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					The Civil Rights Movement

   Keep your Eye on the Prize
• Jim Crow Laws and Black Codes that
  began after the Civil War had been
  interfering with black Civil Rights
• Blacks were not allowed to exercise their
  rights to vote
• Black and whites were segregated at all
  public places including bathrooms,
  busses, restaurants, parks, schools, etc…
 Post-Reconstruction Race Relations

                                                Howard University

NAACP Office window

                                Read Lynching Story
Post-Reconstruction Race Relations
• Jim Crow Laws: a system of laws and
  customs that enforced racial segregation and
  discrimination throughout the United States,
  especially the South, from the late 19th
  century through the 1960s.
    The Civil Rights Movement prior to 1954

    Pre-1900              To 1930               To 1940
• Opposition to      • Booker T.           • A. Philip Randolph
  slavery in           Washington and        forced a federal
  colonial days        W.E.B. Du Bois        ban against
                                             discrimination in
• Abolition          • Founding of the       defense work.
  movement and         NAACP in 1909
  Civil War                                • 1940s founding of
                     • African Americans     CORE
• Legalized racism     suffered worse
  after                than others         • President Truman
  Reconstruction       during the Great      desegregated the
                       Depression.           armed forces.
• 1896 Plessy v.
  Ferguson allowed   • Roosevelt           • Brooklyn Dodgers
  the segregation      unwilling to push     put an African
  of African           too hard for          American—Jackie
  Americans and        greater African       Robinson—on its
  whites.              American rights.      roster.
            Seeking Change in the Courts

The NAACP attacked racism through the courts.

In the 1930s Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood
Marshall began a campaign to attack the concept of ―separate
but equal.‖

The NAACP began to chip away at the 1896 Supreme Court
ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson—the legal basis for segregation.
Plessy v. Ferguson
    • On June 7, 1892, a 30-year-old black
      man named Homer Plessy was jailed
      for sitting in the "White" car of the
      East Louisiana Railroad.
    • Plessy was only 1/8th black and 7/8th
      white, but under Louisiana law, he
      was considered black and therefore
      required to sit in the "Colored" car.
    • Case went all the way to the Supreme
      Court which ruled that “Separate
      facilities are constitutional as long as
      they are equal”
    • This was a win for segregation laws
      because they were now backed by the
      Supreme Court
    Jackie Robinson 42
 Born in Cairo, Georgia, in
 Robinson’s family moved to
California after his father
deserted the family.
 At the University of
California in Los Angeles,
Robinson starred in football,
track, basketball and
 In 1944, Robinson played in
the Negro leagues on a team
called the Kansas City
Playing for the Dodgers
  Branch Rickey, president and General Manager
  of the Brooklyn Dodgers, noticed Robinson’s
  exceptional talent.

  In 1946 Branch Rickey signed Jackie Robinson.

  Jackie Robinson, at the age of 27, became the first
  Black Baseball player in Major League history.
A Strange Choice
      Jackie Robinson was not exactly a
      logical choice to become the first
      African American ball player.
       •   He was not a prospect.
           Robinson was already 27
           when he entered the league.
       •   He had a somewhat
           inflammatory temper.
       •   Rickey believed that
           Robinson’s outspoken
           mentality would benefit the
           cause in the long run.
       •   However, Rickey did urge
           Robinson to maintain a level
           head in his first few years.
           Knowing the importance of
           his actions, Robinson
   Jackie’s Courage
Jackie Robinson faced
virulent racism.
    Members of his own team
    refused to play with him.
    Opposing pictures tried to
    beam his head, while base
    runners tried to spike
    He received hate mail and
    death threats daily.
    Fans shouted Racist
    remarks at him in every
    ball park.
    Hotels and restaurants
    refused to serve him
One game in Cincinnati the crowd was especially
insulting. They were yelling unimaginable
insults at Jackie Robinson.
Jackie’s teammate Pee Wee Reese recognized
that the crowd was getting to Jackie.
Pee Wee Reese walked across the field and put
his arm around Jackie. The two smiled at each
other. Their compassion silenced the crowd.
Jackie and Civil Rights
  Jackie Robinson’s Actions effected the world
  far beyond Major League Baseball.

