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OTN _ OTM Powered By Docstoc
					Optical Transport Network &
Optical Transport Module
"Digital Wrapper"


Maarten Vissers
Consulting Member of Technical Staff
Lucent Technologies
email: mvissers@lucent.com

April 2002
    Contents

       OTN Rationale
       OTN Layer Networks
       Multi level Connection Monitoring
       OTM Signals
       Maintenance Signals
       Mapping Client Signals
       Multiplexing
       Virtual Concatenation
       OTN Standards


                                            April 2002


2
    Contents

       OTN Rationale               OTN Characteristics
       OTN Layer Networks          Transitional Approaches
       Multi level Connection      Final Phase
        Monitoring                  O/E/O processing
       OTM Signals                  objectives
       Maintenance Signals         Digital processing
                                     objectives
       Mapping Client Signals
       Multiplexing
       Virtual Concatenation
       OTN Standards



                                                           April 2002


3
    OTN Characteristics
       New transport networking layer (carrier grade solution)
         • Next step (after SDH/SONET) to support ever growing data
           driven needs for bandwidth and emergence of new broadband
           services
            – Terrabit/second per fiber via DWDM lines (transport level)
            – Gigabit/second paths at 2.5 Gb/s, 10 Gb/s, 40 Gb/s
               (networking level)
         • Service transparency for SDH/SONET, ETHERNET, ATM, IP,
           MPLS
            – No change of SDH/SONET!
            – One exception; interpretation of STM-LOF alarm  + STM-
               AIS due to OTN fail
         • Enhanced OAM & networking functionality for all services
         • Shortest physical layer stack for data services (IP  OTN 
           Fiber)
                                                                     April 2002


4
    OTN Characteristics

       Gigabit level bandwidth granularity required to scale and
        manage multi-Terabit networks
         • Wavelength level switching maximizes nodal switching capacity,
           the gating factor for reconfigurable network capacity
         • Avoids very large numbers of fine granularity pipes that stress
           network planning, administration, survivability, and management




                                                                      April 2002


5
    Transitional Approaches - Assessment

       Extended SDH (attempt at creating a new layer using SDH
        elements)
         • Bandwidth multiplication by means of TDM  more Gigabit/s on
          fiber (4x)
        • Proprietary approaches attempting to carry lower rate STM-N
          [including all overhead] as a “service” within a higher rate STM-M
          (M>N)
            – strongly limited: SDH multiplexing hierarchy not designed to carry
              the STM-N (i.e. “itself”) as a service
                 No timing transparency
                 90% of STM-N/OC-N overhead bytes not passed through
                 No STM-N/OC-N independent monitoring
            – Multiple proprietary implementations created in industry
                 no interworking


                                                                            April 2002


6
    Transitional Approaches - Assessment

       Pre-OTN WDM (simple transport - vs. networking - solution)
         • Bandwidth multiplication by means of WDM  Terabit/s on fiber
          (100x)
        • Client signal (e.g. STM-N, GbE) direct on wavelength
           – simple transport, no monitoring
           – or client specific non-intrusive monitoring
                per client type a monitor is needed
                additional client type implies additional monitor to be
                 added
           – alarm suppression signal (e.g. AIS) specific per client type
                additional client type implies additional alarm suppression
                 signal to be added
        • Point-to-point application that can transport STM-N/OC-N as a
          service
                                                                      April 2002


7
    Final Phase
       OTN (networking solution)
         • Management enabler of WDM network by means of addition of:
             – Overhead to "" and "multi-" signals
                   "non-associated" or "out-of-channel" overhead; e.g.
                    preventing alarm storms
             – Optical Channel (OCh) layer
                   STM-N, IP, ATM and Ethernet signals mapped
                    ("wrapped") into OCh frame (OCh Data Unit (ODUk))
         • First transmission technology in which each stakeholder gets its
           own (ODUk) connection monitoring
         • In addition ODUk supports/provides:
            – STM-N independent monitoring, becoming a service signal "itself",
              shortest physical layer stack for data services, TDM muxing, STM-
              N inverse multiplexing, client independent protection switching,
              plesiochronous timing (no sync network required)

                                                                          April 2002


8
    O/E/O Objectives
       Minimise O/E/O processing in OTN
         • O/E/O processing at edges of administrative/vendor
           (sub)domains
             – Span engineering
         • O/E/O processing at edges of protected or switched domain
             – Span engineering (short/long route effects)
             – Signal Fail & Signal Degrade condition determination
                 If more than 1 optical transparent subnetwork is included
         • O/E/O processing at intermediate points
             – Span engineering (long line sections)
             – Losses in optical fabrics
         • O/E & E/O processing around electrical fabric


                                                                     April 2002


9
     Digital Processing Objectives

        Digital processing at locations where O/E/O is already
         performed
          • Fault and degradation detection
          • Service Level Agreement (SLA) verification
          • Signal Fail & Signal Degrade condition determination for
            protection and restoration (e.g. if high accuracy is required)




                                                                         April 2002


10
     Contents
        OTN Rationale
        OTN Layer Networks          Layer Networks
        Multi level Connection      Client Signals
         Monitoring                  Optical Channel Structure
        OTM Signals                 Containment Relationships
        Maintenance Signals         Example of Layer Network
        Mapping Client Signals       Trails
        Multiplexing                OTN Interfaces
        Virtual Concatenation       Standardised and
                                      "Proprietary" Stacks
        OTN Standards



                                                             April 2002


11
         OTN Layer Networks & Client Signals
        Three new layer
         networks:
                              IP/MPLS ATM      ETHERNET STM-N         Interworking
          • one "Gbit/s" path                                         with pre-OTN
              layer
                – OCh
                                                                    STM-N GbE
                                     Optical Channel (OCh)
          •   two section                 layer network
              layers
                – OMSn            OTM         Optical Multiplex Section (OMSn)
                – OTSn           Physical              layer network
          •   single channel     Section
              section layer:                 Optical Transmission Section (OTSn)
                                 (OPSn)                  layer network
                – OPS0
        Client signals:
                                 OTM-0       Optical Transport Module of order n
          • IP/MPLS
                               OTM-nr, n>1              (OTM-n, n1)
          • ATM
          • Ethernet
          • STM-N                                                              April 2002


12
     Optical Channel Structure
        Optical Channel layer
                                       IP ATM ETHERNET STM-N
         network consists of 3+1
         structures:
          • Digital:                    Optical Channel Payload Unit
              – OCh Data Unit                     (OPUk)
                (ODUk)
              – OCh Payload Unit      Optical Channel Data Unit (ODUk)
                (OPUk, k=1,2,3)
              – OCh Transport          ODUk CF
                Unit (OTUk,           OPUm (m>k)
                                TDM


                OTUkV)
                                      ODUm (m>k)




                                                                            STM-N
         •   Analogue: OCh




                                                                                    GbE
                                       Optical Channel Transport Unit
        Multiplexing (TDM)                   (OTUk, OTUkV)
          • ODUk multiplexing
        ODUk virtual                         Optical Channel (OCh)
         concatenation                                        OCh CF
                                                 CF: Connection Function   April 2002


13
      OTN Containment Relationships
                                                                   Client

                                                       OH          Client                 OCh Payload Unit (OPUk)
                                Associated
     Wrapper

                                 overhead



                                                  OH             OPUk                     OCh Data Unit (ODUk)

                                             OH               ODUk                  FEC   OCh Transport Unit (OTUk)

                                OH                                 OTUk                   Optical Channel (OCh)
      Non-associated overhead




                                                   OCC       OCC        OCC               Optical Channel Carrier (OCC)

                                       OH                                       OPS0      Optical Multiplex Section

                                             OH                                           Optical Transmission Section

                                     OOS                                                  OTM Overhead Signal
                                     OSC
                                     OSC                                                  Optical Supervisory Channel
                                                         Optical Transport Module
                                                                                          Optical Physical Section
                                                                                                              April 2002


14
        OTN Layer Network Trails
              Example of OTSn, OMSn, OCh, OTUk, ODUk, OPS0 trails
                • Transport of STM-N signal via OTM-0, OTM-n and STM-N lines


                                                                              STM-N
                                                                            ODUk
                    OCh, OTUk                                OCh, OTUk                             OCh, OTUk
                                            OMSn                                OMSn                     OMSn
                       OPS0              OTSn OTSn                              OTSn                  OTSn OTSn         OSn
     DXC 3R                       3R
                          OTM-0




                                     LT             R                   OCADM          3R                R    LT
                                                                                                                   3R              DXC
                                            OTM-n




          Client




                                                                                                                         STM-N
                                                                                            ODXC                                 Client
     LT Line Terminal w/ optical channel multiplexing
     OCADM Optical Channel Add/Drop Multiplexer
     ODXC ODU Cross-Connect
     3R O/E/O w/ Reamplification, Reshaping & Retiming and monitoring
     R Repeater




                                                                                                                                 April 2002


15
     OTN Interfaces
           User to Network Interface (UNI)
           Network Node Interface (NNI)
             • Inter Domain Interface (IrDI)
             • Intra Domain Interface (IaDI)
                      between equipment of different vendors (IrVI)
                      within subnetwork of one vendor (IaVI)


