The Civil Rights Movement
Keep your Eye on the Prize
• Jim Crow Laws and Black Codes that
began after the Civil War had been
interfering with black Civil Rights
• Blacks were not allowed to exercise their
rights to vote
• Black and whites were segregated at all
public places including bathrooms,
busses, restaurants, parks, schools, etc…
Post-Reconstruction Race Relations
NAACP Office window
Read Lynching Story
Post-Reconstruction Race Relations
• Jim Crow Laws: a system of laws and
customs that enforced racial segregation and
discrimination throughout the United States,
especially the South, from the late 19th
century through the 1960s.
The Civil Rights Movement prior to 1954
Pre-1900 To 1930 To 1940
• Opposition to • Booker T. • A. Philip Randolph
slavery in Washington and forced a federal
colonial days W.E.B. Du Bois ban against
• Abolition • Founding of the defense work.
movement and NAACP in 1909
Civil War • 1940s founding of
• African Americans CORE
• Legalized racism suffered worse
after than others • President Truman
Reconstruction during the Great desegregated the
Depression. armed forces.
• 1896 Plessy v.
Ferguson allowed • Roosevelt • Brooklyn Dodgers
the segregation unwilling to push put an African
of African too hard for American—Jackie
Americans and greater African Robinson—on its
whites. American rights. roster.
Seeking Change in the Courts
The NAACP attacked racism through the courts.
In the 1930s Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood
Marshall began a campaign to attack the concept of ―separate
The NAACP began to chip away at the 1896 Supreme Court
ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson—the legal basis for segregation.
Plessy v. Ferguson
• On June 7, 1892, a 30-year-old black
man named Homer Plessy was jailed
for sitting in the "White" car of the
East Louisiana Railroad.
• Plessy was only 1/8th black and 7/8th
white, but under Louisiana law, he
was considered black and therefore
required to sit in the "Colored" car.
• Case went all the way to the Supreme
Court which ruled that “Separate
facilities are constitutional as long as
they are equal”
• This was a win for segregation laws
because they were now backed by the
Jackie Robinson 42
Born in Cairo, Georgia, in
Robinson’s family moved to
California after his father
deserted the family.
At the University of
California in Los Angeles,
Robinson starred in football,
track, basketball and
In 1944, Robinson played in
the Negro leagues on a team
called the Kansas City
Playing for the Dodgers
Branch Rickey, president and General Manager
of the Brooklyn Dodgers, noticed Robinson’s
In 1946 Branch Rickey signed Jackie Robinson.
Jackie Robinson, at the age of 27, became the first
Black Baseball player in Major League history.
A Strange Choice
Jackie Robinson was not exactly a
logical choice to become the first
African American ball player.
• He was not a prospect.
Robinson was already 27
when he entered the league.
• He had a somewhat
• Rickey believed that
mentality would benefit the
cause in the long run.
• However, Rickey did urge
Robinson to maintain a level
head in his first few years.
Knowing the importance of
his actions, Robinson
Jackie Robinson faced
Members of his own team
refused to play with him.
Opposing pictures tried to
beam his head, while base
runners tried to spike
He received hate mail and
death threats daily.
Fans shouted Racist
remarks at him in every
Hotels and restaurants
refused to serve him
One game in Cincinnati the crowd was especially
insulting. They were yelling unimaginable
insults at Jackie Robinson.
Jackie’s teammate Pee Wee Reese recognized
that the crowd was getting to Jackie.
Pee Wee Reese walked across the field and put
his arm around Jackie. The two smiled at each
other. Their compassion silenced the crowd.
Jackie and Civil Rights
Jackie Robinson’s Actions effected the world
far beyond Major League Baseball.
His courage and discipline in standing up
against racism were a preview of the actions
taken by many members of The Civil Rights
The success of the Jackie Robinson
experiment was a testament to fact that
integration could exist.
• In the 1950’s,
• In fact, law in
states required it.
Key Issues in the Supreme Court’s ruling on
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
• Thurgood Marshall began to focus on
desegregating the nation’s elementary and high
schools in the 1950s.