  His courage and discipline in standing up
  against racism were a preview of the actions
  taken by many members of The Civil Rights

  The success of the Jackie Robinson
  experiment was a testament to fact that
  integration could exist.
          School Segregation
• In the 1950’s,
  segregation was
  widely accepted
  throughout the
• In fact, law in
  most Southern
  states required it.
 Key Issues in the Supreme Court’s ruling on
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

• Thurgood Marshall began to focus on
  desegregating the nation’s elementary and high
  schools in the 1950s.
• He found a case in Linda Brown of Topeka,
• The Supreme Court combined several school
  segregation cases from around the country into
  a single case: Brown v. Board of Education of
  Topeka, Kansas.
• The Supreme Court was aware of this case’s
  great significance.
 1954 – Brown v. Board of
Education of Topeka, Kansas
          • In Topeka, Kansas, a black third-
            grader named Linda Brown had to
            walk one mile through a railroad
            switchyard to get to her black
            elementary school, even though a
            white elementary school was only
            seven blocks away.
          • Linda's father, Oliver Brown, tried
            to enroll her in the white
            elementary school, but the
            principal of the school refused.
          • Brown went to the NAACP for help
            and they agreed to take the case.
          • Thurgood Marshall was assigned
            the Brown’s lawyer.
· With help from the NAACP, the case of Brown v. Board of
Education of Topeka reached the Supreme Court, challenging
the constitutionality of Plessy v. Ferguson.
· Brown’s lawyer,
Thurgood Marshall,
argued that “separate”
could never be
“equal” and that
segregated schools
violated the
guarantee to provide
“equal protection” to
all citizens.
           Brown v. Board of Education

The Supreme Court heard arguments over a two-year
period. The Court also considered research about
segregation’s effects on African American children.

In 1954 Chief Justice Earl Warren issued the Supreme
Court’s decision.

All nine justices agreed that separate schools for African
Americans and whites violated the Constitution’s
guarantee of equal protection of the law.
* In 1954, the Supreme
Court ruled in favor of
the Brown family, and
schools nationwide
were ordered to be

George E.C. Hayes,
Thurgood Marshall,
and James M. Nabrit,
following Supreme
Court decision ending
Linda Brown and her new class mates after Court decision.
Thurgood Marshall
 Associate Justice,
U.S. Supreme Court.
   Mississippi and the Emmett Till Case -
 The Supreme Courts order to desegregate
  schools began a backlash in the South
 White gangs committed beatings, burnings, and
  lynchings since all-white juries refused to convict
  whites for killing blacks
 The case that drew national attention was the
  killing of 14 year old Emmett Till, a teenager
  from Chicago, who was visiting relatives that
Emmitt Till Murder Case
 On a dare from his pals, Emmett spoke
  flirtatiously to a white woman, saying ―Bye,
  Baby‖ as he left a store
 Several nights later the woman’s husband
  and brother kidnapped Emmett and his body
  was found 3 days later in the river
 There was barbed wire around his neck, a
  bullet in his skull, one eye gouged out, and
  his forehead was crushed on one side.
 A jury found the husband and brother not
  guilty despite overwhelming evidence.
Rosa Parks
   Rosa Parks was born on
   February 4, 1913. She grew
   up in Pine Level, Alabama,
   right outside of Montgomery.
   In the South, Jim Crow laws
   segregated African
   American’s and whites in
   almost every aspect of life.
     • This included a seating
       policy on buses. White’s
       sat in the front, Blacks
       sat in the back.
     • Buses also drove White
       students to school. Black
       students were forced to
       walk everyday.
The Arrest
 On December 1, 1955
 Rosa Parks refused
 to give up her seat to
 a White man on a
 bus.                     “People always say that I
 Parks was arrested       didn't give up my seat because
 and charged with the     I was tired, but that isn't true.
 violation of a           I was not tired physically, or
 segregation law in       no more tired than I usually
 The Montgomery City      was at the end of a working
 Code.                    day. I was not old, although
                          some people have an image of
 50 African American
                          me as being old then. I was
 leaders in the
                          forty-two. No, the only tired I
 community met to
                          was, was tired of giving in.” -
 discuss what to do
                          Rosa Parks Autobiography
 about Rosa’s arrest.
         The Montgomery Bus Boycott

• When Rosa Parks was arrested, the NAACP
  called for a one-day boycott of the city bus
• Community leaders formed the Montgomery
  Improvement Association and selected Martin
  Luther King Jr. as its leader.
• African Americans continued to boycott the bus
  system for a year—which hurt the bus system
  and other white businesses.
Montgomery Bus
           40,000 Black
           commuters walked to
           work, some as far as
           twenty miles.
           The boycott lasted 382
           The bus companies
           finances struggled.
           Until the law that
           called for segregation
           on busses was finally
                 Montgomery, Alabama

The Montgomery Bus Boycott
• In 1955 a local NAACP member named Rosa Parks refused to
  give her seat to white riders.
• The resulting Montgomery bus boycott led to a Supreme
  Court ruling that segregation on buses was unconstitutional.