                                      Network Operator B                      Network
     USER
      A                                                                       Operator
                                                                                 C
                                           OTM NNI                     OTM
             OTM                           IaDI-IrVI                   NNI
             UNI                                                       IrDI
                          OTM NNI                          OTM NNI
                          IaDI-IaVI                        IaDI-IaVI




                          Vendor X                          Vendor Y

                                                                              April 2002


16
         Standardised & "Proprietary" stacks

     Proprietary elements:                           Clients (e.g. STM-N, ATM, IP, Ethernet)

        OTM-n.m
                                                                      OPUk
          • optical parameters
                                                            ODUkP
          • number of                       ODUk




                                                                                                                    substructure
            wavelengths                                     ODUkT




                                                                                                              OCh
          • bit rates of
            wavelengths                     OTUkV           OTUk               OTUkV            OTUk

          • supervisory
            channel                                   OCh                              OChr

        OTUkV
                                                     OMSn
          • FEC
                                                                                       OPSn
          • frame format
                                                     OTSn
          • ODUk mapping
            used between (and within) OTN
            transparent subnetworks                       OTM-n.m                              OTM-0.m
                                                  Full                         Reduced         OTM-nr.m
             used within OTN transparent
             subnetworks; implementations
                                                  functionality                functionality
             are very much technology dependent                                                           April 2002


17
     Contents
        OTN Rationale
        OTN Layer Networks
        Multi level Connection
         Monitoring                  Application
        OTM Signals                 Nesting
        Maintenance Signals         Overlapping
        Mapping Client Signals
        Multiplexing
        Virtual Concatenation
        OTN Standards



                                                    April 2002


18
      Multi-level Connection Monitoring:
      Applications
     Statusofclient signal transport isis monitored monitored for circuit: UNI-UNI CM
               working [protection] monitored by User
     QoS ofofprovided leased circuitconnection is by User switched
                                                      ODUk
                                                        Network Operator
      QoSprovided by leased circuit is monitored by Service Provider
     SF and SD switch conditions                    to initiate "connection re-establishment"

        Path CM                                                                             Client
                                                                                            Signal
        Verify QoS CM                                                            USR2
                               NO A
        UNI-UNI CM                                                                   ODUk
                                             NO B
                                                                  NO C
        NNI-NNI CM

        W/P CM                                                    Working


            USR1


                                                                  Protection
                  ODUk



                 Client
                 Signal
                                                                                        April 2002


19
     Multi-level Connection Monitoring:
     Nesting

            TCM6         TCM6          TCM6             TCM6        TCM6        TCM6           TCM6
            TCM5         TCM5          TCM5             TCM5        TCM5        TCM5           TCM5
            TCM4         TCM4          TCM4             TCM4        TCM4        TCM4           TCM4
            TCM3         TCM3          TCM3             TCM3        TCM3        TCM3           TCM3
            TCM2         TCM2          TCM2             TCM2        TCM2        TCM2           TCM2
            TCM1         TCM1          TCM1             TCM1        TCM1        TCM1           TCM1


      A1              B1          C1             C2            B2          B3             B4          A2




                                       C1 - C2


                                       B1 - B2                                  B3 - B4


                                                          A1 - A2

           TCMi    TCM OH field not in use       TCMi    TCM OH field in use

                                                                                                      April 2002


20
     Multi-level Connection Monitoring:
     Nesting and Overlapping

            TCM6          TCM6                  TCM6               TCM6           TCM6
            TCM5          TCM5                  TCM5               TCM5           TCM5
            TCM4          TCM4                  TCM4               TCM4           TCM4
            TCM3          TCM3                  TCM3               TCM3           TCM3
            TCM2          TCM2                  TCM2               TCM2           TCM2
            TCM1          TCM1                  TCM1               TCM1           TCM1


      A1             B1          C1                        B2                C2          A2




                                                       C1 - C2


                                      B1 - B2


                                                        A1 - A2

           TCMi    TCM OH field not in use      TCMi   TCM OH field in use

                                                                                         April 2002


21
     Contents
        OTN Rationale
                                     OTM Interface Signals
        OTN Layer Networks
                                       • OTM-16r.m
        Multi level Connection        • OTM-0.m
         Monitoring                    • OTM-n.m
        OTM Signals                 OTM Signals versus OTN I/F
        Maintenance Signals         OTM Overhead Signal
        Mapping Client Signals      Frame Formats
                                       • OTUk, ODUk
        Multiplexing
                                     Overhead
        Virtual Concatenation
                                       • OTUk, ODUk
        OTN Standards
                                     OTUkV
                                     Overhead versus OTN I/F

                                                              April 2002


22
         OTM-16r.m Signal (m=1,2,3,12,23,123)
                                                          
                                                                      1                    16 17                      3824 3825                     4080




                                                                                d OP t ,
                                                                  1




                                                                                    Uk
                                                                                     n
                                                                            rh k & me
                                                                          ve U n
                                                                        O OD lig
                                                                  2                                    Payload                          k
                                                                                                                                     OTU FEC




                                                                         k, eA

                                                                              ea
                                                                                                   (4 x 3808 bytes)               (4 x 256 bytes)




                                                                       TU m
                                                                  3




                                                                      O Fr a
                                                                  4




                OTM-16r.m
                                                                      1                    16 17                      3824 3825                     4080




                                                                                d OP t ,
                                                                                      Uk
                                                                  1




                                                                                     n
                                                                            rh k & me
                                                                         ve U n
                                                                        O OD lig
                                                                  2
                                                                                                       Payload                          k
                                                                                                                                     OTU FEC




                                                                         k, eA

                                                                              ea
                                                                                                   (4 x 3808 bytes)               (4 x 256 bytes)




                                                                       TU m
                                                                  3




                                                                      O Fr a
                                                                  4




                                                          
                                                            
                                                                      1                    16 17                      3824 3825                     4080




                                                                                d OP t ,
                                                                  1




                                                                                    Uk
                                                                                     n
                                                                            rh k & me
                                                                          ve U n
                                                                        O OD lig
                                                                  2
                                                                                                       Payload                          k
                                                                                                                                     OTU FEC




                                                                         k, eA

                                                                              ea
                                                                                                   (4 x 3808 bytes)               (4 x 256 bytes)




                                                                       TU m
                                                                  3




                                                                      O Fr a
                                                                  4




                                                          
                                                             
                                                                      1                    16 17                      3824 3825                     4080




                                                                                d OP t
                                                                  1




                                                                                     n
                                                                                    Uk
                                                                            rh k & me
                                                                          ve U n
                                                                        O OD lig
                                                                  2




                                                                         k, eA
                                                                                                       Payload                          k
                                                                                                                                     OTU FEC




                                                                              ea
                                                                       TU m
                                                                                                   (4 x 3808 bytes)               (4 x 256 bytes)




                                                                      O Fr a
                                                                  3
                                                                  4




                                                          
                                                                      1                    16 17                      3824 3825                     4080




                                                                                d OP t ,
                                                                                    Uk
                                                                  1




                                                                                     n
                                                                            rh k & me
                                                                          ve U n
                                                                        O OD lig
                                                                  2                                    Payload                          k
                                                                                                                                     OTU FEC




                                                                         k, eA

                                                                              ea
                                                                                                   (4 x 3808 bytes)               (4 x 256 bytes)




                                                                       TU m
                                                                      O Fr a
                                                                  3
                                                                  4




        Up to 16 wavelengths carrying traffic, with fixed 200 GHz grid
         independent of bit rate (2G5, 10G, 40G)
        Optical parameters according to ITU-T Recommendation G.959.1
        Bit rate and format of the associated overhead according to ITU-T
         Recommendation G.709
        No Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC)
          • non-associated overhead not required; i.e. 3R points at each end, no
              repeaters                                                                                                                                    April 2002


23
     OTM-0.m Signal (m=1,2,3)

              OTM-0.m
                                                                  1                    16 17                      3824 3825                     4080




                                                                            d P t,
                                                                                  Uk
                                                              1




                                                                          ea O n
                                                                        rh k & me
                                                                     ve U n
                                                                    O OD lig
                                                              2
                                                                                                   Payload                          k
                                                                                                                                 OTU FEC




                                                                     k, eA
                                                                                               (4 x 3808 bytes)               (4 x 256 bytes)




                                                                   TU m
                                                              3




                                                                  O Fr a
                                                              4




        Single channel signal ("colourless": 1310 or 1550 nm)
        Optical parameters according to ITU-T Recommendation
         G.959.1
        Bit rate and format of the associated overhead according to ITU-
         T Recommendation G.709
        No Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC)
          • non-associated overhead not required; i.e. 3R points at each end, no
            repeaters


                                                                                                                                                       April 2002


24
     OTM-n.m Signal (m=1,2,3,12,23,123)
                                                     n
                                                                 1                  16 17                      3824 3825                     4080




                                                                           d PU ,
                                                             1




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                                                                               k
                                                                       rh & en
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                                                                   O D lign
                                                             2                                  Payload                          k
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                                                                    k, eA
                                                                                            (4 x 3808 bytes)               (4 x 256 bytes)




                                                                  TU m
                                                                      O
                                                             3




