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Spatial Hypermedia and Augmented Reality

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					Spatial Hypermedia and
  Augmented Reality

Landon Zabcik

Auburn University
Outline
   Introduction
   Spatial Hypermedia
   Geographical Information System (GIS)
   Location Based Services
   Adaptive Hypermedia
   Augmented Reality
   Mixed Reality
   Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVE)
   Combining Tools and Hybrids
   Conclusion
Purpose
   To give an overview of some current
    location aware tools and virtual environment
    tools
   These tools can and are being combined
    together
   Share some common principles
   The goal of these tools:
    – Add functionality
    – Aid usability
Spatial Hypermedia

   Definition
    – Usually consists of a 2D or 3D “table” or
      workspace for sorting information
    – “Cards” or items are placed on the table
    – The location and grouping of the cards is
      significant
    – Cards can contain other cards inside them
    – Exploits the HCI principle of human
      spatial memory
Spatial Hypermedia

   Spatial Parser:
    – Used by some spatial hypermedia systems
    – Recognizes “piles” of cards as structures and
      treats them accordingly
    – Allows piles to be manipulated as a complete
      entity, not just individual cards
    – Examples of piles include lists, tables, folders,
      and clusters
    – Keeps the table clean and easy to operate
Spatial Hypermedia

   Functionality Provided:
    – Grouping
    – Moving
    – Rotation
    – Transparency
    – Light effects and source
    – An abstract and unbounded 2D or 3D
      space
Spatial Hypermedia

   Examples:
    – Data Mountain:
       A 3D environment for organizing web pages
       Users of the environment are able to organize
        the pages by location
       Like pages can be grouped together

       Makes links to websites easier to view and
        the paths of the website easy to follow
Spatial Hypermedia

   Examples:
    – Task Gallery:
       A 3D virtual windows environment
       Allows users to organize open windows and
        applications
       Users put “tasks” (a collection of open
        documents and applications) in the 3D space
       Users then organize these tasks by grouping
        and location
       Example – office, home, game room, etc.
Geographical Information
Systems (GIS)
   Definition:
    – Places different layers of information on
      top of a digital map
    – Each layer represents one type of
      information
    – Layering allows for separation and
      organization of information
    – Layers can be combined
Geographical Information
Systems (GIS)
   Examples
    – Conventional geographic digital maps
    – Layers are states, cities, roads, etc.
    – Different layers are visible at different
      views
    – Location of the layers can coincide with
      GPS information
Geographical Information
Systems (GIS)
   Examples
    – Geotags Search Engine
       Uses a digital map to help users search for
        websites
       Users enter a keyword, and can then click on
        the matches that appear in the map for more
        details
       Useful if users want to search for websites
        from a specific area of the world
Location Based Services

   Use the user location information to
    provide location-specific service
   Needs to know user location relative to
    the desired information
   Usually uses GPS information
   Examples
    – How to get there from here
    – Restaurants nearby
Adaptive Hypermedia
   Attempts to present the user with relevant
    information only
   Stores a user’s profile
   Alters information the user sees
   Learns what information the user likes and
    dislikes
   Example – web browsing
   Can be combined with other systems like
    location based
Augmented Reality

   Definition
    – A focus on mixing the physical world with
      digital information and functionality
    – Overlays digital information directly on
      the physical world
    – Attempts to close the gap between digital
      and physical
    – HCI – real world objects make the best
      interfaces
Augmented Reality
   Examples
    – Barcodes
    – Radio frequency tags
    – Real world items broadcast information
    – Objects equipped w/ e-tags for easy
      retrieval
    – Location based augmented reality where
      users have wearable computers that project
      hypermedia information onto real world
      objects
Mixed Reality

   Definition
    – Relies on transparent boundaries
      between the physical and virtual
      environments
    – Unlike augmented reality where the
      virtual is merely projected onto the
      physical
    – Users can cross boundaries at any time
      (traversable)
Mixed Reality
Collaborative Virtual
Environments (CVE)
   Definition
    – Similar to spatial hypermedia with a table
      and cards
    – Supports multiple users in the same
      environment at one time
    – Proximity rules apply to objects
    – Proximity rules apply to users
Collaborative Virtual
Environments (CVE)
   Example:
    – A CVE modeled after a real-world office building
    – If a user is online, the user will be seated at his
      desk
    – Documents are organized by department or by
      their author (employee’s desk)
    – Users must come close enough to other users to
      be able to see them and then communicate
    – Users must come close enough to documents to
      access them
Combinations

   Common principle – Combine two
    good ideas to make a great idea
   Hybrid systems get more out of these
    principles
   Hybrids increase system functionality
    and usefulness
   The future ideal systems will be
    hybrids
Combinations

   Example:
    – Topos
       An architectural editing tool that allows
        architects to browse the progress of the site
        construction
       Combines CVE, GIS, and Spatial Hypermedia
          – CVE – many users at once
          – GIS – location sensitive
          – S.H. – objects are organized on a workspace
Other Systems

   Collaborative Augmented
    Environments
   Virtual Reality
   Clearboard, whiteboard
   Teleconference
   Projected CVE
   Immersive CVE
Conclusions

   Great technologies exist today already
   Key is to refine them
   Combining similar existing systems
    adds functionality and creates new
    systems
   Make computers more adaptive to
    human behavior, not the other way
    around
Any Questions?

				
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