The Southern Christian Leadership Conference
• African Americans formed the Southern Christian Leadership
  Conference, or SCLC, to protest activities taking place all across
  the South.
• Martin Luther King Jr. was the elected leader of this group—
  which was committed to mass, nonviolent action.
       Martin Luther King Jr.

Born in Atlanta, Georgia.
Graduated Morehouse College with a
Bachelor of Arts degree in Sociology.
Later, at Boston University, King
received a Ph.D. in systematic theology.
In 1953, at the age of 26, King
became pastor at the Dexter
Avenue Baptist Church
in Montgomery Alabama.
His start as a Civil Rights
leader came during the
Bus Boycott.
 Career As A Leader

In 1955 he became involved in The Montgomery
Bus Boycott. The Boycott was the start to his
incredible career as the most famous leader of the
Civil Rights movement.
He went on to deliver numerous powerful speeches
promoting peace and desegregation.
During The March On Washington he delivered one
of the most famous speeches of 20th century titled,
“I Have A Dream”
Before he was assassinated in 1968, he won the
Nobel Peace Prize.
Civil Disobedience
     In 1957 King helped found the
     Southern Christian Leadership
     Conference (SCLC).
       A group that used the
        authority and power of Black
        churches to organize non-
        violent protest to support the
        Civil Rights Movement.
       led to media coverage of the
        daily inequities suffered by
        Southern Blacks.
       The televised segregation
        violence led to mass public
              The Little Rock Crisis

• The Supreme Court’s ruling did not offer guidance
  about how or when desegregation should occur.
• Some states integrated quickly. Other states
  faced strong opposition.
• Virginia passed laws that closed schools who
  planned to integrate.
• In Little Rock, Arkansas, the governor violated a
  federal court order to integrate Little Rock’s
  Central High School.
Integrated schools:
· In Little Rock,
Arkansas, Gov. Orval
Faubus opposed
· In 1957, he called out the National Guard in order to prevent
African Americans from attending an all-white high school.

· Gov. Faubus was violating federal law.
          The Little Rock Nine
• The name given to the 9
  black students who
  attend Little Rock High
• Although the students
  were allowed to enter the
  school without physical
  injury a mob of 1,000
  townspeople prevented
  them from remaining at
Bottom Row, Left to Right: Thelma Mothershed, Minnijean Brown,
Elizabeth Eckford, Gloria Ray; Top Row, Left to Right: Jefferson
Thomas, Melba Pattillo, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls, Daisy
Bates(NAACP President), Ernest Green
The Government Steps in
                  President Eisenhower
                   ordered 10,000 National
                   Guardsmen to Little Rock
                   to protect the Little Rock
                  The Guardsmen were
                   assigned to each student
                   and followed them
                   through their day
                  The students were still
                   spat upon and called
                   names by the white
                   students but they
                   remained and the school
                   was desegregated
· Therefore, Pres. Eisenhower sent troops to Little Rock
where, under their protection, the African American students
were able to enter Central High School.

arriving at
Little Rock,
in U.S.
Army car,
Members of the 101st US-Airborne Division
escorting the Little Rock Nine to school
        Results of Little Rock
• Little Rock Nine
  suffered harassment
  and threats
• Faubus closed all
  Little Rock schools
  the next year rather
  than integrate
• Courts forced Faubus
  to re-open school and
          Non-Violent Protests during
           the Civil Rights Movement

• Civil rights workers used several direct,
  nonviolent methods to confront discrimination
  and racism in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
  – Boycotts
  – Sit-ins
  – Freedom Rides
• Many of these non-violent tactics were based on
  those of Mohandas Gandhi—a leader in India’s
  struggle for independence from Great Britain.
    1960 – Sit In Campaigns begin
• After having been refused service at the lunch counter of
  a Woolworth's in Greensboro, North Carolina, Joseph
  McNeill, a Negro college student, returned the next day
  with three classmates to sit at the counter until they were
  served. They were not served