                                                                 O Fr a
                                                             4




               OTM-n.m                                           1                  16 17                      3824 3825                     4080




                                                                           d PU ,
                                                             1




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                                                                               k
                                                                       rh & en
                                                                     ve Uk m
                                                                   O D lign
                                                             2                                  Payload                          k
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                                                                    k, eA
                                                                                            (4 x 3808 bytes)               (4 x 256 bytes)




                                                                  TU m
                                                                      O
                                                             3




                                                                 O Fr a
                                                             4




                                                     
                                                        
                                                                 1                  16 17                      3824 3825                     4080




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                                                             1




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                                                                   O D lign
                                                             2
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                                                                    k, eA
                                                                                            (4 x 3808 bytes)               (4 x 256 bytes)




                                                     3 




                                                                  TU m
                                                                      O
                                                             3




                                                                 O Fr a
                                                     
                                                             4




                                                                 1                  16 17                      3824 3825                     4080
                                                             1




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                                                                   O D lign
                                                             2
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                                                                    k, eA
                                                                                            (4 x 3808 bytes)               (4 x 256 bytes)




                                                                  TU m
                                                                      O
                                                             3




                                                                 O Fr a
                                                             4



                                                                 1                  16 17                      3824 3825                     4080




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                                                                         ea O t
                                                                               k
                                                             1




                                                                       rh & en
                                                                     ve Uk m
                                                                   O D lign
                                                             2




                                                                    k, eA
                                                                                                Payload                          k
                                                                                                                              OTU FEC




                                                                  TU m
                                                                                            (4 x 3808 bytes)               (4 x 256 bytes)




                                                                      O
                                                                 O Fr a
                                                             3
                                                             4




                                    OSC

                         OTM Overhead Signal (OOS)

        Up to "n" wavelengths carrying traffic, with a grid dependent on
         bit rate
        1 "out-of-band" Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC) transporting
         the OTM Overhead Signal (OOS)
        OTM Overhead Signal transports OTS, OMS, OCh (non-
         associated) overhead and General management communications
                                                                                                                                                    April 2002


25
     OTM Signals versus OTN Interfaces

                                    OTM-n.m               OTM-16r.m                   OTM-0.m
               UNI                       -                     X                         X
                                                           (Note 1,2)                 (Note 1,2)
      NNI            IrDI                -                     X                         X
                                                           (Note 1,3)                 (Note 1,3)
               IaDI     IrVI             -                     X                         X
                                                           (Note 1,4)                 (Note 1,4)
                        IaVI             X                      X                         X
     Note 1 - These interfaces require an OTUk to be present.
     Note 2 - A restricted set of ODUk overhead is transparently transported through the network. This is
     subject of regulations.
     Note 3 - A restricted set of ODUk overhead is transparently transported through the network(s) of
     the downstream operator(s). This is subject of regulations.
     Note 4 - A restricted set of ODUk overhead is transparently transported through the downstream
     subnetwork(s) with equipment of (an)other vendor(s).
     Note 5 - Other OTM interfaces may be added in future versions of G.709.

                                                                                                   April 2002


26
     OTM Overhead Signal (OOS)
     «Non-associated overhead»
        OOS functions subject to standardization                               OCh OH extensions may be
                                                                                expected in future to support e.g.
        OOS bit rate & format not standardized                                 OCh protection (e.g. OCh SPring)



                                                  FDI-O
          Non-Associated




                                                                                    n
                                   TTI            FDI-P                         3
            overhead




                                                                            2
                                                                        1
                                  BDI-O           BDI-O         FDI-O
                                                                                          Vendor
                                  BDI-P           BDI-P         FDI-P                    Specific
                                           OMSn
                           OTSn




                                                          OCh
                                   PMI            PMI            OCI


                                  General Management Communications


          BDI: Backward Defect Indication                       OCI: Open Connection Indication
          FDI-O: Forward Defect Indication - Overhead           PMI: Payload Missing Indication
          FDI-P: Forward Defect Indication - Payload            TTI: Trail Trace Identifier
                                                                                                          April 2002


27
                  OTUk and ODUk frame formats (k=1,2,3)




                                                                                                                                             OTUk bit rate: 255/(239-k) * "STM-N"
     ODUk bit rate: 239/(239-k) * "STM-N"




                                                                                                    3824
                                                                                                           3825




                                                                                                                         4080
                                                           14
                                                           15
                                                           16
                                                           17
                                                1


                                                    7
                                                    8  OTUk
                                            1 Alignm
                                                       OH


                                                              OPUk OH
                                            2                               Client Signal
                                                                                                                  OTUk
                                                                             mapped in
                                                                           OPU k Payload
                                            3       ODUk                                                          FEC
                                                                           OPUk Payload
                                            4


                                                        Client Signal
                                                        OPUk - Optical Channel Payload Unit
                                                        ODUk - Optical Channel Data Unit      k indicates the order:
                                                                                              1      2.5G
                                                        OTUk - Optical Channel Transport Unit
                                                                                              2      10G
                                                        Alignment                             3      40G

                                                                                                                                April 2002


28
           OTUk and ODUk Overhead (k=1,2,3)
           «Associated overhead»

     Column
 Row       1                                               7   8                                            14    15         16
                         OTUk




                                                                                                                    OPUk SPECIFIC
       1   FRAME ALIGNMENT OVERHEAD AREA
                      FAS
                 Alignm              MFAS                          OTUk SPECIFIC OVERHEAD AREA
                                                                      SM          GCC0     RES               RES JC




                                           OPUk OH
                         OH




                                                                                                                     OVERHEAD
                                                                                                              Mapping
       2                TCM     TCM6                                TCM5                  TCM4          FTFL RES JC




                                                                                                                       AREA
              RES                                                                                             & Concat
                        ACT
                                                                   OPU k Payload                              Specific
       3         TCM3       ODUk      TCM2 ODUk SPECIFIC OVERHEAD AREA
                                                    TCM1           PM                                 EXP    RES JC

       4       GCC1         GCC2                     APS/PCC                           RES                        PSI NJO PJO

        ACT: Activation/deactivation control channel                  MFAS: MultiFrame Alignment Signal
                                              1                       127 128 2 Protection137 138           3
        APS:  0 Automatic Protection Swiching
                   1              9 10                                PCC:129                Communication Control channel 255
                                 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 0 6 7 PT
                                            1                               2                             3           8
                     Operator            1
                 coordination channel Operator Specific                2          Operator
                                                                      PM: Path Monitoring 3
                          TCMi
                           PM




       FTFL                    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4Operator Specific
                                                                                  Identifier 2 3 BEI 5 5 1 7 8




                                                                                                      BDI
                     Identifier2                                                                                6
                          1                   6                          5BIP-87 8
        EXP: Experimental 3 4 5 TTI 7 8 1 2 3 4 PSI: 6 Payload1Structure4Identifier 7 STAT                  6     8
                                                                                                                  Mapping
                   TCMi




                                                                                                   BDI
                                                                                                    IAE
                                                                                                   BDI
        FAS: Frame Alignment Signal
            Fault                      TTITTI
                                      Forward
                                                                        BIP-8
                                                                      RES:
                                                                   BIP-8 ReservedBEI/BIAE international Concat
                                                                         Fault
                                                                                              BEI/BIAE STATRES
                                                                                            for future
                                                                                                 Backward
                                                                                                                  &
        FTFL: Fault Type & Fault Location                             Indicationstandardisation
          Indication                                                                                          255 Specific
            Field reporting channel
                       0                     15 16                  31SM: Section Monitoring
                                                                         Field
                                                                        32                                         63
                            Communication Destination Access TCM: Tandem Connection Monitoring
        GCC: GeneralSource Access Channel
                 TTI                                                                   Operator Specific
                         Point Identifier          Point Identifier



                                                                                                                       April 2002


29
     OTUkV (k=1,2,3)
        Frame format is vendor specific
        Forward Error Correction code is vendor specific
        Minimum overhead set to support is:
          • Trail Trace Identifier
          • Error Detection Code (e.g. BIP)
          • Backward Defect Indicator
          • Backward Error Indicator
          • (Backward) Incoming Alignment Error
        Other overhead is vendor specific
        ODUk mapping into OTUkV is vendor specific



                                                            April 2002


30
     Overhead versus OTN Interfaces
        OTM Interface Ports on IP Router, ATM Switch,
         Ethernet Switch and SDH equipment should support
         the following minimum set of overhead
           • OPUk Client Specific
           • OPUk Payload Structure Identifier (PSI)
           • ODUk Path Monitoring (PM)
           • OTUk Section Monitoring (SM)
           • Frame Alignment (FAS, MFAS)

             1   2      3      4       5   6    7     8   9    10   11   12   13   14   15    16

         1                  FAS                MFAS       SM




                                                                                                              OTUk FEC
                                                                                                   Payload
                                                                                         Client




                                                                                                    OPUk
         2
                                                                                        Specific
         3                                                          PM
         4                                                                              PSI

                     all-0's pattern

                                                                                                             April 2002


31
     Overhead versus OTN Interfaces
           Overhead passed through network
             • OTM UNI to OTM UNI
             • OTM NNI IrDI to OTM NNI IrDI


