Immigration Current Issues Fall 2009 Topics • History of Immigration • Immigration Today History of Immigration Lesson EQ: Why did the original immigrants come to the United States? Why did the original immigrants come to the US? • The “American Dream” • Land • Wealth • Freedom • Opportunity • Relief from persecution First Groups to come to the United States • Spanish • French • Dutch • British Old Immigration or New Immigration • Old Immigration: Old Immigration was the period of time in the late 19th century when the immigrants moved to the United States from Northern or Western Europe. • New Immigration: Time period from late 19th century to today. A movement of Immigrants primarily from Asia, Central America, Mexico, and South America. • Contemporary Immigration: Public attitudes about immigration in the U.S. have been heavily influenced by the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks. Recent polls show that Americans see both the good and bad of immigration in the United States. Rules for Immigration • After 1882 the US began making laws to control immigration . • The US government wanted to preserve the racial, religious, and cultural makeup of the United States. • These laws placed restrictions on immigrants from Asia, South and Eastern Europe, and Latin America. These restrictions placed a quota for the number of immigrants to be allowed to enter the US. • With these new restrictions on immigration the US still had an “open door” policy for immigrants. Ellis Island Lesson EQ What is the difference between immigrants and emigrants? Immigrant Vs. Emigrant • Immigrant: A person • Emigrant: A person who who migrates to another leaves their land to live in country usually seeking another country. permanent residency. • Ex: People from Great • Ex: The British are Britain “Emigrated” to “Immigrants” in the the United States. United States. Lesson EQ How do the different push and pull factors impact different trends in migration? Push/Pull Factors • Push/Pull Factors are factors that influence immigration. • A push factor is something that causes someone to want to leave their home country. An example of this would be a war or poverty. • A pull factor would be something that draws people into a country. An example of this would be human rights and a good economy. Waves • Time periods of immigration where you have large amounts of immigrants coming in. • In the United States from 1901-1910 there were about 9 million immigrants that came into the United States. • From 1991 to 2000 there were over 9 million immigrants that coame into the United States. Trends • Actions or decisions that lead to an increase or decrease in immigration. • Example: Legislation passed to protect immigrants will create a mass movement of immigrants into a country. Lesson EQ Why is there an influx of Asian and Latin American immigrants today? Modern Immigration • In 2004, the United States admitted more than 900,000 legal immigrants. • More than 40% came from six countries- Mexico, India, Philippines, China, Vietnam, and the Dominican Republic. • In addition, an estimiated 500,000 people entered the country illegally each year. Immigration from Asia and Latin America • Asylum: A place offering protection and safety; a shelter. • Refugee: is "a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of their nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail him/herself of the protection of that country • From 1940 on into the 1980’s many Asian immigrants came to the United States as refugees seeking asylum from war. • Immigrants from Latin American have been seeking asylum from poor economies. One major pull factor bringing Latin Americans to the United States is the availability of jobs. Data • A total of 60,108 persons were admitted to the United States as refugees during 2008 • The leading countries of nationality for refugees were Burma, Iraq, and Bhutan • The largest percentages of refugees admitted to the United States in 2008 settled in California (16 percent) and Texas (8.5 percent) Lesson EQ What is the driving force behind today’s immigrants? Reasons for Migrating • The main reason for immigration has long been economic opportunity, the lure of better land or a better job. • Today, professional people commonly emigrate because of better opportunities elsewhere. • Religious persecution has led many people to move to a new land for the freedom to practice their faith. • Wars, revolutions, and political unrest have driven innumerable people to find new homes. In the 1980's alone, millions of refugees fled from warfare in Afghanistan, Iran, Uganda, Southeastern Asia, and Central America. Reasons for Migrating • Forced Migration: refers to the coerced movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region. • Forced migration has accompanied religious and political persecution, as well as war, throughout human history but has only become a topic of serious study and discussion relatively recently. Vocabulary • Undocumented Workers: Preferred term to "illegal alien," "illegal immigrant," or "illegal(s)." This term describes the immigration status of people who do not have the federal documentation to show they are legally entitled to work, visit or live here. • The number of apprehensions made by the Border Patrol declined for the third year in a row to 724,000 in 2008 after reaching a mid- decade peak of 1,189,000 in 2005 • http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/ publications/ois_apprehensions_fs_2005- 2008.pdf Lesson EQ What rights should illegal immigrants have in America’s society? Vocabulary • Legal Residents/Immigrants: come to the United States seeking to establish permanent residence. • Green Card: an identification card attesting the permanent resident status of an alien in the United States of America. Green card also refers to an immigration process of becoming a permanent resident. Vocabulary • Visas: is a document issued by a country giving an individual permission to formally request entrance to the country during a given period of time and for certain purposes and usually stamped or glued inside of a passport, or sometimes issued as separate pieces of paper. • Nonimmigrants are foreign nationals granted temporary entry into the United States. • The major purposes for which nonimmigrant admission may be authorized include temporary visits for business or pleasure, academic or vocational study, temporary employment, and to act as a representative of a foreign government or international organization. Immigrant Rights • Many Americans feel that immigrants should not have the same rights as everyone else. • One of the major ongoing debates is whether or not to allow illegal immigrants to work legally. • A major ongoing political debate is what to do with the illegal immigrants already living in the United States. Should illegal immigrants be allowed to work in the United States? • Pro: • Con: • Immigrants boost the U.S. • Immigrants take jobs away economy by providing the from native-born Americans. labor that businesses need to • Poor immigrants rely heavily create wealth and economic on tax-funded services and growth. send their wages home. • Many Americans enjoy • Allowing fewer immigrants higher standards of living would increase the standard because of the cheap goods of living for all Americans. and services immigrants make possible. Illegal Immigrants should be granted citizenship? • Pro: • Con: • Having illegal immigrants • Allowing illegal made citizens creates immigrants reduces the more tax dollars for the amount of security found government, allowing the within the United States. government to produce • Granting citizenship to more goods and services lawbreakers will only fuel for the people. incentive for future • Illegal immigrants have illegal immigrants to to obey laws and can be enter the country. tried in a court of law.