• He found a case in Linda Brown of Topeka,
• The Supreme Court combined several school
segregation cases from around the country into
a single case: Brown v. Board of Education of
• The Supreme Court was aware of this case’s
1954 – Brown v. Board of
Education of Topeka, Kansas
• In Topeka, Kansas, a black third-
grader named Linda Brown had to
walk one mile through a railroad
switchyard to get to her black
elementary school, even though a
white elementary school was only
seven blocks away.
• Linda's father, Oliver Brown, tried
to enroll her in the white
elementary school, but the
principal of the school refused.
• Brown went to the NAACP for help
and they agreed to take the case.
• Thurgood Marshall was assigned
the Brown’s lawyer.
· With help from the NAACP, the case of Brown v. Board of
Education of Topeka reached the Supreme Court, challenging
the constitutionality of Plessy v. Ferguson.
· Brown’s lawyer,
argued that “separate”
could never be
“equal” and that
guarantee to provide
“equal protection” to
Brown v. Board of Education
The Supreme Court heard arguments over a two-year
period. The Court also considered research about
segregation’s effects on African American children.
In 1954 Chief Justice Earl Warren issued the Supreme
All nine justices agreed that separate schools for African
Americans and whites violated the Constitution’s
guarantee of equal protection of the law.
* In 1954, the Supreme
Court ruled in favor of
the Brown family, and
were ordered to be
George E.C. Hayes,
and James M. Nabrit,
Court decision ending
Linda Brown and her new class mates after Court decision.
U.S. Supreme Court.
Mississippi and the Emmett Till Case -
The Supreme Courts order to desegregate
schools began a backlash in the South
White gangs committed beatings, burnings, and
lynchings since all-white juries refused to convict
whites for killing blacks
The case that drew national attention was the
killing of 14 year old Emmett Till, a teenager
from Chicago, who was visiting relatives that
Emmitt Till Murder Case
On a dare from his pals, Emmett spoke
flirtatiously to a white woman, saying ―Bye,
Baby‖ as he left a store
Several nights later the woman’s husband
and brother kidnapped Emmett and his body
was found 3 days later in the river
There was barbed wire around his neck, a
bullet in his skull, one eye gouged out, and
his forehead was crushed on one side.
A jury found the husband and brother not
guilty despite overwhelming evidence.
Rosa Parks was born on
February 4, 1913. She grew
up in Pine Level, Alabama,
right outside of Montgomery.
In the South, Jim Crow laws
American’s and whites in
almost every aspect of life.
• This included a seating
policy on buses. White’s
sat in the front, Blacks
sat in the back.
• Buses also drove White
students to school. Black
students were forced to
On December 1, 1955
Rosa Parks refused
to give up her seat to
a White man on a
bus. “People always say that I
Parks was arrested didn't give up my seat because
and charged with the I was tired, but that isn't true.
violation of a I was not tired physically, or
segregation law in no more tired than I usually
The Montgomery City was at the end of a working
Code. day. I was not old, although
some people have an image of
50 African American
me as being old then. I was
leaders in the
forty-two. No, the only tired I
community met to
was, was tired of giving in.” -
discuss what to do
Rosa Parks Autobiography
about Rosa’s arrest.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
• When Rosa Parks was arrested, the NAACP
called for a one-day boycott of the city bus
• Community leaders formed the Montgomery
Improvement Association and selected Martin
Luther King Jr. as its leader.
• African Americans continued to boycott the bus
system for a year—which hurt the bus system
and other white businesses.
commuters walked to
work, some as far as
The boycott lasted 382
The bus companies
Until the law that
called for segregation
on busses was finally
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
• In 1955 a local NAACP member named Rosa Parks refused to
give her seat to white riders.
• The resulting Montgomery bus boycott led to a Supreme
Court ruling that segregation on buses was unconstitutional.
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference
• African Americans formed the Southern Christian Leadership
Conference, or SCLC, to protest activities taking place all across
• Martin Luther King Jr. was the elected leader of this group—
which was committed to mass, nonviolent action.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Born in Atlanta, Georgia.
Graduated Morehouse College with a
Bachelor of Arts degree in Sociology.
Later, at Boston University, King
received a Ph.D. in systematic theology.
In 1953, at the age of 26, King
became pastor at the Dexter
Avenue Baptist Church
in Montgomery Alabama.