              OTM               OTM                   OTM                  OTM
              UNI              NNI IrDI              NNI IrDI              UNI
     USER           Network               Network               Network
                                                                                      User
      A             Operator              Operator              Operator
                                                                                       Z
                       K                     L                     M




                                                                                 April 2002


32
     Overhead versus OTN Interfaces
            Overhead passed through network from OTM UNI to
             OTM UNI interface
              • OPUk PSI, Client Specific
              • ODUk PM, TCM ACT, TCM1..TCMn, TCM ACT, RES
              • ODUk GCC1, GCC2 according contract
              • ODUk APS/PCC definition is under study

             1       2     3      4    5      6       7    8     9     10      11    12    13    14    15    16

         1                     FAS                 MFAS          SM            GCC0         RES




                                                                                                                            OTUk FEC
                                                                                                                  Payload
                                TCM                                                                     Client




                                                                                                                   OPUk
         2         RES                       TCM6              TCM5                 TCM4        FTFL
                                ACT                                                                    Specific
         3        TCM3                TCM2                TCM1                 PM           EXP
         4   GCC1          GCC2              APS/PCC                            RES                    PSI

                 passed through                   terminated and re-inserted               based on regulations and contract
                                                                                           TCM1..TCMn are passed through,
                 based on contract                may be overwritten in network            TCMn+1..TCM6 may be overwritten
                 definition is under study

                                                                                                                                April 2002


33
     Overhead versus OTN Interfaces
        Overhead passed through network from OTM NNI IrDI
         to OTM NNI IrDI interface
           • OPUk PSI, Client Specific
           • ODUk PM, TCM ACT, TCM1..TCMm, TCM ACT, FTFL, RES
                    – "m" in TCMm > "n" in TCMn (UNI-UNI)
             • ODUk GCC1, GCC2 according contract
             • ODUk APS/PCC definition is under study
             1       2     3      4    5      6       7    8     9     10      11    12    13    14    15    16

         1                     FAS                 MFAS          SM            GCC0         RES




                                                                                                                            OTUk FEC
                                                                                                                  Payload
                                TCM                                                                     Client




                                                                                                                   OPUk
         2         RES                       TCM6              TCM5                 TCM4        FTFL
                                ACT                                                                    Specific
         3        TCM3                TCM2                TCM1                 PM           EXP
         4   GCC1          GCC2              APS/PCC                            RES                    PSI

                 passed through                   terminated and re-inserted               based on regulations and contract
                                                                                           TCM1..TCMm are passed through,
                 based on contract                may be overwritten in network            TCMm+1..TCM6 may be overwritten
                 definition is under study
                                                                                                                            April 2002


34
     Contents
        OTN Rationale
        OTN Layer Networks
        Multi level Connection
         Monitoring
                                     Forward Defect Indication
        OTM Signals                  (FDI, AIS)
        Maintenance Signals         Backward Defect & Error
                                      Indication (BDI, BEI)
        Mapping Client Signals
                                     Open Connection
        Multiplexing                 Indication (OCI)
        Virtual Concatenation       Locked (LCK)
        OTN Standards               Fault Type & Fault Location
                                      (FTFL)

                                                             April 2002


35
      OTN Maintenance Signals:
      Alarm Suppression
                          R                                             use of OTN maintenance
                                                                      signals FDI, AIS and PMI will
                                                                       reduce number of alarms
                                                                    from 500k to 1 per broken fiber

                                                                                    R

                                                                          R
           use of OTN maintenance                                                       at 3R point OCh-FDI
      signal OTS-PMI (and OMS-PMI)                                                        is converted into
                                                        at line termination point
     will prevent OTS [OMS] LOS alarm                                                         ODUk-AIS
          when none ofs is presentOCh-FDI
                                                        OMS-FDI is converted
                                             OCh-FDI          into OCH-FDI
                         OMS-FDI              OCh-FDI
                                                                                    3R
      R
                      OTS-PMI OTS-PMI


               1000 /fiber                                                                              R
            x 96 fibers/cable
             x 5 cables/duct     OCh-FDI
           = 500k lost signals
                                                                                                     April 2002
     ==> 500k LOS alarms in network
36
                           OTN Maintenance Signals:
                           Alarm Suppression (FDI, AIS)




                                                                                                                                              Ethernet
     (STM-N)




                                                                                                                                                                                                  AIS/FDI at




                                                                                                                            MPLS
                                                             ATM
       CBR




                                                                                               IP
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • clients




                                                                                                                                   MPLS-FDI
                                      gen-AIS




                                                                      VP-AIS




                                                                                                          ?




                                                                                                                                                               ?
                                                                                    ODUk-AIS
                                                                                                                                                                                                  AIS at
     ODUk




                                                                                                                                                                                                    • ODUk
                                                      ODUk-AIS




                                                                                                                                                                                                  AIS at
     OTUk




                                                                                                                                                                                                    • OTUk
                           OTUk-AIS




                                                                                                                                                                                                  FDI at
                                                OCh



                                                                    OCh



                                                                                     OCh



                                                                                                          OCh




                                                                                                                                                         OCh



                                                                                                                                                                         OCh
     Future server layer




                                                                                                                                                                                                    • OCh
                                                      OCh-FDI



                                                                          OCh-FDI



                                                                                                OCh-FDI



                                                                                                                OCh-FDI




                                                                                                                                                               OCh-FDI



                                                                                                                                                                                     OCh-FDI
                                                                                                                                                                                                  FDI/PMI at
                                                                                                                          OMSn
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • OMSn




                                                                                                                                                                          OMSn-FDI
                                                                   OMSn-PMI


                                                                                                                                                                                                  PMI at
                                                                                                                          OTSn
                                                                   OTSn-PMI                                                                                                                         • OTSn

                                                                                                                                                                                                       April 2002


37
     OTN Maintenance Signals:
     Alarm Suppression (FDI, AIS)
                   Generated at egress of OMSn, OCh and ODUk Link
                    Connections
                   Inserted on detection of Signal Fail
                   OMSn-FDI and OCh-FDI
                     • is non-associated overhead
                   ODUk-AIS
                     • is special ODUk signal pattern (0xFF)
         1                  78                  14   17                          3824
     1       FA OH             OTUk OH
                        STAT

                                  STAT

                                            STAT
                                            FTFL




     2
                                                          All-1's pattern
             STAT

                     STAT

                               STAT

                                         STAT




     3

     4


                                                                            April 2002


38
     Generic-AIS [STM-AIS]
        New maintenance signal @ STM-N level
          • a continuous repeating 2047-bit PN-11 (1 + x9 + x11) sequence
        Generated in OTN tributary ports
          • ingress trib: on detection of STM-N LOS
          • egress trib: on detection of ODUk signal fail type defect
        To be detected in SDH line/trib ports in addition to STM-LOF as
         "STM-AIS"
          •  In existing equipment detected as STM-LOF 
                                                                                      insertion

                                       OTN                      OTN                                         detection
         SDH                       with SDH trib            with SDH trib                        SDH
                    STM
                           STM-N     gen.           OTM-n              gen.   STM-N
             OOF/IF dLOF                     ODUk              ODUk                                       descr
                                     AIS                               AIS
             STM
                  framer                                               LOS                        STM
             dAIS                   LOS                                                 framer
                                                                                                  dAIS
                           STM-N    gen.            OTM-n             gen.    STM-N
     descr                                  ODUk              ODUk                               OOF/IF
                                    AIS                               AIS               STM
                                                                                        dLOF


                                                                                                           April 2002


39
                     OTN Maintenance Signals:
                     Backward Information (BDI, BEI)




                                                                                       Ethernet
     (STM-N)




                                                                          MPLS
                                                                                                                     RDI/REI at
                                         ATM
       CBR




                                                             IP
                             RDI                     RDI
                                                                   ?             BDI                    ?
                             REI                     REI                                                               • Clients
     ODUk




                           ODUk-BDI
                                                                                                                     BDI/BEI at
                           ODUk-BEI                                                                                    • ODUk
                                                                                                                       • OTUk
     OTUk




                           OTUk-BDI
                           OTUk-BEI

                                                                                                                     No BI at
                                   OCh



                                               OCh



                                                           OCh



                                                                  OCh




                                                                                                  OCh



                                                                                                            OCh
     Future server layer




                                                                                                                       • OCh

                                           OMSn-BDI-P                   OMSn
                                           OMSn-BDI-O                                                                BDI at
                                                                                                                       • OTSn
                                           OTSn-BDI-P                   OTSn                                           • OMSn
                                           OTSn-BDI-O



                                                                                                                          April 2002


40
     OTN Maintenance Signals:
     Open Connection Indication (OCI)
                   Generated in a Fabric
                   Inserted when output port is not connected to input
                    port
                   OCh-OCI
                     • is non-associated overhead
                   ODUk-OCI
                     • special ODUk signal pattern (0x66)

         1                  78                  14   17                                        3824
     1       FA OH             OTUk OH
                        STAT