•   The four students returned to the lunch counter each

• More students joined the protest

• Despite beatings, being doused with ammonia, heavy
  court fines, arrest and imprisonment, new waves of
  students appeared at lunch counters to continue the
  movement through February and March.
Sit in Protests
Freedom Rides      In 1961, campaign to
                    try to end the
1961                segregation of bus
                   Their plan was to test
                    the Supreme Court’s
                    ruling that segregated
                    seating on interstate
                    buses and trains was
                    Local segregation
                    laws were frequently
                    used to arrest and try
                    the freedom riders
                   more than 300
                    Freedom Riders
                    traveled through the
                    deep south in an
                    effort to integrate the
                    bus terminals
                • When freedom riders
                  were savagely beaten in
Freedom Rides     Montgomery, Alabama,
                • one of President
                  representatives was also
                  knocked unconscious and
                  left lying in the street for
                  half an hour.
                • Kennedy sent in 600
                  federal marshals
                • Kennedy made a deal
                  with Democratic
                  governors and
                  congressmen the he
                  would not send in federal
                  troops as long as they
                  made sure there was no
                  mob violence against the
One little girl leads the way…

                                                              Ruby Bridges,
                                                              the sole African
                                                              American child
                                                              to attend a New
                                                              school after
                                                              desegregation in

The Problem We All Live With by Norman Rockwell, 1964
 The painting was a social commentary on the situation into
 which thousands of African American students were thrust
      during the early years of school desegregation.
             Ruby Bridges
 In 1960, at the age of 6, Ruby Bridges became the first
    black elementary school child to attend a white
   Due to White opposition of integration, Ruby needed
    to be escorted to school by federal marshals.
   After Ruby entered the school, many of the teachers
    refused to teach and many of the White students went
   Ruby went to school everyday.

     The Problem We All Live With, By Norman Rockwell
James Meredith tries to enroll at
  the University of Mississippi
                 • Meredith becomes the
                   first black student to
                   enroll at the University of
                 • Riots and violence break
                 • University ordered by
                   governor to lock door on
                 • Kennedy ordered Federal
                   Marshals to escort
                   Meredith to campus and
                   help him enroll
          The Birmingham Campaign
                   The Campaign
• Martin Luther King raised money to fight
  Birmingham’s segregation laws.
• Volunteers began with sit-ins and marches and
  were quickly arrested.
• King hoped this would motivate more people to
  join the protests.
• White clergy attacked King’s actions in a
  newspaper ad.
• King wrote his ―Letter from a Birmingham Jail.‖
• Fewer African Americans were willing to join and
  risk their jobs.
        The Birmingham Campaign
►A SCLC leader convinced King
 to use children for his
►More  than 900 children
 between ages six and
 eighteen were arrested.
►Police Chief Eugene “Bull”
 Connor used police and fire
 fighters to break up a group
 of about 2,500 student
►The  violence of Connor’s
 methods was all over the
 television news.
►Federal   negotiators got the
 city officials to agree to many
 of King’s demands.
Letter from a Birmingham Jail
            • Birmingham, Alabama was
              one of the most segregated
              cities in the 1960’s
            • King and other ministers lead
              a protest march in which
              protestors are met with
              policemen and dogs
            • King is arrested and put in
              solitary confinement for 3
              days in which he wrote a letter
            • The letter gave a moving
              justification on moral grounds
              for the necessity for non-
              violent resistence to unjust
Bombing of Baptist Church
   September 1963
             • Ku Klux Klan bombed
               16th Street Baptist Church
             • Four little black girls who
               were preparing for
               Sunday School were
             • Klan members tried but
               found not guilty
             • New evidence found in
               2001 linking people to
               bombing and they are
               tried and convicted
Medgar Evers is murdered
June 12, 1962
   Evers and his wife
    moved to Jackson, MS
   He began investigating
    violent crimes committed
    against blacks and
    sought ways to prevent
   On June 12, 1963, as he
    was returning home,
    Medgar Evers was killed
    by an assassin’s bullet.
Murder of Medgar Evers