His start as a Civil Rights
leader came during the
Career As A Leader
In 1955 he became involved in The Montgomery
Bus Boycott. The Boycott was the start to his
incredible career as the most famous leader of the
Civil Rights movement.
He went on to deliver numerous powerful speeches
promoting peace and desegregation.
During The March On Washington he delivered one
of the most famous speeches of 20th century titled,
“I Have A Dream”
Before he was assassinated in 1968, he won the
Nobel Peace Prize.
In 1957 King helped found the
Southern Christian Leadership
A group that used the
authority and power of Black
churches to organize non-
violent protest to support the
Civil Rights Movement.
led to media coverage of the
daily inequities suffered by
The televised segregation
violence led to mass public
The Little Rock Crisis
• The Supreme Court’s ruling did not offer guidance
about how or when desegregation should occur.
• Some states integrated quickly. Other states
faced strong opposition.
• Virginia passed laws that closed schools who
planned to integrate.
• In Little Rock, Arkansas, the governor violated a
federal court order to integrate Little Rock’s
Central High School.
· In Little Rock,
Arkansas, Gov. Orval
· In 1957, he called out the National Guard in order to prevent
African Americans from attending an all-white high school.
· Gov. Faubus was violating federal law.
The Little Rock Nine
• The name given to the 9
black students who
attend Little Rock High
• Although the students
were allowed to enter the
school without physical
injury a mob of 1,000
them from remaining at
Bottom Row, Left to Right: Thelma Mothershed, Minnijean Brown,
Elizabeth Eckford, Gloria Ray; Top Row, Left to Right: Jefferson
Thomas, Melba Pattillo, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls, Daisy
Bates(NAACP President), Ernest Green
The Government Steps in
ordered 10,000 National
Guardsmen to Little Rock
to protect the Little Rock
The Guardsmen were
assigned to each student
and followed them
through their day
The students were still
spat upon and called
names by the white
students but they
remained and the school
· Therefore, Pres. Eisenhower sent troops to Little Rock
where, under their protection, the African American students
were able to enter Central High School.
Members of the 101st US-Airborne Division
escorting the Little Rock Nine to school
Results of Little Rock
• Little Rock Nine
• Faubus closed all
Little Rock schools
the next year rather
• Courts forced Faubus
to re-open school and
Non-Violent Protests during
the Civil Rights Movement
• Civil rights workers used several direct,
nonviolent methods to confront discrimination
and racism in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
– Freedom Rides
• Many of these non-violent tactics were based on
those of Mohandas Gandhi—a leader in India’s
struggle for independence from Great Britain.
1960 – Sit In Campaigns begin
• After having been refused service at the lunch counter of
a Woolworth's in Greensboro, North Carolina, Joseph
McNeill, a Negro college student, returned the next day
with three classmates to sit at the counter until they were
served. They were not served
• The four students returned to the lunch counter each
• More students joined the protest
• Despite beatings, being doused with ammonia, heavy
court fines, arrest and imprisonment, new waves of
students appeared at lunch counters to continue the
movement through February and March.
Sit in Protests
Freedom Rides In 1961, campaign to
try to end the
1961 segregation of bus
Their plan was to test
the Supreme Court’s
ruling that segregated
seating on interstate
buses and trains was
laws were frequently
used to arrest and try
the freedom riders
more than 300
traveled through the
deep south in an
effort to integrate the
• When freedom riders
were savagely beaten in
Freedom Rides Montgomery, Alabama,
• one of President
representatives was also
knocked unconscious and
left lying in the street for
half an hour.
• Kennedy sent in 600
• Kennedy made a deal
congressmen the he
would not send in federal
troops as long as they
made sure there was no
mob violence against the
One little girl leads the way…
the sole African
to attend a New
The Problem We All Live With by Norman Rockwell, 1964
The painting was a social commentary on the situation into
which thousands of African American students were thrust
during the early years of school desegregation.
In 1960, at the age of 6, Ruby Bridges became the first
black elementary school child to attend a white
Due to White opposition of integration, Ruby needed
to be escorted to school by federal marshals.
After Ruby entered the school, many of the teachers
refused to teach and many of the White students went
Ruby went to school everyday.