                                  STAT

                                            STAT




     2
                                                          Repeating "0110 0110" pattern
             STAT

                     STAT

                               STAT

                                         STAT




     3

     4

                                                                                          April 2002


41
     OTN Maintenance Signals:
     Locked (LCK)
                   Generated in ODUk Tandem Connection endpoint
                   Inserted when Administrative State is Locked
                      • to block a user to access the connection
                      • to prevent test patterns within the network entering a user
                               domain
                   ODUk-LCK
                     • special ODUk signal pattern (0x55)
         1                  78                   14   17                                        3824
     1       FA OH             OTUk OH
                        STAT

                                   STAT

                                             STAT




     2
                                                           Repeating "0101 0101" pattern
             STAT

                     STAT

                                STAT

                                          STAT




     3

     4


                                                                                           April 2002


42
     Fault Type & Fault Location (FTFL)
             Helps Service Provider to automatically locate fault/degradation to
              specific Network Operator domain
             No need to call around any longer
             Section and Tandem Connection endpoints insert FTFL in forward
              direction on detection of SF or SD condition
             Specific FTFL function at UNI
               • extracts forward info and sends it in opposite direction as backward info
               • filters outgoing and incoming FTFL information (security issue)
             Specific FTFL extraction function
               • reads FTFL forward and backward information at intermediate point along
                        connection                                                    NO A
     CPE1
                                                X:A                                                                                                   X:SP
                                    NO C                                                                                               NO D
                                                                                      NO B                                                                             CUSTOMER




                                                                                                                                                             IrDI
                 IrDI




                                                   IrDI




                                                                         IrDI




                                                                                                      IrDI




                                                                                                                         IrDI
                SP:X                              A:X                 B:X       B:X



            ODUk Path Termination          ODUk UNI Tandem Connection Termination        ODUk Tandem Connection Termination     OTUk Section Termination            Equipment
                                                                                                                                                                           April 2002


43
     Contents
        OTN Rationale
        OTN Layer Networks
        Multi level Connection
         Monitoring
        OTM Signals
        Maintenance Signals         CBR (e.g. STM-N)
                                     IP, ETHERNET
        Mapping Client Signals
                                     ATM
        Multiplexing
                                     Test Signals
        Virtual Concatenation
                                     Bit stream with/without
        OTN Standards                octet timing
                                     Bit Rate Agnostic CBR

                                                           April 2002


44
         Mapping STM-N (N=16,64,256)




                                                                                                                                                            3824
                                                               17
                                                               18
                                               PSI RES RES RES 15
                                               NJO JC JC JC 16
        G.709 provides                  1                  D D                                   3805D                                                     D
         two mappings for




                               STM-16
                                         2                  D D                                   3805D                                                     D
         STM-N signals
                                         3                  D D                                   3805D                                                     D
           • bit synchronous




                                               PJO
                                         4                        D                               3805D                                                     D
           • asynchronous




                                                                                                1904
                                                                                                1905


                                                                                                             1920
                                                                                                                    1921




                                                                                                                                                            3824
                                             PSI RES RES RES 15
                                             NJO JC JC JC 16
                                                             17
        G.709 defines
         interworking                    1                                 118 x 16D                  16FS                           119 x 16D
                               STM-64

         between both                    2                                 118 x 16D                  16FS                           119 x 16D
         mappings                        3                                 118 x 16D                  16FS                           119 x 16D
           • common
                                             PJO


                                         4                                 15D + 117 x 16D            16FS                           119 x 16D
            demapper, and
          • bit synchronous                                                      1264
                                                                                 1265



                                                                                               1280
                                                                                               1281




                                                                                                                           2544
                                                                                                                           2545


                                                                                                                                         2560
                                                                                                                                         2561




                                                                                                                                                            3824
                                             PSI RES RES RES 15
                                             NJO JC JC JC 16
                                                             17




            mapping has                  1                            78 x 16D          16FS           79 x 16D                   16FS           79 x 16D
                               STM-256




            fixed
                                         2                            78 x 16D          16FS           79 x 16D                   16FS           79 x 16D
            Justification
            Control (JC)                 3                            78 x 16D          16FS           79 x 16D                   16FS           79 x 16D
                                             PJO




                                         4                        15D + 77 x 16D        16FS           79 x 16D                   16FS           79 x 16D

                                                      D: Data, FS: Fixed Stuff, JC: Justification Control, N/PJO: Negative/Positive Justification Opportunity
                                                                                                                                                April 2002


45
     Mapping IP and Ethernet
                    G.709 provides an encapsulation for packet based client
                     signals
                    There is no need for SDH or 10G-Ethernet to encapsulate IP
                    A new protocol is being defined: Generic Framing Procedure
                      • a generic mechanism to carry any packet signal over fixed rate
                                 channels (e.g. SDH, SONET and OTN's ODUk) - ITU-T Rec. G.gfp
         15 16 17                                                                       3824
         PSI RES RES RES
         RES RES RES RES




     1

     2

     3

     4


      OPUk
                                                       OPUk Payload                    Bandwidth for GFP stream in
     Overhead                    0   PT
                                                  GFP Frame           GFP Idle Frame   ODU1: 2 488 320 kbit/s
                                 1
                           PSI
                                                                                       ODU2: 9 995 276 kbit/s
                                     RES                                               ODU3: 40 150 519 kbit/s
                                              4     4-65535                 4
                             255
                                                     bytes                bytes
                                                                                                           April 2002


46
      Generic Framing Procedure G.7041
                                                                                 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
                                           1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8




                                                                                                        Null Header
             Bit                                                            5      TYPE       <15:08>
     Octet         1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
                                      1     PLI    <15:08>
                                                                            6      TYPE       <07:00>
              1
                                      2     PLI    <07:00>
                                                                            7      tHEC       <15:08>
              2
                                      3     cHEC   <15:08>
                          Core




                                                                                                                                     PFI
                                                                            8      tHEC       <07:00>                     5    PTI         EXI
              3          Header
                                      4     cHEC   <07:00>

                                                                                 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
                                                                                                                          6          UPI
              4
              5                                                             5      TYPE       <15:08>

              6                            1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
                                                                            6      TYPE       <07:00>

              7                       5
                                                                            7      tHEC       <15:08>

              8          Payload
                                                                            8      tHEC       <07:00>                         1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
                                               Payload                      9                                         9          CID     <07:00>
                          Area
                                               Header
                                                                                                                      10         Spare <07:00>
                                     X+4                                                                              11         eHEC <15:08>
                                                                                      Extension
                                     X+5                                               Header                         12         eHEC <07:00>
              N
                   N  65536                                                                                                  Linear with Frame
                                                                                                                                 Multiplexing
                     GFP Frame                 Payload
                                             Information                   X+3     eHEC       <15:08>
             Bit                                 Field                     X+4     eHEC       <07:00>             CID: Channel ID
     Octet         1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8                                               4  X  64                       EXI: Extension Header ID
              1        00 (B6) hex                                                                                FCS: Frame Check Seq
                                                                                                                  HEC: Header Error Check
                                                             Payload FCS




              2        00 (AB) hex   N-3    pFCS   <31:24>
                                                                                                                  PFI: Payload FCS Ind
                                                               optional




              3        00 (31) hex   N-2    pFCS   <23:16>                                                        PLI: Payload Length Ind
              4        00 (E0) hex   N-1    pFCS   <15:08>                                                        PTI: Payload Type ID
                                      N     pFCS                                                                  UPI: User Payload ID
                       GFP Idle                    <07:00>
                                                                                                                                           April 2002


47
     Mapping ATM
        G.709 provides a mapping for cell based client signals
        Mapping ATM into ODUk is similar to mapping into SDH

             15 16 17                                                        3824
             PSI RES RES RES
             RES RES RES RES




         1

         2

         3

         4

                                                 OPUk Payload
          OPUk
         Overhead                    0   PT
                                     1         ATM cell
                               PSI                              Bandwidth for ATM stream in
                                         RES
                                                                ODU1: 2 488 320 kbit/s
                                 255                            ODU2: 9 995 276 kbit/s
                                               53 bytes
                                                                ODU3: 40 150 519 kbit/s

                                                                                    April 2002


48
     Mapping Test Signals
              G.709 provides a mapping for test signals
              Two test signals are defined
                • NULL sequence (all-0's)

           Column
     Row        15   16     17    18                                                  3824

           1 RES RES

           2 RES RES
                                                        All-0's pattern
           3 RES RES

           4    PSI RES


                OPUk OH                      OPUk Payload (4 x 3808 bytes)   T1542830-00
                                                                               (114739)
                             0         PT
                             1
                      PSI
                                       RES

                            255
                                                                                           April 2002


49
     Mapping Test Signals
        Two test signals are defined (continued)
          • 2 147 483 647-bit Pseudo Random Binary Sequence (PRBS)
                 1 + x28 + x31
                     – groups of 8 successive PRBS bits are mapped into a data byte




                                                                             3824
             PSI RES RES RES 15
             RES RES RES RES 16
                             17
                             18




         1            DD                                3805x D              D

         2            DD                                3805x D              D

         3            DD                                3805x D              D

         4            DD                                3805x D              D

         OPUk OH                            OPUk Payload (4 x 3808 bytes)
                                  0   PT
                                  1
                      PSI
                                      RES
                             255
                                                                                    April 2002