   The accused killer, a
    white supremacist
    named Byron De La
    Beckwith, stood trial
    twice in the 1960s
   in both cases the all-
    white juries could not
    reach a verdict.
   Finally, in a third trial
    in 1994. Beckwith
    was convicted and
    sentenced to life in
        March on Washington
• Despite worries that
  few people would
  attend and that
  violence could erupt,
  civil rights organizers
  proceeded with this
  historic gathering
• Congregating at the
  Lincoln Memorial,
  hundreds of
  thousands of people
  listened to King
  deliver his ―I have a
  Dream Speech‖.
          I Have A Dream Speech

     The powerful words of Martin Luther King Jr.
        “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up
         and live out the true meaning of its creed: - 'We hold
         these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created
        “I have a dream that one day even the state of
         Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of
         injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will
         be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.”
        “I have a dream that my four little children will one
         day live in a nation where they will not be judged by
         the color of their skin but by the content of their
        “black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles,
         Protestants and Catholics - will be able to join hands
         and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: "Free
         at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free
         at last!"
Gaining Voting Rights for African Americans
               in the South

• President Kennedy was worried about the violent reactions
  to the nonviolent methods of the civil rights movement.
   – Attorney General Robert Kennedy urged SNCC leaders to
     focus on voter registration rather than on protests.
   – He promised that the federal government would protect civil
     rights workers if they focused on voter registration.
• The Twenty-fourth Amendment outlawed the practice of
  taxing citizens to vote.
• Hundreds of people volunteered to spend their summers
  registering African Americans to vote.
           Gaining Voting Rights

      Twenty-fourth Amendment
•Congress passed the Twenty-fourth
 Amendment in August 1962.
•The amendment banned states from
 taxing citizens to vote—for example, poll
•It applied only to elections for president
 or Congress.
1963-Freedom Summer
       • massive efforts to register
         black voters
       • SNCC, CORE, and other
         groups founded the Voter
         Education Project (VEP) to
         register southern African
         Americans to vote.
       • Mississippi was particularly
         hard—VEP workers lived in
         daily fear for their safety.
       • VEP was a success—by 1964
         they had registered more than a
         half million more African
         American voters.
                 Gaining Voting Rights
      Freedom Summer
• Hundreds of college students
  volunteered to spend the
  summer registering African
  Americans to vote.
• The project was called
  Freedom Summer.
• Most of the trainers were from
  poor, southern African
  American families.
• Most of the volunteers were
  white, northern, and upper
  middle class.
• Volunteers registered voters or
  taught at summer schools.
Mississippi Burning
            • James E. Chaney,
              21; Andrew
              Goodman, 21; and
              Schwerner, 24, had
              been working to
              register black
              voters in

            • On June 21, they
              had gone to
              investigate the
              burning of a black
   Drove my Chevy to the
• They were arrested by the
  police on speeding charges
• jailed for several hours,
  and then released after
  dark into the hands of the
  Ku Klux Klan, who
  murdered them.
• The bodies are found in an
  earthen dam, six weeks
  into a federal investigation
  backed by President
   The Results of Project Freedom Summer

Organizers considered Mississippi’s Freedom Summer
project a success.

The Freedom Schools taught 3,000 students.

More than 17,000 African Americans in Mississippi applied
to vote.

State elections officials accepted only about 1,600 of the
17,000 applications.

This helped show that a federal law was needed to secure
voting rights for African Americans.
        Civil Rights Act of 1964
   President Lyndon Baines Johnson asked
    for and received the most comprehensive
    civil-rights act to date

   the act specifically prohibited
    discrimination in voting, education, and
    the use of public facilities.

   Title VI of the act barred the use of federal
    funds for segregated programs and
          Passing the Civil Rights Act

• President Johnson supported passage of a
  strong civil rights bill.
• Some southerners in Congress fought hard to
  kill his bill.
• Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into
  law on July 2, 1964.
• The law banned discrimination in employment
  and in public accommodations.
March on Selma
          Outraged over the killing of a
           demonstrator by a state
           trooper in Marion, Alabama,
           the black community of
           Marion decided to hold a
          Martin Luther King agreed to
           lead the marchers on Sunday,
           March 7, from Selma to
           Montgomery, the state capital
          There they would appeal
           directly to governor Wallace
           to stop police brutality and
           call attention to their struggle
           for suffrage.
   When the marchers
    reached the city line, they
    found a posse of state        March on
    troopers waiting for them.
   As the demonstrators
    crossed the bridge
    leading out of Selma,
    they were ordered to
    leave by the State
   The police attacked the
    crowd of people who had
    bowed their heads in
   Using tear gas and
    batons, the troopers
    chased the
    demonstrators to a black
    housing project, where
    they continued to beat the
Bloody Sunday    (Selma March)