The Problem We All Live With, By Norman Rockwell
James Meredith tries to enroll at
the University of Mississippi
• Meredith becomes the
first black student to
enroll at the University of
• Riots and violence break
• University ordered by
governor to lock door on
• Kennedy ordered Federal
Marshals to escort
Meredith to campus and
help him enroll
The Birmingham Campaign
• Martin Luther King raised money to fight
Birmingham’s segregation laws.
• Volunteers began with sit-ins and marches and
were quickly arrested.
• King hoped this would motivate more people to
join the protests.
• White clergy attacked King’s actions in a
• King wrote his ―Letter from a Birmingham Jail.‖
• Fewer African Americans were willing to join and
risk their jobs.
The Birmingham Campaign
►A SCLC leader convinced King
to use children for his
►More than 900 children
between ages six and
eighteen were arrested.
►Police Chief Eugene “Bull”
Connor used police and fire
fighters to break up a group
of about 2,500 student
►The violence of Connor’s
methods was all over the
►Federal negotiators got the
city officials to agree to many
of King’s demands.
Letter from a Birmingham Jail
• Birmingham, Alabama was
one of the most segregated
cities in the 1960’s
• King and other ministers lead
a protest march in which
protestors are met with
policemen and dogs
• King is arrested and put in
solitary confinement for 3
days in which he wrote a letter
• The letter gave a moving
justification on moral grounds
for the necessity for non-
violent resistence to unjust
Bombing of Baptist Church
• Ku Klux Klan bombed
16th Street Baptist Church
• Four little black girls who
were preparing for
Sunday School were
• Klan members tried but
found not guilty
• New evidence found in
2001 linking people to
bombing and they are
tried and convicted
Medgar Evers is murdered
June 12, 1962
Evers and his wife
moved to Jackson, MS
He began investigating
violent crimes committed
against blacks and
sought ways to prevent
On June 12, 1963, as he
was returning home,
Medgar Evers was killed
by an assassin’s bullet.
Murder of Medgar Evers
The accused killer, a
named Byron De La
Beckwith, stood trial
twice in the 1960s
in both cases the all-
white juries could not
reach a verdict.
Finally, in a third trial
in 1994. Beckwith
was convicted and
sentenced to life in
March on Washington
• Despite worries that
few people would
attend and that
violence could erupt,
civil rights organizers
proceeded with this
• Congregating at the
thousands of people
listened to King
deliver his ―I have a
I Have A Dream Speech
The powerful words of Martin Luther King Jr.
“I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up
and live out the true meaning of its creed: - 'We hold
these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created
“I have a dream that one day even the state of
Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of
injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will
be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.”
“I have a dream that my four little children will one
day live in a nation where they will not be judged by
the color of their skin but by the content of their
“black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles,
Protestants and Catholics - will be able to join hands
and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: "Free
at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free
Gaining Voting Rights for African Americans
in the South
• President Kennedy was worried about the violent reactions
to the nonviolent methods of the civil rights movement.
– Attorney General Robert Kennedy urged SNCC leaders to
focus on voter registration rather than on protests.
– He promised that the federal government would protect civil
rights workers if they focused on voter registration.
• The Twenty-fourth Amendment outlawed the practice of
taxing citizens to vote.
• Hundreds of people volunteered to spend their summers
registering African Americans to vote.
Gaining Voting Rights
•Congress passed the Twenty-fourth
Amendment in August 1962.
•The amendment banned states from
taxing citizens to vote—for example, poll
•It applied only to elections for president
• massive efforts to register
• SNCC, CORE, and other
groups founded the Voter
Education Project (VEP) to
register southern African
Americans to vote.
• Mississippi was particularly
hard—VEP workers lived in
daily fear for their safety.
• VEP was a success—by 1964
they had registered more than a
half million more African
Gaining Voting Rights
• Hundreds of college students
volunteered to spend the
summer registering African
Americans to vote.
• The project was called
• Most of the trainers were from
poor, southern African
• Most of the volunteers were
white, northern, and upper
• Volunteers registered voters or
taught at summer schools.
• James E. Chaney,
Goodman, 21; and
Schwerner, 24, had
been working to
• On June 21, they
had gone to
burning of a black
Drove my Chevy to the
• They were arrested by the
police on speeding charges
• jailed for several hours,
and then released after
dark into the hands of the
Ku Klux Klan, who
• The bodies are found in an
earthen dam, six weeks
into a federal investigation
backed by President
The Results of Project Freedom Summer
Organizers considered Mississippi’s Freedom Summer
project a success.