50
     Mapping bit stream with[out] octet timing
        G.709 provides a generic mapping for client signals
         encapsulated into a bit stream, with or without octet timing
        A regional standards organisation or an industry forum may
         deploy this mapping for a new client signal
        It must also define the OPUk Client Specific (CS) overhead
         Column
      Row     15   16    17   18                                                     3824
            1 CS CS

            2 CS CS

            3 CS CS

            4 PSI CS


             OPUk OH                 OPUk Payload (4 x 3808 bytes)
                         0     PT
                         1
                   PSI
                               RES
                                                           CS: Client Specific overhead
                        255                                                                 April 2002


51
     Bit Rate Agnostic CBR Mapping

        New mapping method which maps a CBR signal of any
         rate (within a range up to OPUk payload capacity)
        Bit rate is a fixed bit rate with a small tolerance in the
         ppm range.
        For inclusion in G.709 version 2
        Description in G.709 Living List
        Further development in 2001/2002 timeframe




                                                                 April 2002


52
     Contents
        OTN Rationale
        OTN Layer Networks
        Multi level Connection
         Monitoring
        OTM Signals
        Maintenance Signals
                                     Wavelength Division
        Mapping Client Signals
                                      Multiplex (WDM)
        Multiplexing                Time Division Multiplex
        Virtual Concatenation        (TDM)
        OTN Standards               TDM Tributary Slots
                                     TDM Overhead
                                     TDM Mapping
                                                                April 2002


53
     Wavelength Division Multiplex
        OTM-16r.m signal
          • 16 channels
          • fixed 200 GHz grid independent of bit rate of OCh signal
          • designed for interworking purposes
        OTM-n.m signal
          • no predefined number of channels
          • no predefined grid
          • grid may depend on bit rate of OCh signal
             – e.g. 25, 50, 100 GHz for OTU1, OTU2, OTU3 resp.
          • developments in technology are driving capabilities




                                                                       April 2002


54
     Wavelength Division Multiplex - Structure
        OTM-0.m



                                                                 x1                x1
                                                        OCCr           OChr
                                             xi

                        x1                        xj             x1                x1
        OTM-nr.m                OCG-nr.m                OCCr           OChr

                                                                                         OTU3[V]
                                             xk
                             1  i+j+k  n                       x1
                                                        OCCr           OChr

                                                                              x1         OTU2[V]

                                                                 x1                x1
                                                         OCC           OCh
                                             xi
                                                                                         OTU1[V]
                        x1                        xj             x1                x1
        OTM-n.m                 OCG-n.m                  OCC           OCh

                                             xk
                   x1        1  i+j+k  n                       x1                x1
                                                         OCC           OCh


                                             x1                OTS, OMS, OCh, COMMS OH
                                   OSC                 OOS
                                                                                                   April 2002


55
     Time Division Multiplex
        TDM muxing in the OTN will be applied for:
          • lower rate service signal transport
              – in long distance line systems and/or sub-networks
                optimised for single (higher) bit rate
          • increased throughput
              – in optical fabrics and/or sub-networks
          • reduced administrative complexity
              – in large networks
          • lower cost networks
        TDM muxing introduces additional complexity when
         tributary signal must be routed
           • requires demux and mux stages around switch fabric


                                                                    April 2002


56
     Time Division Multiplex
        TDM muxing is muxing of ODUk signals into higher
         order ODUk signals
          • ODU1 into ODU2
          • ODU1 and/or ODU2 into ODU3
             – ODU1 into ODU2 into ODU3 is possible, but not the
               recommended method when ODU1s are the service signals that
               are to be switched/cross connected within an "ODU3 network"
             – if ODU1s enter such ODU3 network via ODU2, the ODU2 is
               terminated at the edge and the ODU1s are remultiplexed into an
               ODU3
             – if ODU2 is service signal, of course no demuxing/remuxing will
               occur at edges
        Multiplexing via byte interleaving



                                                                        April 2002


57
     Time Division Multiplex - Structure




               x1          x1               Client Signal
     OTU3[V]        ODU3        OPU3
                                       x1                   x 16
                                               ODTUG3
                                                            x4
                                                                          x1               Client Signal
               x1                                                  ODU2        OPU2
     OTU2[V]
                                                                                      x1
                                                                                              ODTUG2
                                                                                                           x4

               x1                                                                                                      ODU1    x1            Client
     OTU1[V]                                                                                                                        OPU1
                                                                                                                                             Signal


                                                                                                                Multiplexing          Mapping




                                                                                                                                    April 2002


58
         Time Division Multiplex - artist impression
        4x ODU1 into ODU2
                                                                                          Alignm
         payload




                                                                                                                          OPU1 OH
                                                                                                                                              Client Layer Signal
          • ODU1 adapted to                                            ODU1
                                                                                              ODU1 OH                                      (e.g. STM-16, ATM, GFP)
            ODU2 clock via
            justification                                                                                                                                                   4x

          • adapted ODU1
            signals byte                                                                               Alignm




                                                                                    OPU2 OH




                                                                                                                     OPU1 OH
                                                                                                    Alignm
            interleaved into




                                                                                                                   OPU1 OH
                                                                                                 Alignm                                 Client Layer Signal




                                                                                                                 OPU1 OH
                                                                                              Alignm                                  Client Layer Signal
                                                                                                                                           (e.g. STM-16)
                                           ODU2                                                     ODU1 OH




                                                                                                                OPU1 OH
                                                                                                                                    Client Layer Signal
                                                                                                                                         (e.g. STM-16)
            OPU2                                       ODU2 OH
                                                                                                  ODU1 OH
                                                                                                 ODU1 OH
                                                                                                ODU1 OH
                                                                                                                                  Client Layer Signal
                                                                                                                                       (e.g. STM-16)
                                                                                                                               (e.g. STM-16, ATM, GFP)


          • ODU2 and OTU2
            overhead added
        ODU1 floats in ¼ of                    OTU2
                                      Alignm
         the OPU2                                OH
                                                                           Alignm
                                                        OPU2 OH




                                                                                         OPU1 OH
                                                                        Alignm




                                                                                       OPU1 OH
                                                                     Alignm                                 Client Layer Signal
                           OTU2                                                                                                                         OTU2
                                                                                     OPU1 OH
                                                                  Alignm                                  Client Layer Signal
                                                                        ODU1 OH                                (e.g. STM-16)
                                                                                    OPU1 OH
                                                                                         OPU2 Payload   Client Layer Signal
                                                                                                             (e.g. STM-16)
                                        ODU2 OH
                                                                      ODU1 OH                         Client Layer Signal                               FEC
        ODU1 frame will                                             ODU1 OH
                                                                    ODU1 OH
                                                                                                           (e.g. STM-16)
                                                                                                   (e.g. STM-16, ATM, GFP)


         cross an ODU2
         frame boundary    NOTE - The ODU1 floats in ¼ of the OPU2 Payload area. An ODU1 frame will cross multiple ODU2 frame boundaries.
                           A complete ODU1 frame (15296 bytes) requires the bandwidth of (15296/3808 = ) 4.017 ODU2 frames. This is not illustrated.


                                                                                                                                                               April 2002


59
60
                                                                                                                                           78




                          11
                                                         10
                                                                                           01
                                                                                                                         00
                                                                                                                                          MFAS
                                                                                                                                           bits Row




                  4
                         3
                                       2
                                             1
                                                 4
                                                        3
                                                                      2
                                                                            1
                                                                                4
                                                                                       3
                                                                                                     2
                                                                                                           1
                                                                                                               4
                                                                                                                      3
                                                                                                                                    2
                                                                                                                                                    1
                                                                                                                                                       1
                                                                                                                                                   Column




                  PSI                            PSI                            PSI                            PSI                              15
                        JOH TS 4                       JOH TS 3                       JOH TS 2                       JOH TS 1                   16
                      OPU2 TribSlot 1                OPU2 TribSlot 1                OPU2 TribSlot 1                OPU2 TribSlot 1              17
                      OPU2 TribSlot 2                OPU2 TribSlot 2                OPU2 TribSlot 2                OPU2 TribSlot 2              18
                      OPU2 TribSlot 3                OPU2 TribSlot 3                OPU2 TribSlot 3                OPU2 TribSlot 3              19
                      OPU2 TribSlot 4                OPU2 TribSlot 4                OPU2 TribSlot 4                OPU2 TribSlot 4              20
                      OPU2 TribSlot 1                OPU2 TribSlot 1                OPU2 TribSlot 1                OPU2 TribSlot 1              21
                      OPU2 TribSlot 2                OPU2 TribSlot 2                OPU2 TribSlot 2                OPU2 TribSlot 2
                      OPU2 TribSlot 3                OPU2 TribSlot 3                OPU2 TribSlot 3                OPU2 TribSlot 3
                      OPU2 TribSlot 4                OPU2 TribSlot 4                OPU2 TribSlot 4                OPU2 TribSlot 4
                      OPU2 TribSlot 1                OPU2 TribSlot 1                OPU2 TribSlot 1                OPU2 TribSlot 1
                      OPU2 TribSlot 2                OPU2 TribSlot 2                OPU2 TribSlot 2                OPU2 TribSlot 2
                      OPU2 TribSlot 3                OPU2 TribSlot 3                OPU2 TribSlot 3                OPU2 TribSlot 3
                      OPU2 TribSlot 4                OPU2 TribSlot 4                OPU2 TribSlot 4                OPU2 TribSlot 4
                                                                                                                                                            Time Division Multiplex -