              Bloody Sunday received
               national attention, and
               numerous marches were
               organized in response
              Martin Luther King led a
               march to the Selma
               Bridge that Tuesday,
               during which one
               protestor was killed.
              Finally, with President
               Johnson's permission, Dr.
               King led a successful
               march from Selma to
               Montgomery on March
Voting Rights Act of 1965
             • prohibits literacy tests
               and poll taxes which
               had been used to
               prevent blacks from
             • Huge rise in
               registered black
               voters in the South
      Fractures in the civil rights movement

• Conflict among the diverse groups of the civil rights
  movement developed in the 1960s.
• Many SNCC and CORE members were beginning to question
   – In 1966 SNCC abandoned the philosophy of nonviolence.
• Huey Newton and Bobby Seale formed the Black Panther
  Party and called for violent revolution as a means of African
  American liberation.
• Malcolm X and the Black Muslims were critical of King and
               Fractures in the Movement
    Black Power           Black Panthers           Black Muslims
• Stokely               • The Black Panther      • Nation of Islam
  Carmichael              Party was formed         was a large and
  became the head of      in Oakland,              influential group
  SNCC.                   California, in 1966.     who believed in
• SNCC abandoned        • Called for violent       Black Power.
  the philosophy of       revolution as a
                                                 • Message of black
  nonviolence.            means of African
                                                   nationalism, self-
• Black Power                                      discipline, and
  became the new                                   self-reliance.
                        • Members carried
  rallying cry.                                  • Malcolm X
                          guns and
• Wanted African                                   offered message
                          monitored African
  Americans to                                     of hope, defiance,
  depend on                                        and black pride.
                          neighborhoods to
  themselves to solve     guard against
  problems.               police brutality.
Malcom X is Assassinated
February 21, 1964
                     Black nationalist and black
                     Promotes the use of
                      violence against the whites
                     Shot to death and assassins
                      are believed to be members
                      of the Black Muslim faith
                      because he has recently
                      abandoned the group in
                      favor of orthodox Islam
                  Malcolm X
X Born in Omaha Nebraska, Malcolm Little was
    the son of a Baptist preacher who urged Blacks
    to stand up for their rights.
X   His father was killed by White Supremacist in
    Michigan, in 1931.
X   After time, Malcolm moved to Harlem where he
    became involved in gambling, drug dealing and
X   Malcolm Was Arrested at the age
    of 20 for armed robbery.
X   In jail he studied the teaching of the
    Elijah Muhammad.
Elijah Muhammad
    X Elijah Muhammad was the leader
      of the mostly Black political and
      religious group The Nation Of
         His teachings, often perceived as
          racist, preached complete
          separation from Whites in
         He often expressed the idea the
          Blacks were the first people to
          rule the world and that the
          Whites tricked them out of
          power and oppressed them.
         Young Malcolm X developed his
          adept speaking skills and
          political ideas under the
          direction of Elijah Muhammad.
     Nation Of Islam
X The Nation Of Islam
  (NOI) was an activist
  group that believed that
  most African slaves
  were originally Muslim.
X The NOI urged African
  Americans to reconvert
  to Islam in effort to
  restore the heritage that was stolen from them.
X The NOI wanted to create a second Black
  nation within the United States.
X The “X” in Malcolm’s name symbolizes the
  rejection of his slave name.
  Malcolm X Speaks, 1965
X “Be peaceful, be
  courteous, obey the law,
  respect everyone; but if
  someone puts his hand
  on you, send him to the
X “Nobody can give you
  freedom. Nobody can
  give you equality or
  justice or anything. If
  you're a man, you take
X “You can't separate peace
  from freedom because no
  one can be at peace
  unless he has his
Tension In The Nation Of
        X   By the start of the 60’s Tension
            was growing in The Nation of
              Malcolm X was exposed to
               rumors that Elijah
               Muhammad had indulged in
               extramarital affairs.
                 Adultery is shunned in the
                   Muslim doctrine.
        X Malcolm Believed that Elijah
          Muhammad was jealous of his
          increasing popularity.
        X The Nation of Islam blamed
          Malcolm X for his
          controversial remarks
          regarding John F. Kennedy Jr.
    The JFK Controversy
X   After the assassination of
    John F. Kennedy, Malcolm X
    made a speech.
      Malcolm claimed that the
      violence Kennedy failed to
      prevent ended up to come
      back and claim his life.
     He stated that assassination
      was an example of “the
      chickens coming home to
     He later stated, "Chickens
      coming home to roost never
      made me sad. It only made
      me glad."
     This comment lead to
      widespread public dismay.
Pilgrimage to Mecca
X In 1964, during a pilgrimage to Mecca,
  Malcolm discovered that orthodox Muslims
  preach equality among races.