The Freedom Schools taught 3,000 students.
More than 17,000 African Americans in Mississippi applied
State elections officials accepted only about 1,600 of the
This helped show that a federal law was needed to secure
voting rights for African Americans.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
President Lyndon Baines Johnson asked
for and received the most comprehensive
civil-rights act to date
the act specifically prohibited
discrimination in voting, education, and
the use of public facilities.
Title VI of the act barred the use of federal
funds for segregated programs and
Passing the Civil Rights Act
• President Johnson supported passage of a
strong civil rights bill.
• Some southerners in Congress fought hard to
kill his bill.
• Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into
law on July 2, 1964.
• The law banned discrimination in employment
and in public accommodations.
March on Selma
Outraged over the killing of a
demonstrator by a state
trooper in Marion, Alabama,
the black community of
Marion decided to hold a
Martin Luther King agreed to
lead the marchers on Sunday,
March 7, from Selma to
Montgomery, the state capital
There they would appeal
directly to governor Wallace
to stop police brutality and
call attention to their struggle
When the marchers
reached the city line, they
found a posse of state March on
troopers waiting for them.
As the demonstrators
crossed the bridge
leading out of Selma,
they were ordered to
leave by the State
The police attacked the
crowd of people who had
bowed their heads in
Using tear gas and
batons, the troopers
demonstrators to a black
housing project, where
they continued to beat the
Bloody Sunday (Selma March)
Bloody Sunday received
national attention, and
numerous marches were
organized in response
Martin Luther King led a
march to the Selma
Bridge that Tuesday,
during which one
protestor was killed.
Finally, with President
Johnson's permission, Dr.
King led a successful
march from Selma to
Montgomery on March
Voting Rights Act of 1965
• prohibits literacy tests
and poll taxes which
had been used to
prevent blacks from
• Huge rise in
voters in the South
Fractures in the civil rights movement
• Conflict among the diverse groups of the civil rights
movement developed in the 1960s.
• Many SNCC and CORE members were beginning to question
– In 1966 SNCC abandoned the philosophy of nonviolence.
• Huey Newton and Bobby Seale formed the Black Panther
Party and called for violent revolution as a means of African
• Malcolm X and the Black Muslims were critical of King and
Fractures in the Movement
Black Power Black Panthers Black Muslims
• Stokely • The Black Panther • Nation of Islam
Carmichael Party was formed was a large and
became the head of in Oakland, influential group
SNCC. California, in 1966. who believed in
• SNCC abandoned • Called for violent Black Power.
the philosophy of revolution as a
• Message of black
nonviolence. means of African
• Black Power discipline, and
became the new self-reliance.
• Members carried
rallying cry. • Malcolm X
• Wanted African offered message
Americans to of hope, defiance,
depend on and black pride.
themselves to solve guard against
problems. police brutality.
Malcom X is Assassinated
February 21, 1964
Black nationalist and black
Promotes the use of
violence against the whites
Shot to death and assassins
are believed to be members
of the Black Muslim faith
because he has recently
abandoned the group in
favor of orthodox Islam
X Born in Omaha Nebraska, Malcolm Little was
the son of a Baptist preacher who urged Blacks
to stand up for their rights.
X His father was killed by White Supremacist in
Michigan, in 1931.
X After time, Malcolm moved to Harlem where he
became involved in gambling, drug dealing and
X Malcolm Was Arrested at the age
of 20 for armed robbery.
X In jail he studied the teaching of the
X Elijah Muhammad was the leader
of the mostly Black political and
religious group The Nation Of
His teachings, often perceived as
racist, preached complete
separation from Whites in
He often expressed the idea the
Blacks were the first people to
rule the world and that the
Whites tricked them out of
power and oppressed them.
Young Malcolm X developed his
adept speaking skills and
political ideas under the
direction of Elijah Muhammad.
Nation Of Islam
X The Nation Of Islam
(NOI) was an activist
group that believed that
most African slaves
were originally Muslim.
X The NOI urged African
Americans to reconvert
to Islam in effort to
restore the heritage that was stolen from them.