                           OPU2 Payload
                                                          OPU2 Payload
                                                                                         OPU2 Payload
                                                                                                                        OPU2 Payload




                          (4 x 3808 bytes)
                                                         (4 x 3808 bytes)
                                                                                        (4 x 3808 bytes)
                                                                                                                       (4 x 3808 bytes)
                                                                                                                                                            ODU2 Tributary Slot Allocation




                      OPU2 TribSlot 1                OPU2 TribSlot 1                OPU2 TribSlot 1                OPU2 TribSlot 1              3821
                      OPU2 TribSlot 2                OPU2 TribSlot 2                OPU2 TribSlot 2                OPU2 TribSlot 2              3822
                      OPU2 TribSlot 3                OPU2 TribSlot 3                OPU2 TribSlot 3                OPU2 TribSlot 3              3823
                      OPU2 TribSlot 4                OPU2 TribSlot 4                OPU2 TribSlot 4                OPU2 TribSlot 4              3824
     April 2002
61
                                                                                                        5678




                        1111
                                                        0001
                                                                                     0000
                                                                                                        MFAS
                                                                                                         bits Row




                  4
                        3
                                      2
                                            1
                                                4
                                                      3
                                                                    2
                                                                          1
                                                                              4
                                                                                    3
                                                                                                  2
                                                                                                                  1
                                                                                                                     1
                                                                                                                 Column




                  PSI                           PSI                           PSI                             15
                      JOH TS 16                      JOH TS 2                      JOH TS 1                   16
                    OPU3 TribSlot 1               OPU3 TribSlot 1               OPU3 TribSlot 1               17
                    OPU3 TribSlot 2               OPU3 TribSlot 2               OPU3 TribSlot 2               18
                    OPU3 TribSlot 3               OPU3 TribSlot 3               OPU3 TribSlot 3               19
                    OPU3 TribSlot 4               OPU3 TribSlot 4               OPU3 TribSlot 4               20
                    OPU3 TribSlot 5               OPU3 TribSlot 5               OPU3 TribSlot 5               21
                    OPU3 TribSlot 6               OPU3 TribSlot 6               OPU3 TribSlot 6               22
                    OPU3 TribSlot 7               OPU3 TribSlot 7               OPU3 TribSlot 7               23
                    OPU3 TribSlot 8               OPU3 TribSlot 8               OPU3 TribSlot 8
                    OPU3 TribSlot 9               OPU3 TribSlot 9               OPU3 TribSlot 9
                    OPU3 TribSlot 10              OPU3 TribSlot 10              OPU3 TribSlot 10
                    OPU3 TribSlot 11              OPU3 TribSlot 11              OPU3 TribSlot 11
                    OPU3 TribSlot 12              OPU3 TribSlot 12              OPU3 TribSlot 12
                    OPU3 TribSlot 13              OPU3 TribSlot 13              OPU3 TribSlot 13
                                                                                                                          Time Division Multiplex -




                    OPU3 TribSlot 14              OPU3 TribSlot 14              OPU3 TribSlot 14
                    OPU3 TribSlot 15              OPU3 TribSlot 15              OPU3 TribSlot 15              31
                    OPU3 TribSlot 16              OPU3 TribSlot 16              OPU3 TribSlot 16              32
                    OPU3 TribSlot 1               OPU3 TribSlot 1               OPU3 TribSlot 1               33
                    OPU3 TribSlot 2               OPU3 TribSlot 2               OPU3 TribSlot 2               34
                    OPU3 TribSlot 3               OPU3 TribSlot 3               OPU3 TribSlot 3
                                                                                                                          ODU3 Tributary Slot Allocation




                          OPU3 Payload
                                                        OPU3 Payload
                                                                                      OPU3 Payload




                         (4 x 3808 bytes)
                                                       (4 x 3808 bytes)
                                                                                     (4 x 3808 bytes)




                                                                                                              3821
                                                                                                              3822
                    OPU3 TribSlot 15              OPU3 TribSlot 15              OPU3 TribSlot 15              3823
     April 2002




                    OPU3 TribSlot 16              OPU3 TribSlot 16              OPU3 TribSlot 16              3824
     Time Division Multiplex - Overhead
     MSI, JC, PJO1, PJO2
               Column




                                                                                                                                    3821
                                                                                                                                    3822
                                                                                                                                    3823
                                                                                                                                    3824
                       15
                       16
                       17
             Row




                             JC
                   1


                             JC
                   2
                                                                             OPUk Payload
                             JC
                                                                            (4 x 3808 bytes)
                   3
                             NJO
                       PSI




                   4               PJO


                                                                                                                       1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
        0                                                                                                      JC         Reserved         JC
        1    Reserved
        2                                                   OPU2                                              OPU3
                                         MFAS                                   MFAS
                                                                  PJO1 17
                                                                       18
                                                                       19
                                                                       20
                                                                  PJO2 21
                                                                       22
                                                                       23
                                                                       24




                                                                                                    PJO1 17
                                                                                                         18
                                                                                                         19



                                                                                                                               32
                                                                                                                          PJO2 33
                                                                                                                               34
                                                                                                                               35



                                                                                                                                    48
               MSI                       bits 78                              bits 5678
                                              00                                  0000
       17
                                                     PJO1




                                                             PJO2




                                                                                               PJO1




                                                                                                                     PJO2
       18
                                             01                                  0001
                                                        PJO1




                                                        PJO2




                                                                                          PJO1




                                                                                                                PJO2
                                             10                                  0010

             Reserved
                                                   PJO1




                                                   PJO2




                                             11




                                                                                                                PJO1




                                                                                                                                    PJO2
                                                                                 1111
       255
                                                                                                                                           April 2002


62
      Time Division Multiplex - Mapping
                  Asynchronous mapping of ODU information bytes
                  -1, 0, +1, +2 byte justification control
                  ODU1 into ODU3 mapping includes Fixed Stuff column
                    • ODU1 into ODU2 and ODU2 into ODU3 mapping is without
                      fixed stuff



       Column




                                                                                                                                                                        3824
                                                                                                                                             3808
                                                                                                                                             3809



                                                                                                                                                                        3823
                                                                                          1904
                                                                                          1905



                                                                                                       1919
                                                                                                       1920
                                                                                                       1921
                                             17



                                                       31
                                                       32
                                                       33


     Row       1               16
           1
                                                       OPU3 TribSlot 15
                                                       OPU3 TribSlot 16




                                                                                           OPU3 TribSlot 15
                                                                                                          OPU3 TribSlot 16




                                                                                                                                                                        OPU3 TribSlot 15
                                                                                                                                                                        OPU3 TribSlot 16
                                     OPU3 TribSlot 1




                                                                                           OPU3 TribSlot 1




                                                                                                                                               OPU3 TribSlot 1
                                                                                                       FF
           2                                                              OPU3 Payload                                       OPU3 Payload



                                                                                                     U
                                                                                                  ST
                                        JOH




                                                                           transporting                                       transporting
                                                                                                D
           3                                                                 16x ODU1                                           16x ODU1
                                                                                              XE
                                                                                           FI
                               PSI




           4


                                                                                                                                                                 April 2002


63
     Contents
        OTN Rationale
        OTN Layer Networks
        Multi level Connection
         Monitoring
        OTM Signals
        Maintenance Signals
        Mapping Client Signals
        Multiplexing                ODUk-Xv
                                     OPUk-Xv Overhead
        Virtual Concatenation
                                     Mapping Client signals
        OTN Standards



                                                               April 2002


64
     Virtual Concatenation
        Virtual Concatenated ODUk's
          • ODUk-Xv, with X=1..256
        Provide
          • Ability to transport STM-64 and STM-256 signals via fibers
            not supporting 10G and/or 40G wavelengths
             – STM-64 into ODU1-4v
             – STM-256 into ODU2-4v or ODU1-16v
          • Finer granularity bandwidth for data signals
             – X * 2G5 [10G] [40G] via ODU1-Xv [ODU2-Xv] [ODU3-Xv]
             – Application of Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS,
                Rec. G.7042) offers
                   Hitless bandwidth modification
                   Build in resilience when signal components routed via
                    two or more diverse routes
                                                                     April 2002


65
          Virtual Concatenation - Inverse muxing




                                                                                                3823X+1



                                                                                                                 3824X
         14X+1
         14X+2




                        15X+1
                         15X




                                    16X

     1                                                                                                                       Mapping of
     2                                                                                                                        client signal
     3
                                                               OPUk-X Payload
                                                                                                                              into OPUk-X
     4
                                                                                                                             Inverse muxing
         OPUk-Xv OH                              OPUk-Xv Payload (4 x 3808 x X bytes)                                         of OPUk-X
         (8 x X bytes)
                                                                                                                              signal into X
                                                                                                                              OPUk signals
                                    15     16   17    18                                                  3824               ODUk overhead
                                1                                                                                             is added to
                                    VCOH