X Malcolm’s new knowledge and growing
  distrust with the NOI, caused him to desert his
  argument that all Whites are the devil.

X Malcolm X never abandoned his theory that
  Racism had destroyed the nation and that only
  Blacks could free themselves.

X In 1965 Malcolm X was assassinated by a Black
  Muslim at a New York City rally.
Malcolm X Quotes (On King)
 X He got the peace prize, we got the problem.... If
   I'm following a general, and he's leading me into
   a battle, and the enemy tends to give him
   rewards, or awards, I get suspicious of him.
   Especially if he gets a peace award before the
   war is over.
 X I'll say nothing against him. At one time the
   whites in the United States called him a
   racialist, and extremist, and a Communist. Then
   the Black Muslims came along and the whites
   thanked the Lord for Martin Luther King.
 X I want Dr. King to know that I didn't come to
   Selma to make his job difficult. I really did come
   thinking I could make it easier. If the white
   people realize what the alternative is, perhaps
   they will be more willing to hear Dr. King.
 X Dr. King wants the same thing I want --
Black Power Movement
          ►   Stokely Carmichael, a
              leader of the Student
              Nonviolent Coordinating
              Committee (SNCC), coins
              the phrase "black power"
              in a speech in Seattle.
          ►   He defines it as an
              assertion of black pride
              and "the coming together
              of black people to fight for
              their liberation by any
              means necessary."
        Black Power
Black Power is a term that emphasizes racial
pride and the desire for African Americans to
achieve equality.
The term promotes the creation of Black political
and social institutions.
Many SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating
Committee) members were becoming critical of
leaders that articulated non-violent responses to

Tommie Smith and
   John Carlos
Tommie Smith and
John Carlos give the
Black Power salute at
the 1968 Summer
The two men were
suspended by the
United States team and
banned from Olympic
The action is
considered a milestone
of The Civil Rights
 Black Panther Party

U.S. African American Militant group.
Founded in 1966 in Oakland.
Led by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.
Believed violent revolution was the only
way to receive freedom.
Urged African Americans to arm
The Violent Panthers
         In the late 60’s party
         leaders got involved in
         violent confrontations
         with the police.
           The results was death on
            both sides.
         Huey Newton was tried
         in 1967 for killing a
         police officer.
         Black Panther activist
         Bobby Seale, was a
         member of the Chicago
           A group of eight people
            who disrupted the 1968
            Democratic convention.
             The Black Power Movement

• The civil rights movement took place at the height of the
  Cold War.
• FBI director J. Edgar Hoover created a secret program to
  keep an eye on groups that caused unrest in American
• Hoover considered King and the Black Power movement a
  threat to American society.
• The FBI infiltrated civil rights movement groups and
  worked to disrupt them.
   – Spread false rumors that the Black Panthers intended to kill
     SNCC members
   – Forged harmful posters, leaflets, and correspondence from
     targeted groups
            The Decline of Black Power
   The Black Panthers                      SNCC
• Hoover was particularly       • SNCC collapsed with the
  concerned about the Black       help of the FBI.
                                • H. Rap Brown, the leader
• Police raided Black Panther     who replaced Stokely
  headquarters in many            Carmichael as the head of
  cities.                         SNCC, was encouraged to
                                  take radical and shocking
• Armed conflict resulted,        positions.
  even when Black Panther
  members were unarmed.         • Brown was encouraged to
                                  take these positions by his
• By the early 1970s, armed       staff—many of whom
  violence had led to the         worked for the FBI.
  killing or arrest of many
  Black Panther members.        • Membership declined
             Loving v. Virginia
► In   Loving v. Virginia, the Supreme Court
  rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is
► Sixteen states that still banned interracial
  marriage at the time are forced to revise
  their laws
► What does this mean for homosexual
  marriage today?
             The Civil Rights Movement
               Expands to the North