X The NOI wanted to create a second Black
nation within the United States.
X The “X” in Malcolm’s name symbolizes the
rejection of his slave name.
Malcolm X Speaks, 1965
X “Be peaceful, be
courteous, obey the law,
respect everyone; but if
someone puts his hand
on you, send him to the
X “Nobody can give you
freedom. Nobody can
give you equality or
justice or anything. If
you're a man, you take
X “You can't separate peace
from freedom because no
one can be at peace
unless he has his
Tension In The Nation Of
X By the start of the 60’s Tension
was growing in The Nation of
Malcolm X was exposed to
rumors that Elijah
Muhammad had indulged in
Adultery is shunned in the
X Malcolm Believed that Elijah
Muhammad was jealous of his
X The Nation of Islam blamed
Malcolm X for his
regarding John F. Kennedy Jr.
The JFK Controversy
X After the assassination of
John F. Kennedy, Malcolm X
made a speech.
Malcolm claimed that the
violence Kennedy failed to
prevent ended up to come
back and claim his life.
He stated that assassination
was an example of “the
chickens coming home to
He later stated, "Chickens
coming home to roost never
made me sad. It only made
This comment lead to
widespread public dismay.
Pilgrimage to Mecca
X In 1964, during a pilgrimage to Mecca,
Malcolm discovered that orthodox Muslims
preach equality among races.
X Malcolm’s new knowledge and growing
distrust with the NOI, caused him to desert his
argument that all Whites are the devil.
X Malcolm X never abandoned his theory that
Racism had destroyed the nation and that only
Blacks could free themselves.
X In 1965 Malcolm X was assassinated by a Black
Muslim at a New York City rally.
Malcolm X Quotes (On King)
X He got the peace prize, we got the problem.... If
I'm following a general, and he's leading me into
a battle, and the enemy tends to give him
rewards, or awards, I get suspicious of him.
Especially if he gets a peace award before the
war is over.
X I'll say nothing against him. At one time the
whites in the United States called him a
racialist, and extremist, and a Communist. Then
the Black Muslims came along and the whites
thanked the Lord for Martin Luther King.
X I want Dr. King to know that I didn't come to
Selma to make his job difficult. I really did come
thinking I could make it easier. If the white
people realize what the alternative is, perhaps
they will be more willing to hear Dr. King.
X Dr. King wants the same thing I want --
Black Power Movement
► Stokely Carmichael, a
leader of the Student
Committee (SNCC), coins
the phrase "black power"
in a speech in Seattle.
► He defines it as an
assertion of black pride
and "the coming together
of black people to fight for
their liberation by any
Black Power is a term that emphasizes racial
pride and the desire for African Americans to
The term promotes the creation of Black political
and social institutions.
Many SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating
Committee) members were becoming critical of
leaders that articulated non-violent responses to
Tommie Smith and
Tommie Smith and
John Carlos give the
Black Power salute at
the 1968 Summer
The two men were
suspended by the
United States team and
banned from Olympic
The action is
considered a milestone
of The Civil Rights
Black Panther Party
U.S. African American Militant group.
Founded in 1966 in Oakland.
Led by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.
Believed violent revolution was the only
way to receive freedom.
Urged African Americans to arm
The Violent Panthers
In the late 60’s party
leaders got involved in
with the police.
The results was death on
Huey Newton was tried
in 1967 for killing a
Black Panther activist
Bobby Seale, was a
member of the Chicago
A group of eight people
who disrupted the 1968
The Black Power Movement
• The civil rights movement took place at the height of the
• FBI director J. Edgar Hoover created a secret program to
keep an eye on groups that caused unrest in American
• Hoover considered King and the Black Power movement a
threat to American society.
• The FBI infiltrated civil rights movement groups and
worked to disrupt them.
– Spread false rumors that the Black Panthers intended to kill
– Forged harmful posters, leaflets, and correspondence from
The Decline of Black Power
The Black Panthers SNCC
• Hoover was particularly • SNCC collapsed with the
concerned about the Black help of the FBI.
