64
        Mobile B2B and
Supply Chain Applications (cont.)
– Wireless telemetry is an integrated messaging
  system that combines:
   • wireless communications
   • vehicle monitoring systems
   • vehicle location devices




                                                  65
        Mobile B2B and
Supply Chain Applications (cont.)
– Technology enables:
  • Large-scale automation of data capture
  • Improved billing timeliness and accuracy
  • Reduced overhead associated with the
    manual alternative
  • Increased customer satisfaction through
    service responsiveness




                                               66
      Mobile Consumer and
   Personal Service Applications
• Mobile games
  – With more than 1 billion cell phones in use
    today the potential audience for mobile
    games is substantially larger than the
    market for other platforms




                                              67
       Mobile Consumer and
 Personal Service Applications (cont.)
• Mobile entertainment
  – The availability of portable MP3 players
    has lead to the development of music
    devices integrated with mobile phones
  – With higher bandwidth, music vendors can
    offer instant delivery of songs from their
    music libraries for online purchase




                                             69
      Mobile Consumer and
Personal Service Applications (cont.)
– Handset vendors have cell phones that
  enable users to send pictures from one
  device to another
– As the 3G handsets hit the market, mobile
  devices will begin to support the
  downloading and real-time playback of
  audio and video clips




                                              70
   Location-Based Commerce
• Location-based commerce (l-commerce):
  M-commerce transactions targeted to
  individuals in specific locations, at specific
  times
• L-commerce offers:
  – Safety
  – Convenience
  – Productivity


                                               74
    Location-Based Commerce (cont.)
•    L-commerce basic services revolve
     around five key areas:
    1.   Location
    2.   Navigation
    3.   Tracking
    4.   Mapping
    5.   Timing


                                         75
   Location-Based Commerce (cont.)
• Necessary location-based and network
  technologies:
  – Position-determining equipment (PDE)
  – Mobile positioning center (MPC)
  – Location-based technology
  – Geographic content
  – Location-specific content

   Visit http://www.ip2location.com/ for an
   example
                                              76
    Location-Based Commerce (cont.)
• Global positioning system (GPS): A
  wireless system that uses satellites to
  enable users to determine their position
  anywhere on the earth
• GPS handsets can be:
  – stand-alone units
  – plugged into a mobile device or
    completely embedded in one

                                             77
    Location-Based Commerce (cont.)
• Geographical information system (GIS):
  System that integrates GSP data onto
  digitized map displays
• Wireless 911 (e-911): Calls from cellular
  phones to providers of emergency
  services



                                              78
Location-Based Commerce (cont.)




                                  79
Location-Based Commerce (cont.)




                              80
    Location-Based Commerce (cont.)
• Automatic crash notification (ACN): Device
  that automatically sends the police the
  location of a vehicle that has been involved
  in a crash
• Telematics: The integration of computers
  and wireless communications to improve
  information flow using the principles of
  telemetry


                                                 81
   Location-Based Commerce (cont.)
• Barriers to l-commerce
  – Accuracy
  – The cost-benefit justification
  – The bandwidth of GSM networks
  – Invasion of privacy
  – The vast quantity of date that needs to be
    coordinated



                                                 82
         Pervasive Computing
• Pervasive computing: Invisible,
  everywhere computing that is embedded
  in the objects around us
• Also know as:
  – ubiquitous computing
  – embedded computing
  – augmented computing


                                          83
      Pervasive Computing (cont.)
• Properties of pervasive computing
  –   Invisible devices
  –   Embedded microchips
  –   Always on
  –   Ubiquitous network
  –   Life-enhancing applications
  –   Consumer-centric solutions
  –   Increasing productivity
  –   Long-term vision


                                      85
   Pervasive Computing (cont.)
• Technical foundation of pervasive
  computing
  – Everyday objects have to contain
    embedded microprocessors
  – A ubiquitous network is needed to connect
    these microprocessors
  – The microprocessors must be able to
    communicate with the ubiquitous network



                                            86
       Inhibitors and Barriers
        to L-Commerce (cont.)
• Mobile visitors to a Web site are paying
  premium rates for connections and are
  focused on a specific goal
• To find exactly what they are looking for
  easily and quickly customers need more
  than text-only devices with small screens



                                              102
       Inhibitors and Barriers
        to L-Commerce (cont.)
• Technical limitations
  – Lack of a standardized security protocol
  – Insufficient bandwidth
  – Transmission and power consumption
    limitations
  – WAP limitations




                                               103

				
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