• The civil rights movement had done much to bring an end
  to de jure segregation—or segregation by law.
• However, changes in law had not altered attitudes and
  many were questioning nonviolent protest as an effective
  method of change.
• In most of America there was still de facto
  segregation—segregation that exists through custom and
  practice rather than by law.
• African Americans outside the South also faced
  discrimination—in housing, by banks, in employment.
               Expanding the Movement
  Conditions outside the              Urban Unrest
                               • Frustration over the urban
• Most African Americans         conditions exploded into
  outside the South lived in     violence.
  cities.                         – Watts (Los Angeles) in
• African Americans were            1965
  kept in all-black parts of      – Detroit in 1967
  town because they were
  unwelcome in white           • President Johnson
  neighborhoods.                 appointed the Kerner
                                 Commission to study the
• Discrimination in banking      causes of urban rioting.
  made home ownership and
  home and neighborhood           – Placed the blame on
  improvements difficult.           poverty and
• Job discrimination led to
  high unemployment and
 Race   • Race Riots erupt in
Riots     Watts, a black section of
          Los Angeles in 1965
Erupt   • Claimed 34 lives and
          caused over $200 million
          in property damage

        • Race riots again erupted
          in 1992 after the acquittal
          of white police officers
          who beat a black motorist
           – 58 people died and
             approximately $1 billion in
             property was destroyed.
            The Movement Moves North

The riots convinced King that the civil rights movement
needed to move north. He focused on Chicago in 1966.

The eight month Chicago campaign was one of King’s
biggest failures.

Chicago’s African Americans did not share his civil rights
focus—their concerns were economic.

King discovered that some northern whites who had
supported him and criticized racism in the South had no
interest in seeing it exposed in the North.
   King’s Last Speech before he is
       The Death of Martin Luther King Jr.

King became aware that economic issues must be part of
the civil rights movement.

King went to Memphis, Tennessee to help striking
sanitation workers. He led a march to city hall.

James Earl Ray shot and killed King as he stood on the
balcony of his motel.

Within hours, rioting erupted in more than 120 cities.
Within three weeks, 46 people were dead, some 2,600
were injured, and more than 21,000 were arrested.
Martin Luther King Jr. Dies
       April 4, 1967
                 Martin Luther King, at
                  age 39, is shot as he
                  stands on the balcony
                  outside his hotel room.
                 Escaped convict and
                  committed racist James
                  Earl Ray is convicted of
                  the crime.
    The Civil Rights Movement after Martin
                 Luther King Jr.

King realized that most African Americans were prevented
from achieving equality because they were poor.

Ralph Abernathy, the new leader of the SCLC, led
thousands of protesters to the nation’s capital as part of
the Poor People’s Campaign.

The campaign turned out to be a disaster. Bad weather
and terrible media relations marred the campaign.

The campaign also failed to express clearly the protesters’
needs and demands.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
       (Fair Housing Act)

                    President Johnson
                     signs the act
                    Prohibits
                     discrimination in the
                     sale, rental, and
                     financing of housing
         Civil Rights Changes in the 1970s

• Busing and political change—to speed the integration of city
  schools, courts began ordering that some students be bused
  from their neighborhood schools to schools in other areas
   – Busing met fierce opposition in the North.
   – Busing was a major cause of the migration of whites from
     cities to suburbs.
   – This development increased the political power of African
     Americans in the cities.
• Affirmative action—programs that gave preference to
  minorities and women in hiring and admissions to make up for
  past discrimination against these groups
                  The New Black Power

• Black Power took on a new form and meaning in the 1970s.
• African Americans became the majority in many counties in the
• African Americans were elected to public office.
• African Americans who played roles in the civil rights movement
  provided other services to the nation
   – Thurgood Marshal became Supreme Court’s first African
     American justice.
   – John Lewis represented the people of Alabama in Congress.
   – Andrew Young became Georgia’s first African American
     member of Congress since Reconstruction, U.S. ambassador
     to the United Nations, and mayor of Atlanta.
   – Jesse Jackson founded a civil rights organization called
     Operation PUSH and campaigned for the Democratic
     presidential nomination in the 1980s.