• H. Rap Brown, the leader
• Police raided Black Panther who replaced Stokely
headquarters in many Carmichael as the head of
cities. SNCC, was encouraged to
take radical and shocking
• Armed conflict resulted, positions.
even when Black Panther
members were unarmed. • Brown was encouraged to
take these positions by his
• By the early 1970s, armed staff—many of whom
violence had led to the worked for the FBI.
killing or arrest of many
Black Panther members. • Membership declined
Loving v. Virginia
► In Loving v. Virginia, the Supreme Court
rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is
► Sixteen states that still banned interracial
marriage at the time are forced to revise
► What does this mean for homosexual
The Civil Rights Movement
Expands to the North
• The civil rights movement had done much to bring an end
to de jure segregation—or segregation by law.
• However, changes in law had not altered attitudes and
many were questioning nonviolent protest as an effective
method of change.
• In most of America there was still de facto
segregation—segregation that exists through custom and
practice rather than by law.
• African Americans outside the South also faced
discrimination—in housing, by banks, in employment.
Expanding the Movement
Conditions outside the Urban Unrest
• Frustration over the urban
• Most African Americans conditions exploded into
outside the South lived in violence.
cities. – Watts (Los Angeles) in
• African Americans were 1965
kept in all-black parts of – Detroit in 1967
town because they were
unwelcome in white • President Johnson
neighborhoods. appointed the Kerner
Commission to study the
• Discrimination in banking causes of urban rioting.
made home ownership and
home and neighborhood – Placed the blame on
improvements difficult. poverty and
• Job discrimination led to
high unemployment and
Race • Race Riots erupt in
Riots Watts, a black section of
Los Angeles in 1965
Erupt • Claimed 34 lives and
caused over $200 million
in property damage
• Race riots again erupted
in 1992 after the acquittal
of white police officers
who beat a black motorist
– 58 people died and
approximately $1 billion in
property was destroyed.
The Movement Moves North
The riots convinced King that the civil rights movement
needed to move north. He focused on Chicago in 1966.
The eight month Chicago campaign was one of King’s
Chicago’s African Americans did not share his civil rights
focus—their concerns were economic.
King discovered that some northern whites who had
supported him and criticized racism in the South had no
interest in seeing it exposed in the North.
King’s Last Speech before he is
The Death of Martin Luther King Jr.
King became aware that economic issues must be part of
the civil rights movement.
King went to Memphis, Tennessee to help striking
sanitation workers. He led a march to city hall.
James Earl Ray shot and killed King as he stood on the
balcony of his motel.
Within hours, rioting erupted in more than 120 cities.
Within three weeks, 46 people were dead, some 2,600
were injured, and more than 21,000 were arrested.
Martin Luther King Jr. Dies
April 4, 1967
Martin Luther King, at
age 39, is shot as he
stands on the balcony
outside his hotel room.
Escaped convict and
committed racist James
Earl Ray is convicted of
The Civil Rights Movement after Martin
Luther King Jr.
King realized that most African Americans were prevented
from achieving equality because they were poor.
Ralph Abernathy, the new leader of the SCLC, led
thousands of protesters to the nation’s capital as part of
the Poor People’s Campaign.
The campaign turned out to be a disaster. Bad weather
and terrible media relations marred the campaign.
The campaign also failed to express clearly the protesters’
needs and demands.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
(Fair Housing Act)
signs the act
discrimination in the
sale, rental, and
financing of housing
Civil Rights Changes in the 1970s
• Busing and political change—to speed the integration of city
schools, courts began ordering that some students be bused
from their neighborhood schools to schools in other areas
– Busing met fierce opposition in the North.
– Busing was a major cause of the migration of whites from
cities to suburbs.
– This development increased the political power of African
Americans in the cities.
• Affirmative action—programs that gave preference to
minorities and women in hiring and admissions to make up for
past discrimination against these groups
The New Black Power
• Black Power took on a new form and meaning in the 1970s.
• African Americans became the majority in many counties in the
• African Americans were elected to public office.
• African Americans who played roles in the civil rights movement
provided other services to the nation
– Thurgood Marshal became Supreme Court’s first African
– John Lewis represented the people of Alabama in Congress.
– Andrew Young became Georgia’s first African American
member of Congress since Reconstruction, U.S. ambassador
to the United Nations, and mayor of Atlanta.
– Jesse Jackson founded a civil rights organization called
Operation PUSH and campaigned for the Democratic
presidential nomination in the 1980s.