               15       16
                                2
                                                                                     3824
                                                                                                                              each of the X
          1
                                3                                                                                             OPUk signals
                                                                                                                          OPUk-Xv
                 VCOH




                                4 PSI
          2                                                                                                      OPUk#X      ODUk signals
          3                                                                                                                   are transported
          4 PSI
                                                                                            OPUk#1

              OPUk OH                                OPUk Payload (4 x 3808 bytes)
                                                                                                                                          April 2002


66
     Virtual Concatenation - Overhead
                                                                                          VCOH1                  VCOH2              VCOH3
        PSI                         Column #
                                                                     MFAS
                                                                     45678            1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
          • vcPT                      15    16
                                                                     00000      0          MFI1            0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7          CRC8
                                   VCOH
        VCOH                    1
                                     1




                                            Mapping specific
                                                                     00001      1          MFI2            8 9                      CRC8
          • MFI1, MFI2             VCOH


                          Row#
                                 2
                                     2                               00010      2        Reserved                                   CRC8
          • SQ                   3
                                   VCOH
                                     3                                                   Reserved                                   CRC8
          • LCAS
                                                                     00011      3
                                 4   PSI
              –   CTRL                                               00100      4             SQ                                    CRC8




                                                                                               RSA
                                                                                               GID
              –   GID                                                00100      5      CTRL          RES                            CRC8

              –   RSA     0           PT
              –   MST     1
                          2
                                     vcPT                                                                   Member Status
              –   CRC8                                                                   Reserved
                                                                                                                MST
                                                                                                              (0 - 255)
                                                                                                                                    CRC8

              –   Res
                                     RES




                                                                                                                            255
                                                                     11111      31                                                  CRC8

                                                                     SQ, CRC8                      MFI1                  MFI2             CTRL

                                                                1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8            1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8             1 2 3 4

                         254
                         255

                         RSA: RS-Ack
                                                               MSB                   LSB MSB                                      LSB MSB         LSB
                                                                                                                                     April 2002


67
68
                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       




                                                       Row




                  4
                           3
                                     2
                                              1
                                                                                Column
                                                                                                                                                                                                      ATM
                                    VCOH               14X+1




                  PSI
                                                                                                                                                                         MPLS)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     STM-N
                                    VCOH                15X




                  PSI
                                                                                                                                          Test signals
                   JC  JC  JC  JC
                                                       15X+1




                                                                                                                                                                         GFP (IP, ETH,
                   JC  JC  JC  JC
                   JC  JC  JC  JC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • asynchronous




                                                                                         4
                                                                                                             3
                                                                                                                                 2
                                                                                                                                                     1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • bitsynchronous
                  NJO NJO NJO NJO
                  PJO PJO PJO PJO                      15X+5                                                                                                                                         4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1




                                                                                         PSI    VCOH                                                                          14X+1
                                                                                         PSI    VCOH                                                                          14X+2 PSI    VCOH     14X+1
                                                                                         PSI    VCOH                                                                          14X+3 PSI    VCOH     14X+2
                                                                                         PSI    VCOH                                                                           15X  PSI    VCOH     14X+3
                                                                                          JC JC JC JC                                                                         15X+1 PSI    VCOH      15X




                                                         X=16




                  15231D
                           15231D
                                     15231D
                                              15231D
                                                                                          JC JC JC JC                                                                         15X+2 JC JC JC JC 15X+1
                                                                                          JC JC JC JC                                                                         15X+3 JC JC JC JC 15X+2
                                                                                         NJO NJO NJO NJO                                                                       16X   JC JC JC JC 15X+3
                   JC  JC  JC  JC                      967X+4
                                                                                         PJO PJO PJO PJO                                                                      16X+1 NJO NJO NJO NJO 16X
                   JC  JC  JC  JC
                                                                                                                                                                              16X+2 PJO PJO PJO PJO 16X+1
                   JC  JC  JC  JC
                                                                                                                                                                              16X+3                 16X+2
                  NJO NJO NJO NJO
                                                                                                                                                                               17X                  16X+3
                  PJO PJO PJO PJO                      968X+9
                                                                                                                                                                                                     17X




                  15231D
                           15231D
                                     15231D
                                              15231D
                                                                                         4 x 118 x 16D - 1
                                                                                                             4 x 118 x 16D - 1
                                                                                                                                 4 x 118 x 16D - 1
                                                                                                                                                     4 x 118 x 16D - 1




                   JC  JC  JC  JC                      1919X+9
                   JC  JC  JC  JC
                   JC  JC  JC  JC                                                                                                                                          1904X
                  NJO NJO NJO NJO
                                                                                                                                                                          190X+1
                  PJO PJO PJO PJO                      1919X+13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    X=4




                                                                                                                                                                                                     4 x 3808D - 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     4 x 3808D - 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       4 x 3808D - 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       4 x 3808D - 1




                                                                                         4 x 16FS
                                                                                                             4 x 16FS
                                                                                                                                 4 x 16FS
                                                                                                                                                     4 x 16FS




                                                                                                                                                                              1920X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Virtual Concatenation - Mapping




                                                                                                                                                                         1920X+1
                  15231D
                           15231D
                                     15231D
                                              15231D




                   JC  JC  JC  JC                      2871X+13
                   JC  JC  JC  JC
                   JC  JC  JC  JC
                  NJO NJO NJO NJO
                  PJO PJO PJO PJO                      2871X+18
                                                                                         4 x 119 x 16D
                                                                                                             4 x 119 x 16D
                                                                                                                                 4 x 119 x 16D
                                                                                                                                                     4 x 119 x 16D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       STM-64 into OPU1-4v




                  15231D
                           15231D
                                     15231D
                                              15231D
                                                        STM-256 into OPU1-16v




     April 2002
                                                                                                                                                                          STM-256 into OPU2-4v




                                                       3824X                                                                                                                  3824X                                                                                    3824X
     Contents
        OTN Rationale
        OTN Layer Networks
        Multi level Connection
         Monitoring
        OTM Signals
        Maintenance Signals
        Mapping Client Signals
        Multiplexing
        Virtual Concatenation
        OTN Standards


                                  April 2002


69
     OTN Standards in ITU-T - Transport Plane
        Framework                             G.871 (10/00)
        Network Architecture                  G.872 (10/01)
        Structures and bit rates              G.709 (02/01), G.709 am.1 (10/01)
        Equipment                             G.798 (10/01)
        Equipment Management Function         G.874 (10/01), G.7710 (11/01)
        Protection                            G.gps (2002), G.otnprot (2002)
        Data Communication Network            G.7712 (10/01)
        Jitter & Wander Performance           G.8251 (2002)
        Error Performance                     G.optperf (2002)
        Physical                              G.959.1 (02/01), G.693, G.dsn (2003)
        Information Model                     G.874.1 (10/01), G.875 (2002)
        Optical Safety                        G.664 (06/99)
        Generic Framing Procedure             G.7041 (10/01)
        Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme       G.7042 (10/01)
        Bringing into Service & Maintenance   M.24otn (2003)
        Q factor measurement                  O.qfm (?)                           April 2002


70
     OTN Standards in ITU-T - Control Plane
        Automatic Switched Transport         G.807 (05/01)
         Network
        Automatic Switched Optical Network   G.8080 (10/01)
        Distributed Connection Management    G.7713 (10/01)
        Automatic Discovery Techniques       G.7714 (10/01)
        Routing                              G.7715 (2002)
        Signalling Communication Network     G.7712 (10/01)
        Link Resource Manager                G.7716 (2002?)




                                                               April 2002


71
     OTN Standards in ITU-T
      ITU-T OTN Recommendations
             Transport Plane                   Network Architecture                Framework for OTN Rec's
                                                     (G.872)                           (G.871/Y.1301)




                             Structures & Mappings                   Physical Layer
                                     (G.709)                  (G.959.1, G.692, G.693, G.dsn)




        Equipment Functional Spec.           Equipment Man. Function                   Information Model
              (G.798, G.806)                      (G.874, G.7710)                       (G.874.1, G.875)




                                            Automatic Power Shut Down                  Data & Signalling
           Protection Switching
                                               Procedures for Optical               Communication Network
            (G.otnprot, G.gps)
                                             Transport Systems (G.664)                     (G.7712)



                                                                                    Bringing into Service &
        Jitter/Wander Performance               Error Performance                   Maintenance for the OTN
                 (G.8251)                           (G.optperf)                            (M.24otn)



                                                                                                              April 2002


72
     OTN Standards in ITU-T


      ITU-T Recommendations
                                               Automatic Switched
           Control Plane                       Transport Network
                                                    (G.807)



                              Automatic Switched
                               Optical Network
                                   (G.8080)



      Distributed Call & Connection       Automatic Neighbor Discovery    Link Resource Manager
               Management                         Techniques                     (G.7716)
       (G.7713, G.7713.x (x=1,2,3))                 (G.7714)



                                                                             Data & Signalling
                Routing                    Connection Admission Control   Communication Network
                (G.7715)                              (G.cac)                    (G.7712)




                                                                                                  April 2002


73
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